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PRESENCE OF A THREE-LAYERED REGION AND

MICROSTRIP ANTENNA

The Electromagnetics Academy

Zhejiang University

Hangzhou, Zhejiang 310058, China

wave and lateral wave excited by a dipole antenna parallel to the

plane boundaries of a three-layered region in spherical coordinate.

An approximate formula is obtained for the solution of the electric-

type pole equation when a condition is satisﬁed by k12 − k02 l ≤ 0.6.

Similarly, an approximate formula is obtained for the solution of

the

magnetic-type pole equation when a condition is satisﬁed by

k12 − k02 l − π/2 ≤ 1. Furthermore, because of its useful applications

in microstrip antenna, the radiation patterns of a patch antenna with

speciﬁc current distributions are treated speciﬁcally. Analysis and

computations are carried out in several typical cases. It is seen that,

for the component E0Θ , the total ﬁeld is determined primarily by the

trapped surface wave of electric type, and, for the component E0Φ ,

the total ﬁeld is determined primarily by the trapped surface wave of

magnetic type.

1. INTRODUCTION

dipole in a multi-layered region has been visited widely by many

investigators [1–28], especially including Sommerfeld, Wait, and King.

In the past decade, several investigators have revisited the old problem

and concluded that the trapped surface wave, which is determined by

the sums of residues of the poles, can be excited eﬃciently by a dipole

source in the presence of a three-layered region [29–36].

In a recent paper [37], the radiation from a vertical electric dipole

in the presence of a three or four-layered region was investigated. It

88 Liu, Li, and Xu

determined primarily the trapped surface, which is not considered in

chapter 8 of [13]. The new development in [37], naturally, rekindled

the interest in the further study on the radiation of a horizontal electric

dipole in the presence of a three-layered region. It is found that it is

more important to study the radiation from a horizontal dipole in the

presence of a three-layered region because of its useful applications in

microstrip antenna.

In what follows, we will attempt to treat in detail both the

radiation of a horizontal dipole in the presence of a three-layered region

and the radiation patterns of a patch antenna with speciﬁc current

distributions.

z

(x, y, z)

ρ

Horizontal electric r1

dipole at (0,0,d)

y

Region0 ( air, k 0 )

x

l Region 1 ( dielectric, k 1 )

dielectric boundary z = 0 in the presence of a three-layered region.

PRESENCE OF A THREE-LAYERED REGION

Fig. 1, where a horizontal electric dipole in the x̂ direction is located at

(0, 0, d). Region 0 (z ≥ 0) is the space above the dielectric layer with

the air characterized by the permeability µ0 and uniform permittivity

0 , Region 1 (−l ≤ z ≤ 0) is the dielectric layer characterized by the

permeability µ0 , relative permittivity 1r , and Region 2 (z ≤ 0) is the

rest space occupied by a perfect conductor. Then, the wave numbers

Progress In Electromagnetics Research, PIER 86, 2008 89

√

k0 = ω µ0 ε0

√

k1 = ω µ0 ε0 ε1r

k2 → ∞. (1)

With the time dependence e−iωt , the complete electromagnetic ﬁeld

generated by a horizontal dipole in the three-layered region in

cylindrical coordinate system can be obtained in [32]. We write

ωµ0 Idl

E0ρ (ρ, φ, z) = − cos φ

4πk02

2

2k0 2i z−d ik02 3k0 3i

· − 2 + 3+ − 2 − 3 eik0 r1

r1 r1 r1 r1 r1 r1

2k0 2i z+d 2 ik02 3k0 3i

+ 2 + 3+ · − 2 − 3 eik0 r2 + πk02

r2 r2 r2 r2 r2 r2

γ ∗ γ ∗ tan γ ∗ l ∗

1E iγ0E (z+d) ∗ (1) ∗ (1) ∗

· 0E 1E

e λ H (λ ρ) − H (λ ρ)

j

q (λ∗jE ) jE 0 jE 2 jE

tan γ ∗ l ∗ (z+d) ∗

(1) ∗ (1) ∗

+πk02 ∗

1B

·eiγ0B

λ jB H 0 (λ jB ρ) + H 2 (λ jB ρ)

j

p (λjB )

2 π z+d

+2e−i 4 k03 A

π π

· eik0 r2 · −ei 4 + iA

πk0 ρ 2k0 ρ ρ

2

π k0 ρ z+d

+ A2 · exp −i − iA

2 2 ρ

2

k0 ρ z+d 1

·erfc −i − iA − 2ik03 · eik0 r2

2 ρ πk0 ρ

2

−i π π π k0 ρ z+d

· · − √ ei 4 T exp −i + iT

k0 ρ k0 ρ 2 2 ρ

2

ik0 ρ z+d

·erfc − + iT (2)

2 ρ

ωµ0 Idl

E0φ (ρ, φ, z) = − sin φ

4πk02

ik02 k0 i ik02 k0 i

· − − 2− 3 eik0 r1

+ − 3− 3 eik0 r2 + πk02

r1 r1 r1 r2 r2 r2

90 Liu, Li, and Xu

γ ∗ γ ∗ tan γ ∗ l ∗

1E iγ0E (z+d) ∗ (1) ∗ (1) ∗

· 0E 1E

e λ H (λ ρ) + H (λ ρ)

j

q (λ∗ ) jE

jE 0 jE 2 jE

tan γ ∗ l ∗ (z+d) ∗

(1) ∗ (1) ∗

+πk02 ∗

1B

·eiγ0B

λ jB H 0 (λ jB ρ) − H 2 (λ jB ρ)

j

p (λjB )

2 ik0 r2 −i π z+d

+2e−i 4 k03 A

π

i π4

e −e + iA

πk0 ρ k0 ρ 2k0 ρ ρ

2

π k0 ρ z+d

+ A2 exp −i − iA

2 2 ρ

2

k0 ρ z+d 1

·erfc −i + iA − 2ik03 · eik0 r2

2 ρ πk0 ρ

2

π π π k0 ρ z+d

· − √ · ei 4 · T exp −i + iT

k0 ρ 2 2 ρ

2

k0 ρ z+d

·erfc −i + iT (3)

2 ρ

iωµ0 Idl

E0z (ρ, φ, z) = cos φ

4πk02

2

ρ z−d k 3ik0 3

· − · 0

+ 2 − 3 eik0 r1

r1 r1 r1 r1 r1

2

ρ z+d 3ik0 k 3

+ · + 2 − 3 eik0 r2 0

r2 r2r2 r2 r2

γ ∗ tan γ ∗ l ∗ 2

∗

H1 (λ∗jE ρ)

(1)

+2πk02 1E

∗

1E iγ0E (z+d)

e λ jE

j

q (λjE )

1

+2ik03 A · · eik0 r2

πk0 ρ

2

π π π k0 ρ z+d

· + √ · ei 4 · A exp −i − iA

k0 ρ 2 2 ρ

2

k0 ρ z+d

erfc −i − iA (4)

2 ρ

µ0 Idl z−d ik0 1

B0ρ (ρ, φ, z) = − sin φ − − 2 eik0 r1

4π r1 r1 r1

Progress In Electromagnetics Research, PIER 86, 2008 91

z+d ik0 1

+ − 2 eik0 r2 + πk02

r2 r2 r2

γ ∗ tan γ ∗ l ∗

1E iγ0E (z+d) ∗ (1) ∗ (1) ∗

· 1E

e λ H (λ ρ) + H (λ ρ)

j

q (λ∗jE ) jE 0 jE 2 jE

γ ∗ tan γ ∗ l ∗ (z+d)

1B ∗ (1) ∗ (1) ∗

+π 0B

λ eiγ0B

H (λ ρ) − H (λ ρ)

j

p (λ∗ ) jB

jB

0 jB 2 jB

1 ik0 r2 −i

−2k02 A e ·

πk0 ρ k0 ρ

2

π π π k0 ρ z+d

· + √ ei 4 A · exp −i − iA

k0 ρ 2 2 ρ

2

k0 ρ z+d

·erfc −i − iA

2 ρ

√

2 i π4 2 ik0 r2 2 iπ z + d π

+2k0 e e − e 4 − iT ·

πk0 ρ 2 2 k0 ρ

2

π k0 ρ z+d

+ T 2 exp −i + iT

2 2 ρ

2

k0 ρ z+d

· erfc −i + iT (5)

2 ρ

µ0 Idl z−d ik0 1

B0φ (ρ, φ, z) = − cos φ · − − 2 eik0 r1

4π r1 r1 r1

z+d ik0 1

+ − 2 eik0 r2 + πk02

r2 r2 r2

γ ∗ tan γ ∗ l ∗

1E iγ0E (z+d) ∗ (1) ∗ (1) ∗

· 1E

e λ H (λ ρ) − H (λ ρ)

j

q (λ∗jE ) jE 0 jE 2 jE

γ ∗ tan γ ∗ l ∗

0B 1B iγ0B (z+d) ∗ (1) ∗ (1) ∗

+π ∗

e λ jB H 0 (λ jB ρ) + H 2 (λ jB ρ)

j

P (λjB )

1 ik0 r2 π π π

−2k02 A · e · + √ ei 4 A

πk0 ρ k0 ρ 2

2

k0 ρ z+d

· exp −i − iA

2 ρ

92 Liu, Li, and Xu

2

k0 ρ z + d π 2 ik0 r2

·erfc −i − iA + 2k02 ei 4 e

2 ρ πk0 ρ

√

−i 2 iπ z + d π

· − e 4 − iT

k0 ρ 2 2 k0 ρ

2

π k0 ρ z+d

+ T 2 exp −i + iT

2 2 ρ

2

k0 ρ z+d

·erfc −i + iT (6)

2 ρ

iµ0 Idl

B0z (ρ, φ, z) = sin φ

4π

ρ k0 i ρ k0 i

· − + 2 eik0 r1 + + 2 eik0 r2

r1 r1 r1 r2 r2 r2

λ∗jB 2 tan γ1B

∗ l

∗ (z+d) 1

H1 (λ∗jB ρ)

(1)

+2π e iγ0B

− 2k02

j

p (λ∗jB ) πk0 ρ

2

π π π k0 ρ z+d

· − √ ei 4 · T · exp −i + iT

k0 ρ 2 2 ρ

2

k0 ρ z+d

·erfc −i + iT eik0 r2 (7)

2 ρ

where

r1 = ρ2 + (z − d)2 , r2 = ρ2 + (z + d)2 (8)

k12 λ∗jE k02 λ∗jE

q (λ∗jE ) = − ∗ + i ∗ tan γ ∗

1E l + γ ∗

1E l sec 2 ∗

γ1E l (9)

γ0E γ1E

∗

λ tan γ ∗ l γ ∗ l

p (λ∗jB ) = − ∗ + iλ∗jB 2 ∗

jB 1B

∗ + 0B ∗ sec γ1B l (10)

γ1B γ0B γ1B

k0 2

A = k1 − k0 tan

2 k1 − k0 l

2 2 (11)

k1

k12 − k02

T = (12)

k0 tan( k12 − k02 l)

√

2e−i 4 F (p∗ )

π

erfc −ip∗ = (13)

Progress In Electromagnetics Research, PIER 86, 2008 93

2

k0 ρ z+d

p∗1 = + iT (14)

2 ρ

2

k0 ρ z + d

= p∗2 − iA . (15)

2 ρ

It is noted that λ∗jE and λ∗jB are the j-th poles of the integrals of

electric-type(TM) wave and magnetic-type (TE) wave, respectively.

Correspondingly,

∗ 2 − (λ∗ )2 ;

γmE = km jE m = 0, 1 (16)

∗ 2 − (λ∗ )2 ;

γmB = km jB m = 0, 1. (17)

of poles.

Subjecting a condition z+d ρ, it is known that r1 ∼ r0 −d cos Θ,

r2 ∼ r0 + d cos Θ in phases and r1 ∼ r2 ∼ r0 in amplitudes. Taking

into account the relations between cylindrical coordinate and spherical

coordinate, and ρ = r0 sin Θ, z = r0 cos Θ, we have

E0r (r0 , Θ, Φ) = E0ρ (ρ, φ, z) sin Θ + E0z (ρ, φ, z) cos Θ (18)

E0Θ (r0 , Θ, Φ) = E0ρ (ρ, φ, z) cos Θ + E0z (ρ, φ, z) cos Θ (19)

E0Φ (r0 , Θ, Φ) = E0φ (ρ, φ, z) (20)

B0r (r0 , Θ, Φ) = B0ρ (ρ, φ, z) sin Θ + B0z (ρ, φ, z) cos Θ (21)

B0Θ (r0 , Θ, Φ) = B0ρ (ρ, φ, z) cos Θ − B0z (ρ, φ, z) sin Θ (22)

B0Φ (r0 , Θ, Φ) = B0φ (ρ, φ, z). (23)

When the far-ﬁeld conditions |p∗1 | ≥ 4 and |p∗2 | ≥ 4 are satisﬁed, the

Fresnel-integral terms are written in the forms

π ∗ ik0 ρ iT

k02 · iT · e−ip1 · F (p∗1 ) = ·

k0 ρ ρ2 iT + (z + d)/ρ

3

iT 1

+ 2 (24)

ρ iT + (z + d)/ρ

π ∗ ik0 ρ −iA

k02 · (−iA) · e−ip2 · F (p∗2 ) = ·

k0 ρ ρ2 −iA + (z + d)/ρ

3

−iA 1

+ 2 (25)

ρ −iA + (z + d)/ρ

In practical applications the antenna is usually placed on the

surface of the earth, either as a based-insulated dipole or a monopole

94 Liu, Li, and Xu

k0 d ∼ 0, substitutions (2)–(7) into (18)–(23) lead to the following

formulas.

ωµ0 Idl cos Φ ik0 r0 k0 + ik02 r0 A2 sin Θ

E0r = − e · −

2πk02 r02 sin Θ

iT k0 r0 (cos Θ + iT sin Θ)2 + T sin Θ

+

r03 (cos Θ + iT sin Θ)3

2 2

k0 A r0 (−iA sin Θ + cos Θ)2 (i cos Θ + A sin Θ)

+A2 k0 sin Θ cos Θ − ik0 A3 sin2 Θ

+

r02 (−iA sin Θ + cos Θ)3

ωµ0 Idl cos Φ

γ0E

∗ γ ∗ sin Θ tan(γ ∗ l)

∗

− · 1E

(λ∗ )

1E

eiγ0E r0 cos Θ

4 q jE

j

·λ∗jE · H0 (λ∗jE r0 sin Θ) − H2 (λ∗jE r0 sin Θ)

(1) (1)

2i cos Θγ ∗ tan(γ ∗ l) ∗

eiγ0E r0 cos Θ λ∗jE 2 H1 (λ∗jE r0 sin Θ)

(1)

− 1E

∗

1E

j

q (λjE )

tan(γ1B∗ l) sin Θ

∗

+ ∗ eiγ0B r0 cos Θ

j

p (λjB )

"

·λ∗jB H0 (λ∗jB r0 sin Θ) H2 (λ∗jB r0 sin Θ)

(1) (1)

+ (26)

E0Θ = − e

2πk02

k02 Ar0 + k0 cos Θ + ik02 A2 r0 sin Θ cos Θ

· −

r02 sin2 Θ

k02 r0 A2 (cos Θ − iA sin Θ)2 (A cos Θ − i sin Θ)

−k0 A2 sin2 Θ − iA3 k0 sin Θ cos Θ

+

r02 (cos Θ − iA sin Θ)3

"

iT k0 r0 cos Θ(cos Θ + iT sin Θ)2 + T sin Θ cos Θ

+

r03 sin Θ(cos Θ + iT sin Θ)3

ωµ0 Idl cos Φ

γ0E

∗ γ ∗ tan(γ ∗ l)

∗

− 1E

∗

1E

eγ0E r0 cos Θ

4 q (λjE )

j

Progress In Electromagnetics Research, PIER 86, 2008 95

·λ∗jE cos Θ H0 (λ∗jE r0 sin Θ) − H2 (λ∗jE r0 sin Θ)

(1) (1)

γ ∗ tan(γ ∗ l) ∗

eγ0E r0 cos Θ λ∗jE 2 H1 (λ∗jE r0 sin Θ)

1E 1E (1)

+2i sin Θ ∗

j

q (λ ) jE

tan(γ ∗ l) ∗

+ cos Θ 1B

eiγ0B r0 cos Θ

j

p (λ∗jB )

"

·λ∗jB H0 (λ∗jB r0 sin Θ) H2 (λ∗jB r0 sin Θ)

(1) (1)

+ (27)

ωµ0 Idl sin Φ ik0 r0 iAk0 cos Θ−k0 A2 sin Θ−ik02 r0 sin2 Θ

E0Φ = − e

2πk02 r02 sin3 Θ

ik0 A3 r0 (−iA sin Θ + cos Θ)2 + A3 sin Θ

−

r03 sin Θ(−iA sin Θ + cos Θ)3

"

−k 2 T r0 (iT sin Θ + cos Θ)2 + iT k0 sin Θ

+ 0

r02 (iT sin Θ + cos Θ)3

ωµ0 Idl sin Φ

γ0E

∗ γ ∗ tan(γ ∗ l)

∗

− 1E

∗

1E

eiγ0E r0 cos Θ

4 q (λjE )

j

·λ∗jE H0 (λ∗jE r0 sin Θ) + H2 (λ∗jE r0 sin Θ)

(1) (1)

tan(γ ∗ l) ∗

+ 1B

eγ0B r0 cos Θ · λ∗

j

p (λ∗jB ) jB

"

H0 (λ∗jB r0 sin Θ) H2 (λ∗jB r0 sin Θ)

(1) (1)

· − (28)

µ0 Idl sin Φ ik0 r0 iA−k0 r0 T sin Θ−i cos Θ+

ir0 sin Θ cos Θ

2

B0r = − e

2π r02 sin Θ

k0 T r0 (iT sin Θ + cos Θ)2 (cos Θ + iT sin Θ)

+T sin Θ(T sin Θ − i cos Θ)

+

r02 (iT sin Θ + cos Θ)3

"

iA2 sin Θ − k0 A2 r0 (−iA sin Θ + cos Θ)2

·

k0 r03 (−iA sin Θ + cos Θ)3

µ0 Idl sin Φ

k02 γ1E

∗ sin Θ tan(γ ∗ l)

∗

− 1E

eiγ0E r0 cos Θ

4 q (λ∗jE )

j

96 Liu, Li, and Xu

·λ∗jE H0 (λ∗jE r0 sin Θ) + H2 (λ∗jE r0 sin Θ)

(1) (1)

γ ∗ sin Θ tan(γ ∗ l) ∗

+ 0B 1B

eiγ0B r0 cos Θ

j

p (λ∗jB )

·λ∗jB H0 (λ∗jB r0 sin Θ) − H2 (λ∗jB r0 sin Θ)

(1) (1)

λ∗jB 2 tan(γ1B

∗ l)

∗ r

·H1 (λ∗jB r0 sin Θ) (29)

(1)

−2i cos Θ iγ0B

e 0 cos Θ

j

p (λ∗jB )

B0Θ = − e

2π

iA cos Θ − k0 r0 sin Θ T cos Θ + i sin Θ + ir0 cos2 Θ

2

·

r02 sin2 Θ

k0 T r0 (iT sin Θ + cos Θ)2 (iT cos Θ − sin Θ)

+T sin Θ(T cos Θ + i sin Θ)

+

r02 (iT sin Θ + cos Θ)3

"

iA2 sin Θ cos Θ − k0 A2 r0 cos Θ(−iA sin Θ + cos Θ)2

+

k0 r03 sin Θ(−iA sin Θ + cos Θ)3

µ0 Idl sin Φ

k02 γ1E

∗ cos Θ tan(γ ∗ l)

∗

− (λ∗ )

1E

eiγ0E r0 cos Θ

4 q jE

j

·λ∗jE H0 (λ∗jE r0 sin Θ) + H2 (λ∗jE r0 sin Θ)

(1) (1)

γ ∗ cos Θ tan(γ ∗ l) ∗

+ 0B 1B

eiγ0B r0 cos Θ

j

p (λ∗jB )

·λ∗jB H0 (λ∗jB r0 sin Θ) − H2 (λ∗jB r0 sin Θ)

(1) (1)

2iλ∗jB 2 sinΘtan(γ1B

∗ l)

∗ r cosΘ

H1 (λ∗jB r0 sin Θ) (30)

iγ0B (1)

+ e 0

j

p (λ∗jB )

µ0 Idl cos Φ ik0 r0 k0 Ar0 sin Θ + r0 cos Θ

− iT

B0Φ = − e − 2 2

2

2π r0 sin Θ

ik0 A2 r0 (−iA sin Θ + cos Θ)2 + A2 sin Θ

−

r02 (−iA sin Θ + cos Θ)3

Progress In Electromagnetics Research, PIER 86, 2008 97

"

k0 T 2 r0 (iT sin Θ + cos Θ)2 − iT 2 sin Θ ik0 d cos Θ

+ e

k0 r03 sin Θ(iT sin Θ + cos Θ)3

µ0 Idl cos Φ 2

γ1E

∗ tan(γ ∗ l)

∗

− k0 ∗

1E

eiγ0E r0 cos Θ · λ∗jE

4 q (λjE )

j

· H0 (λ∗jE r0 sin Θ) − H2 (λ∗jE r0 sin Θ)

(1) (1)

γ ∗ tan(γ ∗ l) ∗

+ 0B 1B

· λ∗jB · eiγ0B r0 cos Θ

j

p (λ∗jB )

"

H0 (λ∗jB r0 sin Θ) H2 (λ∗jB r0 sin Θ)

(1) (1)

· + . (31)

THE POLES λE AND λM

In this section we will analyze the pole equations for both electric-type

(TM) and magnetic-type (TE) waves. The pole equation for electric-

type (TM) wave is expressed as follows [32]:

It follows that

# $

k02 k12 − λ2 sec2 k12 − λ2 l

dλ

= . (33)

dl √ k21 λ + k02 tan k12 − λ2 l + k02 lλ sec2 k12 − λ2 l

λ −k02

√ 2 2

When tan k12 − λ2 l =

k12

√λ2 −k02 is substituted into (33), and

k0 2 k1 −λ

considering that k1 is a real number, it is seen that all the terms of

the above equation in the right are

positive because of the poles λjE

are between k0 and k1 . So that k12 − λ2 l is always positive, and it

dλ

means that dl> 0. Then, it is known that λjE increase as l in the

interval nπ ≤ k12 − k02 l ≤ (n + 1)π. When a condition is satisﬁed by

k12 − k02 l < 0.6, we write

2

√

−k12 2k0 + 2k14 k0 + 8k05 (k12 − k02 )l2

λE = k0 + . (34)

16k06 l2

98 Liu, Li, and Xu

in the following form [32].

p(λ) = γ1 − iγ0 tan γ1 l = 0. (35)

Obviously, (35) can be re-written as

π

k12 − λ2 tan k12 − k02 l − − λ2 − k02 = 0. (36)

2

Then,

k12 − λ2 λ2 − k02 sec2 k12 − λ2 l

dλ

= √ #√ $ #√ 2 $. (37)

dl λl λ2 −k02 sec2 k12 −λ2 l λ tan k −λ2 l

√ λ

+ √ − √ 212

k12 −λ2 k12 −λ2 λ −k0

√ 2 2

k −λ

Substituting tan γ1 l = − √ 12 2 into (37), and considering that k1 is a

λ −k0

dλ

real number, it is easily veriﬁed that > 0 in the interval k0 < λ < k1 .

dl

When a condition is satisﬁed by k12 − k02 l − π/2 1, we have

π π

tan k12 − k02 l − ≈ k12 − k02 l − (38)

2 2

From (37), after algebraic manipulation, we write

#√ √ $2

2k0 − 2k0 − 4Ab Bb

λB = k0 + (39)

4Bb2

where

π

Ab = k12 − k02 k12 − k02 l − (40)

2

π k0

Bb = · − 2k0 l. (41)

2 k12 − k02

agreement

with the corresponding accurate values under the condition

k1 − k0 l < 0.6 for electric-type (TM) wave. Similarly, from Fig. 3,

2 2

with the

corresponding accurate values under the condition k1 − k0 l − π/2

2 2

Progress In Electromagnetics Research, PIER 86, 2008 99

21.6

The accurate value of λ

The approximation of λ

21.5

21.4

21.3

λ

21.2

21.1

21

20.9

0 0.05 0.1 0.15 0.2 0.25 0.3 0.35 0.4 0.45 0.5

k 21 − k 20 l

for the electric-type (TM) wave with f = 1 GHz and 1r = 2.65.

28

The accurate value of λB

The approximation of λ B

27

26

25

λB

24

23

22

21

20

1.4 1.6 1.8 2 2.2 2.4 2.6 2.8 3 3.2

k 21 − k 20 l

for the magnetic-type (TE) wave with f = 1 GHz and 1r = 2.65.

100 Liu, Li, and Xu

r0

r

z'

y'

2s

J (x'', y'')

x

0 2w

x'

air

2h

dielectric

l

substrate

conducting base

transmission line.

4. MICROSTRIP ANTENNA

of a thin dielectric layer coating a highly conducting base, which can

be regarded as a perfect conductor. The basic elements of them are

horizontal electric dipoles. In this section, we will treat a rectangular

patch antenna end-driven by transmission lines, as illustrated in Fig. 4.

The current-density distribution of a patch antenna with a width 2w

and length 2h has the following form.

Ix (0) −h ≤ x ≤ h

Jx (x , y ) = cos(kL x ); (42)

2w −w ≤ y ≤ w

√

where kL = k0 1r eﬀ is the wave number that would characterize the

patch as a segment of a microstrip transmission line for which 1r eﬀ

is the relative eﬀective permittivity at the operating frequency, Ix (0)

is the total current traversing the center line x = 0 of the patch. In

the present study we assume that the transverse distribution of the

x̂ -directed current is uniform. Actually, there is a ŷ -directed current

with large peaks at the edges |y | = w and a minimum at the center

y = 0. Since the impedance of the patch is very large when the

driving-point current is small compared to Ix (0), the assumed current

(42) should be a good approximation. The approximate formulas for

the characteristic impedance Zc of the microstrip transmission line and

the relative eﬀective permittivity 1r eﬀ were given in (3.20)–(3.22)

by Hoﬀman [38]. The relative permittivity 1r eﬀ is approximated as

Progress In Electromagnetics Research, PIER 86, 2008 101

follows:

−1/2

1r + 1 1r − 1 5l

1r eﬀ = + 1+ . (43)

2 2 w

In the far-ﬁeld zone, r ∼ r0 = (x2 + y 2 + z 2 ) is adequate in

amplitudes. In the phases, it is necessary to use the more accurate

formula.

1/2 1/2

x x y y

r∼ r02 − 2x x − 2y y = r0 1−2 2 −2 2 . (44)

r0 r0

Following the similar steps addressed in Sec. 15.12 of [12] or Sec. 9.7

of [13], and use is made of the above approximations, the ﬁeld factor

for the patch antenna is written in the following form.

Ix (0)

P (Θ, Φ) = J(x )J(y )

2w

2kL sin(kL h) cos(k0 h sin Θ cos Φ)

−2k0 sin Θ cos Φ cos(kL h) sin(k0 h sin Θ cos Φ)

= Ix (0)

kL2 − k02 cos2 Φ sin2 Θ

sin(k0 w sin Φ sin Θ)

· . (45)

k0 w sin Φ sin Θ

If h is chosen as kL h = π/2, the ﬁeld factor (45) reduces to (15.12.14)

in the book [12] or (9.159) in [13]. Multiplying (27), (28), (30), and

(31) by the ﬁeld factor in (45), the far-ﬁeld components of the patch

antenna are expressed as follows:

r

[E0Θ (r0 , Θ, Φ)]p = B0Θ (r0 , Θ, Φ) · P (Θ, Φ) (46)

r

[B0Θ (r0 , Θ, Φ)]p = B0Φ (r0 , Θ, Φ) · P (Θ, Φ) (47)

r

[E0Φ (r0 , Θ, Φ)]p = B0Θ (r0 , Θ, Φ) · P (Θ, Φ) (48)

r

[B0Φ (r0 , Θ, Φ)]p = B0Φ (r0 , Θ, Φ) · P (Θ, Φ). (49)

It is noted that these are valid in the far-ﬁeld zone and not valid in the

intermediate zone.

1 GHz, and the far-ﬁeld conditions |p∗1 | ≥ 4 and |p∗2 | ≥ 4, with

102 Liu, Li, and Xu

over r0 = 7 m. As shown in Figs. 5 and 6, the total ﬁeld, both

the trapped surface waves of electric type (TM) and magnetic type

(TE), and the lateral wave are calculated from (27) for E0Θ r (r , Θ, Φ)

0

r

and (28) for E0Φ (r0 , Θ, Φ), respectively. Graphs of the amplitudes of

the components E0Θ r (r , Θ, Φ) and E r (r , Θ, Φ) for a unit horizontal

0 0Φ 0

dipole vs. the angular degrees of Θ are computed and shown in Figs. 7

and 8, respectively. It is noted that the DRL waves include the direct

wave, ideal reﬂected wave, and lateral wave. From Figs. 5–8, it is seen

that, for the component E0Θ , the total ﬁeld is determined primarily by

the trapped surface wave of electric type, and, for the component E0Φ ,

the total ﬁeld is determined primarily by the trapped surface wave of

magnetic type when both the dipole point and observation point are

located on the air-dielectric bound.

3

10

2

10

Total field

The trapped surface wave

Lateral wave

1

10

| in V/m

0Θ

|E

0

10

-1

10

-2

10

20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100

ρ in m

1r = 2.65, l = 0.1 m, d = z = 0 m, and Φ = 0.

r (r , Θ, Φ)] as calculated from (46) and [E r (r , Θ, Φ)] from (47)

[E0Θ 0 p 0Φ 0 p

for the patch antenna vs. the angular degrees of Φ are shown with

f = 1 GHz, 1r = 2, r0 = 10 m, kL h = π/2, w = h, l = 0.1 m, d = 0 m,

I0 = 1 A, and Θ = π/2. It is found that the amplitude of the total wave

is approximately equal to that of the trapped surface wave under the

conditions of d = 0 and Θ = π/2. This also demonstrates that total

Progress In Electromagnetics Research, PIER 86, 2008 103

3

10

2

10

1

10

|E0 | in V/m

Total field

Trapped surface wave of magnetic type

Φ

0 Lateral wave

10

−1

10

−2

10

20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100

ρ in m

1r = 2.65, l = 0.1 m, d = z = 0 m, and Φ = π/2.

2

10

Total field

Trapped surface wave of electric type

DRL waves

1

10

|E0Θ | in V/m

0

10

−1

10

−2

10

86 87 88 89 89.5 89.55 89.6 89.65 89.7 89.75 89.8 89.85 89.9 89.95 90

Θ in degee

1r = 2.65, r0 = 80 m, l = 0.1 m, d = 0 m, and Φ = 0.

104 Liu, Li, and Xu

3

10

2

10

Total field

Trapped surface wave of magnetic type

1

10 Trapped surface wave of electric type

|E0 | in V/m

Lateral wave

Φ

0

10

−1

10

−2

10

86 87 88 89 89.7 89.75 89.8 89.85 89.9 89.95 90

Θ in degee

1r = 2.65, r0 = 20 m, l = 0.1 m, d = 0 m, and Φ = π/2.

20

Total field

DRL waves

18 Trapped surface wave

16

14

12

10 Θ=π/2

2 Φ

0

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

E0 Θ

0 p

patch antenna vs. Φ with f = 1 GHz, 1r = 2, r0 = 10 m, kL h = π/2,

w = h, l = 0.1 m, d = 0 m,I0 = 1 A, and Θ = π/2.

Progress In Electromagnetics Research, PIER 86, 2008 105

25

Total field

DRL waves

Trapped surface wave

20

Θ=π/2

15

10

0

0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45

E0 (Θ, Φ )

Φ

0 p

1 GHz, 1r = 2, r0 = 10 m, kL h = π/2, w = h, l = 0.1 m, d = 0 m,

I0 = 1 A, and Θ = π/2.

80

60

40

20

Φ

0

20

40

60

80

30 20 10 0 10 20 30

E 0 Θ (Φ , Θ )

r (r , Θ, Φ)] radiated by a patch antenna with f = 1 GHz, = 2,

[E0Θ 0 p 1r

r0 = 10 m, kL h = π/2, w = h, l = 0.1 m, d = 0 m, and I0 = 1 A.

106 Liu, Li, and Xu

100

50

50

100

50 40 30 20 10 0 10 20 30 40 50

E

0Φ

(Θ, Φ )

r (r , Θ, Φ)] of antenna

Figure 12. Three-dimensional diagram of [E0Φ 0 p

with f = 1 GHz, 1r = 2, r0 = 10 m, kL h = π/2, w = h, l = 0.1 m,

d = 0 m, and I0 = 1 A.

the dipole point and observation point are located on the air-dielectric

boundary.

In Figs. 11 and 12, three-dimensional diagrams of the two

components [E0Θ r (r , Θ, Φ)] and [E r (r , Θ, Φ)] for a patch antenna

0 p 0Φ 0 p

are shown, respectively. It is noted that the inner curves in Figs. 11 and

12 is for Θ = 86◦ and the outer curves for Θ = 90◦ . For the component

r (r , Θ, Φ)] , the radiation is enlarged greatly in the region near

[E0Θ 0 p

Θ = π/2 and Φ = 0, or π. For the component [E0Φ r (r , Θ, Φ)] , the

0 p

radiation are enlarged greatly in the region near Θ = π/2 and Φ = π/2.

The radiation from a patch antenna can be determined in the same

manner for other types of load, such as resonant lines with impedance

load and matched line with travelling-wave currents.

6. CONCLUSIONS

layered region have been investigated for its possible applications in

microstrip antenna. In the analysis and computations on the radiation

Progress In Electromagnetics Research, PIER 86, 2008 107

chapter 15 of [12] and chapter 9 of [13], the trapped surface wave is

not considered. In this paper we consider both the trapped surface

wave and lateral wave in detail. The approximate formulas have

been obtained for determining

the poles of the electric-type waves

under the condition of k1 − k0 l ≤ 0.6 and that of the magnetic-type

2 2

waves under the condition of k12 − k02 l − π/2 ≤ 1. In addition, the

radiation patterns of a patch antenna with speciﬁc current distributions

are analyzed. Computations show that, for the component E0Θ , the

total ﬁeld is determined primarily by the trapped surface wave of

electric type, and, for the component E0Φ , the total ﬁeld is determined

primarily by the trapped surface wave of magnetic type.

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