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# UNIT-1 DC CIRCUIT ANALYSIS Concept of Network

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A combination of various electric elements connected in any manner what so ever is called an Electrical Network. The purpose of electric circuit is to convert electrical energy into some other forms.

We may classify the electric elements in two categories: (i)Active Element (ii)Passive Element (i)Active Element: An Active element is one, which supplies Energy to the electric circuit. Example: Voltage source V and Current source I etc. (ii)Passive Element: A Passive element is one, which receives energy, and converts into heat or stored in it. Example: Resister R, Inductor L and Capacitor C.

Various Sources:

Sources are the circuit elements that supply energy. Sources are of two types: (i)Voltage Source (ii)Current Source Both are classified in Ideal and Practical Source. (i)Ideal voltage source: An Ideal voltage source, which is represented in fig. 2, is a device that produces a constant voltage across its terminal. The terminal voltage is independent of the load connected across it. The Ideal voltage source has zero internal resistance. (ii)Practical voltage source: A practical voltage source, which is represented in fig. 3,is a device that produces a variable voltage across its terminals. The terminal voltage decreases with the increase in load and vice-versa. The Practical voltage source has some internal resistance Rin in series.

(iii)Ideal current source: An Ideal Current source, which is represented in fig. 4, is a device that supplies a constant current .The current supplied is independent of the load connected across it. The Ideal current source has infinite internal resistance.

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Bilateral and Unilateral Element: (i)Bilateral element: Conduction of current in both directions in an element with same magnitude is termed as bilateral element. is a device that supplies a variable current. v v I I Figure: 6 Figure: 7 (i)Linear element: A linear element is one.(iv)Practical current source: A practical current source. On the basis of this volt-ampere characteristics electrical elements are classified in two parts as Linear and Nonlinear elements. which is represented in fig. Inductor and capacitor. In other words a nonlinear element has nonlinear volt-ampere characteristics. whose parameter changes with voltage or current. The current supplied is decreases with the increase in load and vice-versa. (ii)Unilateral element: Conduction of current in one direction is termed as unilateral element. Fig: 6 show the volt-ampere characteristics of a linear element. The Practical current source has some internal resistance Rin in parallel. is known as Linear element. 2 . 5. the behaviourof output signal with time is known as the response of the system. Example: Resister. for which volt-ampere characteristics is a straight line or linear. Linear and Nonlinear Element: The characteristics drawn between voltage across any element and current in that element is known as volt-ampere characteristics. Fig:7 shows the volt-ampere characteristics of a nonlinear element. (ii)Nonlinear element: A Nonlinear element is one. Example: Diode and transistor Meaning of Response: An application of input signal to the system will produce an output signal.

Let current I flowing through closed path ABCDA. I1 + I2 I 3 I4 I5 = 0 I1 + I2 = I3 + I4 + I5 Incoming current = Outgoing current (ii)Kirchoff s Voltage Law: It states that It states that in a closed circuit. The algebraic sum of all the voltage around the closed path is equal to zero. V = IRsh And Value of Rse will be equal to the value of Rsh.e. the algebraic sum of all source voltages must be equal to the algebraic sum of all the voltage drops.(fig: 10) (i)Conversion of Current source to Voltage source: A current source of I with parallel resistance Rth can be transformed into an equivalent Voltage source of V volt with series resistance Rse..The value of V will be. (i)Conversion of Voltage source to Current source: A Voltage source of V volt with series resistance Rse can be transformed into an equivalent current source of I with parallel resistance Rth. Voltage across voltage source = V Voltage across R1 = IR1 Voltage across R2 = IR2 Voltage across R3 = IR3 On applying KVL in the clockwise direction.The value of I will be. a voltage source can be changed into current source and current source can be change into voltage source.Source Transformation: A Practical source can be interchange i.e. 3 . It can also be stated as the incoming current at a junction is equal to the outgoing current from the same junction. it can also be stated as In any network. I= And Value of Rsh will be equal to the value of Rse. Then. -V + IR1+ IR2 + IR3 = 0 *** First sign across each element has been considered. i.. i Around a closed path =0 For the circuit shown in fig: 12.(fig:11) Kirchoff¶s Law: (i)Kirchoff s Current Law: It states that the algebraic sum of the currents at a junction or node is always zero.e.

(iii) Total current is the sum of two currents. same current flows through each of the given resistance. In this case. (ii) Current in each resistor is different and is given by Ohm s law. (i) (ii) Mesh Analysis Nodal Analysis (i)Mesh Analysis: Let us consider a simple dc network as shown in Figure: 15 to find the currents through different branches using Mesh (Loop) analysis method. across both resistances in same. (i) P. 4 . of mesh in the circuit Step-II: Label the mesh currents in any arbitrary direction in each mesh.D. Voltage varies directly with its given resistance. Step-IV: Apply KVL in each mesh. According to current division rule. Step-I: Inspect the total no. Voltage across R1 is V1 = V And Voltage across R2 is V2 = V (ii)Current divider rule: Two resistances as joined in fig: 14 are said to be connected parallel. According to voltage division rule.Voltage Divider And Current Divider Rule: (i)Voltage divider rule: Since in a series circuit as shown in fig: 13. (Write KVL equation for each mesh) and solve the equation. Current in resister R1 is I1 = I And Current in resister R2 is I2 = I Network Analysis: There are two method of analysing a network. Step-III: Put the sign convention across each element.

Choosing one of them as the reference voltage (i. Let us consider a simple dc network as shown in Figure: 16 to find the currents through different branches using Nodal analysis method. we identify all the nodes on the circuit. Step-I: Inspect the total no. Step-III: Express the branch currents in terms of node assigned voltages. a resistive network containing voltage and current sources using mesh equations method the following steps are essential to note: y y If possible.(I1-I3)R2 V3 =0 By solving these equations get the answer. of node in the circuit Select one node as the reference node (assign as ground potential or zero potential) and label the remaining nodes as unknown node voltages with respect to the reference node.. Step-V: Solve a set of simultaneous algebraic equation for node voltages and ultimately the Branch currents. (No ofnode equations = No of nodes (N) 1.(I2-I3)R3 . Note: To analysis. Mesh analysis is valid only for circuits that can be drawn in a two -dimensional plane in such a way that no element crosses over another. convert current source to voltage source. (The choice of direction is arbitrary). Step-IV: Write the standard form of node equations by inspecting the circuit.Applying KVL around mesh (loop)-1: -V1 + V3+ (I1-I3)R2 + (I1-I2)R4 =0 Applying KVL around mesh (loop)-2: -(I1-I2)R4 + (I2-I3)R3 + V2 =0 Applying KVL around mesh (loop)-3: I3R1 .e. Step-II: Assign branch currents in each branch. zero potential) and subsequently assign other node voltages (unknown) with respect to a reference voltage (usually ground voltage taken as zero (0) potential. 5 . (ii)Nodal Analysis: In the node voltage method.

I1 = I2 = I3 = I4 = Put these values in above three KCL equations and solve the equations. 6 . convert all the voltage sources into current sources. Note: If possible.Applying KCL at node-1: Is1 Is3 I2 I4 = 0 Applying KCL at node-2: I4 Is2 I3 = 0 Applying KCL at node-3: Is3 + I2 + I3 I1 = 0 Here.

Because power calculations Involve either the product of voltage and current. i.e. below. Step-4: Find the total contribution by adding algebraically all the contributions due to the independent sources. Step-3: Repeat steps 1 and 2 for each of the other independent sources. This current I will be the algebraic sum of Three individual current produced by the three sources. 2: Superposition theorem cannot be applied for non linear circuit 7 . We have to find out the current I in Resister R2. It has two independent practical voltage sources and one practical current source. Step-2: Determine the output (current or voltage) due to the single source acting alone. It may be noted that each independent source is considered at a time while all other sources are turned off or killed. with all other independent sources being replaced by their respective internal resistances. To replace voltage source simply short circuit the terminal of voltage source and to replace current source Simply open circuit the terminal of current source. the net response in any branch is the algebraic sum of responses caused by each independent sources acting alone.Network Theorems Superposition theorem: In any linear bilateral network containing two or more independent sources. the square of current or the square of The voltage. Remarks: Superposition theorem is most often used when it is necessary to determine the individual contribution of each source to a particular response. Superposition theorem can be explained through a simple resistive network as shown in fig 17. Procedure for using the superposition theorem:Step-1: Retain one source at a time in the circuit and replace all other sources with their internal resistances. I = I due to E1 alone + I due to E2 alone + I due to Is alone According to the application of the superposition theorem. To kill a voltage source means the voltage source is replaced by a short circuit branch and to kill a current source means the current source is replaced by a open circuit branch.. they are not linear operations. Limitations of superposition Theorem:1: Superposition theorem doesn t work for power calculation.

we can apply any of the techniques (mesh-current.Thevenin¶s theorem: Thevenin s theorem states that any two output terminals A & B. 8 . Step-5: Place VTH in series with RTH to form the Thevenin s equivalent circuit as shown below. Procedure for applying Thevenin s theorem:.To find a current IL through the load resistance RL using Thevenin s theorem. Where RTH is the equivalent resistance of the network when looking from the output terminals with all sources (voltage and current) removed and replaced by their internal resistances an the magnitude of VTH is d equal to the open circuit voltage across the terminals.In general. node-voltage and superposition method) to find VTH.of an active linear network containing independent sources (it includes voltage and current sources) can be replaced by a simplevoltage source of magnitude VTH in series with a single resistor RTH . Step-4: Calculate the resistance RTH that would exist between the load terminals. Step-2: Calculate the open-circuit voltage VTH at the load terminals after disconnecting the load resistance (RL). the following steps are followed: Step-1: Disconnect the load resistance (RL) from the circuit and mark the terminal AB. Step-3: Redraw the circuit with each practical source replaced by its internal resistance (Note: voltage sources should be short-circuited (just remove them and replace with plain wire) and current sources should be open-circuited (just removed).

9 . Where the magnitude of current source is the current measured in the short circuit placed across the terminal pair A & B.Norton s theorem states that any two output terminals A & B.of an active linear network containing independent sources (it includes voltage and current sources) can be replaced by a simple current source of magnitude IN in parallel with a single resistor RN . current and power may be calculated by a simple arithmetic operation only. VL = IL . Load current. PL = IL2 . RL Norton s theorem: .Step-6: Reconnect the original load to the Thevenin voltage circuit as shown below the load s voltage. IL = Voltage across the load. The parallel resistance RN is the equivalent resistance looking into the terminal pair A & B with all independent sources has been replaced by their internal resistances. RL Power absorbed by the load. R L = .

the following steps are followed: Step-1: Disconnect the load resistance (RL) from the circuit and mark the terminal AB. node-voltage and superposition method) Step-3: Redraw the circuit with each practical source replaced by its internal resiststance (Note: voltage sources should be short-circuited (just remove them and replace with plain wire) and current sources should be open-circuited (just removed). 10 .To find a current IL through the load resistance RL using Norton s theorem. we can apply any of the techniques (mesh-current.Procedure for applying Norton s theorem:. Step-2: Short the output terminal after disconnecting the load resistance (RL) from the terminals A & B and then calculate the short circuit current IN. Step-4: Calculate the resistance RN that would exist between the load terminals. Step-5: Place RN in parallel with current source IN to form the Norton s equivalent circuit. In general.

RL PL = PL = 2 . RL Power absorbed by the load. if the value of load resistance is equal to the thevenin s resistance (internal resistance) RTH of the network. 29 a variable load resistance RL is connected to an equivalent thevenin circuit of original circuit. The current for any value of load resistance RL Is. IL = Voltage across the load. below. VL = IL . RL 11 . the problem is to find the choice of the resistance RL so that the network delivers maximum power to the load. current and power may be calculated by a simple arithmetic operation only.Step-6: Reconnect the original load to the Norton current circuit as shown below. RL . Load current. Let us consider an electric network as shown in fig. IL = Then the power delivered to load is given by. IN In fig. PL = IL2 . RL Maximum power transfer theorem: Maximum power transfer theorem states that the power transfer by a network to a load resistance RL will be maximum. PL = IL2 . . the load s voltage.

To find the value of RL that absorbs a maximum power from the Thevenin circuit.The load powe depe ds on both RL and RTH. = VTH2 =0 = RTH2 + RL2 + 2 RTH . PT = IL2 (RTH + RL ) PT = 2 IL2 RL Efficiency under maximum power condition is. Efficiency = Efficiency = 50% x 100 % Remarks: The Thevenin e uivalent circuit is useful in finding the maximum power that a linear circuit can deliver to a load.RL = 2RL RTH + 2 RL2 RL = RTH The expression for maximum power dissipated to load resistance is given by. PMAX = . howeve RTH is constant for the e ivalent Thevenin network. we differentiate PL with respect to RL. RL PMAX = The total power delivered by the source is. So power delivered by the e ivalent Thevenin network to the load resistor is entirely depends on the value of RL . ¥ 12 ¤£ ¢ ¤£ ¡ .