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Method of simulating real-life situations with mathematical equations to forecast their future behavior. Mathematical modeling uses tools such as decision-theory, queuing theory, and linear programming, and requires large amounts of number crunching. Also called computational model.
Read more: http://www.businessdictionary.com/definition/mathematicalmodel.html#ixzz15nkkwEEG vvThe term model is also given a formal meaning in model theory, a part of axiomatic set theory. A mathematical model is the use of mathematical language to describe the behaviour of a system. Mathematical models are used in particularly in the sciences such biology, electrical engineering, physics but also in other fields such as economics, sociology and political science. Contents [hide] 1 Background 2 Building Blocks 3 Classifying Mathematical Models 4 A priori information 5 Complexity 6 Training 7 Model evaluation 8 Related articles 9 See also
Often when engineers analyze a system to be controlled or optimized, they use a mathematical model. In analysis, engineers can build a descriptive model of the system as a hypothesis of how
information technology. radio and diplomacy. science. engineers can try out different control approaches in simulations. by international treaty. it became the dominant language in the United States and in Canada. aviation. It is. as a consequence over a billion people speak English to at least a basic level (see English language learning and teaching). for example. in control of a system. it is currently the language most often taught as a foreign language. it has often been referred to as a "world language". or try to estimate how an unforeseeable event could affect the system. The growing economic and cultural influence of the US and its status as a global superpower since World War II have significantly accelerated the language's spread across the planet. business. It is one of six official languages of the United Nations. . and its influence continues to play an important role in language attrition. Similarly. Some linguists believe that it is no longer the exclusive cultural property of "native English speakers". real or integer numbers. sometimes described as the first global lingua franca.the system could work. occupations and professions such as medicine and computing. The variables represent some properties of the system. Its spread beyond the British Isles began with the growth of the British Empire. for example. The values of the variables can be practically anything. International English. the lingua franca of the modern era. the official language for aerial and maritime communications. A mathematical model usually describes a system by a set of variables and a set of equations that establish relationships between the variables. English replaced German as the dominant language of science Nobel Prize laureates during the second half of the 20th century (compare the Evolution of Nobel Prizes by country). A mathematical model is an abstract model that uses mathematical language to describe the behaviour of a system. and while it is not an official language in most countries. A working knowledge of English has become a requirement in a number of fields. boolean values or strings. English is an official language of the United Nations and many other international organisations. counters. timing data. measured system outputs often in the form of signals. Conversely the natural internal variety of English along with creoles and pidgins have the potential to produce new distinct languages from English over time. but is rather a language that is absorbing aspects of cultures worldwide as it continues to grow. event occurrence (yes/no). English as a global language See also: English in computing. including the International Olympic Committee. entertainment. Following the British colonization of North America. and by the late 19th century its reach was truly global. One impact of the growth of English has been to reduce native linguistic diversity in many parts of the world. Modern English. is the dominant language or in some instances even the required international language of communications. The actual model is the set of functions that describe the relations between the different variables. and World language Because English is so widely spoken.
79% in the Netherlands.English is the language most often studied as a foreign language in the European Union.3109/01421599509008317?journalCode=mte A language is a systematic means of communication by the use of sounds or conventional symbols. 83% in Denmark. a large percentage of the adult population can converse in English ² in particular: 85% in Sweden. This increasing use of the English language globally has had a large impact on many other languages. The College of Medicine at Sultan Qaboos University has adopted English as the language of instruction though schooling in Oman is mostly in Arabic. while the perception of the usefulness of foreign languages amongst Europeans is 68% in favour of English ahead of 25% for French. is something specific to humans. A language is the written and spoken methods of combining words to create meaning used by a particular group of people. and the other coordinates the basic medical sciences disciplines in the alimentary system. even though only half of them came from authors in English-speaking countries. so far as we know. This paper studies the impact of English language courses on students' performance in those subjects. magazines.com/doi/abs/10. signs or marks. Books. 66% in Luxembourg and over 50% in Finland. and newspapers written in English are available in many countries around the world. and to claims of linguistic imperialism. specifically. This could be a result of the structure of the English language course or the new objectives and structure of the CVRUS course. the expression of ideas by the voice and sounds articulated by the organs of the throat and mouth is a language. that is to say it is the basic capacity that distinguishes humans from all other living beings. This is a system for communication. Among some non-English speaking EU countries. English itself is now open to language shift as multiple regional varieties feed back into the language as a whole. It is the code we all use to express ourselves and communicate to others. human speech. Students of this new medical college are facing learning difficulties in their basic medical sciences. and English is the most commonly used language in the sciences with Science Citation Index reporting as early as 1997 that 95% of its articles were written in English. results in the CVRUS were not correlated. Final examination results of the foundation and basic medical sciences courses were correlated with English language using linear and multiple regression analysis. It is a system for communicating ideas and feelings using sounds. The 1990 cohort of 84 students joined the College of Medicine after completing a 2-year programme in foundation sciences and English. Language therefore remains potentially a . A major part of the basic medical sciences is taught in a coordinated approach in two blocks. respiratory and urinary systems (CVRUS). gestures. and Germany. ahead of French at 32%. Any means of communicating ideas. Read More: http://informahealthcare. While significant positive correlation was found between results in English and the alimentary system and foundation sciences courses. It is the mental faculty or power of vocal communication. the 'English language is forever evolving'. For this reason. Slovenia. by 89% of schoolchildren. It is a communication by word of mouth. Belgium. leading to language shift and even language death. Language. One block coordinates the teaching of cardiovascular. Austria.
The entire set of words is the language s vocabulary. feelings and attitudes. Her book sold lakhs of copies all over the globe. Some of the states of India are witnessing popular increase in public demand for teaching of English language from the primary classes. In their view. English is the language of the latest business management in the world and Indian proficiency in English has brought laurels to many Indian business managers. A famous Indian movie maker Shekhar Kapoor s film Elizabeth has got several nominations for Oscar Awards. English is a means not only for international commerce. demands teaching of English language in schools. Keeping this in mind. language is learnt through use. It does not require any further argument to establish the advantage English language has brought to us at the international level. In India. through practice. English language has become one of our principal assets in getting a global leadership for books written by Indian authors and for films made by Indians in English language. Realizing the importance. Many Indians have become so skilled in English language and have won many international awards for creative and comparative literatures during the last few years. The great demand for admission .communicative medium capable of expressing ideas and concepts as well as moods. Over the years. and innumerable opportunities for advancement in the field of science and technology. The latest and the most advanced discoveries and inventions in science and technology are being made in the universities located in the United States of America where English language is the means of scientific discourse. recently. the Parliament has also recognized English as an official language in addition to Hindi. Sometime ago. an Indian author. it has become increasingly essential for inter-state commerce and communication. Written languages use symbols (characters) to build words. Laloo Prasad Yadav. the Minister of Indian Railways. The ways in which the words can be meaningfully combined is defined by the language s syntax and grammar. The historical circumstances of India (having been ruled by the British for over two centuries) have given the Indians an easy access to mastering English language. All the facts of history and developments in present day India underline the continued importance of learning English in addition to vernaculars. Arundhati Roy. English language comes to our aid in our commercial transactions throughout the globe. won the prestigious booker prize for her book The God of Small Things . the better one learns . the more one is exposed to the use of language. According to them. which has become a link language. people going from North to South for education or business mostly communicate in English. A set of linguists who based their assumptions of language on psychology made claims that language is nothing but habit formation . The actual meaning of words and combinations of words is defined by the language s semantics.
and strengthening our cultural identity in the world. and by 1611. We can also propagate our theories among the international audience and readers. . a form of standard educated speech. mainly of the printed language.in English medium schools throughout the country is a testimony to the attraction of English to the people of India. BBC English. The Orthography of English was more or less established by 1650 and. and is variously known as RP. in England in particular. and international negotiation. and commerce. It is the official language of air transport and shipping. Oxford English. and a major medium of education. scholars frequently refer to its latest phase as World English. technology. He addressed the gathering in impressive English. the leading language of science. A language attracts people because of the wealth of literature and knowledge enshrined in it. and the King s or Queen s English. and between 400 and 800 million foreign users. It is spoken by more than 300 million native speakers. the educated English of London had become the core of what is now called Standard English. Generally. This accent was adopted in the early 20th century by the British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) for its announcers and readers. Standard English today does not depend on accent but rather on shared educational experience. Many of the leaders. We can reject the untenable and accept the tenable. Many of the schools in the country have English as the sole or additional medium of instruction. English language is our window to the world. who denounce English. The Indian languages are vibrant and are developing by the contributions of great minds using them as their vehicle of expression. We must make the best use of English to develop ourselves culturally and materially so that we can compete with the best in the world of mind and matter. We can make use of English to promote our worldview and spiritual heritage throughout the globe. For this reason. send their own children to English medium schools. English has thus become an effective means of promoting Indian view of life. When William Caxton set up his printing press in London (1477) the new hybrid language (vernacular English mixed with courtly French and scholarly Latin) became increasingly standardized. English was international and recognizable as the language we use today. publishing. We can check the theories of foreigners against our experience. when the Authorized (King James) Version of the Bible was published. We can learn from others experience. Many spiritual gurus have since converted thousands of English people to our spirituality by expressing their thought and ideas in masterful English. Swami Vivekananda established the greatness of Indian view of religion at the world conference of religions in Chicago in 1893. English poses no danger to Indian languages. Present-day English is an immensely varied language. English language is one tool to establish our viewpoint. computers. English is available to us as a historical heritage in addition to our own language. By the time of Johnson s dictionary (1755) and the American Declaration of Independence (1776). having absorbed material from many other tongues. known as Received Pronunciation (RP) spread from the major public schools in the 19th century.
3. English bridges this gap and connects the people. Travel: When a person travels to another part of the world either for the sake of business or even as a tourist. it will not be long before English can be made as a single language of the world like the single currency and the union of various nations. People who go to another country to study can only have English as their medium of study. other languages are important too. the language at least will be understandable. but not for the same reasons as English is important. the only language that truly links the whole world together. Same country: In countries like India. where the land is so vast with people of various cultures live. 5.English is one of the most important languages in the world. If not for English. maybe. 1. The other languages may be important for their local values and culture. but also for studying. English language is bound to grow. Thus the importance of English as a language is emphasized. English is the language that helps people to deal with the situation. 4. It can even be said o be the single most important language. They are listed below. It is like a universal language. the whole world may not be as united as it is today. Under the circumstances. With Internet becoming very important in E commerce and also in education. This is because the individual will not be able to learn a subject in the local language of the country. This linking factor also tells of the importance of English language. Education / Studies: The presence of English as a universal language assumes importance in the fact that more and more people leave their countries not only for the sake of business and pleasure. the languages may differ. This again reinforces the fact that English language is very important. What is Business English? . English is important because it is. the languages of each part of the country also differ. Correspondence: All correspondences between offices in different countries and also between political leaders of various countries is in English. Yes. Internet: In spite of the growth of Internet in various languages. This is the language in which most of the information and websites are available. In this era of consolidation and trying to unify various aspects of life. English is the mainstay of the Internet users. English can be the only link as people in each place will not be able to learn all the other languages to communicate with the people. English can be used as a language in any part of the world. In these conditions. Though these people might not have the same accent as others. It is very difficult to translate each and every relevant webpage into the language of various countries. The future of English as a language is very secure. This is because at least a few people in each locality would know the language. There are various reasons for the importance of English language. 2. Education has increased the role of English.
zero result in negotiations.to develop or enhance both written and verbal English skills for business or career advancement purposes. while English is not an official language in many countries worldwide. It will surely be an advantage in interviews. It is a specialized area of the English language learning and teaching because it is largely attributed to non-native English speakers who study the subject to enhance their chances of doing business with companies from English speaking countries. Studies show a steady growth in the number of companies worldwide requiring employees who have bilingual skills.Loosely defined. And that is just an understatement as in fact. and entertainment for so many countries worldwide. there is an estimated 1 Billion people learning English. the English language is the global language for business and having a good command of English will definitely give one who is eyeing globally competitive business or career a clear edge. finance. thus giving you more opportunities to widen your career prospects. it is the language most often taught as a foreign or second language. If the study focuses on techniques on business presentations. culture. Business English can refer to the study of business English vocabulary used in the fields of trade. or will just simply leave you ill-equipped to carry out international business. Largely depending on the intention for which learning is intended. then it can be classified as the study of Business English communication skills in the workplace. There is really not much difference between the two classifications.the language spoken. as vocabulary and communication skills work together to achieve a common goal . Internet Proficiency Means English Proficiency . Many factors point to the reason why learning English has seen exponential growth in recent years. And oftentimes the failure primarily lies on one of the most basic foundations of making business relations . but it all boils down to the English language being the "global language" of business. having the confidence and ability to speak Business English is one way of enhancing your potential for earning by making you stand out for career advancement or promotions. writing and other kills needed for business communications. there are still many companies and individual professionals who fail in their quest for business or professional success. Any communications problem. Business Leverage The rapid growth in technology for global communications notwithstanding. Career Growth Going down on a more personal level of career success. negotiations. Why Learning Business English Is Important Around the world. politics. Undoubtedly. Business English refers to the English language used in international trade or business. international relations. business. translates to losses. having the right Business English communication skills will surely equip you with a liberating confidence and ability to express yourself in the English language. or international relations. correspondence. incompetence for global business. whether personal or business. Or if you are not looking for a new job.
com/Business_Comm Learn Faster and Easier Awaken the Genius in You By Using your Whole Brain UsingMindMaps.au English is currently the most wide spread language in the world. So we see that the importance of English doesn't lie in the quantity of people that speak it but in way we use it.mq. While English may not have as large a quantity of speakers as Mandarin it is still more widespread and herein lays its importance.Questia www. It is currently the primary language used on the World Wide Web. it is still widely spoken and integrated in the curriculums of educational institutions. It has even become the language of today's pop culture.Questia. it is second only to Mandarin Chinese in terms of the amount of people which speak it.edu. English is used as a means of communications between all of them.com Find your course today Universities.com.powerupenglish. colleges and schools in Perth. D'Nealian.readinga-z. Online research . or terminologies in the English language is very important to have a good understanding of the wealth of business information available on the Internet. Zaner-Bloser www. however in many regions of the world where English is not the native language. but second to none in terms of the number of people learning it. It goes without saying that having a good grasp of business information. Australia www. Mandarin Chinese is hardly spoken outside Chinese communities. In many countries Malaysia.com/?expert=Maria_Eliza_Raymundo Ads by Google Alphabet Resources Downloadable handwriting resources Cursive.Research shows that 80% of the amount of Internet web content is in the English language and that content relating to business written in the English language largely comprises this figure.com Business Communication Access full-text academic books and journals. Maria Eliza Raymundo is a Virtual Assistant who contributes for PowerUp English and for the Business English Is Not Enough [http://www.com Improve Teaching Skills Earn a Degree or Masters in Education Leadership online international. I definitely think that learning English is important. where there various ethnic groups with their own unique language. data. for example. So yes.pertheducationcity.au/distance Business English Success I'll teach you the 5 laws for business English Success easybusinessenglish. in the political and business arenas.com/blog] blog Article Source: http://EzineArticles. .
. With the world steadily heading towards economic globalization it is essential that English is taught and understood around the world so that the common man can keep up with world issues.. By saying so. entertainment. As a second language. The ability to speak and understand English is mandatory in certain fields. Most of us tend to ignore English as a subject which is as important as Mathematics. Britain. Australia. it is referred to as. This is indeed a question which arises in the minds of most of the Indians.two billion people [will] be speaking or learning English within a decade. English. you don't know what is being said because you didn't bother to learn English and all around you the rest of the world is singing along. . which are played and requested in all the corners of the earth. education. aviation. is an important tool for operating on the world stage. The Economist says. English is often necessary for official business." says John Whitehead. being their native tongue. On the other hand knowing English will enhance the image of our mother tongue as well as our other regional languages. ".. politics. "[English] is the language of globalization-of international business.. radio and diplomacy."  English is everywhere. they will know that the 8th point says: USE ENGLISH ONLY. There can be no doubt now that English is one of the world s most widely used languages.this by virtue... The article said that he was not good at spoken English. information and other activities in a great many countries such as India. Most of the world's largest pop stars record English albums. Nigeria. The music and other types of media that come out of these two countries are broadcast around the world. People use a language in three ways: as a native language. it is the dominant international language in communications. and South Africa.. the same is true for Britain. it doesn't mean that we ignore our mother tongue or any other regional languages. and occupations.. director of the British Council. You need not go and attend special courses just reading any English daily newspapers will be sufficient. Canada and some Caribbean countries."  "English. If anyone has read the Community Guidlines of this Q&A Community. A recent article in a daily newspaper reported that a double MA holder was working as a Coolie.. English is so widely spoken. Pakistan. In fact. the "lingua franca"  of the modern era.. a language widely spoken. New Zealand.. Imagine feeling baffled and confused when you hear a song on the radio.Today the USA's influence on world information is dominant. Did you realize that over a billion people in the world now speak English? According to a report titled. It s one of the few working languages of the United Natives and is more frequently used than the others. Singapore and Philippines. It is the language of computers and the Internet. science. "English Next" by language researcher David Graddol.. as a second language or as a foreign language... English is spoken by nearly 300 million people: in the United States. professions. shows the importance of English.
Inner circle Englishes have been described and codified. 1) David Graddol (1997). The Economist (20 December 2001. and µexpanding circle¶ countries (where English is learnt as a foreign language). Melchers and Shaw 2003) normally follow Kachru's (1985) geographical classification into µinner circle¶ countries (where English is generally the L1). With this preponderance of NNS speakers of English. Graddol 1997). it seems clear that NNS±NNS communication is far more common than NS±NS or NNS±NS communication.g.. but it also skews the socio-economic order in favour of those who are proficient in English.. to globalized power relations. and outer circle varieties are also in the process of standardizing (Crystal 1997). He is an independent journalist. James is a native English speaker living in Tomsk. The British Council. This is a worrying phenomenon. Steve G. But can ELF be considered a variety of English in its own right? Descriptions of World Englishes (e. Russia with over thirty years teaching experience. As the Graddol report demonstrates. and authority on teaching international business English. Should learners in expanding circle countries therefore continue to look upon NS English as their model? Or should they follow the example of outer circle countries and confidently develop their own standards of English based on effective NNS± NNS communication? How much should English teachers « . in large part.Nonetheless. µouter circle¶ countries (where English plays an institutional role as an L2). with the millions of native speakers vying for jobs in the global market. His site. A future in which monolingual English graduates face bleak economic prospects as qualified multilingual young people prove to have a competitive advantage in global companies and organizations. ESL professor. Not only does it threaten to contaminate or wipe out local languages and cultures. The Future of English?. 2) The triumph of English. what chance is there for ESL (English as second language) speakers to compete? ESL students take heart. The term µthe globalization of English¶ can be interpreted in at least three ways... The Future of English?. It can refer to the increasing intrusion of the English language into the lives of town and city dwellers all over the world. in other words. English used as a lingua franca (ELF) is by far the most common form of English in the world today. How should the non English-speaking world react? The globalization of English can also refer to the rapid spread of English as a second and foreign language.esl4ru. [http://www. the global spread of English.com] provides an affordable opportunity for non-native speakers of the English language to learn the international business communication skills necessary to give them a competitive advantage in our globalized world. The world's non-native speaker (NNS) to native speaker (NS) ratio for English is estimated to be between 2 to 1 and 4 to 1 (Crystal 1997. Given that English has acquired its world-wide reputation due. 3) David Graddol (1997). The British Council. will lead to serious economic and political disadvantages in the future. those companies and governments employing well-trained non-native speakers for their international business communication needs will obviously see the advantage of hiring nonnative speakers of the English language with multilingual talents..
nearly all of them were invented by English speakers. in order to truly participate in globalization and the global economy. but Eastman made it portable and available to the masses. If you look at the most important communications and transportation innnovations in the last 150 years. Therefore. English has been the sole linguistic engine driving this process. Benz invented the internal combustion engine.English is the linguistic engine that drives the global economy. English is absolutely critical. Countries such as Hungary and Ukraine have recognized this fact and made English a compulsory subject in primary education. but Ford mass produced it and made it available to the masses. Dauguerre invented photography. so their documentation was in English. Source(s): I am a Linguistics professor . The others were either invented by people working in English-speaking countries or were later widely disseminated by English-speaking innovators.
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