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Checklists and prompts for planning, managing, control and measuring performance for any business
Success in Business
Published by Martin Books Pty Ltd ACN 112 719 052 20 Blackwoods Road Boat Harbour NSW 2484 Australia Tel: (61 2) 6679 1051 Fax: (61 2) 6679 1535 Email: firstname.lastname@example.org Web: www.martinbooks.com.au
Copyright 1996-2007 Martin Books All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording or by any information storage and retrieval system, without prior permission in writing from the publisher National Library of Australia Cataloguing- in-Publication entry: Overton, Rodney 101 Business Checklists ISBN 978-1-921360-52-7
■ First published September 1996 ■ Revised and enlarged February 2002 ■ Second reprint March 2004 ■ eBOOK version September 2007
The writer - Rodney Overton
is an international award winning writer (published in four languages) of more than twenty-five popular business skills ‘how-to’ books covering a wide range of business, human resources, management, planning and sales and marketing topics. Publishers in a number of overseas countries produce and distribute localised versions of these books. He works as business consultant and strategist and has wide experience in facilitating, writing and developing business training courses.
Martin Books have a combined range of more than 100 books, CD ROMs and Training Facilitators Manuals available, covering areas of business such as Administration, Planning, Finance, Human Resources, Management, Marketing, Sales and Small Business.
We feel sure that this book will also provide stimulation and learning across a wide range of business issues for people at any level of business. New Business and Products and Management. Rodney Overton September 2007 . We currently have a range of more than 100 books. This publication is one of a constantly expanding series. with little expense. stimulating. Human Resources.Foreword This book was originally prepared in response to many requests from both bookshops and people in commerce and industry for an easy to use book. Finance. and with hindsight gained as an experienced. easily. We welcome your comments and suggestions. Sales and Small Business. In this book we have addressed a wide range of issues covering Planning. We have written these publications from the perspective of. CD ROMs and Training Facilitators Manuals available. day to day business situations. Marketing. of what we trust are interesting. quickly. “With lots of checklists that we can use constantly to measure performance as well use as prompts for planning and managing”. and in many instances. working in the real. Human Resources. and used in real life. Our objective has been to provide easy to read and understand information which can be assimilated into. day to day business world. and informative publications addressing a wide range of Business topics and issues. Business Planning. Management. Sales. covering areas of business such as Business Administration. Marketing. practising manager.
..................... 46 Communication and image...................................... 20 Writing a job description....... 50 Rating your manager............................................ 39 Induction.......................................................................................................................................................................54 A Marketing expenditure plan......................................... 52 • • • • • • • • • • • A Marketing Plan outline....................................18 2 Human resources........................)............................................................................................. 28 Observing as an evaluative technique.............. 59 Image................................42 Productivity and motivation.......Table of contents 1 Planning ....................................................................B.....................................................................................................................................................................................................26 Setting personal goals and objectives............................................... & S...................................................41 A salary package..................2 Evaluating personal strengths and weaknesses...............4 The strategic planning process.....................................36 An employee handbook....O.......................................................................................................................................................53 Implementing the plan.......... 19 • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Organisational structure...................................................... 14-16 Sample objectives and results..................................................................................................................................................................H......................................34 Human resources................................................................ 35 20 work related needs.................................................................40 Training needs analysis....................................................................5 Business planning........... 58 The marketing audit.....Page 1 • • • • • • • • • • • Aims and objectives...............................................B.Staff................................ 11-12 A budget and record keeping..........................................64 ........................................................ 48 Are you an effective communicator?..........................................................................................................................................................................45 Workplace moral.................... 38 An interview evaluation......................6-8 Family financial planning................................................................................................................................................................................55 Market research.... 44 A rating form for management.......................... 30-33 A safety management checklist.37 Job interviews.............................................62 Monitoring service levels..............3 A Mission Statement........................................................................................................................................60 Advertising............................................................................................................)..........................63 Measuring customer satisfaction.........27 Assessing changes in effectiveness as a result of training................ 56......................................................................................................................................................... 47 What blocks business communication?...........O............................................................basic questions.............................................................. 17 Some quick prompts for a Strategic Plan...........................................................................................................9-10 Writing a submission............................................. 25 Management .........51 3 Marketing........................49 What motivates an employee?.................................................................................... 57 Marketing ..........................13 Managing by objectives (M..............29 Occupational health and safety (O.43 A performance review........................................61 Delivering quality service.......................... 21-24 Writing a job description ................................................M............................................
..........my role...... 102........................................................ 96 Time management checklist................... Reviewing service.81 • • • • • • • Why start a business of your own?.....93 An entrepreneur’s checklist.......................................72 Win ......... 111 Law of contract.............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 69 • • • • • • • • • • • Seven steps in the sales process............................................................................................................................................... 74 Some personal requirements........................................79 A sales checklist for after the interview..................................114 Index...................................................................................98 Transition under management by objectives ..............moments of truth..............104 Goal setting........76 Relationship selling........109 The negotiation conference.....................83-85 Innovation and your organisation........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................90 6 Management...................................................................110 Tomorrows manager......new product development... 97 Stress.......................................................... 75 A sales and marketing strategy........................................................................100 Managing change...70 Telephone standards.............................................................................................71 Are you an effective sales person?........................................................................................................................65 An index to measure and monitor your organisation’s service levels................95 Motivation..77 Measuring sales performance...........................................................................................................• • • • Handling complaints.............................82 Launching a new product...................115 ........................................................................................89 A checklist ...................................................................................................................... 67 Service ......................................................68 4 Sales........87 What makes a company successful?........108 Financial danger signs.............................................................................................................................win.......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 99 Eight elements in the planning of change..........................88 A product .................94 My job .........................................105 Key indicators..................................................idea rating device................................................................................................................................................................. 113 How do you rate as a manager?.............92 Managers and competencies..........................................................................106 Are you a people person?... 66 Are you a quality service professional?..............................73 Are you a professional sales person?..........................................................91 • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Leadership.............................. 107 Is your business well run?...........................................................................................101 One approach to introducing change.................. 103 Can you handle change?......80 5 New business and products......................................................78 A sales time record........................................................... 112 Some business acronyms.................. 86 Contributions to total cost..
1 Planning .
• To establish market leadership in our field. • Can you come up with some aims and objectives for your business? What are your short term and long term ‘Aims and Objectives’? Short term 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) Long term 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 2 . • To diversify by the lateral development of industry associated products.. • To be seen and recognised as an ethical and reliable supplier of . • To establish a strong.101 Business Checklists Aims and Objectives Some typical aims and objectives for a business could be: • To establish a business that is profitable. easily managed. • To develop the business in associated areas of our industry in order to create security by diversification. and that will provide a job for my children. viable business that can be sold in the future.. at a profit. • To continue the development of the business and consolidate its operations to ensure maximum efficiency is obtained from existing resources. • To expand the business nationally. • To enhance the consolidation and growth of the business within the industry to the point where it is recognised as the leader in the field of viticultural maintenance.
You will be surprised at how many different types of careers can be built from a given set of skills and interests. a 2 for a moderate weakness. research. a 4 for moderate strength. a 3 for a characteristic that is neither a strength nor a weakness. Then go over these strengths and weaknesses with a friend and ask for their candid opinion.1-Planning Evaluating personal strengths and weaknesses When you have established your goals and objectives. an analysis of your personal strengths and weaknesses is in order. try to discover ways in which your skills can be used. Give yourself a 5 for a major strength.) ________ ________ ________ ________ ________ ________ ________ ________ ________ ________ ________ ________ ________ ________ ________ When you have developed a list of your basic skills. etc. operations. and a 1 for a major weakness. The answers to the following questions can help that analysis: What are my six strongest skills? What is my greatest accomplishment in life? Is it saleable? Why should an employer hire me instead of someone else? Rate your self on each of the characteristics listed below. • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Academic achievement (grades) Ingenuity and creativity Administrative knowledge and ability Cooperativeness Ambition and self motivation Conscientiousness Educational credentials Intelligence Leadership ability Maturity and poise Oral communication skills Written communication skills Prior work experience Sociability Technical competence (marketing. human resources. finance. 3 .
at least plausible to strive for. if not perfectly attainable.something people can realistically believe to be possible and. make the world a better place in some way and win people’s commitment. • A sense of worthwhile purpose .defined not in terms of some market segment or statistical category. Further the mission statement should define: • The Customer . makes. sells. but in terms of the fundamental value it represents in matching the customers need premise. or delivers. A value creation premise that people can actually picture as existing.101 Business Checklists A Mission Statement What are the basic requirements of a meaningful mission statement? The components to help make a mission / vision useful and valid could include: • A focused concept . 4 .something beyond platitudes. • A plausible chance of success . • The value premise . • What makes you special .your special means for creating value. • A very good real life example from the then Department of Administrative Services [DAS]: • To be recognised by our customers and the government as Australia’s best provider of services and a leader in public sector reform.something that is really worth doing. make a contribution. Another excellent. in order to win and keep the customer’ s business. real life example which we noticed in the employment columns of a newspaper for the South Australian Film Corporation: • We will stimulate and assist the film and video industry and community to achieve sustained economic and cultural benefits that are valued by the people of South Australia.defined not in terms of what your organisation does. but in terms of a basic defining need premise that leads that person [or entity] to consider doing business with your enterprise. something that can create value.
1-Planning The Strategic Management Process ANALYSE THE ENVIRONMENT IDENTIFY OPPORTUNITIES AND THREATS IDENTIFY OUR CURRENT MISSION and OBJECTIVES RE-ASSESS OUR MISSION and OBJECTIVES ANALYSE OUR RESOURCES IDENTIFY STRENGTHS and WEAKNESSES EVALUATE RESULTS IMPLEMENT STRATEGIES FORMULATE STRATEGIES 5 .
Equipment.Components.101 Business Checklists A Business Plan outline • Cover sheet • Table of contents • Statement of purpose INTRODUCTION DESCRIPTION OF THE BUSINESS • Company • Product / Service • Industry MARKET / COMPETITION ANALYSIS • SWOT analysis • Customers • Market size and trends • Competition • Projected Market share • Market development analysis PRODUCT DEVELOPMENT • Product status • Product design and development • Product changes • New product planning • Difficulties and risks MANUFACTURING / OPERATIONS • Processes • Equipment / Subcontracting • Facilities • Location • Costs . Labour • Inventories MARKETING / DISTRIBUTION • Comprehensive marketing strategy • Pricing • Sales / distribution channels • Customer service • Advertising and promotion MANAGEMENT / PERSONNEL • Organisation chart • Key management personnel • Duties and functions. evaluation and review technique (PERT) • Critical path method (CPM) USE OF FUNDS CRITICAL RISKS and PROBLEMS SUMMARY 6 . Plant. backgrounds • Management compensation / ownership • Board of Directors • Consultants / Advisors • Operating personnel DEVELOPMENT SCHEDULE • Programme.
to obtain finance. BUSINESS EVALUATION • Structure • Profile • Aims and objectives • Resource evaluation • Financial status • Service providers • S. to the person reading your plan.T.1-Planning A Business Plan format compliments of Sydney Business Centre The PURPOSE of This PLAN • Tell the person reading your plan why you are writing it ... to expand. what your business is all about. analysis PRODUCT EVALUATION • Market sectors • Pricing structures • Packaging THE MARKET • Market profile • Competitor analysis • Customer profile • Product / market fit • Selling function / distribution • Pricing • Advertising and promotion • Expansion strategies OPERATIONS PLAN • Current production capability and structure • Terms on purchasing • Supplier evaluation • Production process • Expansion plan continued on next page . 7 .W. to address growth.O. to explain to potential shareholders what your business plans to do. EXECUTIVE SUMMARY • A summary of your Business Plan written after you have completed the plan. • This should briefly explain and summarise in 1 or 2 pages.
101 Business Checklists
A Business Plan format
compliments of Sydney Business Centre
• Registration of intellectual property • Corporate structure - future • Financial liabilities etc. PERSONNEL / MANAGEMENT • Names, responsibilities, position. • Provide an organisational chart. • Conclusions FINANCIAL PLANNING • Sales forecast • Budget • Projected financial requirements • Capital requirements • Summary ACTION PLAN • Prepare a critical path analysis to tell the person reading the Plan: WHAT will happen HOW it will happen WHERE it will happen WHEN it will happen WHO will make it happen KEY INDICATORS • Measurements for the performance of the business APPENDICES • Supporting information
Family Financial Planning
Long term as well as short term financial planning is equally if not more important for the family enterprise as for public enterprises. Long term financial security and management succession may be influenced by family financial planning. It is generally accepted that the starting point in any planning procedure is to establish the objectives of the enterprise. Few family enterprises set out a formal list of financial and non-financial objectives. Such an exercise is not only important for financial planning but also for family communication and co-operation. An example of a list of possible family objectives could be: 1. Making the family, as a unit, financially independent. 2. Earning an adequate reward for the family for future retirement, and prosperity for children and relations. 3. Accepting an opportunity to contribute to a community or a region through the business. 4. Successful growth of the business, with separate outlets in various suburbs, country towns or cities. 5. Managing a business which is more than ‘small’ and a force to be reckoned with in the community. 6. Providing children with a career. 7. Training and employment of quality staff in special skills handed down from one generation to the next. 8. Accepting an opportunity to market an invention - at home and abroad. 9. Developing a business renowned for its effective and efficient operation. 10. Operating a business which yields high profits and has a rapid growth rate.
101 Business Checklists
A 12 Step Programme for Family Business Planning
1. Analyse past performance. 2. Use an Industry profile. 3. Identify critical factors for success. 4. Decide on family profit targets. 5. Set efficiency standards. 6. Plan several years ahead in summary 7. Detail next years plan by month by month. 8. Check sales projections. 9. Check expense expectations. 10. Project financial resources. 11. Prepare a weekly cash flow. 12. Use reports and graphs to control progress.
Our aims 5. Budget and supporting documents 6. Project management details 8.1-Planning Writing a Submission An outline FROM TO AIM OF THE PROJECT TOTAL BUDGET SOUGHT DATE OF SUBMISSION CONTACT PERSON INDEX 1. Introduction 2. Evaluation and review procedures 7. Nature and scope of the work 3. Further action 9. Attachments 11 . Current situation 4.
statistics. idea.with supporting documents. statements. 7. 2. Project management details 8. Time frame 5. Aim Key objectives .with supporting documents. effects. statistics. data. statements. data. What is not being done about it. theme.) 1. outcomes. 4. Introduction Our organisation Relationship of our organisation to the problem. Process of preparation of this submission.101 Business Checklists Writing a Submission An outline (cont. Our aims What we want to do about it. Nature and scope of the work / problem 3. Strategies and procedures. Specific objectives . Further action or direction at close of sponsoring period 9. Budget and supporting documents 6. Evaluation and review procedures Anticipated benefits. Attachments 12 . need. Current situation What is currently being done and by whom.
annual) budget and deviation Budget for month • Sales • Less .Cost of goods • Gross profit on sales • Less-Operating expenses • Sales commissions • Advertising • Wages • Power • P.E.1-Planning A BUDGET and BASIC RECORD KEEPING Monthly (or daily. tax • Sales tax • Super-annuation • Workcover • Office supplies • Insurance • Maintenance • Legal and Accounting • Deliveries • Licenses • Telephone • Others • Depreciation • Interest • Others Total expenses Net profit / loss Income Tax Net profit after Tax Actual for month Deviation for month 13 .A. weekly.Y.
2. Only ordinary income from operations will be included in calculating the profit contribution. Reorganising sales areas d. 3.O. The organisational unit covered by this profit plan is the total of the company’s operations on a consolidated basis. 5. Alternatives for increasing profitability a. Plans for obtaining objectives 14 .B.) A 5 Year Plan A. Raw material forecast 3. Redesigning packaging h. Marketing Plan 1. Adjusting size or shape of sales force e. Alternatives for increasing profitability a. 4.101 Business Checklists Managing by Objectives (M. 5. Production forecast and schedule 4. Revising advertising and promotion g. Maintaining optimal inventory levels b. Increasing the adequacy of manufacturing facilities (plant and equipment) c. Selecting a better location for manufacturing 2. Capital employed is defined as all assets at book value at the beginning of each year. Actions taken in any year must be consistent with the company’s long term best interests. Marketing strategy Market forecast Objectives Plans for obtaining the objectives C. Extraordinary income will be excluded. B. A reserve will be set aside for contingencies. Revising distribution and selling methods f. Varying the length of production runs or season e. Introducing new products b. Discontinuing or changing present products c. 4. Maximising availability and utilisation of raw materials and labour d. 3. Ground rules 1. Production Plan 1. Changing pricing policy 2. Varying the annual production required f.
1-Planning Managing by Objectives (M. Human Resources Plan 1. Objectives 4. Review of plans of operating departments to determine what services or support they will require 2. Engineering Plan 1. Research Department Plan 1. Paying a higher or lower price d. Plans for obtaining objectives 15 . Review of plans of operating departments to determine what services or support they will require 2. Obtaining materials of a different quality e. Objectives 4. Plans for obtaining objectives F. Objectives 4. Choosing new sources of supply b. Review of plans of operating departments to determine what services or support they will require 2. Plans for obtaining objectives E.) A 5 Year Plan D. Having different services provided 2. Review of departmental profit improvement opportunities 3. Purchasing forecast and schedule 3. Purchasing Plan 1. Objectives 4. Review of departmental profit improvement opportunities 3. Plans for obtaining objectives G. Alternatives for increasing productivity a. Changing timing of purchases c. Review of departmental profit improvement opportunities 3.B.O.
Track record to date b. Review of remainder of plan c. Plans for obtaining objectives J. Latest estimate d. Summary of profit contributions resulting from all operating plans 2.O. Method of amending or recording changes 16 . Review of procedures and schedules 1. Capital additions 3. Review of plans of operating departments to determine what services or support they will require 2.) A 5 Year Plan H. Objectives 4. 3. Plans for obtaining objectives I. Review of departmental profit improvement opportunities 3.B. Procedure for effecting changes in plan 1. Objectives 4.101 Business Checklists Managing by Objectives (M. Financial Plan 1. Revisions made in plan M. Review of plans of operating departments to determine what services or support they will require 2. Plan for capital management 5. 1. Review of departmental profit improvement opportunities 3. Content of review a. Performance Measures Type of measurement to be used Type and content of report or data Frequency To who addressed L. Finance Department Plan 1. Legal Department Plan 1. 2. Projected after-tax profit K. Persons who will authorise changes 2. Time and place of review 2. 4. Cash flow 4.
New wholesaler in market C has agreed to adopt plan early in .1-Planning Sample Objectives and Results 200x Goals Achieve a 9% increase in total packaged beer sales in district and 4% increase in total draught beer sales Completion date 31 December Secure or retain 100% distribution in each market in district Completion date 31 December Convince wholesalers. 3. D.. but no replacement at wholesaler C due to change Goal deleted due to change in wholesaler in market C. 17 . storage facilities Completion date 31 August Convince wholesalers. leaving three that are not yet properly identified. sales promotions.S.O.. and market c from 80% to 84% P. except in market C. Wholesaler A replaced one van.8% increase in draught beer Reached predetermined goals in 4 of 7 markets Wholesaler change accounts for slight decrease in sales in Market C Retained 100% distribution in markets D. Completion date 30 May Have every wholesaler truck in district painted to company specifications Completion date 30 March During 2001.O.. storage room constructed by all three wholesalers.O..S. F and G Market E increased form 97% to 100%. Meetings were maintained throughout the year. market B increased from 95% to 98%. programs. etc. A. market A increased from 72% to 91%. with third to be delivered by February 1997.. Will reinstate goal for ..2 % increase in packaged beer sales.S. where wholesaler has changed. Wholesaler E replaced two delivery vans. Succeeded in having eight more trucks painted to company specifications. C and G to adopt the key account program Completion date 30 May Replace 3 delivery vans at wholesaler C to add 1 driver-salesman and one draught beer specialist to his personnel Completion date 30 June Convince each wholesaler in district to establish and maintain regular weekly sales meetings to introduce new merchandising and P. Completed by June 1 Key account program adopted in market A in March and in market E in June. work at least one full day with each wholesaler field representative in the district Completion date 30 December Accomplishments 6. E and G to construct adequate P. Regular weekly sales meetings were established by each wholesaler by end of March.
. OUR VISION is to: OUR OBJECTIVES are to: KEY SUCCESS FACTORS to: ❐ Be ❐ Provide ❐ Minimise ❐ Facilitate ❐ Promote ❐ ❐ Contribute ❐ Support ❐ Facilitate ❐ Develop ❐ ❐ ❐ Create ❐ Maximise ❐ Protect ❐ ❐ ❐ OUR PROGRAM and AIMS PERFORMANCE FINANCIAL MARKETING SALES OTHERS ❐ ❐ ❐ ❐ ❐ ❐ ❐ ❐ ❐ ❐ ❐ ❐ ❐ ❐ ❐ ❐ ❐ ❐ ❐ ❐ ❐ ❐ ❐ ❐ ❐ OUR ACTIONS and TARGETS REPORT ❐ ❐ ❐ ❐ ❐ ❐ REVIEW ❐ ❐ ❐ ❐ ❐ ❐ SET ❐ ❐ ❐ ❐ ❐ ❐ RESTRUCTURE DEVELOP ❐ ❐ ❐ ❐ ❐ ❐ ❐ ❐ ❐ ❐ ❐ ❐ IDENTIFY ❐ ❐ ❐ ❐ ❐ ❐ PRIORITISE KEY ISSUES ❐ ❐ ❐ ❐ ❐ ❐ ❐ ❐ ❐ ❐ ❐ ❐ 18 ...........................................................................................................................101 Business Checklists Some quick prompts for a Strategic Plan Our Mission To achieve ......
2-Human Resources 2 Human Resources 19 .
teams SKILL BASE Multi skilling INNOVATION PROCESS POWER BASE Simultaneous Expertise. group COMPENSATION FOCUS 20 . skills DIFFERENTIAL STATUS CONTROL Low Internal. upon individuals Seniority NEW Flat Wide Multi directional Democratic. WORK RELATIONSHIPS WORK STRUCTURING Collaborative Groups. divisions Sequential Official position in hierarchy High External. assembly lines Specialisation.101 Business Checklists Organisational Structure Old and new paradigms OLD STRUCTURE SPAN OF CONTROL COMMUNICATION DECISION MAKING Tall Narrow Downward Autocratic participatory Competitive Departments. within groups Merit.
OVERALL RESPONSIBILITIES This section describes as concisely as possible the overall purpose of the job. The job titles of all the posts reporting directly to the job holder are given under this heading. supervises.).g. organising. ensures that. daily. Chronological order. 21 . etc. liaises with. planning. so far as possible.2-Human Resources Writing a Job Description The Job Description should be based on a detailed job analysis and be as factual and brief as possible. say. such as:• Frequency (hourly. prepares. MAIN TASKS Some suggestions for identifying the main tasks: • Identify and list the tasks that have to be carried out. completes. order of importance. No attempt is made to describe in detail how they are carried out. and the processes of management that are carried out. setting objectives. 7 or 8 main activity areas remain. Many people start paragraphs with an active verb. • Analyse the initial list of tasks and. weekly. operating. e. REPORTING TO The title of the manager or superior to whom the job holder is directly responsible is given under this heading. simplify the list by grouping related tasks together so that not more than. • State why it is done. thus indicating the purpose of the job and giving a lead for setting targets and performance standards. but some indication is given of the purpose or objectives of each task. • Decide on the order in which tasks should be described. recommends. directing and motivating staff and controlling. • State what is done as succinctly as possible. Some commonly used headings are: JOB TITLE The existing or proposed job title indicates as clearly as possible the function in which the job is carried out and the level of the job within that function. The aim being to convey in a few sentences a broad picture of the job which will clearly identify it from other jobs and establish the role of the job holder. co-ordinating. continually. • Describe each main task briefly in separately and in short numbered paragraphs.
How much responsibility for correct performance rests on the job holder. requirements for protection or special clothing. WORKING ENVIRONMENT / SAFETY HAZARDS Dirt. likelihood of injury to self or other. dust. PROBLEM SOLVING REQUIREMENTS The need for the job holder to exercise leadership. co-ordination and planning for others. PHYSICAL EFFORT REQUIREMENT Range of weights lifted. 22 . JOB DIMENSIONS The $ value of production. How long would a person need to be in the job to reach competent performance. standing or sitting.101 Business Checklists Writing a Job Description An alternate outline (POSITION DESCRIPTION) JOB TITLE NUMBER OF JOB HOLDERS DEPARTMENT TITLE OF MANAGER/SUPERVISOR FORM COMPLETED BY BASIC JOB PURPOSE State briefly the principal function of this position MAJOR TASKS JOB KNOWLEDGE Minimum schooling necessary to permit learning of this job and other training needed. awkward positions. sales this job influences and the nature of the influence on that value. noise. accounting. How much checking is there. FREEDOM TO MAKE DECISIONS What decisions are made by the job holder and what do they refer to their supervisor.
2-Human Resources Writing a Job Description An alternate outline (POSITION DESCRIPTION) POSITION POSITION STATUS FUNCTIONAL AREA RESPONSIBLE TO: SALARY and CONDITIONS PRIMARY RESPONSIBILITIES DUTIES ESSENTIAL SKILLS KNOWLEDGE and EXPERIENCE DESIRABLE SKILLS KNOWLEDGE and EXPERIENCE FORMAL QUALIFICATIONS REQUIRED PERFORMANCE INDICATORS 23 .
101 Business Checklists
Writing a Job Description
An alternate outline (POSITION DESCRIPTION) POSITION TITLE DIVISION IMMEDIATE SUPERVISOR EMPLOYMENT STREAM (Professional, Technical, Administration, Physical) PRIMARY OBJECTIVES A succinct statement of the overall purpose of the job. e.g. Plan, develop and oversee the implementation of financial policy to ensure expenditure does not exceed budget. SPECIFIC ACCOUNTABILITIES A summary of the position duties described in terms of what is done, who it is done for, when it is done, and why it is done. e.g. Analyse samples for Technical Officers to provide the department with monthly reporting statistics. AUTHORITIES / LIMITATIONS The extent of authority to undertake tasks, exercise delegations, or authorise expenditure without referral. SELECTION CRITERIA QUALIFICATIONS • Essential • Desirable EXPERIENCE • Essential • Desirable PERSONAL and INTERPERSONAL ATTRIBUTES • Essential • Desirable KNOWLEDGE • Essential • Desirable
Writing a Job Description
A Manager - Managing by Objectives (M.B.O.) JOB TITLE PURPOSE Management of Division X to achieve growth and profits according to approved plans RESPONSIBILITIES Planning to achieve long and short term objectives Monitoring the efficient execution of approved plans Development and administration of division policy and procedures and of standards of performance Implementation of corporate policies and procedures Marketing for Division X services Operations Maintenance Efficiency Job quality Safety Equipment design and construction supervision Personnel and financial services not provided by corporate office ACCOUNTABILITY Achieve pre tax profit of 11% on capital employed Achieve minimum sales of $27 million Achieve pre tax profit of $3 million Increase profit contribution at division level by 4% over 200x Develop at least one new product with potential sales volume of $100,000 annually
101 Business Checklists
Management - Staff
LET’S TALK ABOUT IT!
ACTIVITY Planning 1] Setting realistic work targets 2] Developing plans for jobs and projects 3] Anticipating problems 4] Managing work to achieve results within budget Working with others 5] Seeking feed back for self improvement 6] Listening to and understanding other’s viewpoints 7] Dealing with problem people and people problems Working with my boss 8] Being responsive to requests, suggestions of my supervisor 9] Proposing new ideas to my supervisor Managing people 10] Managing problem people 11] Giving clear directions 12] Establishing performance standards 13] Providing people with all the information they need to do the job Specific Job skills 14] Keeping up to date [knowledge] 15] 16] 17] 18] 19] This is a simple structure designed to help produce development plans for individuals. The questions and format are designed to explore two things: 1] What jobs and tasks are important, and how important - column 1 2] How well the important tasks are being done - column 2 Individuals could rate their importance of each item on a 1-5 scale, and their supervisor could do the same on a separate sheet. A discussion of similarities and gaps thus providing a development plan for the individual.
Importance in the job
How well implemented
which relate to work environments and advancement potential. Some of the factors that must be considered when answering these questions are desired income. values and priorities. Goal analysis takes time. autonomy and company size. 4. or 4 in the spaces following each item to show the group to which the item has been assigned. 2. 3. job security.2-Human Resources Setting personal goals and objectives In setting personal goals and objectives. 9. 15. 5. putting the four most important to you in the top group and the four least important to you in the bottom group. it is difficult to plan how to get there. Salary Job title Job security Fringe benefits Promotion policies Work associates Immediate superior Travel requirements Reputation of company Clear job responsibilities Supervisory responsibilities Career development activities Participation in decision making Freedom in working environment Company policies and procedural manual 16. In-service educational opportunities 27 . 10. independence. Rate them by first dividing the items into four groups. 6. 14. 13. 11. Place the numerals 1. and so forth. amount of travel. but without some idea of where you want to go. Assign the other eight to the two middle groups in a similar manner. 7. 12. 3. 8. geographical location. 1. what job would it be? The best way to determine what you really want out of life is to answer such questions honestly. you should ask yourself the following questions: What kinds of tasks or activities have I enjoyed the most? What kinds of tasks or activities have I enjoyed the least? If I could have any job I wanted. 2. can help you find out. What are your priorities? The list of factors in the next column. For the top group. you will have clearer understanding of your goals. you should go a step further and rank the four items from most important to second most important. What price are you prepared to pay to get ahead? Are you willing to move whenever and wherever you firm dictates? When you answer these questions.
101 Business Checklists Assessing Changes in Effectiveness as a Result of Training ACHIEVING GOALS • Increased product / service quality • Increased output • Increased productivity INCREASING RESOURCEFULNESS • Increased market share • Increased employee versatility • Moving into new markets SATISFYING CUSTOMERS • Improved company and / or functional image • Reduced complaints and goods returned • Increased proportion of on time deliveries IMPROVING INTERNAL PROCESSES • Increased group cohesiveness • Increased quality of supervision • Help resolve departmental boundary problems • Increasing managers’ ability to set realistic and tangible objectives for their departments 28 .
2-Human Resources Observing as an Evaluative Technique Categories for observing individual interactions Behaviour Proposing Building Supporting Disagreeing Defending / attacking Blocking / difficulty stating Open behaviour Testing understanding Summarising Seeking information Shutting out Bringing in Frequency Specific incidents 29 .
instruct and train STEP 5 : Supervise STEP 1: Use the best person for the job Comply with the Equal Opportunity Act Reduce the risk of injury Undertake a job review to help you to: Obtain a clear understanding of the duties Identify any problems with the job which may affect employee safety and efficiency. handling tasks. electricity. heat. noise. dust obstacles. Clarify the skills and abilities required Find out what sort of information and training should be given to the worker By the end of the review you should have a list of all the tasks the worker will be required to do: Daily Weekly / monthly On a seasonal or ad hoc basis STEP 2: The best way to prevent injuries is to make the job as safe as you reasonably can.101 Business Checklists Occupational Health and Safety (O. 30 . machinery or equipment.H.) Preventing Injuries Injuries to workers can be reduced by following five steps: STEP 1 : Review the job STEP 2 : Reduce the risk STEP 3 : Use the right person STEP 4 : Inform. By making the job safer for everyone By complying with health and safety laws By identifying the hazards Looking at the job Listening to experienced workers Looking at past injury records HAZARDS include chemicals.&S.
Provide personal protective equipment STEP 3 : The criteria for selecting employees should have a direct and logical relationship to the duties of the job. instruction and training on: The hazards and risks associated with their job How to do their job safely What to do if they are injured This information may be given verbally or in writing: As safe work procedures or policies. Provide training 6.&S. Introduce administrative controls 5. instruction. Engineer out the problem 4. training and supervision as are necessary to ensure that each employee is safe from injury and risks to health. or in a combination of these ways 31 . or show them a copy and where it is kept in your workplace. 2.2-Human Resources Occupational Health and Safety (O. and either give the new worker a copy. POLICY Explain the company policy on health and safety. INFORMATION. Never make assumptions about a person’s ability to do a job based on their physical appearance. in off-the-job training sessions. The questions you ask job applicants must be a direct test of whether the applicant is able to meet those requirements. Substitute the hazard or risk 3. INSTRUCTION and TRAINING Provide workers with information. It is quite acceptable to ask job applicants. as part of on-the-job training and supervision.H. In practical terms. employers must provide employees with: Such information. Eliminate the hazard or risk 2.) The most effective ways of reducing the risks are (in order of preference) 1. 1.) Preventing Injuries (cont. ‘Do you have a pre-existing injury or medical condition that would affect your ability to do this work?’ STEP 4 : Under the OHS&W Act. this means that employers must be certain to cover the following three key points when a worker starts a job that is new to them.
Performance indicators which focus on the quality of inputs designed to prevent injury and disease and decrease associated costs may include measures such as: Frequency of OHS meetings OHS assessments included in performance appraisals The number of OHS training courses conducted The number of OHS hazard audits conducted The number of audited problems rectified Reductions in exposure to hazards Outcomes of compliance audits 32 . instruction and training as are necessary to ensure that each employee under his or her management or supervision is.) Preventing Injuries (cont. Focusing only on outcomes measured by lost time injury rates is not the best way of measuring performance. you must ensure the worker: Is aware of the hazard or risk Knows what the short and long term effects on their health could be if safe work procedures are not followed. The OHS&W Act requires employers to: Ensure that any manager or supervisor is provided with such information. Supervision is also crucial in monitoring the workplace and work systems to ensure they are safe. With each health risk associated with the job. so far as is reasonably practicable. performance indicators should include measures which demonstrate what is being done to prevent injury.) 3.&S. Performance Indicators In measuring productivity gains arising from improved health and safety.H. Knows what to do in case of an injury or illness STEP 5: SUPERVISE The supervision of new workers is very important to ensure they develop and maintain the skills and abilities needed to perform tasks competently and with a minimum risk of injury. safe from injury and risk to health.101 Business Checklists Occupational Health and Safety (O. while at work. SUPERVISION Make sure they are supervised by someone who can answer questions about doing the job safely.
Agreements which establish targets for reductions in lost time injury rates.H. IN AN EMERGENCY In case of an emergency what would you do? Do have phone numbers handy for? AMBULANCE FIRE POLICE WATER POWER COUNCIL 33 .) Preventing Injuries (cont. run the risk of promoting or rewarding under-reporting of workplace accidents and injuries. Increases in absenteeism and sick leave may also be inadvertent consequences.) Reductions in lost time injuries is a common performance indicator in many existing agreements.&S. Monitoring trends in injury rates is only one aspect of managing workplace health and safety. especially when linked to performance pay or other incentive schemes such as prizes for accident free periods.2-Human Resources Occupational Health and Safety (O.
SKILLS. Loading and unloading trucks Collision Drop load Maintenance Proper loading dock Injury Signage Safe loading practices Lifting techniques Instruction Training Stock damage Fumes Lifting devices Supervision 34 .g.101 Business Checklists A Safety Management Checklist Typical TASK CONTROLS HAZARDS and RISKS KNOWLEDGE. INFORMATION QUALIFICATIONS and TRAINING e. ABILITY.
and participate in. job sharing. customers. or mechanistically? Do you consult your work force about likely changes and invite their cooperation? Does your organisation aim to develop fully the potential of individuals throughout their careers? How do you assess employees for retraining? Are your contacts with schools. shareholders and the community? Are you familiar with the mainstreams of technical change as they affect your organisation? Do you know how to obtain information and advice? Do you intend to initiate change? Is your organisation keeping pace with the technology in your industry? Are new technologies likely to undermine your own competitive position? Are you investing sufficiently in R&D and product development to provide product and market leadership opportunities? Is there resistance to change in the organisation? Is management receptive to change and practised in its implementation? Are all employees informed about. and the community sufficiently close? Is there scope for a relaxation of some of the traditional habits of employment? (Flexible hours.) Is the perpetuation of privileges and distinctions at different levels of the organisation generally acceptable? 35 . phased retirement. part time work. decisions affecting them directly? Is the participation genuine or contrived? When introducing technological changes do you think them out in terms of the needs of people.2-Human Resources Human Resources Is the correct priority being given to the interests of employees.
10. Compensation: the pay for the amount of work done.technical: the competence of my supervisor in making decisions. Advancement: the chance for advancement. Social status: the chance to be recognised in the community. 13. Co-workers: the way co-workers get along with each other. 6. 2. Working conditions: the amount of comfort and safety on the job. Creativity: the chance to try doing things my way. 17. 4. Activity: the chance to be busy all the time.human relations: the way the boss handles subordinates. 15. 12. 3. Achievement: the feeling of accomplishing something at work. 11. Authority: the chance to tell other people what to do. Supervision . 16. Community service: the chance to do things for other people. Ethical values: the chance to do things that do not go against my conscience or ethics. 19. Responsibility: the freedom to use my personal judgement. 5. 20. 9. Company policies and practices: the way company policies are put into place. Independence: the chance to work without supervision. 14. Security: the provision of steady employment in my job. Ability utilisation: the chance to do something with my abilities. 7.101 Business Checklists 20 Work related needs -a workers needs and requests 1. 36 . Recognition: the praise for doing a good job. 18. Supervision . Variety: the chance to do different things from time to time. 8.
which is given to all employees when they commence working for the company.) Christmas bonus Savings plan Profit .sharing plan Suggestion awards Service awards 7] These special services are for you Credit union Education plans Medical dispensary Employee purchases Cafeteria Monthly magazine Social club Annual outing. Use of telephones How to air complaints 6] These are your benefits Holidays Rostered days off Work insurance Hospital and medical benefits Free parking Training program 6] These are your benefits (cont. etc.a suggested outline As a component of their Human Resources policy an organisation should have an employee handbook. & S. H. This handbook could contain information on the following: 1] Welcome message 2] History of the organisation 3] This is our business 4] You and your future 5] What you will need to know Working hours Reporting to work ‘Time clock’ Rest periods Absence from work Reporting absences Employment record Pay period Shift premiums O. Sporting activities 8] Index / table of contents 37 .2-Human Resources An employee handbook .
The interview must be a valid reflection of the company behind it. good. Nod agreement. optimism or defeat? Is this person really interested in their work? Do they have a strong sense of industry? Will they enhance the productivity of the workplace. 38 . Let it be the other person’s interview. boring. Look for something about the other person you like and mention it. Would you feel comfortable going to lunch with this person? Are they socially aware. of course. and observe how the interviewee responds. firmness and dryness of handshake. Consider how this person makes you feel. Although it is natural to avoid conflict. Smile! Make positive comments like. The interview begins the moment the other person walks in the door. Be patient and take your time to discover the other person. Remember you are trying to see how the other person functions at their best. and listen. a drain. The best way to make people feel comfortable is to respond positively every time they do well. poised. Avoid dominating the interview. Once the other person starts to talk. let them. ‘What happened here?’. Do they feel comfortable with their style or is it for impression? Is this person reaching or are they understated? If you are hiring someone to project the company image.101 Business Checklists Job Interviews . Ask yourself how you feel in the other person’s presence. sincere. use it to discover something about the other person. it is useful to bring up strengths in their resume. Pay attention to your first impression. and act positively. It must have integrity. ‘Yes. or setting rigid goals. confidence projected and tone of voice. Be appreciative. I see and I agree’. Look at the other person’s appearance. or a privilege? What is the feeling the other person projects.What will I ask? Before the interview know what you are looking for and prepare a list of features you are looking for. sincerity and honesty. every aspect of their appearance is important. Do you like being with them? What contribution do you think this person would make to the mood of the people around them? Ask yourself what it would be like to work with this person on a daily basis. Ask yourself why you feel this way. exactly. Consider their sense of style. including taste in clothes. Some people don’t function well under stress and any interview situation unnerves them. Would it be depressing. Allow the other person to talk. Try to get an idea of the other person’s thinking. With such people. Ask. should conflict occur. and confident? Do you feel any embarrassment for them or being with them. inspiring.
the following summary could be a useful assessment: Ranking • APPEARANCE • PERSONALITY • MATURITY • APTITUDE • OBJECTIVES • EXPERIENCE • EDUCATION • OVERALL ASSESSMENT • OTHERS • • 1. 5. 10 39 . 7. 9. 8. 2. 3. 4. 6.2-Human Resources An Interview Evaluation After an interview.
. 40 . Product training. Visit sales territory with sales manager or mentor. You are on employed on a trial / probationary period or basis. Details of publications available to the staff member. and special consideration should be given to their questions and needs until they become familiar with day to day procedures.101 Business Checklists Induction The induction process should allow the supervisor to gain information about the new recruit and introduce them to the company and the rest of the team. such as: Wages are paid weekly / fort nightly etc. Use of telephone Mail and filing room procedures Use of office equipment in general. Travel or meal reimbursement policies. Payroll procedures. New staff should be given and/or made familiar with: A LETTER of ENGAGEMENT detailing pertinent and relevant terms and conditions of employment. Keys or passes for access to buildings. positions and responsibilities of other staff in the firm. A list of staff names. Regular communication for first weeks. Details of office or business hours. Staff evaluation policy. should be an important part of the Induction period. Staff procedures. Wages are paid in cash / to a bank account. Meetings with various key people. Holiday Policy Sick leave policy. Ensure a meeting on the first day. Have a work area and materials prepared. Time reporting policy. New staff should be made to feel welcome to the business right from the outset. Further Training in learning about the company’s products and systems is part of the Induction process. Training. You are employed on a daily / weekly / casual / permanent basis. based on the Job Description. Visits to various sections for orientation. The recruit should be made comfortable working with the rest of the team and be ready to contribute results as soon as possible.
organisation. markets. Pinpointing problem areas Matching these with the requirements of the Job Description Conducting a Training Needs Analysis Developing the methods to deliver this training • Methods for individual development. Recommend . Induction Manual. specification and Job needs . Look at what resources are available. Talk to to the supervisors involved. etc. external courses) • Methods for group development Delivering the program The results of any changes in performance should be noted and communicated to the people concerned. products and other areas. Many organisations carry out TRAINING NEEDS ANALYSIS on an annual basis. Identify the skills required to do the job.g. 41 .objectives. plans.objectives and policies and establish additional ones if necessary. Establish areas of major importance. Human Resources manual.competitors. trends. Evaluation and redesign to meet current needs What training does the organisation have in order to meet objectives. etc. reporting and control. Review . Examine relationships with management.customers. Talk to to the people involved. promotion. Have prior learning assessed. goals and targets which have been set? What training does the organisation have in order to meet National Standards. (e. administration. Examine areas of major importance . Appraise objectives. Examine . others. advertising. implementation. TRAINING NEEDS ANALYSIS should involve: Previewing the Job Description. Look at what resources are required. Determine objectives and policies. A SURVEY TO ASCERTAIN THESE NEEDS WILL: Ask staff to demonstrate their competence. plans. Is the Job Description and specification up to date? Reviewing the performance of each person Evaluating the abilities and background of each person. service. pricing.2-Human Resources Training Needs Analysis To analyse the training requirements of a work team involves preparing a summary of the various steps involved.the standard for the job. distribution.
which is not the case. The total cost to the employer when added will give a ‘package value’. The total value of an employment package can comprise provision of some of the following perquisites and / or other items.PRIVATE HOUSING PERSONAL and FAMILY TRAVEL INSURANCE SCHOOL FEES TAX ADVICE CAR PARKING EMPLOYEE DISCOUNTS HOLIDAYS EXPENSE ACCOUNT CLOTHING ALLOWANCE OTHERS 42 .101 Business Checklists A Package What is a salary package? Many people are confused when they read job advertisements offering ‘packages’. and some assume that the dollar value mentioned equates to the take home salary or wage. BASE WAGE / SALARY BONUS COMMISSION SUPER-ANNUATION USE OF A VEHICLE TELEPHONE .
though very few people would agree to the premise that they are doing (being allowed) what they want to do and being used to their full potential. TASK • Manipulating to perform • Money for unpleasant jobs FEELINGS EVOKED/RESULTS Disheartenment Working for a price Question own values • Threaten and manage by fear Eventually become accustomed to threat Ignore threats and find own comfort level • Increase productivity attempts Short lived gains • External rewards Erosion of effectiveness When expected. has no motivating effect Requires ever increasing rewards Short lived.2-Human Resources Productivity and Motivation Most businesses suffer a common problem in motivating their people to greater productivity. In simplistic terms the answer is to identify their needs and employ their strongest talents. Quick adjustment Company cannot afford these offers Cynical acceptance Ineffective due to inflation and taxes Does not permit a change in life style No real incentive to produce Usually viewed as merited and expected Short lived gratitude Powerful and often lasting motivator Lack of self esteem Start looking for alternative job Many almost bankrupt companies have been saved by increased worker participation Must be a genuine threat Self motivation • Offers appealing to greed • Minor wage increases • Threat of losing job • Provide stimulus • Identify and tap into people’s Best way of increased inner drives productivity See that people are matched with their capabilities and preferences 43 .
................ Position..... conformity... -3 -2 -1 0 +1 +2 +3 Name .............................. authority and responsibility limits...... ambition........... neatness.... quality..... other..... appearance.......................................................... other.. others..... -3 -2 -1 0 +1 +2 +3 SELF ORGANISATION Work planning... Date............ TOTAL RATING.....101 Business Checklists A Performance Review JOB PERFORMANCE Quantity... other.. -3 -2 -1 0 +1 +2 +3 SELF MOTIVATION Initiative... other.............................. job... other............. -3 -2 -1 0 +1 +2 +3 JOB KNOWLEDGE Procedures....... compliance. regulations....... company........................ personal goals..................... persuasiveness.... Since last review • Improvement? • Deterioration? • No change 44 ......................... other -3 -2 -1 0 +1 +2 +3 CO-OPERATION Work relationships.... economy of operation...... -3 -2 -1 0 +1 +2 +3 PRESENCE Personality.... time control... -3 -2 -1 0 +1 +2 +3 COMMUNICATION Expression....................... fluency.................. -3 -2 -1 0 +1 +2 +3 ATTITUDE Towards management........... other.......
.... with personal ambitions subordinated to this goal....... Do you feel that the person has the capacity to grow in case the business expands in size and activity? ..Doubtful 45 ..... Wants to use their position as a stepping stone to a major position elsewhere....Yes.......2-Human Resources A Rating Form for Management How well does the person? Plan a broad programme for their division or store? Carry out the current programme? Make wise and prompt decisions? Delegate authority to subordinates? Personally supervise subordinates? Review and evaluate work of subordinates? Make contacts with outside organisations? Manage sales growth? Handle stock and expense control? Not Poorly Adequately Excellently observed In your estimation.............. which of the following best describes the person’s attitude towards their organisation? Dedicated to helping it reach its objectives.....No. Wants to establish a secure position for them self with the organisation..
sour faces • Staff openly discussing their discontent and grievances WHAT CAUSES LOW MORALE? Some common (and often easily rectified) causes: Inaccessible management Poor communication Unrealistic goals Hard to understand goals Aloof management Poor leadership by management Lack of coaching by management Bloated hierarchy (or workers think so) Poor job placement Poor work environment No room for promotion or advancement Lack of understanding of job responsibilities 46 THE HIGH MORALE ENVIRONMENT • Interesting work • Innovation welcomed • A sense of accomplishment • Recognition of effort • Fair treatment of people • Responsibility • Appropriate compensation • Attractive work conditions • Opportunities for personal growth • Feeling important • A sense of belonging • Opportunities for advancement .101 Business Checklists Does your workplace suffer from morale problems? Some common and often overlooked signs of morale problems: • Poor and uncooperative attitudes • Lack of enthusiasm • Lack of commitment • ‘Them and us’ mentality • Nit picking and fault finding • High. and growing levels of complaints • Absenteeism • Negativity • General tardiness • Poor appearance of the work place • Lack of discipline • Long.
2-Human Resources Communication and Image SELF IMAGE I think I really am • A person who exerts major control and influence • Struggling with some personal relationships at work • A person who has to work twice as hard as everyone else to be certain of success • Struggling entrepreneur • Discount retailer • A wonderful manager • Struggling to be an effective manager • A person who is unusually unlucky and misses out on things that come easily to others • A person who is not valued or appreciated nearly as much as I would like PROJECTED IMAGE I want others to see A really important link in the company A high achiever EXTERNAL IMAGE Others actually see A bossy secretary with an inflated view of their own importance An abrasive manager A hard worker who can handle any given task Successful tycoon Market leader Price setter An unflappable doer A nice person and caring manager Someone who deserves extra help to make up for being so unlucky A valuable asset to my group. without whom they could not succeed A workaholic who pushes them self twice as hard as necessary Battling to survive Alternate. secondary supplier An egotistical plodder An impotent manager who can’t make decisions Someone who always complains about being unlucky to gain an advantage over others A person who tries to take all the credit for group efforts 47 .
101 Business Checklists What blocks Business Communication? Language Loathing / hatred Mind set Noise Non verbal cues Office layout Office politics Territorial barriers and boundaries People making assumptions in areas where they have no information and or expertise Perception Selective perception Attention seeking for positive achievements Complicated internal procedures Criticise almost everything Delegating the communication of negative news Discourage people from talking to you about problems Display petty company rules on notice boards Encourage infighting Having separate car parks for ‘staff and workers’ Having separate toilet facilities for ‘staff and workers’ Ignoring company initiatives 48 .
what does my prospect really want to buy 18. A good listener 11. Anticipating concerns / objections TOTAL Scoring 1 = Always or yes Scoring 2 = Usually Scoring 3 = Sometimes Scoring 4 = Rarely Scoring 5 = Never or no A total of 85 . 12. 14. Aware of my customer’s needs and focus Aware of any customer problem areas Aware of the clients special requirements Aware of the identity of the buyers superior Observing competitor activity 16.100 help! 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 3 3 3 3 3 4 4 4 4 4 5 5 5 5 5 How did you fare? A total of 20 . Perceptive . • Get some one else to rate you after you have done the test and compare. 13.2-Human Resources Are you an effective Communicator? • Rate yourself with this simple test.84 need work 49 . Able to restate my prospect’s need accurately 20. 9. Thinking .I hear what is not said as well as what is said 17. 6. 7. 3. posture and expression 10. IN A BUSINESS ENVIRONMENT. 2. 4. 5. 15. Relaxed and alert 19. 8. Assertive Honest Confident about myself A believer in my company/ product/ service Enthusiastic 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 NEVER 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 Outgoing Focused on my objective Professional in my manner and dress Have good body language. I AM USUALLY: ALWAYS 1.40 excellent A total of 41 -59 good A total of 60 .
101 Business Checklists What motivates an employee? Some of the most popular and common methods employers use to improve the performance of their staff are: • BASIC COMPENSATION PLANS • COMPETITIONS. based on performance • BONUS PAYMENTS Some other commonly used methods are: • Informal appraisal and discussion systems • Changes to job responsibilities and conditions • Specialised training • Promotions and/or the opportunity for promotion However individuals tend to have a far different ranking as to what motivates them. recognition. and if a vehicle is supplied .is it perceived as a better vehicle than the persons work mates are supplied with? 50 . at informal debriefing sessions. perhaps someone should be asking. with money issues rarely discussed. A recent survey shows: Element Ranking Achievement 41 Recognition 33 Nature of work 26 Responsibility 23 Advancement 20 Wages / money 15 When discussing motivation. or in places like a hotel where many employees meet at the end of the week. Informal ‘drinks’ sessions at the end of the week at work or in a nearby venue are excellent ways of informal motivation and receiving feedback about morale. office furniture and decor. the nature of their work. Invariably the work issues they are discussing are achievement. why? Recognition can include things like the size and position of the office. or attend these sessions. their responsibilities and their prospects for advancement. If people are unwilling to stay for. I always like to ask people what they talk about at the end of the week after work.
I had the freedom to make the necessary decisions to do my work properly. I thoroughly understood what was expected of me. In this engagement we set very high standards for performance. Team meetings were conducted in a way that builds trust and mutual respect. I was actively encouraged to volunteer new ideas and make suggestions for improvement. Help was available when I needed to have questions answered. I received prompt feedback on my work.2-Human Resources Rating your Manager This rating form can be used by staff to rate their managers Rate on a scale of 1 (strongly disagree) to 5 (strongly agree). When assigned tasks. it was done in a constructive way. whether good or bad. My work made good use of my knowledge and ability. I felt I was a member of a well functioning team. I was kept informed of things I needed to know to do my job properly. I understood how they fitted into the overall aims for the engagement. When corrected for something I did or omitted. My work was interesting and challenging. I received good coaching to help me improve my performance. Others Others TOTAL 51 Agree 4 5 . Disagree 1 2 3 When assigned tasks. My engagement helped to learn and grow.
101 Business Checklists 3 Marketing 52 .
COMPETITOR STRENGTHS and WEAKNESSES 11. KEY SUCCESS FACTORS 8. STRATEGIES 12. BACKGROUND 2. MARKETING PLAN SUMMARY • Business definition Business direction 4. DIRECTION 3. SUPPORTING APPENDICES a) Introduction b) Economic factors • Social / cultural issues • Demographic issues • Technological • Ecological • Industry analysis c) Customer analysis d) Competitor analysis • 53 . ASSUMPTIONS and RISKS 7.3-Marketing A Marketing Plan outline 1. MAJOR BUSINESS STRATEGIES 5. SWOT ANALYSIS 9. PRODUCT BY COMPETITION 10. ACTION CALENDAR and REVIEW 13. FINANCIAL OBJECTIVES 6.
P.local and national Flyers Gift certificates Give aways Grand opening Guarantees Help lines 54 Host or hostess to greet customers Image.supermarkets.print.V.set one! Bulletin boards . radio.put information about your business with every item you sell Take-one displays Telemarketing Testimonials Tracking .advertise with your vendors Co-op referral lists Coupons Cross promotions Customer appreciation programs birthday cards. journals .what do you do better? Signage Sponsorships Stuffers . Billboards Board of Directors . year Customer service Customer surveys Demonstrations Direct mail Direct response advertisements Directories Displays Expanded business hours Fairs . speeches.publicise your awards Balloons and Blimps Barter. Incentives Inserts In-service training Lead boxes.work with them and donate product Contests Co-operative advertising . . Leads clubs Letters to the editor Logo Mailing lists Name of your business New business requests Newsletter Novelty items Off pricing Packaging Phone hold messages Premiums .value added extras Press (media) kit Public service announcements Quality Radio programs Rebate programs Reprints of press articles Sales letters Sampling Seminars. Advertorials Articles Awards .where did the customer hear about you? Trade shows T-shirts U. T. Budgets .101 Business Checklists Implementing the Marketing Plan Some suggestions on how you can implement your Marketing Plan Advertising agencies Advertising media . charging for delivery Word of mouth Writing .S. month. etc.Unique selling points Value-added service warranties.it does convey your message? Business meals Catalogues Charities .articles for books. letters Customer of the weeks. workshops Serial appointments Shop your competitors .market them as a resource Brochures. Bundling (piggy backing) combine your product and another Business cards .
3-Marketing A Marketing Expenditure Plan Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep TELEVISION • Airtime • Production PRINT • Newspapers • Magazines • Trade Press • Production RADIO • Airtime • Production POSTERS CONSUMERS PROMOTIONS SAMPLING LEAFLETS POINT OF SALE MATERIAL PUBLIC RELATIONS SPONSORSHIPS TOTAL ADVERTISING SELLING / SALES FORCE SALES LITERATURE SALES SAMPLES EXHIBITIONS and DISPLAYS SALES DATA SALES RESEARCH TOTAL SELLING COSTS TOTAL MARKETING BUDGET 55 .
Data analysis The data collected are tabulated. 5. 4. The methods and procedures to be used are indicated. 2. Collection of data Here the analyst details the data sources to be consulted. The recommendations must be supported by the data that has been collected. Quite often. Often they are tried out and modified. 6. Preliminary study The second step of the research process includes a representative coverage of the field. wholesalers and retailers. Situation analysis This first step consists of surveying all available information related to the company objective. Market research will : Help establish market focus Gain valuable information. The purpose is to reach an understanding of the problems involved.The Steps 1. a formal research plan is devised. Recommendations The report of findings includes the specific recommendations of the researcher. 56 . Selection of research designs Based on step 2.101 Business Checklists Market Research . 3. examined and interpreted. both primary and secondary sources of data are collected. A set of guidelines is developed. The market analyst might interview consumers. Save time and money long term. Report of findings A written report management. is prepared for submission to company 7. Demonstrate if there is a need for the product or service.
Determining the potential size of a market. e. B. Reading business publications. Personal surveys.. Determining what the market place really wants. Determining the price points the product can be sold at. Financial Review Talking to personal and business contacts Case studies Using libraries Experiments Interviews Surveys Questionnaires Direct and indirect methods Some very effective market research.W.R.g. Determining if the target audience will buy the product or service. Determining the best way of packaging the product or service. What do think of this new product? Would your company stock it? What price would you like to see it sell for? Is the packaging effective? What mark up does your industry require? How many do think you could sell? 57 .3-Marketing Market Research Market research can involve: Determining the size of an existing market. hardware products can be carried out by contacting the sales staff on the shop floor. on for instance. Determining if there is need for the product or service. Market research can be carried out by: Contacting prospects by telephone. Valuable information can be gleaned quickly and cost effectively.
spoilage. What share of market can be obtained by when? 3. How much will each buy. What will be needed from a bank. Who will personally perform the selling functions? 4. retail. Where will the money come from? What if more is needed? 5.? 7. How will the advantages be maintained? Buyer Decisions 1. and why? 2. Where are these people located. agents. How much will be needed for working capital? 4. Who will have to be hired. How will returns and service be handled? 10. Which assumptions in projections are most uncertain? 7. How will competence in each area of the business be ensured? 2. To which assumptions are profits most needed? 6. and scraps be handled? People 1. Will it be legal? Competitive Advantages 1. selling? 2. What records will be needed for development of product / service? 2.wholesale. What specific sales targets can be met? 8. How will replacements be obtained if key people leave? 4. etc. Can the product / service actually work? 2. How much will be spent on advertising. and how will they be sold? Marketing 1. What will the specific competitive advantages be? 2. and how will they feel about it? 58 . How will prices be set. accountants be chosen? 5. What channels will be used . and how will it be determined? 6. advisors. When and how will investors get their money back? 9. How much will be needed for setting up operations? 3. Will any special controls be needed? Who will take care of it? Finance 1. What will be the return on equity and sales.101 Business Checklists A checklist of basic Marketing questions Basic Feasibility 1. Who will decide to buy. Will special benefit plans have to be arranged? Control 1. How will pilferage. What are those of the existing competitors? 3. and how many people are there? 3. Can orders be obtained before starting the business? How soon? 9. How important is location. packaging. How will lawyers. and how will they compare to competition? 5. waste. compared to industry? 8. and when? How will they be found and recruited? 3. How much will be needed for development of product / service? 2.
etc.a preliminary questionnaire What business are you (really) in? What are your business objectives? What are your personal objectives? What are the strengths of your business? What are the weaknesses of your business? What are the opportunities? What are the threats . which product or service? What are the most critical issues hindering the achievement of your business objectives? What makes you competitive? • • • • • • • • • • POSITION PRICE SERVICE QUALITY UNIQUENESS EXPERIENCE CONTACTS PAYMENT TERMS WARRANTY OTHERS 59 o Yes o Yes o Yes o Yes o Yes o Yes o Yes o Yes o Yes o Yes o No o No o No o No o No o No o No o No o No o No . when is the peak period? Do you follow up customers (by phone or mail). secretary. asking if they are satisfied? What are your average monthly sales? Is any product significantly more profitable than others? If yes.3-Marketing The Marketing Audit . which product or service? Is any product significantly less profitable than others? If yes. answering machine.) Can you demonstrate the effectiveness of your product to consumers? How? Do you accept credit cards? Do you offer a bonus? Are there new products you can offer? What are they? Is your business seasonal? If yes.current and future? What makes your competitors stand out? Who needs you? How do customers find you? How do customers find out about your competitors? Your top 20 clients represent what proportion of your business? Who is the contact point for potential customers? (partner.
were those impressions lasting and accurate? Does your business have a Company Profile. which outlines your: Experience Customers Skills Qualifications Products Service Warranties Specialties etc.What type of IMAGE does your company project? First impressions really are important and do count Just think back to the first impressions you gained when you first met some one. When a customer opens a letter or receives promotional literature from your company. With the benefit of hindsight. 60 . that you can give to prospective clients.101 Business Checklists Image . Is it well presented? On quality paper? Well printed? Present your company in its best light? When a customer receives an invoice from your company: Is it easy and inviting to read and easy to understand? Does it stand out from the flood of other invoices? Does its appearance encourage the customer to pay it? When a customer visits your premises what impression do they get? Are there cobwebs on the front door? Are the premises inviting? Is the reception area cluttered? How does the receptionist greet them? Do they feel welcome? Do they feel like doing business with you again? Do you use your reception area to: Highlight and display your company’s products? Display special qualifications? Display Trade and Industry awards? Display company literature? Does your shop or store have a total concept? How are your products packaged? Could your packaging be improved? What would it take you to present a better image? What would it cost you to present a better image? Never forget that the presentation and image of your company and its products. can and does have a marked effect on sales.
Media selection is important. have an aura of real news • Radio. Is co-operative advertising appropriate? 4. have a calm authority • Newspapers. Should you use the same advertisement in all media? 5. What should be the NICHE message? 3.3-Marketing Advertising . Does the advertisement hold and attract attention? 6. 9. is a friendly voice • Television. Does the advertisement have a catchy headline? 7. FREE are good words to use in your copy. 10. outdoor showmanship • Magazines. 8. What are you advertising? 2. for splashy. NEW. Photographs or graphics add interest. What integrated promotions can you run in conjunction? Which type of media should I use? Many advertisers take the following into account when selecting their media: • Billboards. provides excitement 61 .10 quick points 1.
will they listen to you If a problem develops are you kept informed UNDERSTANDING CUSTOMERS Making the effort to know customers and their needs Are you recognised as a regular customer Does the organisation try to determine your special needs Is the level of service what the customer expects Will the organisation accommodate your needs and schedule 62 . believability. and a friendly contact person Does the staff member have a pleasant demeanour Does the contact act busy or rudely when questioned Is the telephone answered promptly and politely Do they take appropriate precautions against damage CREDIBILITY Trustworthiness.. equipment.10 aspects of service quality TANGIBLES Appearance of physical facilities. risk and doubt Is it safe for me to use the organisations services Can the organisation locate my records Are my confidential details safe from misuse Can I be confident that my order / job will be done properly ACCESS Approachability and ease of contact How easy is to talk to senior staff with a problem Is it easy to make contact with the right person by phone Does the organisation have a toll free phone number Is the service / repair facility conveniently located COMMUNICATION Keeping customers informed in language they can understand. staff and communications Are your premises attractive Are the staff appropriately dressed Is the sales literature easy to understand Are the tools / equipment used modern and appropriate RELIABILITY Ability to perform the promised service dependably and accurately Do the staff keep their promises Do sales staff follow order instructions Are invoices and statements error free Is the job / order done properly the first time RESPONSIVENESS Willingness to help customers and provide prompt service When there is a problem do you fix it promptly Is the staff member prepared to answer questions Are credits and errors in processing fixed promptly Are you prepared to quote specific times for . respect.101 Business Checklists Delivering Quality Service ..? COMPETENCE Possession of the required skills and knowledge to perform the service Is the staff member able to process my request Is the company tracking market developments Is your phone call handled by a competent person Does the staff member appear competent COURTESY Politeness.. honesty of the vendor Does the organisation have a good reputation Does the contact person refrain from pressuring you Are the costs and prices consistent with the service What warranties and guarantees are provided SECURITY Freedom from danger. consideration.. Listening to the customer Can the staff member explain the benefits and features Do the staff use plain English and avoid using jargon When you phone the organisation.
gathering market intelligence and measuring service levels are listed below: CUSTOMERS Complaints Surveys Rating Compliments STAFF Turnover Absenteeism Suggestions See them ‘doing it right’ Attitude Culture tracking OPERATING QUALITY Productivity Client base Client loyalty Expenses Error rate RESULTS Market share Competitor activity Comparisons 63 .Gathering market intelligence Some simple and effective ways of monitoring service levels.3-Marketing Monitoring Service Levels .
101 Business Checklists Measuring Customer Satisfaction How do you gather and measure objective information on what is really happening in your industry. and the way your company. volume and other comparisons) and unit sales against budget and last years performance? What makes a market leader? In most industries the market leader is seldom in that position by pricing tactics and strategies. What is it that makes a company the market leader? SERVICE A RANGE of QUALITY PRODUCTS PRICE BRAND NAME MERCHANDISE RELIABILITY WARRANTIES 64 . tonnage. its products and service are perceived? Do you listen to the customer. and what they really want? Do you listen (really listen) to their objections? Do you listen to what people outside your organisation are saying about it? What are the perceptions in the market place about your organisation? Do you measure and track the number of formal and informal complaints about your organisation? Do you act upon these complaints? Do you act quickly? Do you track the rate of orders compared to the enquiry rate? Do you measure the amount of ‘lost business’? Do you measure the amount of new business? Do you measure the number of compliments and positive reactions to your organisation? Do you constantly compare sales figures (in dollars as well as units.
Words like ‘I am sorry you feel this way’. Call the customer by their name. Remember the customer wants a solution to the service problem. Don’t tell untruths as a way of offering a quick fix . e. [An Australian airline did that to me. Don’t take criticisms personally.. and even worse having that customer tell others about their bad service experience.. or use trade jargon and acronyms. 65 . not an inquiry into the way your organisation operates. ‘Yahavta talk to the boss and ees not ere’. The customer is not angry with you personally [are they?] Try to be objective and think how they are feeling and why. ‘I only work here’. and use their name often. Ignore customer complaints at your peril. ’ya gotta fill in a form at head office when they open on Monday’. be it a refund.if you can’t offer a solution. and make sure you have positive body language. ‘You can’t take money out your account unless you give seven days notice’. Let the customer have your full attention. Talk in plain English and don’t be patronising. ‘I’ is much better. on a Saturday morning]. ‘ya gotta..’ Even worse still is. or better still at an agreed time. It is easy to ask the customer what they require! The final word . Instead of saying. Offer positive solutions. Or even worse. Do not use ‘We’. you could try something like. or ‘I appreciate what you are saying’.no supplier has ever won a dispute with a customer.don’t be defensive. ‘Our standard company policy is. when talking to the customer. or ‘I can understand how you feel’.3-Marketing Handling complaints Try not to become ruffled and try and remain composed at all times. Avoid phrases like. including eye contact. you can do that but I am sorry to have to tell you that a small service fee is involved..’ What does the customer require to fix their complaint? Often very little. discount or often a credit note for a small amount. Every body has their own perceptions of what service they should receive in any given situation. with a ‘can do’ positive approach. and the old favourite. ‘Yes.’. offer to get back to the customer promptly. Keep excuses to an absolute minimum . are not an admission of blame on your behalf. [A person from a very large government body said that to me recently].g. It would not be very difficult to improve on those responses to a disgruntled customer! Offer an apology even if the service problem is not your fault. and will also help establish a rapport with the customer. Have a positive approach . Worse still is.. Exceed those expectations and both sides win! Provide considerably less than those expectations and you risk losing a customer..preferably none at all.
your organisation can insert their own.. service. and as your organisation perceives them.. 66 .101 Business Checklists Service Levels An Index to Measure and Monitor your organisation’s service levels The types of problems or faults and weighting factors. and make allowance for the importance of various factors as they relate to your organisation. Weighting / aggravation Number of Daily factor x occurrences = points Type of problem / fault Slow to answer telephone Customers order cannot be found Lack of interest in customer’s request Customers order delivered late Customers order delivered incorrectly Customers order delivered damaged Customer claims your competitor is providing better.. are suggestions only .. are suggestions only ... The types of problems or faults and weighting / aggravation factors. price..your organisation can insert their own. Errors on customers invoice Errors in documentation Customer complaints about staff Customer complaints about price of goods Customer complaints about quality of goods Customer complaints about quality of service Customer complaints about quality of delivery Negative letters from customers Complaints from suppliers Others Others 10 12 6 8 6 10 4 5 7 4 4 2 1 20 12 DAILY / WEEKLY TOTAL (The most desirable result is a low number) This index for measuring and monitoring quality customer service levels can be adapted to any business or organisation.
Anticipating concerns / objections 21. 12. Thinking . Willing to discuss problems with my superiors 30. Able to restate my prospects need accurately 20.55 excellent A total of 56 . Perceptive . Aware of working safely 23. A good communicator TOTAL Scoring 1 = Always or yes Scoring 4 = Rarely How did you fare? Scoring 2 = Usually Scoring 5 = Never or no A total of 30 . and then compare. After you have done the test.what does my prospect really want to buy 18. Working smarter. 11. 7.80 Good Scoring 3 = Sometimes A total of 81 .3-Marketing Are you a Service Professional? Rate yourself with this simple test. Aware of my companies reputation 25. posture and expression A good listener Have appropriate literature / tools ready Keep to my promises Aware of the clients special requirements Attending to problems quickly Aware of competitor activity ALWAYS 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 NEVER 4 5 4 5 4 5 4 5 4 5 4 5 4 5 4 5 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 16. 2. get someone else to rate you. 15. Not personally rejected when a client disagrees 22.130 Help! 67 . 4.I hear what is not said as well as what is said 17. 6. 8. Relaxed and alert 19. 9. 3. 10. Aware of where appropriate records are kept 28. 13. Constantly trying to find ways for improvement 29.105 need work A total of 106 . 14. IN DEALING WITH CUSTOMERS I AM USUALLY 1. Willing to try new ideas 26. Polite Answer questions honestly Confident about myself A believer in my product Enthusiastic Outgoing Focused on my objective Professional in my manner and dress Have good body language. 5. not necessarily harder 27. Prompt in dealing with queries and enquiries 24.
Customer uses a piece of equipment supplied by you Customer requests additional information Customer receives an invoice/ statement from you Customer asks for special or unusual services or procedures Customer fills out a form you provide Reviewing service How long does the entire process take? How many steps are involved? How many units or functions get involved? Who looks after the moments of truth? Who sets up the customer’s expectations and how? Can we speed up the process somehow? Can we eliminate some of the steps? How do we make sure the hand offs work properly? Can we reduce the number of people involved? Who manages the final moment of truth? How can we reduce the cost of the service? 68 ..............101 Business Checklists Service Some typical moments of truth Customer phones your business / department Contact person answers a request Customer receives information from your department Service person visits customers premises Customer makes a complaint about .....
4 Sales .
Compliment. Visual aids may be used to assist in communicating the benefits. 3 APPROACH Securing an appointment with the customer. 5 HANDLING OBJECTIONS Customers will raise objections for a number of reasons. 7 FOLLOW UP / AFTER SALES SERVICE Providing on going interest and support with the aim of gaining repeat business in the future. Curiosity. Benefit.101 Business Checklists Seven steps in the Sales process 1 PROSPECTING To increase market share. organisation and the competition. Showmanship. 4 PRESENTATION Making the sales pitch by use of a Canned. features and advantages. etc.APPROACH PLANNING To provide additional information about the customer’s needs. Remember people buy benefits . To qualify leads to prospects. 2 PRE . Outline or Programmed presentation with the object of getting a sale or commitment from the customer. Survey.not products. 70 . sales and profits. Methods can include AIDA. To build confidence and prevent errors. 6 CLOSING THE SALE Asking for the order or obtaining a commitment.
offer help. don’t wait to be asked. so use it well! 71 . Establish and use the other persons name early in the conversation. position etc. Demonstrate you are listening by saying ‘yes’. recap what you are going to do as a result of the call.within 3 rings. Courtesy and attention to detail are critical issues. see if you can leave the other person thinking: “I am pleased that I spoke to you today.4-Sales Telephone Standards ☎✆☎✆ In many companies. and you will sound more assertive and friendly. If phoning in. Start calls by identifying yourself. ‘really’ or similar. their first and most significant impression of the company.” The telephone is an opportunity to motivate and inspire. Be helpful . Explain delays in dealing with the call if the caller has to wait. Ask open questions.give the caller your undivided attention. Listen and try not to interrupt. After a few calls. If an incoming call is not convenient. Control the call by assertive behaviour. is the person answering the telephone. Concentrate . Your body language will transmit. Some companies regard this position as one of the most crucial in their whole company. enquire if it is convenient to proceed. explain why and take the persons details and offer to phone back. Finally. does the person answering your telephone recognise and greet the caller by name? ☎ OTHER TELEPHONE EXPECTATIONS ☎ ☎ ☎ ☎ ☎ ☎ ☎ ☎ ☎ ☎ ☎ ☎ ☎ ☎ ☎ ☎ ☎ Answer promptly . Make notes and read back key points to demonstrate your attentiveness. and particularly in small business the first ever contact with a potential customer is likely to be by telephone. Smile. company. as perhaps for 99% of the people they deal with. At the end of every telephone call. Explain in a straight forward manner the purpose of your call.
though you sometimes lack sensitivity to the emotional needs of your customers. this is one of the two most popular choices for sales professionals. TRIANGLE Determination and persistence characterise your sales presentations. you have a natural talent for selling. Choose the symbol which you feel represents your personality. SQUIGGLE You excel at motivating and inspiring others by your sales presentations. though you could find it hard to develop lasting relationships with your clients. CIRCLE Friendly and sociable. WHAT DOES IT MEAN? SQUARE Your approach to sales presentations is logical and methodical. 72 . With the squiggle. An immediate response is the best one. this is one of the two most popular symbols for sales professionals.101 Business Checklists Are you an effective sales person? Try this quick test to identify your key strengths when making a sales presentation. On the negative side you may not always be tough enough when closing the deal after an otherwise excellent sales presentation. though you may be insufficiently flexible when identifying the extent of your business opportunities. With the circle.
Combine. Even Moses when he came down from the mountain after receiving the Ten Commandments admitted to some negotiating. In a WIN-WIN approach each party should define the problem in terms of its needs to the other party. ‘Well we negotiated together. Get the facts Try not to get bogged down in the problems thus far and recall old conflicts. Generate possible solutions Be creative.Win Identify and define the problem. such as regular meetings or ways of measuring the settlement. Trade offs may have to be considered. If things are not going as planned it may be necessary to evaluate results and perhaps reactivate the problem solving process. Throw around ideas for consideration without restraint. Evaluate the results If a complicated solution is arrived at or involves a long period of time. Select solution(s) Choose the combination of alternatives that will best satisfy the needs of all the participants. Ascertain the concerns of all parties involved. Many people say that a problem well defined is half solved. Do not overlook the feelings of the participants. a mechanism for measuring progress should be established. discussion or criticism until all of the ideas generated are recorded. and failed solutions.4-Sales Win . Evaluate possible solutions Rank solutions according to the way they meet certain needs. but adultery is still in’. as a rule. and focus on ways to mutually satisfy these needs. He said. I got him down to ten. Suspend evaluation. When defining problems. The task is choose solutions most likely to be accepted and implemented. both sides will have a different perception of the problem. 73 . Develop and offer variations on these ideas. rearrange or simplify proposed solutions as required.
20. 10. 15. 7. 3. posture and expression A good listener Aware of the current credit status of my customer Aware of any outstanding orders Aware of the clients special requirements Aware of the identity of the buyers superior Observing competitor activity Perceptive. I hear what is not said as well as what is said Thinking . 9. 13.101 Business Checklists Are you a Professional Sales Person? Rate yourself with this simple test. and then compare. 16. 4.55 A total of 56 .80 A total of 81 . 14. 11. Pleasantly persistent 29. get some one else to rate you. After you have done the test. A self starter and self motivated 31.105 A total of 106 .what does my prospect really want to buy? Relaxed and alert Able to restate my prospects need accurately Anticipating concerns / objections Not personally rejected when a prospect says no Making cold calls without hesitation Prompt in dealing with queries and enquiries Generating sufficient prospects Willing to try new ideas ALWAYS 1 2 3 1 2 3 1 2 3 1 2 3 1 2 3 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 NEVER 4 5 4 5 4 5 4 5 4 5 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 27. 25. Assertive Honest Confident about myself A believer in my product Enthusiastic Outgoing Focused on my objective Professional in my manner and dress Have good body language. Acknowledging and working on what needs improvement 30. 17. 19. 24. IN SALES I AM USUALLY : 1. 18. Willing to take calculated risks TOTAL Scoring 1 = Always or yes Scoring 3 = Sometimes Scoring 5 = Never or no How did you fare? Scoring 2 = Usually Scoring 4 = Rarely A total of 30 . Working smarter. not necessarily harder 28. 12. 8. 2. 5. 26. 23.130 Excellent Good Need work Help! 74 . 6. 21. 22.
responsibility.don’t stay with something too long Perseverance Planning .your product and your customer Flair Goal setting . the product Prime time . the company.hard work creates a lot of luck! Knowledge .career.how do you stand apart? Commitment Creativity Credibility Dedication Determination Drive Empathy . personal Honesty .how much of your brain are you using? Tenacity Time management .yourself. money.some personal requirements Ability Achievement Ambition Attitude Confidence .your product and company Motivation Move faster Objectivity .4-Sales Selling .to the customer .what are your sales plans for tomorrow? Preparation Presentation .listen better Luck .when do you sell best and when is the customer most receptive? Priorities Reliability Service Stimulation .how much of your time is spent selling? Think faster 75 .ethics. integrity Listen .
multi level marketing (M.what does the customer want to buy? Product differentiation Benefits .can you demonstrate the benefits? COMPETITOR ACTIVITY • Who are the competitors? • What is their market share? • Why do consumers use their product? RESEARCH / DEVELOPMENT • Will it perform? • Will it meet industry and government regulations? SALES STRATEGY . Radio. publicity and media exposure? • Would specialist groups welcome you as a speaker? DISPLAY / PACKAGING • How will you package and merchandise your product for maximum impact? WARRANTIES / BACK UP SERVICE • Can you meet industry requirements? • Can you offer innovative service? VALUE ADDING • Can you add value to your product to increase its saleability.M.) etc. wholesale. print.A Sales & Marketing strategy MARKET RESEARCH • • • • • • • • • • Is there a need for the product? How is it currently being met? Is it a growth market? How big is the potential market? How much market share can you capture? Who are the potential customers? Will they deal with you? What are their expectations . attractive payment schemes? ADVERTISING and PROMOTION • What is the best medium. profitability and market share? COMPETITION • How will your competitors react to your new product? • What will you do about it? 76 .101 Business Checklists A New Product or Service . MARKETING MIX • PRODUCT • PRICING • PROMOTION • PLACE • Does your product have a UNIQUE SELLING POINT? TRADING TERMS • What are the industry standards? • Can you afford to meet the customers terms? • Can you offer alternate. TV? • Can you get free editorials.L.HOW WILL YOU SELL THE PRODUCT? • Retail. direct.
Some sales organisations have a detailed checklist that they expect their sales staff to fill in with as much detailed information as possible about the customer. What are some (open) questions you could ask your customer in order to find out as much as possible about them. in order to build a strong working relationship? What motivates you at work? What do you like about your work and working here? What are your short and long term work goals? Who is your supervisor? How big is your organisation? What are the aims of the organisation you are working for? What expectations does your organisation have of its suppliers? How does your organisation measure the performance of its suppliers? What (special / unique) qualifications do you have? Where did you work before? Why did you leave there? What did you achieve there? Where do you live? What family do you have? What do you do in your spare time? What special interests do you have? What are your short and long term personal goals? What foods do you like? What sports do you like? What type of car do you drive? When is your birthday? Why not send a birthday card on the day? 77 . If a new salesperson has to call on the customer. they will have a head start with a profile of the person they are calling on.4-Sales Relationship Selling Establishing a close rapport and relationship over a period of time and developing that relationship with the customer is an excellent way of achieving sales.
A Sales Manager should set standards with the sales person at the outset. such as reporting Selling skills Personal behaviour Relationship building Public relations Complaints Sales coverage effectiveness ratio Customer development Promotional activities and Merchandising Test marketing Exhibitions Solving distribution problems Record keeping 78 .quotas Gross profit margins Territorial net profit Territory market share Call frequency ratio Number of calls Call to order ratio Average cost per call Average order size Range of products being sold New accounts and new business gained Present accounts lost Total sales volume Return on investment Benchmark against company and industry averages Kilometres per call Expense ratio Repeat business Credit control Public relations Providing information Some common QUALITATIVE STANDARDS are: Non selling activities. and then provide regular feedback on these quantitative performance standards.101 Business Checklists Measuring sales performance There are a number of ways of measuring and gauging the performance of a sales team. Some common QUANTITATIVE STANDARDS are: Sales volume .
12.00 .30 1.00 9.30 .30 8.30 3.8.30 .00 11.30 .11.00 5.6.4.00 .30 -11.4-Sales A Sales Time Record CUSTOMER CALLS PROSPECTS SALES Travel Waiting Other TIME 8.00 -10.30 .00 10.00 2.5.30 2.30 10.30 .9.00 .00 .30 .10.30 11.30 .00 12.00 .00 18.104.22.168.9.00 .00 Total Time in hours Percentage of total day SALES SERVICE 79 .00 1.30 .4.2.00 4.00 .30 9.1.00 .30 22.214.171.124 12.00 .
follow up appointment? 80 Yes No .101 Business Checklists After The Sales Interview Ask yourself these questions Before the meeting had you qualified the prospect? Done appropriate pre-planning on the prospect? Were you punctual? Was your appearance appropriate? Were you confident when you made your entrance? Were you confident when you shook hands? Did you maintain good posture? Did you display positive body language and no nervousness? Did you maintain eye contact with your prospect and smile? Did you listen to what the prospect had to say? Did you answer the prospects questions and handle objections well? Did you sell your self. your company and your product truthfully? Were your ethics beyond reproach? Did you tell the prospect about your company’s? • successes • qualifications • satisfied customers • marketing and advertising campaigns • customer policies • warranties / back up service • credit policies and payment terms Did you demonstrate the benefits of your product? Did you have a card. company profile and price list to leave with the prospect? Was your pre planning and qualifying of the prospect useful? Did you ask for the business? Did you get an order or commitment? Did you end the discussion an amicable basis? Was the verbal and other communication of a high standard both ways? Will you be welcome to call again? Would you want to call again? What follow up should you and will you make? Would a letter outlining and firming up your proposal be appropriate? Will you make another.
5 New Business and Products .
2) Indifferent loyalty from staff with acceptable rate of staff turnover. but develop niche markets. 3) To build and run a growth company. apart from occasional casual help or subcontractor. 3) Offer excellent pay and conditions for high achievers.101 Business Checklists Why start a Business of your own ? Some possible reasons and objectives PERSONAL AIMS 1) To create a job for your self. 2) Take many risks. stable staff who identify with and support the company. 4) Take minimal risks. Accept some external finance and shareholders. 5) To build a business and provide jobs for family members. 4) To make a better living than working for wages. 3) Remain small with little growth and local orientation. with no room for poor performance. 3) Provide a specialist service to defined industry groups. with little borrowings or extra shareholders. with emphasis on loyalty. GROWTH 1) Maximum growth and market penetration by retention of profits. 3) Take small. STAFF 1) No staff. 2) Commence with a small range of products with objective of growing into a market leader. 2) Remain specialist focus and build company by internal growth. 82 . 2) Controlled. STAFF 1) Employ family and friends only. 4) Family business with few outsiders and a reluctance to expand with outsiders. 2) Build a dedicated team of high quality performers. 3) Loyal. 3) Limit business size to limited number of customers and employees. ongoing steady growth and expansion of x% per annum. 2) To build a successful company and sell it with the aim of making $x. calculated risks to create and maintain conservative growth. GROWTH 1) Little growth due to narrow focus and local orientation. with growth by acquisition. CORPORATE AIMS BUSINESS 1) Commence with a wide range of services. with acceptance of high debt levels and possible equity dilution. CONSEQUENCES BUSINESS 1) Eventually become a conglomerate. Open national branch network and appoint dealers and distributors. Extreme loyalty and nepotism.
less clients • Natural attrition • A worsening economy • Reduced prosperity • Population shifts . improved marketing Improved service and contact contact Reduced.positive THREATS Reduce your customer base . more difficult customer access • Decreased range of products • Harder to purchase • Old. worsening service and Increased appeal of your products Advantages over competitors Market leadership Other methods of convincing Decreased appeal of your products • Disadvantages over competitors • Loss of market credibility • Competitors better methods of convincing Exploit competitors shortcomings Opportunities for increased market share Competitors are moribund strategies Competitors do not respond to new strategies New strategies from competitors • Price wars • Slow or no reaction to new • New technology 83 .more clients Natural growth An improved economy Increased prosperity Population shifts .negative Improved customer access Increased range of products Easier to purchase New.5-New Business and Products Launching a New Product OPPORTUNITIES Expand your customer base . worsening marketing • Decreased.
and then calculate a % Try it on a • Sports store • New car franchise • Liquor store • Your new product or pet project 84 .101 Business Checklists Launching a New Product or Business Try this simple test Rate each item out of 10 Score o GROWTH RATE and POTENTIAL o BARRIERS TO ENTRY o COMPETITOR RIVALRY o BUYER POWER o SUPPLIER POWER o SUBSTITUTES o YOUR PERSONAL SKILLS Add.
Try comparing other products against this list.5-New Business and Products Launching a New Business. product. Service or Idea An easy and quick three point guide and checklist to apply to any new business. • Correct products in this case could mean what form do consumers want to buy fish in? • Very few people would buy uncleaned and unfilleted fish and even fewer would buy live fish. Product. • Also health and nutrition issues would be considered. such as: • A new cigarette brand • What if Marijuana were legalised tomorrow? • On site caravans • A kitchen manufacturing business • Typewriters • Computer furniture • Your own products 85 .sales of fish are increasing. service or idea you are contemplating becoming involved in is: IS IT? • A GROWTH MARKET • CORRECT PRODUCTS • A VEHICLE FOR SALES To illustrate an example of this concept we will use fish: • It is arguably a growth market . • Pallet loads of fish could hardly be described as a vehicle for sales consumers want to buy this product in meal size portions.
.... the forces which favour the preservation of the status quo are balanced by enthusiasm • It is generally accepted in the organisation that there is outstanding creative talent in its ranks • There are influential people in the organisation who support new ideas entirely on their merits • The management control over activities is not an inhibiting factor for progress • There are efficient mechanisms for the flow of information necessary for managers to carry out their jobs • The organisation is attempting to stimulate creative thinking through its training programs • Entrepreneurship is encouraged • There is a positive attitude and no defeatism where new ideas are concerned TOTAL When you identify the highest scoring items........101 Business Checklists Innovation and your Organisation Strongly agree Strongly Disagree disagree No opinion Agree Neutral 4 3 2 1 0 ? • We have a good track record of innovation by comparison with our competitors and industry • Our management style does not impede the introduction and development of new products or processes • In this organisation..... Considerations.... this will point to the areas where your organisation is strongest in managing innovative performance..... Possible actions.. 86 ..... Low scores will suggest weaknesses......
5-New Business and Products Contributions to Total Cost PRIME COSTS Direct materials FACTORY OVERHEADS Indirect materials OTHER OVERHEADS Marketing Advertising Selling Research and development = TOTAL COST + = TOTAL PRODUCT COST + Direct labour Indirect labour Distribution Direct expenses Indirect expenses Administration What is the real cost of getting a product to the market place? Many people embarking on a manufacturing program for the first time. especially a new product to the market place and to the consumer and end user. ADVERTISING and SELLING. This is compounded if the product is to be sold through a long distribution chain which includes agents. This simple chart shows the steps in the manufacture and sale of a new product and the increasing costs in each step of the process. including MARKETING. fail to appreciate the expenses of getting a product. 87 . wholesalers and retailers. (and also many people with vast experience).
trustworthy SECURITY . risk or doubt UNDERSTANDING . believable. friendly COMMUNICATION .easy to approach COURTESY .M.evidence of the service FOCUS. respectful. listening CREDIBILITY . ‘sorry.not.no danger.willing and ready COMPETENCE .) Respond to special requests Are positioned to handle special requests Use outside providers of services Place a premium on service Are prepared to use outside services more in future Monitor their service to see their people “doing it right” Monitor competitor activity Keep abreast with the latest technology Strive to be the best Focus on customer service WHAT IS QUALITY SERVICE? RELIABILITY .101 Business Checklists What makes a company successful? Is it because they are prepared to? Have real commitment to their customers Have a ‘CAN DO’ attitude Want to achieve customer satisfaction Are flexible in attending to special requests (‘can you deliver today?’ . . etc.dependable and consistent RESPONSIVENESS . too busy’.skill and knowledge ACCESS ..understandable.Q.honest.appreciating customer’s needs TANGIBLES .polite. considerate. or are planning to meet those requirements 88 . on the core business MEET T.‘yes’. the truck has left.
0. This rating form can be used to address these issues. 89 .Idea Rating Device Do you have what it takes? (A) Product success requirements Relative weight (B) Company competence level 0.4 0.20 0.8 0. 0.1 0.0 Rating (A x B) Company personality and goodwill Marketing Research and development Personnel Finance Production Location and facilities Purchasing and supplies TOTAL 0.2 0.05 0.0 0.1.0.05 1.0.3 0. The next task is to rate the organisation’s degree of competence on each factor on a scale from 0.6 0.20).41 .20 0.75 fair.0. and purchasing and supplies competence will be of minor importance. The final step is to multiply the relative importance of the success requirements by the corresponding levels of organisational competence to obtain a single overall rating of the organisation’s ability to carry this product successfully to the market place.20 0. Thus management believes marketing competence will be very important (0.5-New Business and Products A Product .70 Many organisations require their staff to evaluate new product ideas using some type of ‘standard format’ for later review by a committee.00 Rating scale : 0.5 0. Present minimum acceptance rate : 0.7 0.9 1.76 .05 0.15 0.10 0. The next column shows ‘weighting factors’ which management may apply to various issues.0 to 1. The first column lists factors required for a successful launch of the product to the marketplace.00 good.00 .40 poor.
)? Mocking references or inappropriate puns in press? Trademark or copyright problems? Translation problems? your service or product. Category What is it? ____________________________________________________ What does it do? ______________________________________________ 90 . etc. consultants. Maximise market share Measured by: Competitive analysis Channel reports Formal market research _________ _________ _________ ________ ________ ________ __________________ __________________ __________________ Naming Goals Choose an effective name for Feedback from market research (target audience. Positioning Goals Goal Feedback from press _________ Feedback from sales force _________ Customer data from direct sales _________ Vertical market(s) activity _________ User registration card information _________ Achieved ________ ________ ________ ________ ________ Comments __________________ __________________ __________________ __________________ __________________ Pricing goals 1.101 Business Checklists A Checklist .New Product Development Use this worksheet to assist in defining the positioning and objectives for your product or service. Determine product's position with respect to the following: A. measured by: _________ _________ _________ _________ ________ ________ ________ ________ __________________ __________________ __________________ __________________ Positioning Activities 1. Determine the price where you can sell the most product and achieve maximum profits Measured by: Different price points _________ ________ __________________ Market research _________ ________ __________________ Competitive analysis _________ ________ __________________ 2. influencers.
6 Management .
with the leader’s values and visions. Being the first. Directing. in a spiritual relationship with your people. Being decisive. Beginning. 92 . and exerting authority in the context of effective leadership. and setting in motion people and activities for progress. of people and the organisation. Causing progress. Controlling and influencing actions of people and the organisation.101 Business Checklists Leadership What type of Leadership should an effective manager provide? Some of the myriad LEADERSHIP responsibilities of management include: Showing the way. Raising morale. Guiding. Creating pathways. and setting in motion the stimulus and movement for motion. and being ultimately responsible for what happens. Heading the team. and more important. letting others be the first. and receive the credit. and maintaining cohesive achievement. and defining the goals and intentions of the organisation. Going ahead of. people into alternate methods and directions. and maintaining constant flow and growth. Commanding. Having grace under pressure.
avoiding prejudices Detailed knowledge of: Focus on others Specialist knowledge • Technical and other aspects • The task • Command of the facts 93 .being results orientated Awareness of interplay of power and status when influencing and working with others Managing group processes Managing power and relationships Maintaining self awareness Goal clarification Communicating. delegating.6-Management Managers and Competencies What makes a good manager? What makes managers effective? COMPETENCIES COMPETENCY CLUSTER Diagnosing situations Goal setting and managing action Establishing frameworks Productivity . monitoring Human resource management Directing others Conceptualising Leadership Identifying cause and effect Being logical Decisiveness Ability to inspire Presenting visions. agreements and decisions Community Self control Stamina and flexibility for handling change Being objective.taking action to achieve Efficiency focus .
Do you enjoy making your own decisions? 5 Are you self reliant? 5 Do you relish competition? 5 Are you a self starter? 5 Do you have will power? 5 Can you build teams? 5 Do you plan? 5 Can you take advice? 5 Can you adapt to change? 5 Do you establish schedules of activities? 5 Do you keep to them? 5 Can you keep others to schedule? 5 Do you deal with complex issues well? 5 Can you deal with ambiguity? 5 Are you capable of adapting to change? 5 Can you work long hours? 5 Are you single minded? 5 Do you have the physical stamina to deal with the project? 5 Do you have the emotional strength and resilience to handle the strain? 5 Will you make sacrifices to achieve your goals? 5 Are you capable of identifying the skills needed for success? 5 Do you have them? 5 Can you fill in any gaps in your skills from elsewhere? 5 Can you deal with risk of failure? 5 Are you skilled at networking? 5 Can you keep your objectives in view despite distractions? 5 Do you know your goals? 5 Can you communicate them to others? 5 Can you handle several tasks at once? 5 Do you separate need to’s from nice to’s? 5 TOTAL 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 The underlying theme of this questionnaire is a series of propositions about individual enterprise. 7. to cope with the demands of your business. 15. 21. take on board the basics and understand the fundamentals. 30. At the core lies a notion that the person is self reliant. 20. 26. 5. The enterprising individual does not wait for others to give a lead. 94 . 17. 22. 9. 27. This reflects a well formed and strong will. enjoys being self reliant and is not intimidated by competition. 8. 13. The attitudes and skills needed by entrepreneurs are seldom as glamorous or exciting as those seen in the movies or those portrayed in popular writing. 29. 3. High Low 5 4 3 2 1 0 1. 18. It is generally accepted that a score of less than 100 will require some major personal development on your part. 4.101 Business Checklists An Entrepreneur’s Checklist Do you have what it takes? Try this simple quiz and see how you fare. 16. 23. Alongside these ought to be the capacity to be a self starter. 19. 14. 6. 28. and can make personal decisions. 12. 11. There needs to be a willingness to roll the sleeves up. 2. 24. 25. 10.
My Role This quick quiz should be done from memory.possible for the job holder. CHALLENGING . A common method of overcoming these problems is management by objectives [MBO]. MEASURABLE .will contribute to the desired end result of the organisation. A role that the person THINKS they are performing. ACHIEVABLE . Some of the criteria used to set these objectives: CLEAR . 95 . or similar setting of OBJECTIVES for a person’s position.6-Management My Job . The most important areas of activity for me are: 1] 2] 3] The major outcomes required from my job are: 1] 2] 3] Targets which I am expected to meet are: 1] 2] 3] The most important people and departments for me to interact with are: 1] 2] 3] The individuals and groups I have direct authority over are: 1] 2] 3] For most people at work there is: A role that SHOULD be performed. specific and unambiguous.definite.agreed to and accepted by both the person and the person’s manager.in terms of quantity and / or quality CONSISTENT . without reference to any outside prompts.encouraging personal skills and knowledge growth. ACCEPTABLE. And there is a role that they are ACTUALLY performing.
What motivates people at work? What motivates you? What do you do best? How often do you do that? What would you rather be doing than your present job? Is there anyone with whom you would like to exchange jobs? What appeals to you about the other job? Can any part of this be included in your present work? What stands in the way of you doing this? What part of your job do you do least well? How much of the time do you do this? When are you most productive? How often does this positive situation occur? What does your productivity depend upon? Are you able to ‘run’ with your most productive times or does your schedule or other duties cut them short? When are you happiest in your work? Are these times the same as your productive times? A recent national survey of workers indicates the following important motivating factors: Element Achievement Recognition Nature of work Responsibility Advancement Wages / money Ranking 41 33 26 23 20 15 96 .101 Business Checklists Motivation .
Try this Checklist How much of your time is spent on work appropriate to your position.6-Management Time Management . to the level of your skills and knowledge? Where does the rest of your time go? Who and what interrupts you the most? What can you do about it? A BIG PROBLEM Unclear objectives Changing priorities Inadequate planning No self imposed deadlines Fire fighting crisis Confused responsibility Confused authority Personal disorganisation Cluttered desk Unfinished tasks Duplication of effort Lack of decision Meetings Mixed messages Communication breakdown Incomplete information Dependence upon grapevine Procrastination Ineffective delegation Change badly handled Inability to say NO Ineffective control information Telephone interruptions Unplanned visitors Excessive reports / returns Untrained subordinates Work flow bottlenecks OFTEN A PROBLEM NOT A PROBLEM Take a close look at your problem items! • What can you change? • What items will you need help with? • What must you accept as it is? • Why? 97 .
eating. Brooding 6. drinking.101 Business Checklists Stress Some common causes of stress in order of occurrence: Type of work performed Lack of communication Under staffing Employer’s demands Preoccupation with work Incompetent supervisors Not allowed to do a good job Fellow workers Incompetent subordinates Some warning signs of stress: Rapid pulse Intestinal distress Insomnia Frequent illness Nail biting Irritability Persistent fatigue Lack of concentration Hunger for sweets Increased use of alcohol and drugs Seven sure signs you need a holiday 1. Irritability over trivial matters 2. drugs 4. Vague speech patterns 5. Depression 7. Insomnia 98 . Increased. smoking. Inappropriate anger 3.
O. time • Decentralised initiative from subordinates • Participative style • Delegation and reporting • Teamwork 99 . financial control Authoritarian style Directives and supervision Individualism Post-MBO • Future focused • Full fledged professional • Outward looking • People orientated • Consumer orientated • Creation of innovations • Emphasis on ‘what to’ • Emphasis on people.B.) Pre-MBO Day to day managing Amateur. seat of pants Inward looking Product orientated Organisation orientated Activities orientated Emphasis on ‘how to’ Emphasis on money. technocratic. minds. machines.6-Management Transition in management styles under Management by Objectives (M. material Centralised.
Measures and Feedback Local participation Communication. Signals and Rewards Shared Vision Guidance Structure and Process CHANGE Standards. Education.101 Business Checklists Eight Elements in the Planning of Change Backers and Supporters Symbols. Innovations and Training Policy and Systems Review 100 .
This will require advance discussion with them to reassure them regarding the expected effects of the change and to seek their support and co-operation in introducing it. To avoid any disruption you will have to be sure that your workers recognise that the change is needed and that the proposed change is the right change. ’What’s in it for me?’. and change can produce dislocation. if they feel they will: Gain benefit Avoid loss Without acceptable responses to their uncertainties they will resist change sometimes even to the point of sabotaging it. 101 . Resistance can be triggered by many fears e. The reasons are many. deteriorates or undergoes change. and the answer for this has to be convincing.g. and in today’s technology most of our working processes are changing. People usually cooperate. An instinctive response to change is. Some liken change to a comet . In a familiar setting they feel secure and comfortable. FEAR of: Redundancy Loss of security Disorganisation Loss of status Inability to cope Loss of existing relationships Or by general apathy or a feeling of denial of existing expectations. The advantages of the change should be seen to outweigh the disadvantages. As a manager you will have to introduce change. Yet people tend to resist change.6-Management Managing Change Change is inevitable. instability and anxiety.a shining front and a long tail full of debris. Everything either improves.
The project is kept open to revision and reconsideration if experience indicates that changes would be desirable. It is recognised that innovations are likely to be misunderstood and misinterpreted. • to take steps to relieve unnecessary fears. The project is adopted by consensual group decision. The project accords with values and ideals which are acknowledged by the participants. Factors which will ensure successful implementation will include: The organisation feels it is it’s own project and not one devised and operated by outsiders. The participants feel that their present autonomy and security is not threatened. support. Participants experience acceptance.101 Business Checklists One approach to introducing Change Identify the required outcome of the change Analyse and plan the change procedures Discuss the change with those who will be involved Gain acceptance of the proposed change Check the step by step introduction of the change to ensure that it proceeds as planned. Follow up to ensure that what was intended has been achieved. trust and confidence in their relationships with one another. The proponents are able to confer and discuss with opponents: • to recognise valid objections. The change is seen as improving the work situation or reducing the present work pressures. Managing change It may also be helpful to prepare a timetable for a trial run or a pilot effort and then for the final installation. The participants have been consulted or involved in diagnostic efforts leading them to agree on what the basic is and to feel it’s importance. 102 . The project has top level commitment and support. and provision is made for feedback of perceptions of the project and for further clarification as needed. The programme offers a new experience which will interest the participants.
their personal and company priorities.6-Management Managing Change Do you have conscious procedures and commitment? Organisational change will not be maintained simply because there has been early success. Renewal conferences. 103 . Feedback from outside parties. what has happened in their working relationships and other issues for review before the planning meeting. Periodic meetings between interdependent units of an organisation. Political actions Broaden the political support for radical actions. Organisation sensing meetings in which the top of an organisation meets. Performance review on a systematic. forthcoming planning issues. Realise the level of dissatisfaction and discomfort with the current situation. to examine themselves. on a systematic planned basis. Sensitise key actors / champions to the need for change. As an example an annual 5 year planning meeting. with a sample of employees from a variety of different organisational centres in order to keep apprised of the state of the system. Many organisations are living with the effects of successful short term change results that have not been maintained Probably the most important requirement for continued change is a continued feedback and information system that lets people in the organisation know the system status in relation to the desired states. new forces in the environment. goal directed basis. and many are necessary if a change is to be maintained. could be preceded by a weekend away at a retreat by the managers (and wives) concerned. There are a number of interventions that are possible. Some common feedback systems are: Periodic team meetings to review a team’s functioning and what its next goal priorities should be.
4. 5. 7. 5.101 Business Checklists Can you handle Change? Do you find CHANGE to be basically: • Disruptive? • Stimulating? Do you see CHANGE as: • Crisis? • Opportunity? Do you make CHANGES: • When necessary • When possible Do you handle CHANGE: • With difficulty? • With ease? What CHANGE(S) would you welcome in your work environment? 1. Line up political sponsorship. Executing Change -10 Steps 1. 4. Reinforce and institute change. 9. Develop enabling structures. Communicate. 3. 8. involve people and be honest. 2. 104 . Separate from the past. Create a sense of urgency. Support a strong leader role. 2. Analyse the organisation and its need for change Create a shared vision and common direction. Craft an implementation plan. 10. 6. 3.
GOAL 30% profit margin Less than 20% of sales Within range of 6%-9% of sales $100. AREA MEASURE Profitability Overhead expenses Advertising expenses TARGET.000 per month xxx units per month No more than 5% a week No more than 10% a year No disputes involving senior management (all disputes to be settled in the originating area) No complaints • Finance • Sales Sales revenue • Employee relations Absenteeism Turnover Industrial relations • Customer relations/ Degree of satisfaction goodwill 105 .6-Management Goal Setting Some examples STANDARD.
compared to previous sales periods Profitability as a percentage of sales Profitability by product or area Growth: • increase in total sales by dollars • increase in total sales by units • increase in number of employees Market share: the organisation’s percentage share of total industry sales Expenses as a percentage of sales The amount of working capital available Stock levels and stock turnover/rotation per year The number of new customers The number of lost customers The number of new sales enquiries The time taken by customers to pay their accounts The amount of bad debts incurred The time taken by the business to pay its accounts The amount and value of goods returned for credit The number of customer complaints Staff turnover and absenteeism Market place activity The return on funds invested The ratio of assets to liabilities The ratio of debt to equity The time required to process orders and enquiries Scrap rates Productivity rates as a percentage of employee time Benchmarking .101 Business Checklists Key Indicators What are they? When writing a Business Plan or setting business targets and objectives. many people include a number of KEY INDICATORS to measure the performance.direct comparisons of the business with other similar business operations and world’s best practices. 106 .in dollars and / or units sold Sales volume . progress and viability of the business. Some KEY INDICATORS could include: Sales volume .
your skills are excellent 40 .6-Management Are you a people person? Enter your response in the appropriate column • For a mostly answer put a 3 in the mostly column • For an occasionally answer put a 2 in the occasionally column • For a hardly ever answer put a 1 in the hardly ever column Hardly ever Mostly Occasionally Do you treat employees’ feelings as valid? Are you scrupulous in keeping confidences? Are you able to reassure insecure employees? Do you support employees in taking risks? Are you able to solicit employees feelings.49 . skills and values into account when assigning tasks? Do you know your employees’ career goals so you can match future promotions? Can you give your employees the space for personal grief after they suffer loss? Can you step back from your own ego and avoid acting like an expert when discussing personal problems? Do you have a strong sense of the ridiculous and an ever-ready sense of humour about life at work? TOTAL Scoring higher than 50 .you really need some work on your people skills 107 .your skills could do with a brush up below 40 . ideas and solutions? Do you allow employees to make their own decisions? Do you genuinely care about your employees? Can you empathise with employees’ feelings? Do you assist employees prioritise difficult tasks? Are you patient? Do you ensure the work environment is free of distractions? Are you able to instil your employees with confidence to solve their own problems? Do you allow your employees free rein to air their grievances? Do you take your employees’ interests.
What role does staff training and development play in your business? 6) RELATIONSHIPS WITH SUPPLIERS What initiatives have you taken to improve relations with your suppliers and what type of supplier agreements do have in place? 7) BUSINESS STRENGTHS What are the 3 key strengths that make your business successful? 108 . 5) STAFF DEVELOPMENT Describe the process by which you evaluate the performance of your staff. How do you monitor your business performance against these objectives? How do you identify market opportunities and threats? 2) CUSTOMER SERVICE Describe what steps you have taken to deliver first class customer service to your clients. Describe the process by which you assess the career development of your staff. Describe the involvement of staff in developing your business plan and operational decision making.101 Business Checklists Is your business well run? The TELSTRA SMALL BUSINESS AWARDS competition asks the following questions of organisations wishing to enter: 1) BUSINESS GROWTH and PERFORMANCE Describe how you plan future growth and development. Describe what research you have done in assessing customer needs. 3) MANAGEMENT INFORMATION SYSTEMS What information do you source to make day-to-day business decisions? How regularly do you source this information? 4) FINANCIAL PERFORMANCE What controls are in place to manage your business’ financials? Describe the financial performance of your business in terms of revenues and / or profits for the last two or more years. What is your strategy to achieve your business objectives? Outline the key actions you are taking to achieve this plan.
Financial Danger Signs
Some indications of financial problems Lack of up to date, and meaningful accounts. Broken promises regarding payments. Lots of excuses - run out of cheques, no one to sign a cheque, cheque in the mail. Lack of operating budgets and cash flow projections. Decreasing profit margins. Post dated cheques. Unreleased cheques. Client cheques endorsed to third parties. Dishonoured cheques. Special sales. Special deals and offers. Sudden, unprecedented, advertising and publicity blitz. Desperate measures, out of character with previous strategies. Move to smaller premises. Reduction in size of existing premises. Staff discontent. Declining service levels. Legal demands for payment from creditors. Outstanding payments for Group Tax. Outstanding payments for Super-annuation. Suppliers tightening credit terms, limits and conditions. Suppliers asking for C.O.D. Suppliers asking for personal guarantees. Untidy and run down appearance of business premises. Dusty, tired stock on shelves and thin stock levels. Creditors paid in lump sums instead of amounts relative to invoices. Suppliers taking stock in lieu of payment. Desperate attempts to keep bank overdraft intact. Desperate attempts to pay secured creditors and guarantees.
101 Business Checklists
The Negotiation Conference
Pre negotiation discussion. This may be done to establish a relationship, to soften up the opponent, or to assess the potential problems involved in the negotiation. Seldom is anything critical discussed, as the purpose is to become acquainted amicably. The meeting can be held at each other’s office or a neutral site. The goal is to create an informal, relaxed and friendly environment that will discourage tension and competitiveness and encourage cooperation and a willingness to solve problems. Opening the meeting, arrival and protocol. The formal opening of the meeting and the presentation of the participants may establish rank, precedence, and other aspects of each party’s relationship to its counterpart. Initial remarks: This step primarily sets the tone of the conference. The remarks do not deal with matters of substance. Formalities. Introductions, rituals, a statement of purpose, or charter, or a review of the background to the conference may come at this step. Statement of the problem. The reasons for the negotiation are summarised in unequivocal words. This should be a step to a statement of the goals desired. Establishing ground rules. Matters such as the use of facilities, seating arrangements, work schedules (hours, breaks, etc.) and support services can be discussed. Establishing the agenda. This is vital. You must ensure that all the items you consider critical are on the agenda, or can be introduced at appropriate (or advantageous) or vital times. Discussion - give and take. This includes not only bargaining, but all the activity of working out an agreement. This is the problem solving stage, the crux of the negotiation. This is where the art of negotiation, good or bad is displayed. Conclusion. Agreements may be reached in stages, and there may several stages at which agreements are reached. Great care should be taken at this stage against any possible misconceptions. Developing an agreement. This may vary between nodding of heads in agreement or the construction of a complex legal document. Review and adjustment. A formal agreement may be examined for loopholes, ambiguous words or phrases etc. Ratification. This can range between the parties saying ‘okay’, shaking hands or be far more complex and need some type of formal ratification.
Tomorrows Manager - A Profile
Tomorrows manager and or leader will: Be able to inspire by contagious enthusiasm. Have a high standards of ethics and integrity. Have high energy levels. Have courage and commitment. Have high levels of creativity and be unconventional. Be goal orientated, though realistic. Have a high degree of organisational ability. Be able to establish priorities. Encourage team working and selfless, organised effort. Possess inner confidence and a have desire for knowledge. Be mentally and physically fit and alert. Be fair and respectful of others. Value creativity. Enjoy taking risks. Establish long term growth. Welcome being challenged and questioned. Not be afraid to challenge and question. Encourage an increased understanding of people. Welcome fresh ideas and perspectives. Admit mistakes and adapt to change.
What attributes do you require to be A WORKAHOLIC? You do not think you are one, or admit to being one. You work through lunch and tea breaks. You work while waiting on the telephone. You get up early, regardless of when you go to bed. You can’t keep away from work on weekends, and ‘clean up’ then. You work on holidays. You take pen and paper to bed with you. You find it difficult to do nothing. You are energetic and competitive. You are able to work any time and anywhere. Travel time is used to process paper work. You are loath to take holidays. You are not looking forward to retirement. Your work habits exceed expectations. Your work is important by its sheer volume. Much of your work is for work’s sake, with little major impact. Statistics suggest few workaholics ever become a successful C.E.O.
unless the contract is a formal one. Consideration is something of value passing from one party to another in return for a promise to do something. 112 . then the contractual arrangement will not be valid. they are two distinct elements. 5) The parties to the contract must have given their genuine consent to proceed as agreed in the contract. In order to determine when a person is bound by a promise made. and consent deals with a person’s free will agreement. rather than simply a domestic or social one. Intention is related to whether the agreement was meant to be legally binding. 2) Agreement must be reached through an offer by one party and the acceptance of the offer by another party. If the parties contract to enter into an activity that is illegal. 3) Consideration must be present. Although intention and consent both consider the thought processes of a person. the essential elements of a valid contract must be present. Both an offer and an acceptance must be present to form the second essential element of agreement. Circumstances could arise where one of the parties has been forced by circumstances to proceed with a contractual arrangement without really giving full consent.101 Business Checklists Law of Contract A valid contract is an agreement made between two or more parties whereby legal rights and obligations are created which the law will enforce. 1) The parties must have intended to create a legal relationship. The main purpose of the law of contract is to establish under what circumstances a person is legally bound by promises made. 4) The parties to the contract must have the legal capacity to enter into a contract. 6) The object of the contract must be a legal one for the rights to be enforceable. Capacity refers to one’s recognised ability under the law. There are six essential elements that must be present for a contract to be considered valid. in which case the form replaces the need for consideration.
threats (analysis) TQM TES USP Total quality management Technology enabled selling Unique selling point Kaizen Japanese concept of continuing improvement in all aspects of a persons home and work life KISS Keep it simple. do. check. desire.6-Management Some Business Acronyms AIDA AOQL AQL AS CAD CAM C&F CBT CEO CIF CPM CRM EDI FAS FIS FMCS FOB FOW GM HRM HRPD IT IQL JIT Attention. weaknesses. opportunities. stupid LTU LQL MBO MD MIS MIT MRP Long term unemployed Limiting quality level Management by objectives Managing Director Management (or Marketing) information system Managing information technology Materials resource planning VAM Value adding manufacture VAM-M Value adding management manufacture VSP Voluntary separation package WIIFM What’s in it for me? 113 . evaluation and review technique POS Point of sale QA QAE QBS QCS QIS QM QWG QWL R&D RDO RHIP ROI RPL RRP SBU Quality assurance Quality assurance engineering Queen bee syndrome Quality customer service Quality information system Quality management Quality workshop group Quality of work life Research and development Rostered day off Rank has its privileges Return on investment Recognition of prior learning Recommended retail price Strategic business unit SPC Statistical process control SWOT Strength. action Average outgoing quality limit Acceptable quality level Australian Standard Computer aided design Computer aided manufacturing Cost and freight Competency based training Chief Executive Officer Cost. insurance and freight Critical path method Customer relationship management Electronic data input Free alongside ship Free into store Fast moving consumer goods Free on board Free on wharf General Manager Human resource management Human Resource Planning and Development Information technology Indifferent quality level Just in time manufacturing OC OEM Operating characteristic Original equipment manufacture PDCA Plan. act PERT Programme. interest.
training and authority they need to make decisions independently? 9. Do I schedule particular kinds of work at special times of the day or week to take advantage of my own energy/effectiveness levels? 5. and by whom? 2. Am I tactful in disciplining an employee? 10. Do I find an appropriate balance between encouragement and pressure? 4. Do I understand their reactions to my actions? 3. Do I have a clear understanding of my work role? 9. tangible activities with time for reflection and planning? 7.101 Business Checklists How do you rate as a manager? Moder Average Rarely Definite Definite -ately perfor. Do I show genuine interest in my employees work? 7. Do I avoid concentrating on particular functions or types of problem just because I find it uninteresting? 4. Have I developed teamwork with subordinates? 8. Do I make use of time saving devices such as dictating machines and PCs? 9. Do I use delegation to help my employees gain new skills and grow in the organisation? 114 . Do I avoid reacting to the pressures of the moment? 3. Do I have a personal plan for self-improvement? Time Management 1. Am I sensitive to my actions on my subordinates? 2. Am I able to resolve conflicts in a constructive way? 7. Am I confident that my subordinates can handle the work I give them? 8. Do I have a time-scheduling system? 2. Do I have priorities clearly in mind most of the time? 10. Do I give employees the guidance. Do I know which of my responsibilities I must meet myself and which I can delegate? 3. Do I often leave the final decision to my employees? 5. Do I regularly assess the quality of my work and that of my employees? 10. Do my employees understand our objectives and know what is to be done. Do I balance current. Do I allow subordinates to express ideas and opinions? 5. Am I in control of the amount of fragmentation and interruption of my work? 6. Do I encourage initiative in the people I supervise? 4. Do key problems/priorities receive the attention they deserve? 8.effecweakstrength effective mance tive ness 1. Am I effective at motivating subordinates? 6. Do I avoid doing my employees work? 6. Do I have the necessary information available to me at the right time to meet my deadlines? Delegation 1. when.
marketing 55 Family financial planning 9 Feedback change 103 systems 103 Financial problems. a 42 Paradigms 20 Performance review. 60 Implementing the marketing plan 54 Index. 102 time 97 transition under MBO 99 Market intelligence. market 64 Leadership 92 Let’s talk about it 26 Management. negotiation. training needs 40 Are you a people person? 107 a professional salesperson? 73. political 103 Advertising. checklist 58 Expenditure plan 55 Implementing the plan 54 Plan. a rating form 45 115 by objectives 14-16.an. an? 72 Employee handbook 37 motivation 50 Entrepreneur’s checklist. key 106 Induction 40 Innovation and your organisation 86 Intelligence. 66 Morale 46 Motivation 43. 99 personal 28 Observing as an evaluative technique 29 Occupational health and safety 30-33 Opportunities 83 Organisational structure 20 Package. a 76. a 13 Business acronyms 113 a of your own. salary. contributions to total 87 Customer satisfaction. an interview 39 Executing change 104 Expectations. 25. outline 53 Measuring customer satisfaction 64 Measuring sales performance 78 Media. gathering 63 leader. 85 planning 6-8. 96 My job . Training analysis 41 work related 36 Negotiation conference. 25. a 44 sales. or service. 58 Communication and image 47 business 48 checklist 49 Competencies and managers 93 Complaints. launching 85 product. marketing 63 Interview after the sales 80 evaluation 39 Job 38 what will I ask? 38 Is it? 85 Is your business well run? 108 Job descriptions 21-25 interview 38 my 94 Key indicators 106 Launching a new products 8385 Law of contract 112 Leader. the 110 New business 82 product development 90 product. new product 90 Does your workplace suffer from morale problems? 46 Effective managers 93 Eight elements in the planning of change 100 Effective sales person. personal 27 Handbook. 50. 10 Can you handle change? 104 Change 100-104 Checklist of basic marketing questions. 74 a quality service professional? 67 an effective communicator? 49 an effective salesperson? 72 Assessing changes in effectiveness as a result of training 28 Audit. 84. measuring 78 . sample 17 managing by 14-16. 57 Marketing. law of 112 Contributions to total cost 87 Cost. the 110 Contract. to measure and monitor service levels 66 Indicators.my role 95 Needs. Audit 59 Basic questions. 10 Five year plan 14-16 Gathering market intelligence 63 Goal setting 105 Goals and objectives. 10 quick points 61 After the sales interview 80 Aims and objectives 2 An entrepreneur’s checklist 94 Analysis. indications of 109 Financial planning. 64 research 56. financial 109 Delivering quality service 62 Development. 61 Mission statement 4 Moments of truth 68 Monitoring service levels 63.Index Acronyms. an 94 Evaluating personal strengths and weaknesses 3 Evaluation. a profile 111 Managers and competencies 93 effective 115 Managing change 101. handling 65 Conference. some business 113 Actions. family 9. employee 37 Handling complaints 65 How do you rate as a manager? 114 Human resources 35 Image 47. let’s talk about it 26 strategic 5 Time 97 Manager how do you rate as? 114 rating your 51 tomorrows. why start? 82 communication 48 is yours well run? 108 new 82. are you. marketing 59 Budget. 99 safety 34 staff. measuring 64 Danger signs. 85 Objectives aims and 2 and results. telephone Expenditure plan.
personal 3 Stress 98 Structure.Win 73 Work related needs 36 Writing a job description 21-25 116 Writing a submission 11. are you? 107 Personal goals and objectives 28 requirements.. 10 Political actions 103 Preventing injuries 30-33 Product-idea rating device. 74 are you an effective? 72 Sales and marketing strategy 76 check list 74 interview. 12 Successful. a 89 Product or service. 89 your manager 51 Record keeping 13 Record. monitoring 63. 57 Review. 62 quality. organisational 20 Submission. are you? 67 quality. relationship 77 Selling. a 79 Sample objectives and results 17 Satisfaction. 88 Rating device. customer 64 Selling. writing a 11. personal. a new 8385 Productivity and motivation 43 Professional service 67 Quality service 62.management 26 Standards sales performance 78 telephone 71 Strategic management process 5 Plan. a 44 Reviewing service 68 Safety management 34 Salary package 42 Salesperson are you a professional? 73. selling 75 strengths and weaknesses 3 Planning. a 85. measuring 78 person effective. what is? 88 reviewing 68 typical moments of truth 68 Setting personal goals and objectives 28 Seven steps in the sales process 70 sure signs you need a holiday 98 Simple test. market 56. 12 . are you? 72 process. sales and marketing 76 Strengths and weaknesses. what makes a company? 88 Sydney Business Centre 7. some personal requirements 75 Service levels.. sales time 79 Relationship selling 77 Requirements. after the 80 performance. prompts 19 Strategy. seven steps 70 time record. 92 type of media should I use? 61 Why start a business of your own? 82 Win . delivering. 89 form for management 45 product. 66 professional.101 Business Checklists People person. performance. financial 9. selling 75 Research. contributions to 87 Training assessing changes in effectiveness 28 needs analysis 41 Transition in management styles under MBO Twenty work related needs 36 What blocks business communication? 48 is quality service? 88 makes a company successful? 88 makes a good manager? 93 makes a market leader? 64 makes managers effective? 93 makes you competitive? 59 motivates an employee? 50 motivates people at work? 96 type of image does your company project? 60 type of leadership should . 8 Telephone standards 71 Threats 83 Time management 97 Time. sales record 79 Tomorrows manager 111 Total cost. new product 85 Some quick prompts for a Strategic Plan 18 Staff .