Land and property rights In most Indian families , women do not own any property in their own names

, and do not get a share of parental property.[21] Due to weak enforcement of laws protecting them, women continue to have little access to land and property.[36] In fact, some of the laws discriminate against women, when it comes to land and property rights. The Hindu personal laws of mid-1956s (applied to Hindus, Buddhists, Sikhs and Jains) gave women rights to inheritance. However, the sons had an independent share in the ancestral property, while the daughters' shares were based on the share received by their father. Hence, a father could effectively disinherit a daughter by renouncing his share of the ancestral property, but the son will continue to have a share in his own right. Additionally, married daughters, even those facing marital harassment, had no residential rights in the ancestral home. After amendment of Hindu laws in 2005, now women in have been provided the same status as that of men.[37] In 1986, the Supreme Court of India ruled that Shah Bano, an old divorced Muslim woman was eligible for maintenance money. However, the decision was vociferously opposed by fundamentalist Muslim leaders, who alleged that the court was interfering in their personal law. The Union Government subsequently passed the Muslim Women's (Protection of Rights Upon Divorce) Act.[38] Similarly, the Christian women have struggled over years for equal rights of divorce and succession. In 1994, all the churches, jointly with women's organisations, drew up a draft law called the Christian Marriage and Matrimonial Causes Bill. However, the government has still not amended the relevant laws.[13] Crimes against women

writings. paintings. and Dowry law in India In 1961. [21] Earlier. figures or in any other manner. The National Crime Records Bureau reported in 1998 that the growth rate of crimes against women would be higher than the population growth rate by 2010. In 1987. The Indecent Representation of Women (Prohibition) Act was passed[39] to prohibit indecent representation of women through advertisements or in publications.[21] Eve teasing is a euphemism used for sexual harassment or molestation of women by men. many cases were not registered with the police due to the social stigma attached to rape and molestation cases. The National Commission for Women subsequently elaborated these guidelines into a Code of Conduct for employers. [21] Dowry Main articles: Dowry.Police records show high incidence of crimes against women in India. In 1997.[40] making the dowry demands in wedding arrangements illegal. many cases of dowry-related domestic . Official statistics show that there has been a dramatic increase in the number of reported crimes against women. the Supreme Court of India took a strong stand against sexual harassment of women in the workplace.[21] Sexual harassment Half of the total number of crimes against women reported in 1990 related to molestation and harassment at the workplace. The Court also laid down detailed guidelines for prevention and redressal of grievances. Many activists blame the rising incidents of sexual harassment against women on the influence of "Western culture". Dowry death. in a landmark judgement. the Government of India passed the Dowry Prohibition Act. However.

000 women die each year because of dowry deaths. and shunned by the society. the child widows were condemned to a life of great agony. The term for this is "bride burning" and is criticized within India itself. a signed list of presents given at the time of the marriage to the bride and the bridegroom should be maintained. it is still a common practice. suicides and murders have been reported. young girls would live with their parents till they reached puberty. with 56% in rural areas. the name of whoever has given the present and his/her relationship to the person. such rules are hardly enforced. However. its approximate value. In the 1980s. numerous such cases were reported. 47% of India's women aged 20±24 were married before the legal age of 18. A 1997 report [42] claimed that at least 5. Child marriage Child marriage has been traditionally prevalent in India and continues to this day.violence. the Dowry Prohibition (maintenance of lists of presents to the bride and bridegroom) rules were framed. such dowry abuse has reduced considerably. and at least a dozen die each day in 'kitchen fires' thought to be intentional. In the past.[43] According to UNICEF¶s ³State of the World¶s Children-2009´ report.[44] The report also showed that 40% of the world's child marriages occur in India.[41] According to these rules. The list should contain a brief description of each present. living in isolation.[34] In 1985. Amongst the urban educated. shaving heads.[45] Female infanticides and sex selective abortions Main article: Sex-selective abortion and infanticide .[20] Although child marriage was outlawed in 1860. Historically.

[21] It is therefore suggested by many experts. Domestic violence The incidents of domestic violence are higher among the lower Socio-Economic Classes (SECs). This. 2006. Female infanticide (killing of girl infants) is still prevalent in some rural areas. due to incidents of these tests being used to get rid of unwanted female children before birth. These women are either forced into prostitution. the chief reason being that many women die before reaching adulthood.[citation needed ] The Protection of Women from Domestic Violence Act. 2005 came into force on October 26. Trafficking The Immoral Traffic (Prevention) Act was passed in 1956. that the highly masculine sex ratio in India can be attributed to female infanticides and sex-selective abortions.[46] However many cases of trafficking of young girls and women have been reported. in spite of the fact that tribal communities have far lower levels of income.India has a highly masculine sex ratio. [21] Tribal societies in India have a less masculine sex ratio than all other caste groups. All medical tests that can be used to determine the sex of the child have been banned in India. References . domestic work or child labor. literacy and health facilities.[21] The abuse of the dowry tradition has been one of the main reasons for sex-selective abortions and female infanticides in India.

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