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as well as the urethra and also contains the female external genitalia. In the male, the region (fig. 38-2) consists of (1) skin, (2) superficial perineal fascia (which consists of fatty and membranous layers of the subcutaneous tissue), (3) deep perineal fascia, (4) the superficial perineal space (which contains the root of the penis and the superficial perineal muscles), (5) inferior fascia of the urogenital diaphragm, (6) the deep perineal space (which contains the urogenital diaphragm, membranous urethra, and bulbourethral glands), and (7) superior fascia of the urogenital diaphragm (recently disputed). In the female, the urogenital region comprises the seven components listed above for the male, but the superficial perineal space transmits the distal vagina and contains the greater vestibular glands. The Perineal Fascia
The urogenital diaphragm is surrounded by deep fascia. The perineal fascia consists of two sheets, the inferior and superior fasciae of the urogenital diaphragm.
The Inferior Fascia of Urogenital Diaphragm
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This is usually referred to as the perineal membrane. It is continuous with the superior fascia of the urogenital diaphragm. It is also attached to the pubic rami.
The Superior Fascia of the Urogenital Diaphragm
The membranous layer of the subcutaneous connective tissue of the perineum (Colles' fascia) and inferior part anterior abdominal wall are continuous. The attachments of the superior perineal fascia are:
1. The fascia lata enveloping the thigh muscles; 2. The pubic arch; 3. And the posterior edge of the perineal membrane.
Anteriorly, the superficial perineal fascia is prolonged over the penis and scrotum, thereby forming a membranous covering for the testes and spermatic cords (in males). In the female, this fascia is prolonged over the clitoris and labia majora.
A fascia (pronounced /ˈfæʃiə/, US dict: făsh′ · ē · ə, plural fas·ci·ae /ˈfæʃɨ.i/ US dict: făsh′ · ē · ē, adjective fascial; from latin: "band") is a layer of fibrous tissue that permeates the human body. A fascia is a connective tissue that surrounds muscles, groups of muscles, blood vessels, and nerves, binding those structures together like plastic sandwich wraps. It consists of several layers: a superficial fascia, a deep fascia, and a subserous (or visceral) fascia and extends uninterrupted from the head to the tip of the toes. Like ligaments, aponeuroses, and tendons, fasciae are dense regular connective tissues, containing closely packed bundles of collagen fibers oriented in a wavy pattern parallel to the direction of pull. Fasciae are consequently flexible structures able to resist great unidirectional tension forces until the wavy pattern of fibers has been straightened out by the pulling force. These collagen fibers are produced by the fibroblasts located within the fascia.
Fasciae are normally thought of as passive structures that transmit mechanical tension generated by muscular activities or external forces throughout the body. Some research suggest that fasciae might be able to contract independently and thus actively influence muscle dynamics. The function of muscle fasciae is to reduce friction to minimize the reduction of muscular force. In doing so, fasciae allow muscles to glide over each other.