This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
COORDINATING TEACHER: IONUT BOTAR 2010
STUDENT: VIEZA BIANCA
RATIONALE……………………………………………………………..3 CHAPTERS 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 1890s-1910s: Ragtime, Dixieland………………………………...4 1920s-1930s: Boogie-Woogie, Swing, Scat………………………8 1940s-1950s: BeBop, Cool, Free Jazz……………………………12 1960s-1970s: Bossa Nova, Jazz/Rock Fusion, Soul jazz………..15 1980s-2000s: Acid Jazz, World Fusion, Modern Creative……..23
flight to the imagination. performed by swinging big bands. and charm and gaiety to life and to everything. has no social or national borders and it accompanies us on the span of our life. yet its unpredictable. expressions of religious faith. representing a break from traditional music alongside with the use of improvisation. It gives soul to the universe. you can find joy or sorrow in its sound. excitement and togetherness. wings to the mind. those are the qualities that defined jazz. mellow harmonies of cool jazz to the jittery. Jazz music was born at the dawns of the 20th century in New Orleans. 1890s-1910s: RAGTIME. and for good reason. Along with the blues. What tied it all together was a foundation in the blues. you can find bliss. of spiritual devotion and a yearning for freedom from bondage originated by enslaved African-Americans in the United States. a reliance on group interplay and unpredictable improvisation. 1. I felt the power and the impact of his words when I first listened to Louis Armstrong’s “What a Wonderful World”. According to everyone’s moods. jazz was dance music. playing a major role in the history of arts in the United States of America. atonal forays of free jazz and the earthy grooves of soul jazz. I also approached this subject because I have always been fascinated by negro spirituals. made my heart throb with emotion and side with the tempests of those enslaved as if an universal grief Jazz has been called America's classical music. There is no bond so special as that between music and human spirit. As the genre evolved. There is an alchemy in jazz music. hard-hitting rhythms of be-bop and the laid-back. its forefather. Soon. DIXIELAND 3 . and despite racial restricted freedoms typical of the age. The spirituals made me dream of human solidarity and dissolution of racial discrimination. risky ventures into improvisation gave it critical cache with scholars that the blues lacked. At the outset. Jazz music has always overwhelmed me with its charm and uniqueness. I owe my first encounter with this music to my father who once told me that jazz. the music split into a number of different styles. the dance elements faded into the background and improvisation became the key element of the music. I have chosen this theme bearing in mind Plato’s quotation as mentioned above. Throughout the years.Music is a moral law. from the speedy. a song which was to become the soundtrack of my life. it is one of the first truly indigenous musics to develop in America. like poetry. and in all the different styles. jazz emerged as a free expression of creation of the black community.
These men formed small bands and took the music of earlier musicians. almost all of which have continued. the structure of Maple Leaf Rag comes out to ABACD. their ideas are still affecting the way Jazz is being played today. This music is known as "Hot Jazz" due to the enormously fast speeds. or themes. and gained greater success. Kid Ory. Certainly the cakewalk. although there are no recordings from those years. and the Blues. the Jazz Musicians had more or less written a new piece of music that bore little resemblance to the original piece. and Jelly Roll Morton. the song is simply a starting point. with deliberately still rhythms. their superb playing amazed audiences and the upbeat music they played was a different but well-liked escape from the traditional music of that time. marching band music. but once they had finished. and Clarence Williams. Jazz represented a break from tradition music where a composer wrote an entire piece of music on paper. It brought together the elements of Ragtime. Ragtime Piano ragtime began to be published in the late 1890s. was built on four melodies. by the first great ragtime composer. Regardless. on a jangling prepared piano -. and later one of the biggest stars in the world. Buddy Bolden. The second wave of New Orleans Jazz musicians include such players as Joe Oliver. If we assign a letter to each theme. In a Jazz piece. improved its complexity. Generally these early musicians could not make very much money and were stuck working menial jobs to make a living. possessing an incredible sound. Actually.so much so that it is difficult to convince some listeners that the early ragtime composers were highly gifted melodists and serious craftsmen who produced an admirable body of musical art. a cornet player. Other early players of the time included Freddie Keppard. It was (and is) sometimes played fast and shallow. Bunk Johnson. and there was published cakewalk music. There is every reason to believe that a rich body of Afro-American inspired music preceded ragtime. or sort of a starting point for the Jazz musicians to improvise around. The song being played may have been popular and wellknown that the musicians themselves didn't compose. these themes were sixteen measures like their European counterparts. Maple Leaf Rag. The first Jazz is thought to have been played by African Americans and Creole musicians in New Orleans. many of these early musicians were bad sight readers and some couldn't even read music at all. Most of these musicians may seen unknown to most people.American version of the Polka. Scott Joplin. Ragtime was basically a piano keyboard music that Gilbert Thomas said was an "Afro. preceded it. What made Jazz different from the other earlier forms of music was the use of improvisation. an AfroAmerican dance initially based on an elegant. and their work will forever be studied and admired. The impact of Armstrong and other early Jazz musicians changed the way we look at music. It was immediately successful and subjected to various kinds of popularization. In ragtime. is generally considered to be the first real jazz musician. however. although publishers in those 4 . leaving the musicians to break their backs playing exactly what was written on the score. thus the first great ragtime composition.The music that we call jazz was born around the year 1895 in New Orleans. stylized parody of Southern white courtly manners. He soon grew to become one of the greatest and most successful musicians of all time." Somewhere in the background of the music is the Sousa style march. A young cornet player by the name of Louis Armstrong was discovered by Joe Oliver in New Orleans.
" But rather than blame the term or the style. The cakewalk. The first true ragtime composition was published by William Krell called "The Mississippi Rag" in 1897. Ragtime was no longer being performed by a solo pianist. for several choruses). Louis Chauvin. even worldwide craze. Small orchestras. military bands and piano-banjo combos were among the earliest recordings of Ragtime. the framework involves collective improvisation during the first chorus (or. Most typically. it became a strong base for the music that lay ahead of it. originated in the Caribbean’s. Tom Turpin. Little is known of development of however it is clear surfaced after evolution in the of the nineteenth Billy Strayhorn.days were not quite sure how to indicate its rhythms properly. a style that overlaps with New Orleans jazz and classic jazz. Dixieland. to an extent. namely James Scott. and a closing ensemble or two with a four-bar tag by the drummer (which is answered by the full group). in the accents of its right-hand melodies. Joseph Lamb and Scott Joplin. An individual musical voice was being established in America. Once Ragtime emerged as a unquiet musical form. 5 . which added elements that alluded to popular dance bands of the Dixieland. jazz. Paris (1960) the early Ragtime. Over the cores of Ragtime’s initial popularity. Ragtime has been traced to minstrel shows and cakewalks as early as 1895. arrived in the United States as a syncopated music form based on a march. corny trappings (such as straw hats and suspenders). many musicians playing in that idiom grew to dislike the term and wanted it to be changed to "traditional" or "classic. and clichés. Dixieland Because the Dixieland revival (one could say fad) of the 1950s was eventually overrun by amateurs. it was an exciting era of development and change. New Orleans and Swing styles yet to be developed. By the early 1900s. the first published African American composer wrote "The Harlem Rag" the same year. the polka and a two-step. when there are several themes. individual solos with some riffing by the other horns. But ragtime introduced. it seems more justifiable to separate the professionals from the poor imitators. that it years of latter part century. a number of composers merged as the voice of this musical form. in Chicago in the 1920s. delightful syncopation onto the heavy 2/4 oompah rhythm of its cakewalk-derived bass line and almost immediately became a kind of national. has also been called "Chicago jazz" because it developed.
Early New Orleans Dixieland (1900-1917) The earliest style of jazz. marches. one-steps. guitar. Joe King Oliver. Yank Lawson and Bob Haggart (World's Greatest Jazz Band). Lu Watters Yerba Buena Jazz Band. Dixieland is an umbrella to indicate musical styles of the earliest New Orleans and Chicago jazz musicians. a rhythmic feeling that placed equal emphasis on all four beats of the measure. Aficionados make distinctions between various streams of traditional New Orleans jazz. The rhythm section accompanied the front line on a flat-four fashion. Its materials are rags. Some historians reserve Dixieland for white groups playing traditional jazz. tuba. recorded from 1917 to 1923. Some restrict it mostly to disciples of the earliest white Chicagoans. Paul Mares. tuba.Although nearly any song can be turned into Dixieland. As rural music moved to the city and adopted new instruments. two-steps. blues. clarinet. and James Dapogny's Chicago Jazz Band. harmonies from the trombone. Bob Wilber. countermelodies by the clarinet. and drums. Nick LaRocca. tuba. New Orleans Jazz generally features a trumpet or cornet providing a melodic lead. Due to its fairly basic harmonies and the pure joy of the ensembles. Louis Armstrong. and pop tunes. the music played in New Orleans from about the time that Buddy Bolden formed his first band in 1895 until Storyville was closed in 1917. Bix Beiderbecke. Jelly Roll Morton. Major developers and revivalists include Bob Crosby's Bobcats. or bass and drums). the polyphony typical of the African. The origin of these instruments was in the marching bands reflected the need to move while playing. and the assorted variations that are performed by revivalist bands. The rhythm section was made up of banjo. Bob Scobey. It differed from the later Chicago Dixieland and the even later revival Dixieland in its instrumentation and rhythmic feeling. Johnny Dodds. and trombone. The Dukes of Dixieland. the earliest Chicago jazz. However with the success of the Original Dixieland Jazz Band in 1917 and the many performances documented in the 1920s. Dixieland (along with the related classic jazz and New Orleans jazz idioms) continues to flourish as an underground music style. Despite its decline in popularity since the 1950s. as well as its developments and revivals. beginning during the late 1930s. Ensemble-oriented with fairly strict roles for each instrument. although overlapping with Dixieland. bass. there is a consistent repertoire of 40 or so songs that have proven to be reliable. and a steady rhythm stated by the rhythm section (which usually consists of piano. Sidney Bechet. banjo or guitar. These first groups used a front line of a cornet. and drums. clarinet. it became possible to hear what this music sounded like in later years.American singing tradition found an expression in the style now identified as Early New Orleans Dixieland. Kid Ory. banjo. and Jimmy McPartland. Simultaneous counterlines are supplied by trumpet. It refers to collectively improvised small band music. Major exponents include. accompanied by combinations of piano. tends to de-emphasize solos in favor of ensembles featuring everyone playing and improvising together. and a trombone. it is consistently the happiest and most accessible style of jazz. unfortunately went totally unrecorded. Turk Murphy. This equal or flat metric feel was later 6 . This music is a direct descendant of marching brass bands and.
In 1917 with the closing of Storyville in New Orleans. or to quote F. 2.replaced by Chicago groups with a measure that emphasized the second and fourth beats and was referred to as 2/4 time (accents on 2 and 4). Swing. 1920s-1930s: Boogie-Woogie. These centers would later claim center stage as they moved toward a definition of swing. The New Orleans instrumentation was augmented to include a saxophone and piano and the influence of ragtime added 2/4 backbeat to the rhythmic feeling. but during the 1920’s Chicago remained the hub of jazz. Chicago became the center of jazz activity." Chicago was exciting at this time and so was its music. "the jazz age. There was jazz activity in other cities as well. Louis Armstrong’s Louis Armstrong influence as a soloist was influencing the fabric of otherwise democratic ensemble. Scat Boogie-Woogie 7 . During this time in Chicago. Many workers from the south migrated to Chicago and brought with them a continued interest in the type of entertainment they had left behind. and the music seemed more aggressively performed. Chicago Style Dixieland (The 1920s) The merger of New Orleans Style Dixieland with ragtime style led to what is now referred to as Chicago Style Dixieland. mainly New York and Kansas City. The banjo moved to guitar and the tuba moved to string bass. His individual style started the trend toward the soloist being the primary spokesperson for jazz. Scott Fitzgerald. The tempos were generally less relaxed than New Orleans Dixieland. This style exemplified the Roaring Twenties.
Elements of boogie-woogie can be found prior to 1910 in piano works by such disparate figures such as Blind Boone. or "barrelhouse" is a blues-based piano style in which the right hand plays an accompaniment figure that resembles a strummed rhythm. one-time Chicago barrelhouse pianists such as Albert Ammons. such as is typically played on the guitar or banjo in rural blues dances. NYC [Quartet] 1949 After the Second World War interest in the style subsided. Boogie-woogie practically disappeared from records during the depression. it returned with a vengeance in the late '30s. or even a simple figure such as falling triad (as in the work of Jimmy Yancey). the approach varies to the pianist. Boogie-woogie enjoyed its heyday in the early '40s. The style probably evolved in the American Midwest alongside that of ragtime. such as 8 . popularized by a smart Deane Kincaide arrangement for Tommy Dorsey’s band of the 1929 composition "Boogie Woogie" written by Clarence "Pine Top" Smith. to which it is closely related. Nat King Cole. and by the end of the 1920s dozens of boogie woogie pianists had recorded ranging geographically from Texas to Chicago. the strict blues form was being used more in jazz recordings as the tempos were speeding up. The swing bands found great success when they added the element of boogie. It also remains an important component to New Orleans pop music. The earliest description of the style occurs in print circa 1880. as in the work of Professor Longhair and Dr. an open-fifth pounded out with a blue third thrown in. This could be expressed as a walking octave. In the years just before 1940. it can be said that boogie-woogie has never truly lost its popularity even today. Music historians have credited Meade Lux Lewis for the boogie woogie craze. The earliest recorded examples of boogie woogie are found on piano rolls made in 1922 by Cow Cow Davenport. However. the primitive blues form of boogie woogie became a popular fad. Among living pianists working in nightclubs and cocktail bars. During the 1930s. but elements of the sound were absorbed into the playing of early rock & roll artists such as Little Richard and Jerry Lee Lewis. All during the 40s boogie influenced a number of arrangements within the big bands. Meade Lux Lewis and Pete Johnson found themselves feted as celebrities in New York’s exclusive café society circles. and as a result. a Chicago pianist who is also credited with coining the term. Luckey Roberts and the classical composer Charles Ives.Boogie Woogie. John.
a form that would lead to a major movement in jazz." Earl Hines. and Ben Webster." and Tommy Dorsey’s "Boogie Woogie. Jimmy Yancey. and Roy Eldridge. Lester Young. pianists Teddy Wilson. trombonists Tommy Dorsey and Jack Teagarden." The many stars of swing during the big-band era included trumpeters Louis Armstrong. tenor saxophonists Coleman Hawkins. The blues based boogie would later merge with the stride style to became the main line of development of jazz piano playing. Eight To The Bar." Of the boogie woogie players who came to promeinence during the boogie fad. Swing While New Orleans jazz has improvised ensembles. Individual improvisations still paid close attention to the melody but due advance in musicianship. more to the solo The Billie Holiday. altoists Johnny Hodges and Benny Carter. guitarist Charlie 9 . particularly when a group included more than three or four horns. clarinetists Benny Goodman and Artie Shaw. Swing differs New Orleans jazz and Dixieland in that the ensembles for small groups) are simpler generally filled with repetitious while in contrast the solos are sophisticated. Art Tatum. the flights were more adventurous. when jazz started becoming popular in the 1920s and demand was growing for larger dance bands. seven stand out as the major contributors and influences: Pine Top Smith. and Nat King Cole. Although swing largely began when Louis Armstrong joined Fletcher Henderson's Orchestra in 1924 and Don Redman began writing arrangements for the band that echoed the cornetist's relaxed phrases. Earl Hines.the case of Will Bradley’s "Beat Me Daddy. Clarence Lofton. In later years Freddie Slack. Joe Sullivan. it became necessary for ensembles to be written down. Bunny Berigan. Cleo Brown and Bob Zurke came to promidence as the younger generation of boogie woogie players. Pete Johnson and Meade Lux Lewis. led by the "Fatha. Swing popular largely from (even and riffs. swing-oriented musicians who continued performing in the style after the end of the big band era (along with later generations who adopted this approach) were also playing "mainstream. Harry James. Count Basie. NYC [Angel with Smoke] (1949) was a major force in American music until the big-band era ended in 1946. the swing era officially started in 1935 when Benny Goodman's Orchestra caught on. Albert Ammons.
The groups had first-rate jazz oriented accompanists. The latter were called sweet bands (for example the bands of Glenn Miller. bassists and drummers offered repeating rhythms that were sufficiently simple. Wayne King. Musicians strove for large. however considered almost any lively. bass violin. Most swing-style groups had at least 10 musicians and featured at least three or four saxophones. by introducing occasional real words inspired the development of a vocal-orchestra. Journalists and jazz fans drew distinctions between bands that conveyed the most harddriving rhythmic qualities and extensive solo improvisations and those that conveyed less swing feeling and improvisation. two or three trumpets. the style's largest audience. however. Many listeners. Brought to an early peak of perfection by Leo Watson who. 10 . Ella Fitzgerald. two or three trombones. will tell you that the hardest aspect of that kind of singing is to stay in tune. and Jimmy Rushing. Scat is most closely associated by the general public with Ella Fitzgerald and her many imitators. and a number of top-notch jazz improvisers. some of the biggest hits by Glenn Miller's sweet band contained brief jazz improvisations and conveyed quite danceable swing feeling. They considered all the big dance bands to be swing bands. syncopated popular music to be jazz. drummers Gene Krupa and Chick Webb. Guitarists. Yet huge portions of their repertory were composed of ballads and vocal features." first done on records by Louis Armstrong. A large segment of the public. vibraphonist Lionel Hampton. and lilting to inspire social dancers." ---Mel Torme. the notes coming out of your mouth a millisecond after you think of them. that is scat. Scat "Anyone who attempts to sing extemporaneously. guitar. Conversely. the musical period of the 1930s and 1940s has been called the swing era and big-band era. Scat is the art of creating an instrumental-style improvisation vocally. You are wondering all over the scales. and Guy Lombardo). the bands of Count Basie. This is not surprising because all the bands (even Guy Lombardo's) did play some jazz and even the honest of swing bands (like Duke Ellington's) featured some sweet numbers. An instructive illustration for this confusion regards Tommy Dorsey's immensely popular bands of the 1940s.. bandleader Glenn Miller. did not make such distinctions. Not all dance music played by big bands of the 1930s and 1940s was jazz. Andy Kirk and Duke Ellington). swinging arrangements. confident feeling that was rhythmically compelling. The former were called swing bands or hot bands (for example. and singers Billie Holiday. For these reasons.Christian. buoyant. rich tone qualities on their instruments. and drums. Therefore. jazz musicians generally confer high respect upon them. Solo improvisers did not seek intricacy in their lines so much as lyricism and a hot. Jimmie Lunceford. This requires a vocabulary of vowels and consonants related less to identifiable words and more to the tone and articulation of jazz instrumentalists such as in the trumpet-like "Oop-Pop-a-Da" by Babs Gonzales or Sarah Vaughan's saxophonic "Shulie-abop. piano. though jazz historians don't usually give Dorsey's bands much attention. Freddy Martin.
and reinventing the words along expressive musical lines. able to vocalize that Charlie Vaughan was jazz. Armstrong dropped the lyrics to "The Hebbie Jeebies" and spontaneously substituted scatting for the words. 11 . In fact the recording also showed that Ella was already educated on the fast emerging bebop movement. Paul Whiteman’s Rhythm Boys. Whiteman’s national radio programs promoted scat. Chick Webb. with a TV programs 1960s. who was even able to put a few scat songs on the Top 40 Charts during the late 1980s and early 90s. Other singers ideas of scat Henderson’s the bebop era. if Louis named scat. variations included the works of Lionel Hampton. During Sarah Vaughan was much of the notes Parker was playing. Slam Stewart and Dizzy Gillespie. In more Sarah Vaughan. echoed new directions in jazz. featuring Bing Crosby. thanks to his recordings and world tours. released in 1947) she introduced variations of scat which showcased a segment of songs made famous by other performers. These sampling. again keeping the style alive. and scat home. The technique was copied so often that an actual jazz form develpoed. To paraphrase a popular song. however.Louis Armstrong’s improvisational approach to written lyrics. mixing. Today scat has scaled new heights of virtuosity with such performers as Bobby McFerrin. also key in bringing into the American number of radio and beginning in the late recent years. As early as 1926. were thought to be the first white group to use the scat style. Mel Torme gained fame as a scat singer. it wasn’t until Ella Fitzgerald adopted the styles that scat became a house-hold word. jumbling. Ella seemed to add dazzle to scatting and clearly defined it as a vocal improvisation using phonetic sounds similar to the instrumental sounds of jazz. Ella claimed it! With her recording of "Flying Home" (thought to be her first scat based song. NYC [Singing in Black Dress] (1949) added to the early including Fletcher Orchestra.
The and the music agitated. young ideas were able There were in techniques performances. players and their to get exposure. Bop Dexter Gordon. NYC (1948) swing style may have status of jazz by ears and the minds of its successor. mainstream status. Among its key innovators were altoist Charlie Parker. changes. it was which claimed More significant musical and in jazz with the any other time in military service II brought about big bands and combos. 1940s-1950s: BeBop. The elitism also expanded to the players. Ironically the once-radical bebop style has become the foundation for all of the innovations that followed and now can be almost thought of as establishment music. known players new. Cool. most jazz groups were under seven pieces.3. occurred advent of bop than at jazz history. Although the launched the art placing it in the the world. Ensembles tended to be unisons. Consequently. bop. drummer Max Roach. often discarding the melody altogether after the first chorus and using the chords as the basis for the solo. Since the virtuoso musicians were getting away from using the melodies as the basis for their solos (leading some listeners to ask "Where's the melody?") and some of the tempos were very fast. The main difference between bop and swing is that the soloists engaged in chordal (rather than melodic) improvisation. The draft of World War the dissolution of the the rise of small country was nervous. was nervous and Because many wellwere in the military. BeBop was a radical new music that developed gradually in the early '40s and exploded in 1945. changes of audiences. If you were an accomplished swing 12 . and the soloist was free to get as adventurous as possible as long as the overall improvisation fit into the chord structure. and pianist/composer Thelonious Monk. considerable changes and attitudes toward There also were attitude toward became the first jazz style that was not used for dancing. trumpeter Dizzy Gillespie. There was also a shift away from the popularity that swing enjoyed to a more elite listening audience. bop divorced itself from popular music and a dancing audience. uplifting jazz to an art music but cutting deeply into its potential commercial success. Free Jazz BeBop Also known as Bop. pianist Bud Powell. both nonmusical. there were great changes in the repertoire.
player. created a different mood from that expressed earlier.I. 1944-1955. yet it was not enthusiastically accepted by the jazz community at the time of its emergence. there was no guarantee that you would be able to survive the expectations of the bop musical world. and even in its choices of instruments. But it's undeniable jazz changed forever during the bebop years. Young’s contribution was the relaxed sound and style of his playing. World War II was over-the country was relaxed and jazz relaxed. Players like Gerry Mulligan. Longer forms were also made possibly by the introduction of long-playing records. 13 . several consider it the time when musicians began stressing artistic rather than commercial concerns. and there have been many studies. The music’s complexity required players to extend their former playing knowledge. and looked toward the future instead of paying homage to the past. In this era. put innovation ahead of convention. It is interesting that bop is today considered the mainstream of jazz style. Softer-sounding instruments. Shelly Manne. Players had to have a greater and more immediate sense of chord recognition. Also listen to Miles Davis on "Summertime" to hear sonorous sounds typical of Gil Evans’s arrangements. devoted to addressing and evaluating these contentions. demanding execution on individual instruments seldom required by previous styles. in its approach to arranging. Cool Cool jazz followed bop but was entirely different in mood. many instruments were used in jazz for the first time. the style that instituted solemnity and elitism among the fraternity stripped jazz of its connection with dance. A theoretical underpinning began to emerge as players stretched the harmonic boundaries of early jazz styles. and Stan Getz were often associated with this "West Coast" style. longer forms. Each assessment contains enough grains of truth to merit closer. Others view bebop as jazz's ultimate dead end. BeBop Era The BeBop era. and explorations in orchestration. This chapter looks at the musicians who made these sweeping changes and what they were. as well as their extensions and possible substitutions. The G. which encouraged experimentation in jazz that had been previously ignored: new meters. Listen to Young’s style on "Lester Leaps In" and Davis’s "Boplicity" to hear examples of the cool sound. and made it im. dissertations and essays. The music was generally fast. many of he later cool groups worked out of Los Angeles and were former members of the Stan Kenton band. Although these first recordings appeared in New York. Bill made schooling possible for many jazz players. Although Lester Young came primarily out of the swing style and Miles Davis out of the bop style.possible for anyone except hard-core collectors. Davis’s work with Gil Evans that led to the recording of the "Birth of the Cool" signaled the beginning of that period. represents for many the most significant period in jazz history. academics. more extensive examination. which began in 1947. and other musicians to enjoy and appreciate the music. unamplified. they are two of the players associated with the development of the cool style.
Shorty Rogers. Miles Davis. although many of the style's top players had long and productive careers. and the rhythm section's accents were less jarring. For example. and their colleagues and disciples. highly complex sounds from basses and drums. By the late '50s. Much of Cecil Taylor's music is extremely active. Though nonmusicians find much of Coleman's music indistinguishable from bebop. Pharoah Sanders. Cecil Taylor. tones were softened. musicians make distinctions according to the methods used (lack of preset chords) and the melodic vocabulary (original not bebop-derived). it was a mixture of bop with certain aspects of swing that had been overlooked or temporarily discarded. 14 . Gerry Mulligan." Some of the recordings were experimental in nature hinting at classical music and some overarranged sessions were bland. seemingly chaotic group improvisations. combined with nonrepetitive. Freedom from these guidelines allows improvisers a greater degree of spontaneity than was available in previous jazz styles. Chet Baker on trumpet. Though Coleman and Taylor had recorded before the '60s. tempo. and Ornette Coleman include loud screeches and shrieks from trumpets and saxophones. And some recordings of Albert Ayler.The cool sound was exemplified by players like Paul Desmond on alto saxophone. probably because of its collectively improvised turbulence. Stan Getz. despite its using preset arrangements of the harmonies guiding the improvisers. but in general this was a viable and popular style. and George Shearing on piano. Essentially. These players all typified the relaxed sound and manner of performance associated with cool. some of John Coltrane's music of the middle 1960s is often classified with "free" jazz. or progression of accompaniment chords. Cool Jazz evolved directly from bop in the late '40s and '50s. Because some of the key pacesetters of the style many of whom were studio musicians were centered in Los Angeles. Albert Ayler. Among the many top artists who were important in the development of cool jazz were Lester Young. even though freedom from adhering to preset chord progressions does not necessitate high "energy" playing or any particular tone qualities or ways of organizing tones for melodic lines. the free jazz term was not common until then. It is densely packed with rapidly shifting layers of complex harmonies and rhythms. hard bop from the East Coast had succeeded cool jazz. Free Jazz Free jazz is one name for the music of Ornette Coleman. arrangements became important again. Dissonances were smoothed out. The free designation derives from Coleman's decision to offer performances that were not always organized according to preset melody. some listeners equate the term "free jazz" with high-energy. it was nicknamed "West Coast jazz. and Howard Rumsey leader of the Lighthouse All-Stars. For these reasons.
Other important early exponents of bossa nova were guitarist Charlie Byrd. Strangely cool by comparison with other exportable by the harmonic language of West Coast Jazz. it soon acquired a permanent place in international middle of the road music. made "The Girl From Ipanema" a huge hit. It has also repaid its debt to the West Coast by entering the repertoire of all easy listening jazz players everywhere. Influenced by West coast jazz. the worlds of jazz and rock were nearly completely separate. thanks in large part to Jazz Festivals. and housewifeturned-singer Astrud Gilberto -. Soul Jazz Bossa Nova Bossa Nova is a style of Brazilian popular song that was most successful in the early 1960s. in the 1950s composer Antonio Carlos Jobim helped to form Bossa Nova. The performers who played Bossa Nova gained almost a cult following in the decades that followed. 7. but it has remained a viable music style. and 14 being accented during every two-bars (played in 8/4 time). a new music that blended together gentle Brazilian rhythms and melodies with cool-toned improvising. along with her husband (Joao) and Getz. and as some in the jazz world became bored with hard bop and did not want to play strictly avantgarde music. 15 . Jazz/Rock Fusion The word Fusion has been so liberally used since the late '60s that it's become almost meaningless. Joao Gilberto's soothing voice perfectly communicated the beauty of Jobim's music.who. the rhythms are usually played lightly as 3-3-43-3 with beats 1. The late '50s film Black Orpheus helped introduce Jobim's compositions to an American audience. Jazz/Rock Fusion. 11. 4.4. Fusion's original definition was best: a mixture of jazz improvisation with the power and rhythms of rock. tenor saxophonist Stan Getz (Byrd and Getz teamed up for the highly influential Jazz/Samba). Up until around 1967. The very appealing bossa nova's popularity peaked in the mid-'60s. 1960s-1970s: Bossa Nova. But as rock became more creative and its musicianship improved. the two different idioms began to trade ideas and occasionally combine forces.
much of what was labeled fusion was actually a combination of jazz with easy-listening pop music and lightweight R&B. Chick Corea. Jazz criticism at that time was founded in the swing and. Like bop. 16 . and Wayne Shorter. Its further association with the social and political polarity of the 1960s tended to reinforce the generation lines. the bop traditions. This later album included players who later form the most popular fusion groups.By the early '70s. a new crossover began between the two musical styles. Joe Zawinul. John McLaughlin. At the time. the Mahavishnu Orchestra. Jazz began to import rock’s instruments. Rock also represented a generational division in the American profile. as it became a money-maker and as rock declined artistically from the mid-'70s on. The most prominent later fusion groups belonged to former Davis players. fusion had its own separate identity as a creative jazz style (although snubbed by many purists) and such major groups as Return to Forever. As the popularity of rock was carried by the baby boom into the adult listening market. this style offered a new virtuosity which. Rock fusion represented a Miles Davis commercialization of an emerging American art form. fusion did not occur without controversy. Weather Report. volume. to a lesser extent. its possible fusion seemed guaranteed. has become a part of common practice. It was the first associated exclusively with the young generation and worked as a banner distinction. It accompanied the emergence of the post. and Miles Davis' various bands were playing high-quality fusion that mixed some of the best qualities of jazz and rock. Unfortunately. This musical crossover eventually became known as fusion in the jazz community beginning around 1965. and stylistic delivery. it was taking a risk by fusing with rock. The earliest notable fusion experiments happened again under the guidance of Miles Davis in his albums In a Silent Way and Bitches Brew. As jazz was establishing its legitimacy. As jazz developed its cannon and rock and roll filled its role as America’s popular music.World War II baby boom to adolescence. The promise of fusion went unfulfilled to an extent. like earlier technical approaches. although it continued to exist in groups such as Tribal Tech and Chick Corea's Elektric Band.
though a few pieces on isolated recordings meet all the above criteria for souljazz. Johnson. Kenny Burrell. Its earthy. Their overall output is not funky. Junior Walker. dance-like rhythmic aspects stood as higher priorities than the invention of complex harmonies and intricate solo improvisations jazz swing feeling was foremost.J. Les McCann. Note that some listeners make no distinction between soul-jazz. Jimmy McGriff. David "Fathead" Newman. Soul Jazz combined the urban. Hank Crawford. and Ray Bryant.Soul Jazz Soul Jazz came partly from the funky subcategory of hard bop. Shirley Scott. King Curtis. Soul Jazz. has also been linked to the soul singing sound that brought Motown to prominence in the 1960s. Clifford Scott. Jack McDuff. and many musicians don't consider soul-jazz to be continuous with hard bop They consider it more an extension of the jazz-influenced popular music called rhythm and blues (as exemplified by Earl Bostic. Gene Ammons. When these vocals were added to jazz it often took Nina Simone on the flavor of popular soul music and funk. and funky hard bop. Ramsey Lewis. The term. 17 . Richard "Groove" Holmes. Stanley Turrentine and Houston Person. electrified Chicago harp style with that of California swing bands and added a touch of Philadelphia tenor sax jazz from the 1960s. J. which gave newer audiences an appreciation for jazz. Grant Green. Stanley Turrentine. Bill Doggett). particularly in the music of Jimmy Smith. Also remember that many bebop musicians chose to play simply and with bluesy vocabularies for selected contexts: for instance. bluesy melodic concept and the repetitive. Considerably simplified-often only a hint of bebop harmony or rhythmic complexity remained--soul-jazz became the form of hard bop known to the largest audience. Artists such as Nina Simone and Lou Rawls added to the vocal expressions of this jazz form.
Despite its eclipse by fusion and synthesizers in the 1970s. Jimmy Forrest. King Curtis. Les McCann. whose funky style infused bop with the influence of church and gospel music. and Richard "Groove" Holmes. although there are often strong melodies. it is the catchiness of the groove and the amount of heat generated by the soloists that determine whether the performance is successful. and altoist Hank Crawford. soul-jazz has stayed alive and made a healthy comeback in recent years. Other pianists who followed and used similar approaches were Bobby Timmons. Gene Harris with his Three Sounds. along with such other musicians as guitarists Grant Green. With the emergence of organist Jimmy Smith in 1956 who has dominated his instrument ever sinc).from which it originally developed. and soulful players became stars. and Eddie Harris. soul-jazz organ combos usually also including a tenor. Soul-jazz's roots trace back to pianist Horace Silver. Houston Person. and an occasional bassist caught on. The musicians build their accompaniment around the bassline and. in that the emphasis is on the rhythmic groove. Eddie "Lockjaw" Davis. Shirley Scott. differs from bebop and hard bop . Jimmy McGriff. Although soloists follow the chords as in bop. David "Fathead" Newman.Soul-Jazz. along with the blues. Charles Earland. guitarist. 18 . George Benson and Kenny Burrell. Red Holloway. Junior Mance. Gene "Jug" Ammons. the basslines often played by an organist if not a string bassist dance rather than stick strictly to a four-to-the bar walking pattern. including Brother Jack McDuff. drummer. which was the most popular jazz style of the 1960s. tenors Stanley Turrentine. Willis "Gator" Jackson. and Ramsey Lewis.
Latin solos are compositions in the ethnic incorporated particular non- . Groove Collective. In this case the original style is that of late-1960s' and early 1970s’ jazz-funk. After the usual twenty-year gap. Galliano. a new generation of fans succeeded in promoting the music to a much wider crossover audience. Mondo Grosso.5. and Jamiroquai or studio projects like Palm Skin Productions. The term itself first appeared in 1988 as both a record label and the title of a compilation series that reissued jazz-funk music from the '70s -. Acid jazz is very much the commer. even more so than tradition and as with traditional. Frequently. The accompaniments and are essentially the same as music. It is much more a marketing phenomenon than a coherent musical style.often called "rare groove" during a major mid-'80s resurgence. A variety of acid jazz artists emerged during the late '80s and early '90s. James Taylor Quartet. World Fusion. 1980s-2000s: Acid Jazz. The sort of music that wasn't heavy enough to be free jazz or early fusion but was more jazz-oriented than the average soul record. Most of the creative musicians who have flirted with the acid-jazz market have found it too restricting and have moved on. 19 fusion of Third music with incorporated example. Acid Jazz used elements of all three. hip-hop. World Fusion World fusion refers to a World music or just world jazz. Modern Creative Acid Jazz The phrase acid jazz was the first jazz term to be coined by a disc jockey rather than by a musician. and dance music. At the time. (2) Jazz that has limited aspects of a Western music.cialization of a revival movement. it was inspired initially by listening to records rather than to live musicians. only the improvised jazz. this found a ready response among black listeners and a few white aficionados. exactly as with other revivals and they have taken some of their listeners with them. specifically: (1) Ethnic music that has jazz improvisations (for jazz). the Brand New Heavies. Outside. Its existence as a percussion-heavy. and United Future Organization. but its insistence on keeping the groove allied it with funk. including either primarily live bands such as Stereo MC's. primarily live music placed it closer to jazz and Afro-Cuban than any other dance style. Just like earlier revivals. The music played by a generation raised on jazz as well as funk and hip-hop.
NYC [Playing] (1948) Examples include performances of Dizzy Gillespie’s "A Night in Tunisia" music on some of the 1970s quartet recordings by Keith Jarrett's quartet and quintet on Impulse. free. (3) New musical styles that result from distinctly original ways of combining jazz improvisation with original ideas and the instruments. and its feeling attracted some of the earliest jazz musicians. some of John McLaughlin's music from the 1970s and the l990s that drew heavily on the traditions of India. Modern jazz makes technologies in the instrumentation and to bring compostional to a new level. some of Yusef Lateers recordings that feature traditional Islamic instruments and methods. each have unique voices. Examples include Don Cherry's bands. fusion. and rock to create a full body meduim with which to present jazz in a new modern light. reflect its modern sound and Molly Johnson 20 . funk.society. with newer comtemporary musical styles such as pop music. in which Middle Eastern instruments and harmonic methods are modified and used. rhythmic approaches into light in the mid 80’s predominately nature. and some of Sun Ra's music from the 1950s into the l990s. Polynesian music was fusing with Western pop styles at the beginning of the twentieth century. modern creative continues to forge ahead by combining older jazz styles such as bop. For instance. Modern Creative Although partly influenced by the great improvisational masters of the past. The product is original but its flavor still reflects some aspects of a non-jazz ethnic tradition.Dizzy Gillespie. to be softer than still maintaing an edge more diverse. compositional practices. Coming and being of a improvisational greatly a product of its Though the players society blends them to feeling. in which African rhythms are incorporated. harmonies. Django Reinhardt was melding the traditions of Gyps music with French impressionist concert music and jazz improvisation during the 1930s in France. Caribbean dance rhythms have been a significant part of American pop culture throughout the twentieth century. blends have been occurring almost continuously. great use of new form of modern electronic recording devices/mediums and improvisational forms Modern creative forms tend earlier bop derivatives while through the incorporation of ethnic. often to the music. some of Don Ellis's music of the 1970s that drew upon the music of India and Bulgaria. modern creative is environment . and rhythms of an existing ethnic tradition. World fusion jazz did not first occur with modern jazz and its trends are not exclusive to American jazz. and work by Andy Narell in the 1990s that melds the music and instruments of Trinidad with jazz improvisations and funk styles. since jazz musicians frequently improvised when performing in pop music contexts. and.
and modern light jazz.S. pop and rock. At the age of seven. rather she brings her unique jazzy flavor to songs with roots in country. Molly Johnson has rocked standing-room only audiences in nightclubs and bars from coastto-coast as a pop artist. seduced the patrons of salons and lounges with her luscious interpretations of jazz and blues standards and even regaled royalty with her unique and charming presence.” won Grammy ceremonies. won her immediate praise. 1966 in New York City) is an American-born Grammy Award-nominated Brazilian popular singer often associated with bossa nova. Sounding like Billie Holiday reborn. Her debut album in 1975.Her debut album Come Away With Me was released in 2002 and sold 22 million copies worldwide. The daughter of celebrated crooner Nat King Cole.If. Her second album. #6 Pop) winning her a Grammy for Best R&B Vocal Performance. receiving a MOBO Award in the UK and also a World Music Grammy nomination. acclaimed debut album. bittersweet and earthy. as many in the music industry believe. the future of jazz singing depends on finding the perfect balance between jazz and pop. and was hailed lights of the burgeoning Baduizm eventually and. 2008 Molly released her fourth full length album: LUCKY which won the 2009 JUNO Award for Best Vocal Jazz Album. Baduizm. folk. Bebel’s Tanto Tempo album was released on Ziriguiboom (Crammed Discs sublabel) and has sold over one million copies worldwide. Another popular contemporary jazz and jazz-influenced singers of our time is Norah Jones. 21 well-known for her singing . On” reached #12 on the the U. which drew Billie Holiday. Americana. Female. Bebel made an appearance on her mother’s first solo album Miúcha. along with “On & Awards at the 1998 . Also Erykah Badu is sophisticated style of many comparisons to weaves unusual musical creating a rich texture of into jazz. Molly Johnson seems to have been born for the job. On November 11th. and UK. was also released to great critical acclaim. At age nine. Bebel performed with her mother and jazz saxophonist Stan Getz at a jazz festival in New York’s Carnegie Hall. bass-heavy as one of the leading neo soul genre. she was exposed to the greats of jazz. Inseparable. Canadian jazz vocalist Molly Johnson has a voice that melts an audience in a second:warm and natural. She influences together sound and crossing over Badu’s highly was released in early on the Billboard charts. soul and blues at an early age and began performing at the age of 11. Bebel Gilberto (2004). Molly also received the 2009 National Jazz Award for Best Female Vocalist.She doesn’t closely follow any particular genre. Badu introspective lyrics and sound. Erykah Badu Bebel Gilberto (born Isabel Gilberto de Oliveira on May 12. In 2000. 1997 and debuted at #2 Lead single “ On & singles charts in both received notice for her jazzy. with the smash single This Will Be (An Everlasting Love) (#1 R&B. went triple platinum On. It won 5 Grammy Awards in 2003. The album was also nominated for two Latin Grammy Awards.
turning away from a big line and highlighting a different one.Jane Monheit’s voice has been compared to that of Ella Fitzgerald. it reached #14 on Billboard Magazine’s Hot 100 chart. which achieved success in the 1980s. Sade was formed in 1982. she also found the prospect of recording her late father’s songs too painful on a personal level. 22 . as a senior. 1990s and 2000s. with her father. The one sour spot in the album’s success was that it strained Natalie’s already-tumultuous relationship with her mother. without showoff contours. Sade (pronounced “shah-day”) is a Grammy-winning. She also was named the Grammys’ Best New Artist of 1975. She sometimes puts in a scat chorus which is done almost diffidently. created by splicing a recording of his vocals into the track. in 1983. Nigeria) Stuart Matthewman and Paul Spencer Denman — together with Paul Cook formed a splinter group and began to write their own material. she won the first runner-up prize at the 1998 Thelonious Monk Institute Vocal Competition. Their music features elements of jazz. Ironically. whom she lists as one of her influences. she’s an ambitious and adventurous performer. was released in May 2001. chanson. For many years. Come Dream With Me. illuminating hidden layers of emotion within songs that are drawn from a vast well of styles and genres—from the blues. One of the most appealing things about her singing is its lack of mannerism. She doesn’t try anything foolishly acrobatic. Karrin Allyson is a Grammy-nominated jazz vocalist on Concord Records. (real name Helen Folasade Adu . contemporary pop. In 1984 Paul Cook left the band. and won Cole several Grammy Awards. Maria. to the bossa nova.She earned a Bachelor’s degree in music in 1999. and went gold. She’ll take over a familiar lyric and make it sound fresh by use of quiet touches—sitting back on certain beats. The set sold over 5 million copies in the United States alone. when members of a Latino-soul band Pride — Sade Adu. At the age of 20. It was her 1991 album. Later. Her recorded tracks range from jazz to MGM/RKO 1930s-1950s musicals and Brazilian rhythms such as the song “Comecar De Novo. soul and rnb. and the Great American Songbook.born 16 January 1959 in Ibadan. nothing of that afflicted gospel soul feel that a lot of younger singers depend on. and the more specialized jazz and bebop repertoire. Record of the Year.a category that had been monopolized by Aretha Franklin. But Unforgettable… With Love certainly paid off. she was determined not to capitalize on her father’s name and wanted to forge her own identity by going after the soul market in earnest. who said in interviews at the time that she couldn’t listen to the album or attend any of her daughter’s concerts because she felt that the music really belonged to her late husband. Her second CD album.Allyson projects an instantly recognizable tonal personality.” Her debut album Never Never Land was released in October 2000 and became an instant success. that gave her the most success. Andrew Hale joined Sade. Jane Monheit (born November 3. There are no dopey melismas. Yet in her way. Her third album In The Sun was released in October 2002. including Album of the Year. 1977) is considered to be one of the most promising American jazz vocalists of her generation. world-famous English group. the title track. when Natalie began her career. As a single. featuring her own arrangements of her father’s greatest hits. funk. and Best Traditional Pop Vocal Performance. Unforgettable… with Love. The album featured a duet.
1955) is an American jazz singer-songwriter and twotime Grammy Award winner from Jackson. in which Wilson adapted the original themes. featured “Never As Good As the First Time” and arguably her signature song. Sade made a development of dismantled many of and quite promptly autonomous unit with of the recording Sade Cassandra Wilson (born December 4. and the latter also won her a Grammy for Best Jazz Vocal Performance in 1997. “The Sweetest Taboo. January 1985 saw the album released on CBS’ Portrait label and by spring it went platinum off the strength of the Top Ten singles “Smooth Operator” and “Hang on to Your Love.S.Her debut album.K. They the old music business ways became a fully functioning a firm grip on every aspect process. Two of her albums.” Her second album. 23 . pop charts for six months. and the style of her music ranges from swing to funk to bossa nova. In 1986. went Top Ten in the U. In 1989 she performed as the opening act for Davis at the JVC Jazz Festival in Chicago. Grammy for Best New great contribution to modern music. Wilson’s repertoire includes both jazz and blues standards and renditions of pop and rock songs. Sade was so popular that some radio stations reinstated the ’70s practice of playing album tracks. Many of the songs she covers are by artists who usually record in other genres. Her contralto voice has been described as bluesy and sultry. Promise (November 1985). adding “Is It a Crime” and “Tar Baby” to their play lists. Wilson counts the late Miles Davis as one of her greatest influences. In 1999 she produced Traveling Miles as a tribute to Davis. Sade won a Artist. Diamond Life (with overall production by Robin Millar). have topped the US jazz charts. More recently. The album developed from a series of jazz concerts that she performed at Lincoln Center in November 1997 in Davis’ honor and includes three selections based on Davis’ own compositions. in late 1984. Wilson’s latest album Loverly (2008) also won the Grammy for Best Jazz Vocal Album at the 51st Grammy Awards in 2009. Blue Skies (1988) and New Moon Daughter (1996).” which stayed on the U. Mississippi.
in the years during the war swing took off to the world. and enlist into the military. it acted like a social instrument which pointed out the revolutionary changes society was cast in. However. Artie Shaw. Some of the remaining popular musicians like Benny Goodman. The fusion of African American music into a dominantly white society brought more struggles. Swing gave soldiers confidence in the democracy they were fighting for. Glenn Miller. The Office of War Information used Glenn Miller’s band as propaganda to fight the fascist ideology in broadcasts heard all over Europe. and Louis Armstrong did their part for the war effort by promoting bond rallies and concerts at military bases and hospitals in the U. As jazz grew from feelings and emotions that evolved into a culture that became more accepting of African American’s background and struggles. African Americans brought with them a strong music background grounded on feeling and emotion. Each joined and contributed to military orchestras that brought swing right to the soldiers. Cab Calloway. Duke Ellington.S. Roosevelt believed that music could " inspire a fervor for the spiritual values in our way of life and thus to strengthen democracy against these forces which subjugate and enthrall mankind. Jazz illustrates the wind of change in the evolution of mankind. was the land of opportunity. For the first time radios were installed into bunkers for the soldiers to hear live broadcasts. Popular swing music from home became inspiration to the war effort. For example. and Bob Crosby pushed swing to new levels when they made the ultimate sacrifice.When swing fused together with military marching bands they began to help create an image of America as culture free of segregation and bigotry.S. 24 .S. to give up their lucrative careers in the U. with that struggle came a much needed respect and admiration from society." Swing brought together the idea that the U.Conclusion Jazz music was born out of the segregated south from a culture based on struggle and oppression.
Da Capo Press-1993 Peretti Burton . Race. and Culture in Urban America .A Pictorial History of Jazz .University of Illinois Press-1994 Keepnews Orrin.com http://www.com/ 25 .Simon and Schuster-1979 Internet: http://www.jazzstandards.The Creation of Jazz: Music.Improvisation: Its Nature And Practice In Music.BIBLIOGRAPHY Derek Bailey.The Golden Age of Jazz .Hamlyn –1968 Gottlieb William.allaboutjazz.