Log in / create account

Article

Discussion Read

Edit

View history

Search

Main page Contents Featured content Current events Random article Donate Interaction Help About Wikipedia Community portal Recent changes Contact Wikipedia Toolbox Print/export Languages Deutsch Ελληνικά Español Euskara ‫ﻓﺎﺭﺳﯽ‬ Français Galego 한국어 Italiano Nederlands 日本語 Norsk (bokmål) Polski Português Română Русский

Please read: A personal appeal from Wikipedia Crowdsourcing From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia founder Jimmy Wales
(Redirected from Crowd sourcing)

Crowdsourcing is the act of outsourcing tasks, traditionally performed by an employee or contractor, to an undefined, large group of people or community (a crowd), through an open call. Jeff Howe, one of first authors to employ the term, established that the concept of crowdsourcing depends essentially on the fact that because it is an open call to an undefined group of people, it gathers those who are most fit to perform tasks, complex problems and contribute with the most relevant and fresh ideas to benefits from their inputs. For example, the public may be invited to develop a new technology, carry out a design task (also known as community-based design[1] and distributed participatory design), refine or carry out the steps of an algorithm (see human-based computation), or help capture, systematize or analyze large amounts of data (see also citizen science). The term has become popular with businesses, authors, and journalists as shorthand for the trend of leveraging the mass collaboration enabled by Web 2.0 technologies to achieve business goals. However, both the term and its underlying business models have attracted controversy and criticisms.
Contents [hide] 1 History 2 Overview 2.1 Web-based crowdsourcing 2.2 Collaboration

Slovenčina Suomi Svenska Türkçe Українська 粵語 中文

3 Early examples 4 Recent examples 5 Appeal 6 Controversy 7 Brand marketing 8 Historical examples 9 See also 10 Notes 11 References 12 External links

History

[edit]

The term "crowdsourcing" is a neologistic portmanteau of "crowd" and "outsourcing," first coined by Jeff Howe in a June 2006 Wired magazine article "The Rise of Crowdsourcing".[2][3] Howe explains that because technological advances have allowed for cheap consumer electronics, the gap between professionals and amateurs has been diminished. Companies are then able to take advantage of the talent of the public, and Howe states that "It’s not outsourcing; it’s crowdsourcing." Projects which make use of group intelligence, such as the LazyWeb or Luis von Ahn's ESP Game, predate that word coinage by several years. Recently, the Internet has been used to publicize and manage crowdsourcing projects. A more detailed definition was introduced by Henk van Ess september 2010 in

"Crowdsourcing is channelling the experts desire to

solve a problem and then freely sharing the answer with everyone".

Overview

[edit]

Crowdsourcing is a distributed problem-solving and production model. In the classic use of the term, problems are broadcast to an unknown group of solvers in the form of an open call for solutions. Users—also known as the crowd—typically form into online communities, and the crowd submits solutions. The crowd also sorts through the solutions, finding the best ones. These best solutions are then owned by the entity that broadcast the problem in the first place—the crowdsourcer—and the winning individuals in the crowd are sometimes rewarded. In some cases, this labor is well compensated, either monetarily, with prizes, or with recognition. In other cases, the only rewards may be kudos or intellectual

satisfaction. Crowdsourcing may produce solutions from amateurs or volunteers working in their spare time, or from experts or small businesses which were unknown to the initiating organization.[4] Jeff Howe has differentiated four types of crowdsourcing strategies: Crowdfunding Crowdcreation Crowdvoting Crowd wisdom The use of the term has spread to include models where discrete work is distributed to individuals within the crowd. Companies such as CloudCrowd and CrowdFlower do not use classic CrowdSourcing because the crowd does not all participate together, or collectively sort through solutions. Perceived benefits of crowdsourcing include the following: Problems can be explored at comparatively little cost, and often very quickly. Payment is by results or even omitted (See this page on the German Wikipedia). The organization can tap a wider range of talent than might be present in its own organization.[5] By listening to the crowd, organizations gain first-hand insight on their customers' desires. The community may feel a brand-building kinship with the crowdsourcing organization, which is the result of an earned sense of ownership through contribution and collaboration. In his article, "Power of Crowdsourcing" , Matt H. Evans contends that "Crowdsourcing taps into the global world of ideas, helping companies work through a rapid design process." This is usually available at relatively no cost, as people are always willing to share their ideas on a global scale.[6] The difference between crowdsourcing and ordinary outsourcing is that a task or problem is outsourced to an undefined public rather than a specific other body. The difference between crowdsourcing and open source is that open source production is a cooperative activity initiated and voluntarily undertaken by members of the public. In crowdsourcing the activity is initiated by a client and the work may be undertaken on an individual, as well as a group, basis.[7] Other differences between open

source and crowdsourced production relate to the motivations of individuals to participate.[7][8] Crowdsourcing also has the potential to be a problem-solving mechanism for government and nonprofit use.[7] Urban and transit planning are prime areas for crowdsourcing.[9] One project to test crowdsourcing's public participation process for transit planning in Salt Lake City has been underway from 2008 to 2009, funded by a U.S. Federal Transit Administration grant.[10] Another notable application of crowdsourcing to government problem solving is the Peer to Patent Community Patent Review project for the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office.[11]

Web-based crowdsourcing
With the increase of web applications' capabilities over the past two

[edit]

decades[citation], the capabilities for crowdsourcing techniques has been greatly increased, and now the term often refers exclusively to web based activity. While the potential for web-based crowdsourcing has existed for many years, it hasn't been well implemented until more recently. In a Leah DeVun interview of Andrea Grover, DeVun asks Grover if webbased collaborative projects tend to be different from face-to-face projects. Grover states that individuals tend to be more open because they are not being physically judged or scrutinized.[12] This ultimately allows for well-designed artistic projects because individuals are less conscious, or maybe even less aware, of scrutiny towards their work. In an online atmosphere there is more attention being given to the project rather than communication with other individuals. An important example of web-based crowdsourcing, mentioned also in Howe's original book, is social bookmarking (also called collaborative tagging). In social bookmarking systems, users assign tags to resources shared with other users, which given rise to a type of information organisation that emerges from this crowdsourcing process. Other important examples are web-based idea competitions.[13] Recent research[14] has shown that consensus around stable distributions and a simple form of shared vocabularies does indeed emerge in such systems, even in the absence of a central controlled vocabulary.

Collaboration
for problems that require a collaborative or cooperative effort to be

[edit]

"Collaboratition" is a neologism to describe a type of crowdsourcing used

successful, but use competition as a motivator for participation or performance. A good example of collaboratition is the 2009 DARPA experiment in crowdsourcing. DARPA placed 10 balloon markers across the United States and challenged teams to compete to be the first to report the location of all the balloons. Collaboration of efforts was required to complete the challenge quickly and in addition to the competitive motivation of the contest as a whole, the winning team (MIT, in less than seven hours) established its own "collaborapetitive" environment to generate participation in their team.[15] Another form of collaboration can be found in the term of crowdfunding, inspired from crowdsourcing. Crowdfunding collaboration takes on a different role, describes the collective cooperation, attention and trust by people who network pooling their money together, usually via the Internet, in order to support efforts initiated by other people or organizations. Crowdfunding occurs for any variety of purposes, from disaster relief to citizen journalism to artists seeking support from fans, to political campaigns. The Age of Stupid is perhaps the most publicized and successful case to-date; this film raised $1.2 million via crowd funding, and also used crowd sourcing to distribute and exhibit it around the world.
[16]

Early examples
The Oxford English Dictionary (OED) may provide one of the earliest

[edit]

examples of crowdsourcing. An open call was made to the community for contributions by volunteers to index all words in the English language and example quotations for each and every one of their usages. In the 70 year project, they received over 6 million submissions. The making of the OED is detailed in The Surgeon of Crowthorne by Simon Winchester. Augusto Boal's Theatre of the Oppressed provides early examples of crowdsourcing in theatrical performances. Boal's models give emphasis to the participants, and the influence their collaboration has on their performances. In 1994, Northeast Consulting compiled a database of trends in the marketplace. This database was collected from numerous sources, offering an example of early crowdsourcing.[17] The Internettunnel in Leidschendam/Netherlands by Zwarts & Jansma Architects and artist Hans Muller is another early example of crowdsourcing. Opened in 1998, people could feed the LED-display via

the Internet with their own texts. Also, words could be blocked for a certain time. The public became its own dynamic filter, preventing, for example, racist remarks. Douglas Adams's fictional concept of the Hitchhiker's Guide to the Galaxy in the multimedia franchise of that same name is largely written by random people who wandered into the publishing offices.

Recent examples
Main article: List of crowdsourcing projects

[edit]

Appeal
Captain: Art and Crowdsourcing , explained in an interview that

[edit]

Andrea Grover, curator of the 2006 crowdsourcing art show, Phantom crowdsourcing eliminates a financial barrier that prohibits most people from participating in art, as "Internet real estate is essentially free." Grover finds that the primary appeal of crowdsourcing is the satisfaction that is obtained through working with a community. Individuals who participate in crowdsourcing projects are often anonymous, and Grover states that "people reveal more when they’re not face-to-face," because "there’s a certain security in not being physically present," which adds to the appeal of crowdsourcing. Dion Hinchcliffe explains in his article Crowdsourcing: 5 Reasons Its Not Just For Start Ups Anymore several reasons why businesses find crowdsourcing appealing. These include, but are not limited to, the ability to offload peak demand, access to cheaper business inputs, generating better results, and undertaking problems that would have been too difficult to solve internally. Crowdsourcing allows for businesses to submit problems in which contributors can work on problems in science, manufacturing, biotech, medicine, etc, with monetary rewards for successful solutions. Businesses can crowdsource design issues, ranging from simple web design (Crowdspring) or more complicated design problems. Although it is difficult to crowdsource complicated tasks, simple work tasks can be crowdsourced cheaply and effectively. The testing of software and other services can be crowdsourced. Crowdsourced customer support allows businesses to rely on customers to solve other customers issues and questions.

Controversy

[edit]

The ethical, social, and economic implications of crowdsourcing are subject to wide debate. For example, author and media critic Douglas Rushkoff, in an interview published in Wired News, expressed ambivalence about the term and its implications.[18] Wikipedia co-founder Jimmy Wales is also a vocal critic of the term.[19] Some reports have focused on the negative effects of crowdsourcing on business owners, particularly in regard to how a crowdsourced project can sometimes end up costing a business more than a traditionally outsourced project. Some possible pitfalls of crowdsourcing include the following: Added costs to bring a project to an acceptable conclusion. Increased likelihood that a crowdsourced project will fail due to lack of monetary motivation, too few participants, lower quality of work, lack of personal interest in the project, global language barriers, or difficulty managing a large-scale, crowdsourced project. Below-market wages[20] or no wages at all. Barter agreements are often associated with crowdsourcing. No written contracts, non-disclosure agreements, or employee agreements or agreeable terms with crowdsourced employees. Difficulties maintaining a working relationship with crowdsourced workers throughout the duration of a project. Susceptibility to faulty results caused by targeted, malicious work efforts. Though some critics believe crowdsourcing exploits or abuses individuals for their labor, studies into the motivations of crowds have not yet shown that crowds feel exploited. On the contrary, many individuals in the crowd experience significant benefits from their participation in crowdsourcing applications.[21][22][23][24] Further authors discuss both risks and rewards of using crowdsourcing as a means of balancing global inequalities.[25] Project's like Amazon.com's "The Turk" have, however, made significant advancement in addressing these issues in the last several years. "The Turk" seeks to empower firms, developers and creators of any kind by lubricating the relationship between them and crowds. It achieves this by creating a platform through which crowds and employers communicate and perform transactions in a way that is safe for both parties. In Leah DeVun's interview of Andrea Grover the question, "Do you think that crowdsourcing removes an economic barrier that might prevent

people from participating in art?" Grover's reply was yes. Grover went on to explain that crowdsourcing was originally based on economics. It was designed for businesses to be cost-efficient and lower their expenditures.
[26]

Grover also provided an example of a crowdsourcing project that went astray. Justcurio.us was a website where users would ask questions, and receive answers from other users visiting the site. It eventually degraded into people asking questions for pornographic purposes. Grover relates that "maybe just asking a question is too simple. Maybe there has to be more complexity."[27]

Brand marketing

[edit]

Crowdsourcing has attracted the attention of brand marketers as a way to engage customers using social media. Dorito’s "Crash the Super Bowl" campaign is one prominent example of a fully integrated and successful program. Dorito’s fans created their own advertisements for the chance to win a trip to the game, $25,000 cash, and the fame of creating a Super Bowl advertisement. Crowdsourcing for brands doesn’t always work. Levia, a medical device marketer, failed to generate crowdsourcing activity with a similar promotion. They lacked the prerequisites of a crowd, sufficient motivation, and a reasonable expectation of work effort.
[28]

Historical examples
The Alkali Prize The Longitude Prize Fourneyron's Turbine Montyon Prizes Nicolas Appert and food preservation Loebner Prize Millennium Prize Problems

[edit]

See also
Buzzwords Citizen science Clickworkers Co-creation

[edit]

Collective intelligence Collaborative innovation network Configuration system Crowdcasting Crowd funding Distributed Computing Distributed thinking Human Computation Know-How Trading List of crowdsourcing projects The Long Tail Mass Collaboration Mass Customization Micro-revenue Open Innovation Problem Solving Scripped Social collaboration Social commerce Toolkits for User Innovation Tuangou Virtual assistant Virtual volunteering Waze Wikinomics Wisdom of Crowds Ubiquitous Human Computing Urtak Zooppa

Notes
1. ^ Crowd Sourcing Turns Business On Its Head 2. ^ David Whitford (2007-03-22). "Hired Guns on the Cheap" . Fortune Small Business . Retrieved 2007-08-07.

[edit]

3. ^ Jeff Howe (June 2006). "The Rise of Crowdsourcing" . Wired. Retrieved 2007-03-17. 4. ^ Jeff Howe (June 2006). "The Rise of Crowdsourcing" . Wired. Retrieved 2007-03-17.

5. ^ Noveck, Simone. (2009). Wiki Government: How Technology Can Make Government Better, Democracy Stronger, and Citizens More Powerful, p. 63. 6. ^ http://www.exinfm.com/board/crowdsourcing.htm 7. ^ a b c Daren C. Brabham. (2008). "Crowdsourcing as a Model for Problem Solving: An Introduction and Cases", Convergence: The International Journal of Research into New Media Technologies, 14(1), pp. 75-90. 8. ^ Daren C. Brabham. (2008). "Moving the Crowd at iStockphoto: The Composition of the Crowd and Motivations for Participation in a Crowdsourcing Application" , First Monday, 13(6) 9. ^ Daren C. Brabham. (2009). "Crowdsourcing the Public Participation Process for Planning Projects", Planning Theory, 8(3), pp. 242-262. 10. ^ U.S. Department of Transportation Federal Transit Administration Public Transportation Participation Pilot Program. "PTP-3 FY 2008 Projects: Crowdsourcing Public Participation in Transit Planning" 11. ^ Peer-to-Patent Community Patent Review Project. "Peer to Patent Community Patent Review", at http://www.peertopatent.org/ . 12. ^ DeVun, Leah. "Looking at how crowds produce and present art." Wired News. Web. 19 Nov. 2009. <http://www.wired.com/techbiz/media/news/2007/07/crowd_captain? currentPage=all >. 13. ^ * Jan Marco Leimeister, Michael Huber, Ulrich Bretschneider, Helmut Krcmar (2009): Leveraging Crowdsourcing: Activation-Supporting Components for IT-Based Ideas Competition. In: Journal of Management Information Systems (2009), Volume: 26, Issue: 1, Publisher: M.E. Sharpe Inc., Pages: 197-224, ISSN: 07421222, DOI: 10.2753/MIS0742-1222260108 [1] Winfried Ebner; Jan Marco Leimeister; Helmut Krcmar (2009): Community Engineering for Innovations -The Ideas Competition as a method to nurture a Virtual Community for Innovations. In: R&D Management, 39 (4),pp 342-356 DOI: 10.1111/j.14679310.2009.00564.x [2] 14. ^ V. Robu, H. Halpin, H. Shepherd Emergence of consensus and shared vocabularies in collaborative tagging systems , ACM Transactions on the Web (TWEB), Vol. 3(4), article 14, ACM Press, September 2009. 15. ^ https://networkchallenge.darpa.mil/default.aspx 16. ^ http://ageofstupid.net 17. ^ http://c21org.typepad.com/21st_century_organization/2009/02/lookingforward---emerging-and-declining-networks-for-2009.html 18. ^ Cove, Sarah (2007-07-12). "What Does Crowdsourcing Really Mean?" . Wired News (Assignment Zero). Retrieved 2008-02-19. 19. ^ McNichol, Tom (2007-07-02). "The Wales Rules for Web 2.0" . Business 2.0. Retrieved 2008-02-19. "I find the term 'crowdsourcing'

incredibly irritating," Wales says. "Any company that thinks it's going to build a site by outsourcing all the work to its users not only disrespects the users but completely misunderstands what it should be doing. Your job is to provide a structure for your users to collaborate, and that takes a lot of work." 20. ^ Sherwood Stranieri (October 2006). "Beer Money: Mechanical Turk on Campus" . Paylancers. Retrieved 2008-03-14. 21. ^ Daren C. Brabham. (2008). "Moving the Crowd at iStockphoto: The Composition of the Crowd and Motivations for Participation in a Crowdsourcing Application", First Monday, 13(6), available online at http://www.uic.edu/htbin/cgiwrap/bin/ojs/index.php/fm/article/view/2159/1969 . 22. ^ Daren C. Brabham. (2009, August). "Moving the Crowd at Threadless: Motivations for Participation in a Crowdsourcing Application", Paper presented at the annual meeting of the Association for Education in Journalism and Mass Communication, Boston, MA. 23. ^ Katri Lietsala & Atte Joutsen. (2007). "Hang-a-rounds and True Believers: A Case Analysis of the Roles and Motivational Factors of the Star Wreck Fans", In A. Lugmayr, K. Lietsala, & J. Kallenbach (Eds.), MindTrek 2007 Conference Proceedings (pp. 25-30). Tampere, Finland: Tampere University of Technology. 24. ^ Karim R. Lakhani, Lars Bo Jeppesen, Peter A. Lohse & Jill A. Panetta. (2007). The value of openness in scientific problem solving (Harvard Business School Working Paper No. 07-050), available online at http://www.hbs.edu/research/pdf/07-050.pdf . 25. ^ Roth, S. (2008): Open Innovation AcrossThe Prosperity Gap: An Essay On Getting The Caucasus Back Into The European Innovation Society. In: International Black Sea University Scientific Journal, Vol 2., No. 2, pp. 5-20, http://steffenroth.files.wordpress.com/2009/10/ibsusj_openinnovationacrossthe-prosperity-gap.pdf 26. ^ DeVun, Leah. "Looking at how crowds produce and present art." Wired News. Web. 19 Nov. 2009. <http://www.wired.com/techbiz/media/news/2007/07/crowd_captain? currentPage=all >. 27. ^ DeVun, Leah. "Looking at how crowds produce and present art." Wired News. Web. 19 Nov. 2009. <http://www.wired.com/techbiz/media/news/2007/07/crowd_captain? currentPage=all >. 28. ^ Crowdsourcing without a Crowd: Levia's Failed Attempt , merriamassociates.com. Retrieved 15 November 2010

References
What is crowdsourcing?

[edit]

Noveck, Beth Simone. (2009). Wiki Government: How Technology

Can Make Government Better, Democracy Stronger, and Citizens More Powerful. Washington, D.C.: Brookings Institution Press. 10ISBN 0-8157-0275-2; 13-ISBN 978-0-8157-0275-7

External links
York Times", July 18, 2009. Internettunnel Leidschendam, Zwarts & Jansma Architects

[edit]

The Crowd Is Wise (When It’s Focused) , by Steve Lohr, "The New

Moving the Crowd at iStockphoto: The Composition of the Crowd and Motivations for Participation in a Crowdsourcing Application , by Daren C. Brabham, First Monday, June 2, 2008. Crowdsourcing: consumers as creators , by Paul Boutin, Business Week, July 13, 2006. Secure Distributed Human Computation by Craig Gentry, Zulfikar Ramzan, and Stuart Stubblebine. Proceedings of the 6th ACM Conference on Electronic Commerce, 2005. Innovation in the Age of Mass Collaboration , by Don Tapscott and Anthony D. Williams, Business Week, February 1, 2007. Randy Burge: Internet allows us to resource the crowd , Albuquerque Tribune, April 9, 2007. Assignment Zero First Take: Wiki Innovators Rethink Openness: Citizendium, by Michael Ho for Assignment Zero and Wired, May 3, 2007. Four crowdsourcing lessons from the Guardian’s (spectacular) expenses-scandal experiment from Nieman Journalism Lab Wiki dedicated to Crowdsourcing Categories: Web 2.0 neologisms | Business | Outsourcing | Crowdsourcing | Collaboration | Social information processing | Social psychology

This page was last modified on 26 November 2010 at 00:31. Text is available under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. See Terms of Use for details. Wikipedia® is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., a non-profit organization. Contact us

Privacy policy About Wikipedia Disclaimers