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**Liquid Viscosity Correlations for Flowmeter Calculations
**

Roger Gilmont, Gilmont and Associates

Use these graphs and equations to calculate liquid viscosity at any temperature.

he ﬂow characteristics of a ﬂowmeter are usually expressed as the ﬂow of standard ﬂuids, such as air and water at the standard conditions of temperature (T0 = 21.1°C; 70°F) and pressure (1 atm). The ﬂowmeter manufacturer normally supplies these data together with methods of converting them to the ﬂow of any other ﬂuid over a suitable range of conditions where the density and viscosity are known. This information for many ﬂuids is given in tabular or graphical form. The correlations presented in this article express the viscosity of liquids in analytical form as a function of temperature. The Othmer plot displays the log of a function (in this case, that which describes viscosity of a liquid), against the log of the vapor pressure of water at the same temperature, which results in a straight line for practically all compounds. This can be expressed in graphical form as a nomograph. In order to obtain an analytical expression, it is necessary to express the vapor pressure of water as an analytical equation. This article uses the Antoine equation for this purpose. The viscosity of gases is independent of pressure until the pressure exceeds 10 atm. Above this value, the viscosity of the gas is correlated by another Othmer plot, namely the log of the viscosity vs. log Pk/ρ, where Pk = P + a/V2; Pk = kinetic pressure of gas, P = gas pressure, a = van der Waals constant, V = molar volume and ρ = density of the gas. This article provides a method of correlating the viscosity of liquids using the same type of Othmer plot used for gases. Since for ﬂowmeter calculations the viscosity of liquids can be taken as independent of pressure, there is no need to correlate liquid viscosity vs. pressure. The liquid viscosity correlation is based on the same linear equation as that for the viscosity of gases: log µ = M log pw + N (1)

T

For gases and liquids, the viscosity scale is logarithmic, while the temperature scale is nonlinear and is based upon its relationship to the log of the vapor pressure of the reference substance. This is shown graphically in Figure 1. The x and y coordinates for various liquids that are needed to use Figure 1 are listed in Tables 1a and 1b. To obtain the viscosity, µ, of a particular liquid in centipoise, at a liquid temperature of T, first plot the point (x, y) for the liquid on the grid. Then, draw a straight line from that point through the temperature on the left-hand y-axis. Extend the line to the right, so that it intersects with the right-hand y-axis, which gives the viscosity. Note that for all flowmeter calculations, the viscosity of the liquid may be taken as independent of pressure.

Analytical solution To obtain an analytical solution to Eq. 1, the value of pw, which is a function of temperature, must be transformed into an analytical function. The Antoine equation for vapor pressure was selected because it has a desirable accuracy with a minimum number of parameters. The Antoine equation is stated as:

log pw = –D/(T + F) + E (2)

For water, the parameters D, E and F have the following values: D = 1,722, E = 8.052 and F = 233 (3). The vapor pressure of the water, pw, is measured in torr at a temperature (T) measured in °C. Combining Eqs. 1 and 2, then making some simplifying substitutions, one obtains the ﬁnal working equation: log µ = G/(T + F) + H (3)

where µ is the liquid viscosity, pw is vapor pressure of water, M is slope and N is the y-intercept if a graph of log µ vs. log pw were to be plotted. From this correlation, the nomograph in Figure 1 was constructed (1, 2).

where G = –MD and H = ME + N. Eq. 3 can also be used to obtain µ0 at T0 = 21.1°C (standard temperature): log µ0 = G/(T0+ F) + H (4)

36

www.cepmagazine.org

October 2002

CEP

223. 3 and 4.1 mined by using the nomograph when the temperature is below 60°C.cepmagazine. 7: G = [log(µ/µ0)]/Z = [log 0. Z is calculated from Eq.1 into Eq. µ0 = 0. This value of µ will Source: (2). Z is calculated from Eq.6 0. At T 12 0. which is constant. G is calculated by rearrang0 6 ing Eq. Figure 1 reveals that µ = 60 10 0. and on the left-hand y-axis.4 0. 7.2 40 100 16 and y = 4. 7 at a -20 -30 x 0.7.003935 (9) 280 260 240 20 Using Eq. s Figure 1. The 1 maximum difference ranges from 3 to 5%.5 [(1/(100 + 233) – 0. we see that at standard tem1 80 perature (T0 = 21. be compared to that obtained from Figure 1 to determine the nomograph’s accuracy.8. Not all of the com T + F T0 + F pounds listed in Tables 1a and 1b are included in Tables 2a (6) and 2b — those compounds that are not liquids at normal Let Z = 1/ (T + F) – 1/(T0 + F) conditions are omitted. (Figure 1 limits the measurable viscosity of Temperature.7555. Draw a straight line to be –0.org 37 . ˚F y Viscosity. x = 15. 5 to yield: Viscosity of glycerol log µ = log µ0 + GZ (7) Glycerol’s viscosity is extremely sensitive to the amount Substituting the values: F = 233 and T0 = 21. Z for a given compound (such 110 as those listed in Tables 1a and 1b). 7 90 can be used to determine µ at any de6 26 180 80 sired temperature. From Eq.7)(–0.003935] = – 8 40 0. In this article. The average difference between the calculated values of µ Combining Eq. Nomograph of viscosity vs. and combine with Eq. 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 0 can be used to calculate µ via Eq. Eq. temperature for liquids listed in Tables 1a and 1b.1°C). log µ0 + GZ = –0. y) coordinates.176. When this point is plotted 14 30 on Figure 1.2 2 0 Table 2 for acetaldehyde. cP CEP October 2002 www. 5 of water present in it.1 given temperature. 50 120 2 Let’s look at a sample calculation for 18 acetaldehyde. and µ = 0.0004014) = –0. 6 yields: Z = 1/(T + F) – 0. 7. -20 0 This value of G.8 20 = 100°C. the analytically derived 160 4 70 value of µ at a given temperature can be 22 3 140 60 compared with the value of µ obtained 20 by using Figure 1.000932. 9: Z = 10 0. Let us ﬁnd µ at 50°C.128/0.000932) = 258. -10 This is the value of G that appears in 0.6517 + (258.18. µ at 50°C = 0. ˚C Temperature. for any compound.200 190 180 170 160 150 140 130 120 380 360 340 320 300 100 80 60 50 40 30 The same substitution of F and T0 into Eq. From Table 1a.128. To use. one obtains a plot of log µ vs. 220 30 10 100 This plot is a straight line with a slope 8 200 28 of G and a y-intercept of log µ0. This makes it difficult to measure the yields: viscosity of glycerol directly. log µ = through these points to the right-hand y-axis to obtain the viscosity. glycerol pre1 1 log µ = log µ 0 + G − (8) sents a challenge because its viscosity cannot be deter T + 233 254. 9 plot the ﬂuid’s (x. one obtains: and those obtained from the nomograph is about 1%. From Figure 1. At 50°C.223)]/(–0.3 20 4 (0. plot the temperature. 5 24 Subsequently.0004014. with the higher 1 log µ = log µ 0 + G − (5) error found at the higher values of µ.

7) value of G at T0 constant deﬁned as ME + N using Antoine constants D.5 12.5 8.3 13. p.5 9.8 14. 38 www.0 12. ε.3 8.1 11.2 8.1 14.135. 25% Bromine Bromotoluene Butyl acetate X 15. Let’s calculate µ at 25°C and compare it with the value of µ found in the literature.8 9.6 10.0 9.6 13.5 18.2 14.9 14.5.2 20.8 6. where: y2 = 4. Eq.0 13.8 7.6 11. Part 1 (M&C. Z based on this table is shown in Figure 2.6 13.2 14.3 13. 7 can be used to calculate viscosity of glycerol at any temperature.1 12. x and y values for liquid viscosity nomograph (Figure 1).0 13. 92) discussed ﬁnding the density of real gases for use in ﬂowmeter calculations.0003563 and x1 = Z (at 30°C) = –0.7 2.Measurement and Control Table 1a.5 14.2 17.1 9. Table 3 lists values of Z over the temperature range T = 0°C to T = 100°C calculated using Eq.2 14.6 16.3 10.1 13.0 11.3 13.4 13.5 11.2 15.8 2. 25% Brine. p.4 –0. Z0 at T0 = 21.0 13.9 12. Oct. The intercept of this graph.5 12. 7. E and F (Eq.7 100[(µc–µ)/µc] = 100[(949–954)/949] = 12.0 12.4 15. °C standard temperature = 21.3 Y 4.4 10.2 10.3 16. is calculated as ε = 15.1 10.3 12.8 5.org October 2002 CEP .8 18.3 14.7 6.7 15. It also gives the viscosities for glycerol from 0°C to 30°C. 1998.1°C) µc = calculated viscosity for glycerol example glycerol to 100 cP.9 14.0005)] = 2. Dec. Figure 1 must be extrapolated.5 13.6 15.4 11.070. 95% Ethyl alcohol.3 8.9 15.1 13.4 14. and the logarithms of these values. p. If the data points at 15°C and Further Reading This article is Part 4 of a series of articles that appeared in Measurement & Control (M&C).7 13. 40% Ethyl benzene Ethyl bromide 2-Ethyl butyl acrylate Ethyl chloride Ethyl ether Ethyl formate Ethyl iodide Ethyl propionate Ethyl propyl ether Ethyl sulfide Ethylene bromide Ethylene chloride Ethylene glycol 2-Ethyl hexyl acrylate Ethylidene chloride Fluorobenzene Formic acid Freon-11 Freon-12 Freon-21 Freon-22 Freon-113 Nomenclature D = E = F = G = G0 = H = M = N = P = constant in Antoine equation constant in Antoine equation constant in Antoine equation –MD (Eq.cepmagazine.9773. cP µo = viscosity at T0 (21. 1999. June 1999.0 9.6 17. 4.4 24. In order to obtain the viscosity of glycerol at temperatures below 60°C.8 11.3 7.6 13.2 14.4 15.8 7. and the new correlation.4 10.4 12.3 12. CaCl2.7 10.2 10.6 17.3 9. A similar calculation at T = 50°C yields log µc = 3.2 14. This article covers correlations for the viscosity of liquids using the same type of Othmer plot used for gases.5 9.2 14.7 12.2 23.9 12.1 12. Part 2 (M&C.9 12. 100% Ethyl alcohol. A plot of the log µ vs.5 8.7 14.2 4. which is now defunct.5%.5 6. The log µc = 3.9 9.5 17. The slope of this line is calculated as G = (y2–y1)/(x2–x1) between T = 0°C and T = 30°C. 26% Amyl acetate Amyl alcohol Aniline Anisole Arsenic trichloride Benzene Brine.195–2. the average deviation (using the sum of the absolute values of ε) is 2.7 12.2 13.0001332. 35% Acetonitrile Acrylic acid Allyl alcohol Allyl bromide Allyl Iodide Ammonia. 100% Ammonia.5 13.2 12.6 11.3 15. G = [(4.5 8.9 15.9 16. log pw plot intercept of log µ vs. 70% Acetic anhydride Acetone.6 949.0 8.9 7.2 15.6 10.5 Liquid X 2.9 12.5 11. Part 3 (M&C. log pw plot pressure at which a gas’s viscosity becomes dependent upon pressure (greater than 10 atm) kinematic pressure of gas used in an Othmer plot to determine the gas’s viscosity at pressures greater than 10 atm vapor pressure of water.5 14.195 (at T = 0°C) and y1 = 2.1 13.2 16. 83) presented methods of correlating the density of liquids using an Othmer plot of the log of the density of the compound versus the log of the density of a reference substance. Eq.2 18.1 12.9 24.870)/(0. the log of the vapor pressure of a reference substance at the same temperature.6 13. 100% Acetone. which occurs at approximately 60°C).0 5. is log µ0 = 3.0 13.4 13.650(–0. 9.0 12. A comparison of the data points from the literature with the correlated ones appears in Table 3.5 10.650.1 12.0 7.7 10.3 12.8 14.7 13.6 11.7 12.0004019) = 2.8 14.8 12.2%. so µc = 117. torr temperature. 78) showed gow to use the Othmer plot for correlating the viscosity of the gases vs.650(–0.1 11.7 7. For the range of 0–30°C. The error.1°C. Now.3 13. which were obtained from Ref.5 7.4 18. Liquid Acetaldehyde Acetic acid. Thus.3 12. 100% Acetic acid.2 14.7 9.0 13.9 11.0000595) = 2.870 (at T = 30°C).8 12.7 14. NaCl.5 10. 3) slope of log µ vs.0 5. Greek Symbols ε = [(µc – µ)/µc] × 100. x2 = Z (at 0°C) = 0.4 Y 20.5 11.135 + 2.135 + 2. so log µc = 16.0 6.7 13.0 12.3 0. percent error between correlated (or calculated) value of µ obtained from Figure 1 or from literature µ = viscosity.0 m-Cresol Cyclohexane Cyclohexanol Dibromoethane Dichloroethane Dichloromethane Diethyl ketone Diethyl oxalate Diethylene glycol Dimethyl oxalate Diphenyl Dipropyl ether Dipropyl oxalate Ethyl acetate Ethyl acrylate Ethyl alcohol.9 9.3 9. must be used.1°C Z × 104 [1/(T + F) + 1/(T0 + F)] Pk = pw T To X Z = = = = = i-Butyl acetate n-Butyl acrylate Butyl alcohol i-Butyl bromide i-Butyl chloride i-Butyl iodide Butyric acid Carbon dioxide Carbon disulfide Carbon tetrachloride Chlorobenzene Chloroform Chlorosulfonic acid o-Chlorotoluene m-Chlorotoluene p-Chlorotoluene Source: (2).

2 13. the error is only 0.4 We now have a quadratic expression 20 0.9 y 30.8 8. by reading them diT °C Z µ† log µ µc ε rectly from the graph: 0 0. B.7 10.3 + 12.2 15.1 14.6 9.3 3.0001332 –0. x 2.2 7.80.799 No Data No Data 949 605 117.6 9.3 + 12.9 At X = 0.0 13.299(0.0 9.63 –0.5 14. 60% Sulfuryl chloride Tetrachloroethane Tetrachloroethylene Thiophene Titanium tetrachloride Toluene Trichloroethylene Triethylene glycol Turpentine Vinyl acetate Vinyl toluene Water o-Xylene m-Xylene p-Xylene x 6.7 23.2 12.9 18.2 13.1 17.4 18.9 13.1 24. and B = (12.5 18.4 16.7 10.0 12.5 4.8 – 6 0.0 12.8 14.3 12. G will be treated as a quadratic function of Z: G'= G0 + AX + BX2 (10) where X = Z × 104.8X + 0.1 14.1 14. Liquid Glycerol.9 y 20.3.220 –0.9%.6 12.8 20. x and y values for liquid viscosity nomograph (Figure 1). The coordinates in Table 1b for glycerol should be corrected to x = 0 and y = 27.2 15. A = ∆ = 12. then log µc = –0.5 14.2 8.1 14. 31.1°C. Table 3.9 13.9 12. The correlated values can be expected to have an average error of 0.797 6.8 12.4 13.3 7.7 11.5 9. Table 4 lists the viscosity of water at 20–100°C.0 – – G' = 670.6 10.7 6.7 7.8(0.5 24.0 10.299. and the y-intercept.515 +1.0 16.cepmagazine.1 15.0022.260 3.8 7.0 16.367 2.1 9. we can ﬁnd the values of the slope.0 6. Z is shown in Figure 3. Z × 104) in Figure 3.0 14. 90% Methanol.6 8.0292)] = 0.0000968 2. 10 can be transformed into a linear equation as follows: (G' – G0)/X = A + BX Deﬁne ∆ = (G' – G0)/X = A + BX (11) log µc = log µ0 + G'(Z) (13) If T = 20°C.3 10. To render Eq.000 –0.0 13.5 11.171) + 0.4 25.2 Liquid Phenol Phosphorous tribromide Phosphorous trichloride Propionic acid Propyl acetate Propyl alcohol Propyl bromide i. are omitted.7 16.5 –4.7 12.7 for G that can be used in Eq. Since this plot is linear.4 3.9 25.8(Z + 0.4 12.Propyl bromide Propyl chloride i-Propyl chloride Propyl formate Propylene glycol Propyl iodide i-Propyl iodide Sodium Sodium hydroxide.2 10.4 10.2 13.9 14.0009325 954 629 2.9 13.8 10.0 12.5 10.4 7.9 Viscosity of water The viscosity of water does not follow the correlation because the plot of log µ vs. 100% Methanol.463 +5.9 14.8 17.org 39 .1 27.4 10.81)/[(0 – (–10)] = 0.8 13.0 13.9 8.5% Iodobenzene Isobutyl alcohol Isobutyric acid Isopropyl alcohol Kerosene Linseed oil.9 14.7 11.8 14.7 13.2 11.299X2 = 670.980 2.1 13.8 10.8 21. Z and G vs.7 11.0051.0000171) × The values of ∆ can be calculated for water at the tem[670.3 9.8 4.2 9.2 14.0000595 –0. These values are plotted against X (or = 1.2 14.2 8. 50% Stannic chloride Succinonitrile Sulfur dioxide Sulfuric acid. and a plot of log µ vs.490 3. Glycerol viscosity vs. 10 to ﬁnd µc: × 104) (12) 25 30 50 100 –0.4 15.6 11.2 7. 50% Heptene Hexane Hydrochloric acid.5 9. 98% Sulfuric acid.1 9.3 5.2 16.4 13.5 6. 110% Sulfuric acid. from data in Ref.4 12. 4.3 + 12.0 7.173 1.0 12. raw Mercury Methanol.4 10.0093 + (0.8 16. Z is not a straight line.083 12.9 11.6 10. 7 and solving for G.8 7.3 15.5 13.9% for the range of 50–100°C.5 14.0004019 –0.9 14.7 14.0 21. Eq.1 3.8 15.8 12.1 13. G0 = 670.0002486 6. A.7 in order to obtain good agreement at temperatures above 50°C.299(Z2 × 108) †Source: (4). 60% Nitrobenzene Nitrogen dioxide Nitrotoluene Octane Octyl alcohol Pentachloroethane Pentane Source: (2).2 7.3 13. 15 0. temperature.0 19. 100% Sulfuric acid.6 8. The curvature of the plot indicates that G is not a constant.0003563 12. The values of G in Table 4 were obtained implicitly for each value of µ by rearranging Eq.8 16.0 16.0000171 1.3 16. which vary somewhat from the straight line.5 9.0 10. 7 an accurate correlation for water. 30°C. To ﬁnd G0 at 21.100 4.1 14.330 3. one must interpolate between G at T = 20°C and T = 40°C.9 13.6 15.3 7.8 10. and µc peratures in Table 4. 100% Glycerol. CEP October 2002 www.Table 1b. 40% Methyl acetate Methyl acrylate Methyl i-butyrate Methyl n-butyrate Methyl chloride Methyl ethyl ketone Methylene chloride Methyl formate Methyl iodide Methyl propionate Methyl propyl ketone Methyl sulfide Naphthalene Nitric acid.1 12.3 13.6 17.1 10. 95% Nitric acid.2 8.0 13.2 13.2 13.5 8.5 7.9 27.

1 336.00 0.3 306.5 293.7 476.3 429.485 2.3010 –0.482 0.5 349.8 354.4 398.3979 0.0 449.6253 –0.0555 –0.0531 0.5 1658.9788 0.6 22.6385 0.9 330.6 854.1549 –0.0 1719 343.90 2.2441 0.6 627.237 0.9 403.3.1249 –0.72 0.3711 –0.6 Compound Propionic acid Propyl acetate n-Propyl alcohol Propyl bromide µ0 1.5 1.6 853.0414 0.4 449.3 446.28 0.3010 –0.0605 0.009 –0.4318 0 –0.3655 –0.80.5214 0. 40 www.1397 –0.5 472. *G’ = G 0 + AX + BX 2.3118 0.50 0.425 0.25 0.2218 –0.2366 0.91 0.1805 –0.2788 –0.5 427.60 1.75 0.0410 0.0605 0.2 555.6 1028.7482 1.81 log µ0 –0. 7.6075 0.2 635.1871 0 –0.53 0.4535 –0.00 0.475 0.18 1.9 0.8 997.6 393.6 381.19 0.7 1130 754.5 557.0969 –0.3768 –0. B = 0.6 1807 646.60 0.500 0.8 596.50 0.0294 G 258.6 436.0755 –0.60 1.2253 –0.2 454.30 0.501 301 1.6 342.0809 –0.2757 –0.0410 0.4 339.1 377.450 0.05 1.4473 –0.38 4.6 911.4 326.cepmagazine.6 Compound µ0 0.3279 –0.450 1.2596 1.1427 –0.85 0.60 0.3424 –0.0 350.4 320.600 0.223 1.32 0.357 0.0 70.4472 –0.1072 –0.30 2.7 623.50 0.2218 0. Constants for compounds from Figure 1 for use with Eq.9 4.65 0.3010 –0.5 734.85 21.0 381.42 0.2218 0.0719 0.1 858.0960 –0.59 0.135 –0.12 0.57 2.9 354.6 328.37 1.8 306.25 0. A = 12.68 0.4031 –0.4 307.4949 –0.8 266.6998 –0.61 0.1139 0.352 0. Compound Glycerol Heptene Hexane Iodobenzene Isobutyl alcohol Isobutyric acid Isopropyl alcohol Methanol Methyl acetate Methyl acrylate Methyl i-butyrate Methyl n-butyrate Methyl ethyl ketone Methylene chloride Methyl formate Methyl iodide Methyl propionate Methyl propyl ketone Methyl sulfide Nitric acid.05 3.3391 –0.91 5.3170 –0.2355 –0.6415 0.0 448.3468 0.458 0.4559 0.0 2.2577 G 381.72 0.400 1.2304 0.7 352.0 255.3143 0.70 0.4623 –0.3 360.0458 0.3 325.2291 –0.1 304.8 511.4 285.8 310.3243 1.6284 –0.3665 –0.5 390.3522 –0.8 329.0 344.07 log µ0 –0.3716 –0.2 m-Chlorotoluene p-Chlorotoluene m-Cresol Cyclohexane Cyclohexanol Diethyl ketone Diethyl oxalate Diethylene glycol Dipropyl ether Dipropyl oxalate Ethyl acetate Ethyl acrylate Ethyl alcohol Ethyl benzene Ethyl bromide 2-Ethyl butyl acrylate Ethyl ether Ethyl formate Ethyl iodide Ethyl propionate Ethyl propyl ether Ethyl sulfide Ethylene bromide Ethylene chloride Ethylene glycol 2-Ethyl hexyl acrylate Ethylidene chloride Fluorobenzene Formic acid i-Butyl acetate n-Butyl acrylate n-Butyl alcohol i-Butyl bromide i-Butyl chloride i-Butyl iodide Butyric acid Carbon disulfide Carbon tetrachloride Chlorobenzene Chloroform Chlorosulfonic acid o-Chlorotoluene Source: (3).1 323.6 337.Measurement and Control Table 2a.0 0.10 1.52 50.43 0.2 581.3 327.1805 G 2650 331.35 1.1871 –0.0 0.0 596.3222 0 1.3001 –0.2840 –0.00 1.3385 0.62 0.331 1.58 3.3010 –0.70 1.11 39.1 0.7 481.299 (for T = 20–100°C).5911 –0.0 1303 400.8 211.2330 0. Compound Acetaldehyde Acetic acid Acetic anhydride Acetone Acetonitrile Acrylic acid Allyl alcohol Ally bromide Allyl iodide n-Amyl acetate n-Amyl alcohol Aniline Anisole Arsenic trichloride Benzene Bromine n-Butyl acetate µ0 0.6 364.423 2.1 362.6234 0.3 353.1367 –0.1 496.435 0.37 52 0.0706 –0.2 404.87 1.2 388. 199.53 0.2041 0.0 448.1139 –0.7 304.59 0.13 2.71 0.321 0.3468 –0.7 352.83 0.1 343.0506 –0.1 i-Propyl bromide Propyl chloride i-Propyl chloride Propyl formate Propylene glycol Propyl iodide i-Propyl iodide Stannic chloride Succinonitrile Sulfuric acid Sulfuryl chloride Tetrachloroethane Tetrachloroethylene Thiophene Titanium tetrachloride Toluene Trichloroethylene Triethylene glycol Vinyl acetate Vinyl toluene Water o-Xylene m-Xylene p-Xylene Source (3).4 329.4 300.2291 –0.8 419.87 1.4935 –0.55 10.8 409.2076 –0.8 427.0000 0.88 21.0 450.0 311.320 0.2146 1.0 0.80 0.0555 1.4789 –0.9294 0.8451 –0.2.1739 –0.6 404.725 0.65 log µ0 0.35 0.2 364.3737 0.0 1.61 42.3 328.2218 –0. Constants for compounds from Figure 1 for use with Eq.2 348.2924 –0.88 0.2 300. Table 2b.org October 2002 CEP .2330 –0.3 542.4 418.6517 0.4801 0.3893 –0.80 0.89 0.66 0.6 281.8 1.47 0.5 1340.8 480.238 8.7 294.11 4.350 1.6 483. where X = Z(104) and G 0 = 670. 95% Nitrobenzene Nitrotoluene Octane n-Octyl alcohol Pentachloroethane Pentane Phenol Phosphorous tribromide Phosphorous trichloride µ0 1365 0.2 416.3233 –0.51 0.9 800.3615 –0.332 0.2840 1.66 log µ0 3.6 567.0706 1.90 0.408 0.0458 0.65 1.5 0.4 328.5 G(X)* 369.1871 G 404. 7.0492 –0.7 370.5 566.67 0.2147 –0.4771 0.2 984.

11. From Eq. log µ0 = –0.2 576.02 +0.2 12 0. “Viscosity Measurement and Control. 7.0051 0.0007406 –0.55 10. Cleveland. OH (1972). a div of Barnant Co. T °C 20 21.903 × 10–5.406 –9.” 53rd ed. C.9 592. Graph of log µ vs.96 ∆ 12. fluid flow and laboratory instruments. NY)..03%. Water viscosity vs.5470 G 672. Values of ∆ are calculated using Eq. 111–118 (Nov. “Handbook of Chemistry and Physics.cepmagazine. Using Eq.2)(–5. Chemical Rubber Publishing Co.85 86. R. F.4479 –0. The average error between the data points and the correlated values in the range 20–100°C is only ±0.. where he was an adjunct professor in chemical engineering for 45 years.4 -0. and R. CEP October 2002 www. Weats.80 11.3 637. Table 4.4 13 0.6560 0.0005225 –0.725 –5.6 X 0. compared CEP with 0.0050)/1.4801 and G = 330..32 from Figure 1. Nelson. Z = [1/(25 + 233) – 0.0051 × 100 = +0. X (or Z × 104) for water. exclusive consultants to Gilmont Instruments.0002725 –0.4689 0.4996.0050 0. The percent error between this value and that obtained from literature is calculated as ε = (1. and µ = 0. Graph of log µ.87 12.93 11. H. Aronson.01 — 0. He authored a textbook on thermodynamic principles for chemical engineers. 4. s Figure 3. M. and has written more than 50 articles on thermodynamics. Douglaston. “Correlations for the Density and Viscosity of Fluids for Flowmeter Calculations: Part 3.05 µc 1.4688 0. Phone/Fax: (718) 224-8711).426 27.0022 –0.01%. 7. Gilmont is a Fellow of the Polytechnic Univ.2 Log µ 600 log µ 3 -0. teaching thermodynamics and electrochemical technology at the graduate and undergraduate levels. R. 4.” Instruments Publishing Co. Viscosity of Gases.2836 ε +0.. He has also received over 30 patents in these areas. “Correlating Physical and Thermodynamic Properties.07 †Source: (4).026%. ROGER GILMONT is the retired president of Roger Gilmont Associates (38-41 240th St.3 -0.18 10.” Measurement and Control. Values of G are calculated using Eq.00 +0.903 × 10–5) = –0. temperature. Pittsburgh (1964). Values of µ are from Ref.2.301 54.8 611.316. Since the data in this region are only accurate to ±0.3566 0.1831 –0.5 30 25 20 T˚C 15 10 5 0 -10 -5 0 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 4 X = Z × 104 Z × 104 s Figure 2...4801 + (330.3565 0.org 41 G 3. pp.0292 0 7.” Petroleum Reﬁner. 4. (Brooklyn. the correlated values may be considered as valid as the tabulated ones. Z (from Eq.325 X2 0. pp.1 G 9 -0. C.225 –7. G and ∆ vs.171 0 –2.3290 –0.5 0 . 7) for glycerol. Gilmont.2838 log µ 0. 9.0051– 1.1 ∆ ∆ 11 650 10 log µ -0.6560 0. From Table 2b. 78–83 (Oct. Working example This example illustrates the calculation of the viscosity of hexane at 25°C.5 T˚C 100 80 60 40 20 2.1 40 60 80 100 Z 0. NY 11363. 2.9788 0. Othmer. and R. Literature Cited 1.9788 0. 3. D.. log µ = –0.0000171 0 –0.0093 –0. Values of µ are from Ref. 1951).5 670.0009325 µ† 1. Gilmont is a member of the American Chemical Society and AIChE. Gilmont..003935] = –5.03 –0. 1999).

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- Important 2 Marks
- Horak ~ Hydromechanics
- Lecture 1
- CMT 574
- MT338 Chap1 Intro to Fluid Mechanics
- P10-0103 CFO (Reverse Flow) Instructions
- 018_030
- D2493.Brookfield
- VORANOL Triol Polyether Polyols – Continued
- A PimpleFoam Tutorial for Channel Flow, With Respect to Different LES Models
- Akışkanlar Mekaniği
- _ Chemical Processing
- data sheet PF-5060
- Viscocity Final
- Fluid Mechanics.pdf
- Extended Abstract Particle Settling in High Viscous Pyrolysis Char Suspensions
- Baffles Data
- Advances in blocked isocyanates and curatives_UTECH 2003.pdf
- 38183938339.pdf
- Introduction to FM Part2
- Fluid Mechanics Note
- ME268 Experiment No4
- Viscosities Blending Formula
- CHFLME01
- Liquid Viscosity Correlations Gilmont