“And yet a government based on universal suffrage may be quite undemocratic; vested interests, weather economic, social, or political

, may be able to flaunt the wishes of the majority of the population.”
From the American Peoples Encyclopedia © 1952*

All so-called election reforms (cleanups) in the last 30 years are a fraud. We are not a democracy. We are in practice, a Cooperative State. And now have the same problems, everything is out of control with those at the top benefiting while the rest of us sink. They all claim we need to get rid of the special interests, this too is a fraud, for in fact the present state of affairs is only possible because they abolished the laws that once curbed it, but now permit it. To Wit:

The Corrupt Practices Acts in the year 1952
From the American Peoples Encyclopedia © 1952, edited:

“One of the evils, which grew more serious with each National election after the Civil War, was connected with the conduct of political campaigns. Funds were raised in various questionable ways, including coercion, and were used in any way possible to ensure party victory. Also, the funds raised on a national level rose to exorbitant figures. Since many citizens knew that such vast campaign funds supplied by a small handful of vested interest imply corruption, agitation grew for some control.” “While Corrupt Practices Acts included (in 1952) all laws designed to protect honesty in elections, the term was frequently used to describe those laws which seek to limit the use of, or influence of money in political campaigns and elections. Enacted to forestall the giving of campaign funds to secure special favors from elected officials or insure that unfavorable laws not are passed or enforced. Corrupt Practices Acts originated and were enacted in several States before 1900. Beginning in 1907, Congress passed similar laws.” “While they differed in particulars, they generally limited money allowed in campaigns, required an accounting and publication of receipts and expenditures, limited the source of and the use to which money could be put, and designate the methods by which it could be disbursed.” “The maximum sum that could be spent in a campaign varied with the office. Sometimes a definite figure was set, under Federal Law a Senatorial candidate could spend up to $10,000, a candidate for the House of Representatives only $2,500. Or they could figure the maximum by multiplying the number of votes cast in the preceding election, but in no case could they spend more than $25,000 or $5,000 respectively.” “Corporations were generally barred under state law from making any contributions to campaigns. Federal law barred corporations chartered by the Federal Government from making any campaign contribution whatsoever. Federal law also prohibited any corporation from making donations to the campaign for any federal office whatsoever. State laws likewise specifically banned corporations in most cases. Usually a preliminary report of receipts, expenditures, and large donors had to be published just before the election and a final report afterwards.”

Statement: We do not need new laws, reinstate the old laws, and perhaps require both mandatory imprisonment and mandatory fines. They, the old laws, are unassailable on constitution grounds, which have been ruled on many times before. Comments: Things will never change for the better, indeed they will get worse, unless something is done, at least for the majority. Because of the telecommunication “reform” bill all the media is in the hands of a few multinational or cross-national corporations. Indeed the talk of free markets is a shell game, as one corporation owns another corporation that is in turn owed by yet another etc. In regard to television channel four Utah is a Disney affiliate (at least nominally), the owner of record id Clear Channel that owns 80% of the radio stations. In addition the Fox Network owns a share. Whereas it is a fact that the airwaves are owned by the public a simple executive order can accomplish this. Once a day, in (twenty-four hours) all stations must list ownership; to be read aloud at no more than 120 words a minute and not just text rolling to fast to read. of all ownership, further said corporations listed must list the parent corporation and all subsidiaries, cross ventures etc., those will have to also be listed, if the parent corporation is owned by yet another the same applies. This will make instantly clear why in the last year the majority sees skyrocketing prices at the store, yet inflation is reported by all as running at 4%, no sane person believes that. It would also make so-called journalist that travel around in a circuit (always basically the same ones regardless of channel) look ridiculous with the talk of free markets. We don’t have free markets, only some pretence, we have rigged markets, Especially in regards to Oil. Whatever remains of the antitrust laws designed to prevent this state of affairs, they are not enforced, whatever remains of the corrupt practices act, if any, it is not enforced. The fact of the mater is that if the Corrupt Practices Act was still in force, and enforced, many members of congress, both houses, would be in prison (that is, assuming there are any exceptions). Another problem perhaps far more dangerous is the fantasy that corporations are people, the Constitution clearly states We The People, it does not say we the organizations, let alone we the corporations. To any sane person a corporation is an artificial creation, it is not a person, let alone a citizen. By the device of this fraud corporations and especially multinational conglomerates are now supper citizens, whereas they have rights, and you don’t. But what be done especially is to bar any artificial person from sealing court records, there by pretending that no wrongdoing or crime ever took place. Clearly it should not be permitted for any artificial entity to created another that is allowed to do what they are not, such as present carry on trade with Iran (among others) in articles that they are banned from trafficking to the same. From another article, “the states have reserved the right to either amend or repeal a cooperate charter”… (I.e. Dartmouth collage case, etc.). … “Upon dissolution of the corporation, its property and assets are distributed among the stockholders after the creditors are paid.” It is odd that to propose anything like this may brand someone today as a so-called radical, when 50 years ago those now upholding the status quo would be recognized as radicals. That is in favor of the Corporative State. That first appeared in Italy in the 1920s and spread elsewhere, and we know what that did. Webster’s dictionary defines the Corporate State thus: a Corporative as designating or of a State, as theoretically Italy…(1924-1943), in which political and economic power is vested in an organization of corporations.

*BRIBERY
“Consists in making the offer of any gift or reward to one holding public office or enjoying a public right for the purpose of influencing the conduct or the exercise of office. Bribery of public officials of any kind is also a crime at common law. Political bribery is the most insidious form, which the offense takes. Laws punishing the accepting of bribes from lobbyists are (or rather were) universal.” … “However, the outright bribe is seldom used. Other considerations such as jobs, favors, campaign money… are employed.” Quid pro quo fraud and truth in fact, “*in 1620 Roger Bacon’s enemies accused him of accepting bribes as a judge, he denied that they had influenced his decisions. *Bacon, who was a court favorite, he was fined 40,000 pounds sterling (millions in today’s money) and sentenced to indeterminate imprisonment, prohibited from holding public office, and banished from the court.” Comment: It was the taking of money by a party before the court that was the crime, not if or not it influenced the decision. Note: this is Common Law, a right allegedly guaranteed to us.

Lobbying
The practice of influencing legislators to enact legislation in accord with interest of a particular economic, reform, or other group. The lobby is an unofficial agency. It is not provided for under the constitutional structures of the national government or any of the state governments. The representatives of these various groups habitually conducted their affairs in the lobbies leading to the chambers of the legislature where they could best meet and urge their point of view on legislators, whence comes the term. Some interests concern so few persons, are so limited in nature, and appeal that they cannot be brought out in an election without exciting public disapproval. It is in answer to such situations that a pressure group is sent to the seat of government to urge legislation privately. Development: the lobby aroused popular disapproval from the first. The memory of Federalist speculators in the early days of the country leading to a full-blown recession caused suspicion (this ruined many people including thousands of war veterans, many of who died in poverty). Public attention was called to the flagrant and crude manner in which many lobbyists influenced legislators. To use the words of Colonel Benton lobbyist were supplied, “with the means required for conciliating and combining interests and thus secure the passage of almost any bill for which they were willing to pay.” For such services they usually received sums of money or commissions. The lobbyist became less haphazard in organization and more skillful in tactics. Those representing wealthy organizations set up offices with hired executive staffs and turned out research and propaganda. Instead of operating behind the scenes always, they assumed a “respectable” character as sources of “information.” Those who had hitherto clamored for the repression of lobbying were forced to use it in self-defense. Manner of Operation: Lobbyists appear before committees of Congress to present briefs and their point of view. It may promise employment to congressmen who promote its cause. It releases to the press stories calculated to influence congressmen. It entertains influential persons who are in a position and often “assist” legislators in their task (such as writing all or part of a bill). Lobbyists often succeed in gaining consideration of measures which otherwise would not be acted on. In

many cases the legislator turns to private enterprise to augment his salary. Frequently he negotiates business transactions with the very interest that appear before them in official business. The cumbersome and frequently undemocratic committee system aids special interest groups that may profit from the lack of planning and general confusion. (The same also applies to State governments.) Laws punishing the accepting of bribes from lobbyists are (were) universal. But the outright bribe is seldom used. Other considerations such as jobs, favors, campaign money, and promises are employed.

*CRIMINOLOGY-POLITICAL FACTORS
“But the form of government and the laws enacted and enforced have some effect in turn upon economics and other social conditions. The extent to which crime may be blamed on government, or on inadequate social conditions depends in part upon the theory held of the functions of government. A government may give rise to crime because it is ineffectively organized, or because, even though well organized, it is inefficiently administered, as in many American cities that have corruption in politics and law enforcement.”

CRIME
“*Malum In Se (real crime) is an act, which offends the moral sense of the community as being grossly immoral or injurious to the public, for example murder, rape, arson, and corruption in public office. In order to qualify an act must be injurious or potentially so to the community and this must be recognized and accepted as such by the community and not just a small group.” “*Mala Prohibita is an act that the commission or omissions of dose not offend the moral sense of the community. This class is an offense only because of a law defining it as an offense. … A good example were those in violation on the Prohibition Act which did not have the endorsement of moral opinion and were not enforceable with out the construction of an elaborate Police State.”

*RACKETEERING
“Is the name commonly applied to organized schemes of obtaining money or other advantages by threats of violence or by illegal interference with business. Although often considered a development of modern civilization, racketeering has actually been in common practice for many centuries. However it was not until the end of the last century and the early 1900s that it took on the form and scope by which we know it today.” “The notorious Al Capone developed racketeering into an organized large-scale business and the Era of Prohibition firmly established the practice in many of our larger cities. Violence is seldom resorted to, however, most racketeers preferring to operate as peaceably as possible. Once established the racket usually meets little opposition, its victims passing the cost on to the consumer and sometimes even approving the racket as a stabilizing factor in business.” “Racketeering may occur in the illegal operation of a legal business, the conduct of an illegal business, or in other illegal activities. For example the “protective association” has its origin in the attempts of the businessmen themselves to set up price fixing programs and or prevent competition. Just a few of the fields in which rackets are most common; insurance; real estate; stocks and bonds; automobiles; industrial shakedowns; building trades; narcotics and other forms of commercial vice; stolen gems; gun running; night clubs; loan sharking; food products, especially milk, bakery goods, vegetables, fruits, and other

perishables.” (Comment: Insurance should be especially of interest as so much of what is now policy and in fact law in regards to the so-called health industry, but even more so the drug industry, once upon a time would have been acknowledge as racketeering.) “Rackets are most prevalent in the larger cities where they are highly organized and most often ruled by pseudo-respectable citizens and businessmen. In some instances elaborate racketeering operations may be carried out on a national level. Most often these rackets receive protection from public officials and from the police in return for fixing elections or because of black mail power held over them.”

*RING
“RING, POLITICAL is a term designating the small group of persons who at times in American history have wielded actual power in controlling the primaries, organizing elections, running the conventions and controlling thereafter the government for their own personal gain. The aim of the ring is to control public officials, nominally elected by the people, and to use such control for the passage of laws favoring their interests. A large city has been the most favorable place for rings, because it is where the greatest number of jobs, contracts and other sources of illicit profit exist. The influence of the ring can extend much further than the confines of its area by virtue of its control over congressmen, state officials, and even to a limited extent the presidency. Rings have also existed on the county, state, and on occasion even the small town level.”

*BOSS
“BOSS is a derogatory term, usually indicating the irresponsible and perverted exercise of power. The political boss need not hold public office sense their power derives from the control of the political organization, but usually dose have some minor position on the public payroll. Bosses have been most prominent on the city level. And in large cities there have been many bosses who have operated on the ward level. County bosses have been very numerous both in urban and rural communities, although little attention has been given them. Often bosses on the deferent levels of ... government are found associated in a sort of feudal relationship.” “Generally speaking, a boss is a political leader who is unscrupulous in their methods of getting and holding power and in the manner in which they exercise it. The concern of the boss is politics and not public service, private instead of public interest. Through their domination of the political machine they are able to control elections. Relying on the inertia of the mass of voters, they build up a loyal following by dispensing political or financial privileges and favors. The boss can only hold their position only by their ability to exploit the weaker traits of human nature. The political boss may wield almost autocratic power for years in spite of graft and corruption. Reform movements have unseated many bosses, and several including Tweed (who died in prison) has been sent to prison for their misdeeds. Yet in several outstanding instances bosses have held their positions by life tenure, forestalling political defeat by ruthless and illegal repression, and evading criminal prosecution by their attachment to the national leaders of their party.”

*POLITICAL MACHINE

“A more or less formal organization designed to secure for a few party managers and their friends a predominating influence in the nomination and election (or appointment) of public officers, in awarding public contracts, and in determining policy… But occasions not infrequently arise… when Democratic and Republican machines unite, regardless of party differences, to accomplish some common end, or to oppose a common foe, such as a reform movement that threatens one or the other machines, or both. The oldest and most famous political machine was that of Tammany Hall in New York, and officially known as the Democratic-Republican Organization of New York County.” *POLITICS has been defined as “*who gets what, when, how.” … “Politics has often become the monopoly of those who have careers to advance, who have axes to grind, or have special interests to serve. It has become a game in which prizes are distributed according to skill and not merit; it has grown into a maze in which urgency often wins over reason, expediency over evidence, power over justice. Many politicians practice this profession according to rules such as those formulated by Machiavelli in The Prince. The voters are the pawns of politicians rather than participants.” (As a note, at one time the encyclopedia I used was one of three standard desk references. The other two were the Encyclopedia Britannia and the Encyclopedia American. The Grolier corporation acquired the rights to all three.)