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Viewed as a generic activity involving the management of other

people’s labor in
production, human resource management (HRM) goes back to the
dawn of
human history.
The generic practice of HRM does not require a formal human
resource department
or any specialized personnel staff.

The modern HRM department grew out of two earlier

developments. The first
was the emergence of industrial welfare work. Starting in the
1890s, a number of
companies started to provide a variety of workplace and family
amenities for their
employees, such as lunch rooms, medical care, recreational
programs, libraries,
company magazines, and company-provided housing (Eilbirt 1959;
Gospel 1992;
Spencer 1984). Frequently, a new staff position was created to
administer these
activities, called a ‘welfare secretary,’ and women or social
workers were often
appointed. The impetus behind welfare work was an amalgam of
good business,
humanitarian concern for employees, and religious principle.
German companies
were pioneers in welfare work in the nineteenth century, but
employers in all the
industrializing countries participated.
The second antecedent was the creation of some type of separate
office. These offices, often staffed by one or several lower-level
clerks and supervisors,
were created to centralize and standardize certain employment-
functions, such as hiring, payroll, and record-keeping. The
introduction of civil
service laws in several countries also led to the creation of
employment departments
in various levels of government. A stand-alone employment oYce
existed in large European companies as far back as the 1890s.
Farnham (1921)
20 bruce e. kaufman
reports, for example, that the German steel company Krupp had a
Personnelbu¨ro to handle staff administration, while the French
steel Wrm Le
Creusot had a similar Bureau de Personnel Ouvrier. The earliest
department in America is reported to have been established at the
B. F. Goodrich
Co. in 1906 (Eilbirt 1959). The movement to create a separate
employment department
in American Wrms started to coalesce in 1912 with the formation
of the Boston
Employment Managers Association. Quickly the term
‘employment management’
became the accepted descriptor for this new management function
and in 1916 it
had spread widely enough to support the creation of a nationwide
Managers Association.

The FirstWorldWar had a great impact on the development of

throughout the industrial world (Eilbirt 1959; Kaufman 2004a).
The major combatants
sought to harness their economies to maximum war production,
stimulating the pressures to rationalize management and achieve
higher productivity.

The FirstWorldWar had a great impact on the development of

throughout the industrial world (Eilbirt 1959; Kaufman 2004a).
The major combatants
sought to harness their economies to maximum war production,
stimulating the pressures to rationalize management and achieve
higher productivity.

The rise of the employment management function is tightly linked

with another
seminal development—the emergence of the doctrine and practice
of scientiWc
management (SM).

The engineers sought to use principles of science to increase

the efficiency of business production systems. Inevitably they were
led to consider
the ‘people’ side of production, including methods of employee
selection, job
assignment, supervision, work pace, and compensation.

After the prospective employer studies the job description,

application and resume, should the information convince employer
that the applicant has the ability to perform the job he/she is
applying for (in comparison with other candidates), then an
interview is scheduled.

If the information does not convince that the individual is

qualified to perform the job, then an interview will not be


The 6 most popular different approaches to conducting hiring

interviews are as follows:


Those employers who want to ensure that they cover every

importanat area and obtain all key information prefer it. One
advantage of this method is that it allows you to easily compare
candidates since all have been asked the same basic questions.

However, the guide does tend to deprive the interview of

spontaneity and makes all interviews similar. Sometimes
interviewers become so anxious to ask the next question on the
form that they do not follow through on answers to previous
questions and thereby fail to obtain valuable information.

Sometimes interviews will become flexible and not necessarily

ask every question on the form. This is a very popular type of


In this kind of interview, a lower ranking person in the company
first of all screens the applicants. If considered worthy for further
consideration, they are passed on to the next highest ranking
person who interviews them and decides to pass them on or to hire

This method or procedure eliminates unqualified people before

they take a senior manager's time.


The Personnel/Human Resource department screens out the

obvious unqualified candidates according to specific guidelines.
All candidates who meet basic qualifications are shortlisted and
interviewed by at least two other representatives.These two may be
Human Resource specialists, the departmental head or members of
the department that has the job opening. No one interviewer can
reject anyone. Each interviewer compltes a summary sheet for each
applicant. When all interviews are done, the interviewers meet,
compare summray sheets and decide which candidates to present
to the departmental manager for the final decision.

The grewatest limitation of this procedure is that it is time

consuming, expensive and difficult to schedule (depends on the
availability of those designated to interview) once you realize the
interview is of this type, one needs to be patient for the results.


Instead of having each company representative interview an

applicant separately, a group of managers will interview you at the
same time. This will be conducted as a conference with one of the
panelists acting as a chairman. After developing rapport,the
panelists ask questions. They follow no pattern, questions are
unplanned and spontaneous. Follow up enquiries may come from
different panel members.

After interview, the panel will discuss the candidates and decide
to hire or not to hire or even delay its decision untill it has seen
other applicants.This kind of interview minimizes the time
managers will take from regular duties and allows interviewers to
base comments and comparisons ona uniform experience. Watch
out not to be intimidated by panel interviews. It is important as an
applicant to expect that it will be a panel interview and possibly be
informed in advance who will sit on the panel.

However, this method is not usually used for first interview, but
is most likely to be used from the second interview onwards.


Psychometric testing describe arange of exercises used by

employers to gauge an individual's aptitude or personality. Used
correctly, the test give an additional insight into candidates and
will verify points coming out of interview. Psychmetric tests
usually form part of an overall selection process, whether at
anassessment centre, or beforehand at the interview stage.

Psychometric Testing - Ability Tests.

Ability test measure one or more of the following skills:

numerical, verbal reasoning, spatial awareness and diagrammatical
reasoning. The tests used depends on the type of role for which
you are being assessed. You might do better in some types of tests
than in others.
Verbal and numerical tests are used to select graduates for a wide
range of jobs, including most business and management functions.

Diagrammatic tests are used mainly for computing/IT jobs. Most

tests are timed and are designed so that you will be unlikely both to
complete them and to get everything right. If you are unable to
finish majority of the test it will be difficult to achieve a high
score. Getting the balance right between speed and accuracy is
important. The best advise is to work as quickly and accurately as
possible and avoid guessing just in case negative marking is used
(i.e the number of incorrect answers is deducted from the number
of correct ones, to give a net score.)

Tests are generally bought from specialist companies, the recruiter

then decides what the pass score will be depending on the demands
of the job. You could theoritically sit exactly the same answers yet
pass one and fail the other because they set different pass marks.

Psychometric Testing - Personality Tests.

Employers sometimes use personality tests to assess if you have

the personal qualities for the job.
Different roles require different attributes. You could answer
questionnaires of this type in exactly the same way for different
employers and be acceptable to one and not another. Sometimes
you are given a series of staements and asked to mark the one that
is most (M) like you and the one least (L) like you. The thing to
remember is not to try to anticipate the employer's requirements.

Ther are built-in checks to ensure your answers are consistent.

Answers honestly; there is no right or wrong answers.

Where would your L nad M be for the following?

I don't feel that time is wasted on planning.

I feel uneasy in the company of unconventional people.

If I'm annoyed with someone I don't show it.

How Psychometric Tests are used in selection procedure.

The part that tests play in getting you the job will vary greatly.
For some employers, test scores have major significance, others
look at candidates' test scores alongside other evidence. Some
employers may use tests to 'cream off' high-scoring applicants but
for many other it may be enough for your scores to fall within, or
slightly below the average group.

The earlier in the selection procedure you are asked to sit a test,
the more influential it will be to your eventual selection. It is
important to beging tests in the best possible frame of mind. If you
do not feel well on the day of a testing session, try to rearrange it.
If there is any factor that may affect your performance (e.g a
disability or if English is not your first language) inform testers in
advance so that this can be taken into account.

Essentially, an Assessment Centre is a place where a number of
candidates are brought together by an employer for assessment. It
could be an employer's premises or hired premises outside the
work enviroment.

The range of assessment is detailed later but importantly, for the

employer, it gives them a chance to see how a candidate performs
not only individual but with other people. Typically, they take
place after:

A review of an Application Form or CV.

Some form of initial assessment.

The initial assessment is usually an interview (either face to face

or on the phone) or, less commonly, a Psychometric Test.
Assessment centres can last a few hours or up to two days, detailed
below are all the components that make up a centre. Usually, they
will not include everything we mention.

You will either be sent a programme of events before you attend or

will receive one when you arrive.

What to wear to the Assessment Centre

Unless told, specifically otherwise, dress as you would if you were
attending an interview.
Obviously, if you have an overnight stay you would take a change
of shirt, etc. Some organizations such as emergency services and
armed forces, will have physical exercise and will tell you what to
bring, ensure you read your joining instructions carefully.

Travelling Expenses.

The payment of travell expenses is normally mentioned before the

event. If it isn't, then it is perfectly acceptable to make enquiries. If
expenses aren't covered (for assessment centres they usually are)
then you will have to make a decision on whether you want/can
afford to go a head.


Causes :
Unsafe condition on the part of employee- improper equipment
Hazardous work
Inadequate safety
Lack of ventilation

Unsafe Act: - operating

Personal protective equipment
No fence
Moving dangerous equipment

Other causes: - bad working condition

Dominant supervisors
Carelessness in operating machines
Young persons
Night shift
Addicted to alcoholism and drug
Work under stress
Insecure job

Situation factor

Personnel Selection- Psychological

Alcoholic and drug addict

Safety training – new machines

Environmental factors – overcrowding faulty arrange
Involving employees in safety
- willful participation
safety committee
safety campaign
safety habbits

Motivating safety behaviour


‘Freedom from risk or danger

Individual health
Prevention of accidents
Mechanism devices

-Depends upon the nature and size of company

Safety Programmes:

Employer and employee – inadequate supervision (fault in mgt

systems) – poor training/ leader

Effective safety programme is to provide effective safety facility

Continuous supervisor should be appointed (safety policy of
organization should be determined by top management who must
be continuouisly involved in monitoring safety performance)

Management and supervision must be made fully accountable for

safety performance

Management and supervision must be made fully accountable for

safety performance

All employers should be given through training in safe methods

Appraisal of employee in attitude in safety programme

Safety education and training safety consciousness build up

favourable attitude
To ensure safe work performance - each employee.

Safety officer and his role:

Formulate safety procedure, safety policy, safety requirements and

standards of the company

Promote schemes to guarantee observance of legal requirements

To act as chairman/ secretary or in any other capacity on the works
safety committee

Promote formation of such committee where they don’t exist

To administer safety education, training, publicity at various levels

of companies operation

To investigate causes of industrial injuries and circumstances

leading to accidents

To act in liason with governmental and non governmental agencies

To co-ordinate safety efforts of the company in every possible


To assess critically safety performance of the organization and if

necessary conduct safety training programmes and feedback

To perform the job of a sales man of safety to the top executives

and as a technician planner, organizer and stimulates to safety.

Strategic Planning & HR management

• Strategy is a company’s plan for how it will balance its

internal strengths and weaknesses.
With external opportunities & threats in order to gain and sustain a
competitive advantage.

Strategic management involves the following process

• Defining the company’s vision, mission & purpose

• Identifying the company’s internal strengths & weaknesses
• Analyzing the opportunities & threats existing in the external

• Formulating strategies that will match strengths and

weaknesses with the opportunities & threats
• Implementing the strategies
• Evaluation & control to measure achievement
• Strategic HRM- integration of HRM with strategic goals &
corporate strategy ,

• so as to improve business performance & achieve

organizational goals
• The HR function is accepted as strategic business partner - in
formation & implementation of the company strategies
through planned HR activities
• Strategic HRM is based on the belief that Human resources
are uniquely important to sustained business success.

• The aim of strategic HRM is to ensure that the culture, style

& structure of the organization, quality commitment &
motivation of employees contribute fully to the achievement
of objectives
• Traditionally HRm is viewed as a staff or advisory function
and strictly operational
• HR’s were managed by the specialists with the countries laws
and the company’s rules and regulations

• Strategic HRM – managing HR is mostly by line managers ,

HR policies, practices & activities are aligned with the
objectives & strategies of the organization.
• HR encompasses all those activities affecting the behaviour
of individuals in their efforts to implement strategic needs of
the business.
Role of strategic HRM
• A highly quality & dedicated workforce enables the
organization to compete on the basis of market
responsiveness, product & service quality & technological
• In any business strategy, people are more crucial than plans
• HR is equal in both formulation and implementation

HRM’s Role in strategy formulation and implementation

• A company’s overall strategic plan is formulated by

identifying, analyzing and balancing its external
opportunities and threats with its internal strengths and
• HRM participates in strategy formulation process by
supplying information – strength & weakness

• The unique human resource capabilities serve as a driving

force in strategy formulation
• An excellent strategy will fail to achieve business goals in the
absence of competent and motivated workforce
• The following diagram shows the link between HRM and

HRM in IT sectors

Changes i
 n technology have altered employment and occupational
 IT-Major implications on HRM , jobs and organizational
structures will have to be redesigned
 Firms or organizations need to be more competitive
 IT- requires more quality staff – technology and skill become
obsolete fast
 Need continuous updating of knowledge and skill
 Hiring, developing and retaining HR’s is more
crucial in IT
 Companies face skilled labour crunch
 Developing talent
HR in infosys –everyone who works at the company are called

Changing nature of work

 India and china – outsourcing hub for the developed world.

 Major shift from manual automotive
Knowledge work
 As the organization is becoming increasingly knowledge
based, new human resource practices and policies are needed.

 Knowledge employees need autonomy, challenging job,

immediate feedback and rewards
 Workplace romances and affairs
 WORKFORCE DIVERSITY : age, gender, education,
language values organizations become heterogeneous.
 Various attitudes, motives and other personal characteristics

 Knowledge employees need autonomy, challenging job,

immediate feedback and rewards
 Workplace romances and affairs
 WORKFORCE DIVERSITY : age, gender, education,
language values organizations become heterogeneous.
 Various attitudes, motives and other personal characteristics

 More women joining the workforce

 Employees prefer less secure but high paying jobs in
multinationals and other private sector concerns
 Mobility of employees – technology revolution, better
transport facility
 Employees are now aware of their rights in the workplace
impact of diversity
 Diversity as a competitive advantage/ conflict is a great
challenge for HR

 Women workforce is a challenge, flexible work schedule,

child care facility, maternity leave, transfer to husbands place
of posting
 Aging workforce- better healthcare facility
 Remove sex discrimination
 Changing values of youth -loyalty – challenge to retain
Centralized to decentralized

Tomorrow’s HR Today

Expectations on HR professionals are soaring

- Transactional role to transformational role
- Need to play the role of change agent
Cultural adaptation
• Initiatives- implementing new programme, projector,
procedures, strategic planning
• Process- first identify core processes – improve through work
simplification - value added assessments
• Cultural changes – Identity of the firm is transformed both
for employees & customers
• Designations Gen Y feels that why only the fancy titles be
limited to grey haired
• E.g.: mentors, gardeners, chief fun officers, chief servants
and the like are becoming fashionable with the senior
management .
• ‘Cool designer’, ‘Imagineer’, ‘Quality missionary’