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Verb Tenses and Modal Verbs.

The tenses that are most important to note are the present, the past, the future and the conditional.
The most effective way to note them is to put a graphic sign near the verb form. So, an L sign will
indicate the future, a reversed L sign ( ) will show the past, a circumflexed stress will show the
conditional, whereas no extra sign will be used for the present tense.

As for modal verbs, it is advisable to note them in English, since they are rather short : may, must,
can, want, etc. or should = shd; could = cd; would = ˆ ; must = › ; may = may

...verb tenses work workg Work | | work | wôrk

working worked will work would work


ä rise, increase, grow, climb etc.

ä Rise sharply, jump, soar

ä Rise dramatically, leap, skyrocket etc

ä Faltering rise, etc

say assert
poor Very poor
Poor Grinding, crushing poverty, destitution (underline twice)
Poor Fairly poor, more or less badly off

come back.Here are some more examples of one (organic) symbol that is the starting point for many other symbols (a common root). decline. consequence of. relations.) The circle can also be used to denote a person who is associated with the meaning of that symbol. reverse. c al national (adjective) c ally Nationally c ze to nationalize c tn nationalisation co national (noun). citizen ß return. L annoyed. L very unhappy. in comparison to the squiggly line for “to think”. slide. à lead to. (the straight line denotes certainty. unhappy. shrink. æ fall. grow. ⇔ exchange. This can be done by adding a raised circle to another . regress ä rise. etc Õ to think Ō to know. therefore J pleased. etc. increase. climb etc. drop. slip. disgusted. unimpressed.

ise z re-nationalize Renatz privatize privz monopolize monopz -itive executive Execv -isive v comprehensive compv -ative inclusive inclv -ivity y productivity Prody competitivity compy exclusivity excluy -ment t Government Govt development devt -able b fashionable Fashb biodegradable biodegradb . π Policy πo politician ∩ that. what ∩o Who. symbol. supplier. whose. (introducing subordinate clauses) Suffix Note Example -ition constitution Constn -ation n institution instn -ution production -ision prodn -ize. which. whom etc. c al national (adjective) c o citizen econ Economy econ o economist E Energy Eo energy expert.

however. provided that. in spite of this. inter alia. not surprisingly then. " Want. ramifications. etc. were this to happen (and other → similar conditionals). announce. consider. even Limitation or contradiction preceding both linked though. then . tell etc. like. the main reason for this.. on the other Limitation or contradiction following an idea hand. » Frequently occurring NOUNS Support. while. state c . be minded to. difficulty. move to. hindrance. whilst. nominate etc. all the same etc. so that. in particular. on top of addition that there is.. what Effect → cause is causing this. repercussions. IF. end of No link section. because of this. in addition. not only. this is why. the consequence of this is. suggest. given a . etc. be of the conviction Õ Propose.. etc. TO (in order) to.. desire. say.. backing. end of idea. Frequently occurring VERBS Speak. (or inversion of same). eg For example. If . etc. hope for ♥ Think. S Consequence. in such a way as to. stumbling block (which gives us this symbol). → Hence. notwithstanding ideas COS Because. LINKS/LINK WORDS B But. then b. had I Condition and consequence known. THO Although. so purpose that. etc. nonetheless. furthermore etc. not least the. country. amongst Examples of the preceding idea – often in the other things. end-effect. this means that.. therefore. ^^^ Nation. form of lists etc. despite (the fact that). wish.. endorsement. the result of this Cause → effect is. the purpose being to. // The paragraph mark: no link.. hold the view. hurdle. etc → Problem. with the aim of. result. etc. declare. and. put forward. and for announcing lists + Also.

decision Ø Change.Politics. A Short Course. S Decide. reform. 2005 http://interpreters. policy π money $ Industry (this symbol represents a chimney with smoke coming out of it) Ĩ Verbs or nouns Support. endorsement. Note-taking for Consecutive Manchester: St. backing. amend Δ Gillies.htm . Andrew. rework. etc. Jerome Publishing. overhaul.