Integumentary System - cutaneous membrane/skin - the external covering of the body - it also contains its derivatives such

as the sweat and oil glands, hair and nails. Functions: Protection – • Mechanical damage- physical barrier contains keratin, which toughens cells and pressure receptors, which alert NS for possible damage. • Chemical – has relatively impermeable keratinized cells; contains pain receptors which alert the nervous system to possible damage. • Bacterial - the surface is unbroken and has an acid mantle which are the skin secretions which are acidic thus inhibits bacteria. Phagocytes ingest foreign substances ad pathogens, preventing the from penetrating into deeper body tissues. • Thermal damage - contains heat/cold/pain receptors • Ultraviolet radiation – protection from melanin • Dessication – since it contains keratin which are waterproof. Heat regulation Heat loss - by activating sweat glands and allowing blood to flush into skin capillary beds, Heat retention – by not allowing blood to flush into skin capillary bed. Synthesizes Vit. D – modified cholesterol molecules in the skin are converted into Vit. D by sunlight The upper most part is full of keratin which prevents water loss while the capillary network and sweat glands regulates heat loss from body surface Excretory – urea, salts and water Epidermis This is the top layer of skin made up of epithelial cells. It does not contain blood vessels. Its main function is protection, absorption of nutrients, and homeostasis. In structure, it consists of a keratinized stratified squamous epithelium The epidermis itself is made up of four to five layers. From the lower to upper epidermis, the layers are named: stratum basale - deepest layer, receives the most adequate nourishment via diffusion of nutrients from the dermis. - constantly undergo cell division - s. germinativum stratum spinosum, stratum granulosum stratum lucidum – clear extra layer that occurs in places such as palms and soles of the feet stratum corneum. - outemost layer , 20 to 30 cell layers thick The protein keratin stiffens epidermal tissue to form fingernails. Nails grow from thin area called the nail matrix; growth of nails is 1 mm per week on average. The lunula is the crescent-shape area at the base of the nail, this is a lighter colour as it mixes with the matrix cells. Dermis The dermis is the middle layer of skin, composed of loose connective tissues such as collagen with elastin arranged in a diffusely bundled and woven pattern. These layers serve to give elasticity to the integument, allowing stretching and conferring flexibility, while also resisting distortions, wrinkling, and sagging. The dermal layer provides a site for the endings of blood vessels and nerves. Many chromatophores are also stored in this layer, as are the bases of integumental structures such as hair, feathers, and glands. Subcutaneous layer or hypodermis Although technically not part of the integumentary system, the subdermis is the layer of tissue directly underneath the dermis. It is composed mainly of connective and adipose tissue or fatty

tissue. Its physiological functions include insulation, the storage of energy, and aiding in the anchoring of the skin. Melanin pigment that ranges in color from yellow to brown to black, is produced by special cells called melanocytes. Appendages of the skin Swear glands – sudoriferous glands Eccrine glands – produce sweat ( water, salts, vit.c, lactic acid, metabolic wastes such as ammonia, urea and uric acid) which is acidic pH 4-6. Apocrince glands – secretions contain fatty acids and proteins which have amilky or yeloowish color. Odorless. Hair – produced by a hair follicle and is enclosed in a follicle called root Arrector pili – small bands of small muscle which connects each side of the hair follicle to the dermal tissue. Contractpulled upright.

Kidney a small dark red bean shaped organs, the right kidney is positioned slightly lower than the left, an adult kidney is about 12 cm (5inches) long and 6 am (2.5inches) wide and 3cm (1 inch) thick. 3 distinct regions : renal cortex – light color renal medulla- darker reddish brown area Medullary pyramid triangular regions with a sstriped appearance. Blood Supply Approximately one-quarter of the total blood supply of the body passes through the kidneys each minute. The arterial blood supply is the renal artery. As the renal artery approaches the hilus it divides into segmental arteries. Once inside the pelvis, the segmental arteries break up into lobar arteries, each which give off branches called interlobar arteries which travel through the renal columns to reach the cortex. The interlobar arteries then supply blood to the arcuate arteries that run through the boundary of the cortex and the medulla. Each arcuate artery supplies several interlobular arteries that feed into the afferent arterioles that supply the glomeruli. Venous blood draining from the kidney flows through veinstha trace the pathway of the arterial supply but in reverse direction. NEphrons are the structural and functional unit of the kidneys and are responsible for forming urine. Each nephron consist of 2 main structures : the glumerulus which is a not of capillaries and a renal tubule. Osmolality regulation Any significant rise or drop in plasma osmolality is detected by the hypothalamus, which communicates directly with the posterior pituitary gland. An increase in osmolality causes the gland to secrete antidiuretic hormone (ADH), resulting in water reabsorption by the kidney and an increase in urine concentration. The two factors work together to return the plasma osmolality to its normal levels. ADH binds to principal cells in the collecting duct that translocate aquaporins to the membrane allowing water to leave the normally impermeable membrane and be reabsorbed into the body by the vasa recta, thus increasing the plasma volume of the body. There are two systems that create a hyperosmotic medulla and thus increase the body plasma volume: Urea recycling and the 'single effect.' Urea is usually excreted as a waste product from the kidneys. However, when plasma blood volume is low and ADH is released the aquaporins that are opened are also permeable to urea. This allows urea to leave the collecting duct into the medulla creating a hyperosmotic solution that 'attracts' water. Urea can then re-enter the nephron and be excreted or recycled again depending on whether ADH is still present or not. The 'Single effect' describes the fact that the ascending thick limb of the loop of Henle is not permeable to water but is permeable to NaCl. This means that a countercurrent system is created whereby the medulla becomes increasingly concentrated setting up an osmotic gradient for water to follow should the aquaporins of the collecting duct be opened by ADH. [edit] Blood pressure regulation Main articles: Blood pressure regulation and Renin-angiotensin system Long-term regulation of blood pressure predominantly depends upon the kidney. This primarily occurs through maintenance of the extracellular fluid compartment, the size of which depends on the plasma sodium concentration. Although the kidney cannot directly sense blood pressure, changes in the delivery of sodium and chloride to the distal part of the nephron alter the kidney's secretion of the enzyme renin. When the extracellular fluid compartment is expanded and blood pressure is high, the

delivery of these ions is increased and renin secretion is decreased. Similarly, when the extracellular fluid compartment is contracted and blood pressure is low, sodium and chloride delivery is decreased and renin secretion is increased in response. Renin is the first in a series of important chemical messengers that comprise the renin-angiotensin system. Changes in renin ultimately alter the output of this system, principally the hormones angiotensin II and aldosterone. Each hormone acts via multiple mechanisms, but both increase the kidney's absorption of sodium chloride, thereby expanding the extracellular fluid compartment and raising blood pressure. When renin levels are elevated, the concentrations of angiotensin II and aldosterone increase, leading to increased sodium chloride reabsorption, expansion of the extracellular fluid compartment, and an increase in blood pressure. Conversely, when renin levels are low, angiotensin II and aldosterone levels decrease, contracting the extracellular fluid compartment, and decreasing blood pressure. [edit] Hormone secretion The kidneys secrete a variety of hormones, including erythropoietin, calcitriol, and renin. Erythropoietin is released in response to hypoxia (low levels of oxygen at tissue level) in the renal circulation. It stimulates erythropoiesis (production of red blood cells) in the bone marrow. Calcitriol, the activated form of vitamin D, promotes intestinal absorption of calcium and the renal reabsorption of phosphate. Part of the renin-angiotensinaldosterone system, renin is an enzyme involved in the regulation of aldosterone levels. Urine Formation A result of three processes – filtration, tubular reabsorption and tubular secretion. Filtration ; water and solute smaller than protein are forced through the capillary walls and pores of the glomerular capsule into the renal tubule. Tubular reabsorption : water, glucose, amino acids, and needed ions are transported out of the filtrate into the tubule cells and then enter the capillary blood. Tubular secretion: hydrogen, potassium, creatinine and drugs are removed from the peritubular blood and secreted by the tubule cell into the filtrate.

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