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Radio Link Time-Out Every time a SACCH message can not be decoded the radio link timeout counter is decreased by 1. If the message can be decoded the counter is incremented by 2. However, the value can not exceed the initial value. The initial value is set by the parameter RLINKT for radio link time-out in the mobile station and by RLINKUP for timeout in the BSC. If the mobile moves out of coverage and no measurement reports are received in the BSC, there will be a radio link time-out and the message Channel Release (cause: abnormal release, unspecified) is sent to the mobile station and the SACCH is deactivated in the BTS. A Clear Request message is sent to the MSC. To be sure that the mobile has stopped transmitting, the BSC now waits RLINKT SACCH periods before the timeslot is released and a new call can be established on the channel. 2. Layer 2 Time-Out If the BTS never get an acknowledge on a Layer 2 message after the time T200XN200, the BTS will send Error Indication (cause: T200 expired) to the BSC, which will send Channel Release (cause: abnormal release, timer expired) to the mobile station and a Clear Request to the MSC. The SACCH is deactivated and the BSC waits RLINKT SACCH periods before the timeslot is released and a new call can use the channel. This is only valid if the call is in steady state, i.e. not during handover or assignment.
When receiving Clear Command. the MSC will send a reject message. Reject (only SDCCH): If the MSC never receives a response on the first message after Establish Indication. Identity Request) and there is no radio link time-out or layer 2 time-out. If the connection was a Location Update it will be a Location Update Reject (cause: network failure) and if the connection was a mobile originating call (CM Service Request) a CM Service Reject (cause: network failure) will be sent. MSC Time-Out Normal Release: If the MSC never received a response on a message (e. Release Indication When the BTS received a layer 2 DISC frame from the mobile it replies with a Layer 2 UA frame to the mobile station and a Release Indication to the BSC.g. It is also possible that the release will be normal depending on when the Release Indication is received.3. 4. The system does only react on Release Indication if it is received during a normal disconnection situation. The time-out is depending on the message. If such a message is received unexpectedly this will usually cause radio link time-out or timer T200 expiration as the mobile station stops the transmitting of measurement reports. the MSC will send a Clear Command to the BSC. the BSC will send a Channel Release (cause: normal release) and then deactivates the SACCH. The .
MSC will then send a Clear Command to the BSC and the call is cleared by Channel Release (cause: normal release).Other Reasons Excessive Timing Advance The TCH Drop counters due to Excessive Timing Advance will pegged when the during the time of disconnection. etc. the following two criterion have to be fulfilled: a.ExcessiveTiming Advance 2. Tilt antenna/reduce antenna height/output power. for co-channel cells. Assignment to TCH Before sending an Assignment Command from the BSC at TCH assignment. Assignment Command will not be sent and a Channel Release (cause: abnormal release.e. Action: Check if the cell parameter TALIM is < "63" Solution: Set TALIM to a value close to 63. If either of the criterion is not fulfilled. TCH Drop Reasons (2) Low Signal Strength on Down or Uplink or Both Links . This drop reason is commonly apparent to isolated or island sites with a wide coverage area.Low Signal Strength 3. unspecified) will be sent to the mobile station and a Clear Request to the MSC.Sudden Loss of Connection 5.Bad Quality 4. no congestion b. TCH Drop reason (1) The classification of TCH Drop Reasons are arranged in the order of priority: 1. 5. the last Timing Advance value recorded was higher than the TALIM Parameter. The locating algorithm must have received at least one valid measurement report. i. There must be a TCH channel available.
Check output power. LOWSSDL and LOWSSUL are BSC Exchange Property parameters which is used only for statistics purposes and does not affect the behavior of calls. Check if Omni site. only Drop due to Low SS BL will pegged. Change to a better antenna (with higher gain) for the base station. Solution: Add a repeater to increase coverage in for example a tunnel. Perform drive tests & site survey. . Check TRX/TS with high CONERRCNT. If both UL and DL Signal Strength are below the thresholds. BADQDL and BADQUL (expressed in DTQU) are BSC Exchange Property parameters which is used only for statistics purposes and does not affect the behavior of calls. Bad tunnel coverage cause many dropped calls as well as so called coverage holes. Add a new base station if there are large coverage holes. Block/Deblock TRX TCH Drop Reasons (3) Poor Quality on Down or Uplink or Both Links The drops counters due to Bad Quality will be pegged when the Signal Strength during the last Measurement Report before the call dropped is above the BADQDL and/or BADQUL Thresholds.The drops counters due to Low Signal Strength will be pegged when the Signal Strength during the last Measurement Report before the call dropped is below the LOWSSDL and/or LOWSSUL Thresholds. Normally a call is dropped at the border of large rural cell with insufficient coverage. Check power balance and link budget. Check antenna installation. Check antenna configuration & type. only Drop due to BAD Quality BL will pegged. Building shadowing could be another reason. Bad indoor coverage will result in dropped calls. If both UL and DL Quality are above the thresholds. Action: Check coverage plots.
TCH Drop Reasons (4) Sudden Loss of Connection Drops due to Sudden Loss are drops that have not been registered as low signal strength. Change MAIO. Solution: Change BCCH frequency. Check for External Interference. Action: Check BTS Error Logs. Action: Check C/I and C/A plots. bad quality or hardware (other) reasons. Use available radio features. and MS Faults. HSN parameters. such as when subscribers enter into buildings. elevators. Record RIR or on-site Frequency Scanning to identify source of interference. Check MAIO. HOP. Change BSIC. External interference is also one possible cause of problem on quality. MS runs out of battery during conversation. BTS HW faults. Change FHOP. Handover Lost. Alarms and Fault Codes.. Perform drive tests. HSN. etc. Synchronization or A-bis link fault (transmission faults). parking garages. There are some common scenarios that could lead to Sudden Loss of connections such as very sudden and severe drops in signal strength. excessive timing advance. Check Frequency Plan (Co-BCCH or Co-BSIC Problem).Problem on Bad Quality is usually associated with Co-channel Interference on BCCH or TCH. . Check FHOP if correctly configured (BB or SY). and the locating procedure indicates missing measurement results from the MS. very sudden and severe occurrence of interference. Faulty MAIO assignment can cause frequency collisions on co-sited cells especially on 1x1 Reuse. HOP.
. and sometimes Handover Lost. • Transcoder synchronization fault When TRA sync fault is reported on any TS of a TG Check the counter TRASYNCCOUNT. Some are given below. Reset TRX with high CONERRCNT. Ater or Ainterfaces. Reset TRX with high CONERRCNT. transmission link problems on A-bis. Low SS. Correlate Handover Lost to Drops due to Sudden Loss Solution: Fix Hardware Faults and Alarms. Check Alarms and Fault Codes. Investigate HO Lost Problem Other reason drop is mostly due to media related issues. Correlate Handover Lost to Drops due to Other Reasons Solution: Fix Hardware Faults and Alarms. Check Transmission Link (A-bis).Check CONERRCNT per TRX and TS. Check for DIP Slips. Change RBLT with high DIP Slips. Change CONFACT or increase Transmission Capacity Investigate HO Lost Problem TCH Drop Reasons (5) TCH Drops due to Other Reasons TCH drops due to Other Reasons are computed by subtracting the sum of drops due to Excessive TA. Check for DIP Slips. Action: Check BTS Error Logs. Change RBLT with high DIP Slips. Check LAPD Congestion. Drops due to Other Reasons are generally associated with hardware problems. Ensure that Synchronization and A-bis Link are stable. Correlate the TRASYNCCOUNT with TxNDROP. Check CONERRCNT per TRX and TS. Check Transmission Link (A-bis). Bad Quality and Sudden Loss from the Total TCH Drop Counts. Ensure that Synchronization and A-bis Link are stable.
Very high LAC update load in the BSC The “other reasons” drop than would be on multiple cells in the BSC or may be entire region will be affected by it. Congestion in the vocoders use TxNRELCONG to check this. wrong output power.Check output power. check slip. and BER. . then give reset to the DXU on TG that is showing LAPD problems. Use available radio features. Check frequency plan. Solution: Change frequency. no indoor coverage or network equipment failure. Tilt antenna/reduce antenna height/output power.• • • • Faulty TRA devices.">Solution: Set TALIM to a value close to 63. Repair faulty equipment. LAPD problems usual high BER LAPD problems can normally be picked up during DT as T200 (N200) expiry. Perform drive tests. Poor Quality on Down or Uplink Action: Check C/I and C/A plots. • • • • Problem reason of drop in SDCCH Low Signal Strength on Down or Uplink The reason for poor coverage could be too few sites. shadowing. Too High Timing Advance Action: Check if the cell parameter TALIM is < style="font-weight: bold. Inappropriate ACLC settings. etc. Inappropriate power control settings leading to high CP load. High external interference leading to issues in the DIP. Perform drive tests. Check BTS error log Solution: Add new sites. Increase output power. Action: Check coverage plots. for cochannel cells. Check alarms on dip. Blocked RALT and RBLT devices Check Alarms on the RALT and RBLT.
Action: Check if MS power regulation is used. Solution: Inform operator.Mobile Error Some old mobiles may cause dropped calls if certain radio network features are used. Action: Check customer complaints and their MS. Action: Check TCH congestion Solution: Increase capacity on TCH or using features like Assignment to another cell. etc. HCS. Congestion on TCH The SDCCH is dropped when congestion on TCH. Check if DTX uplink is used. Battery Flaw When a subscriber runs out of battery during a conversation. Subscriber Behavior Poorly educated subscribers could use their handsets incorrectly by not raising antennas. Another reason is that the MS is damaged and not working properly. the call will be registered as dropped call due to low signal strength or others. choosing illadvised locations to attempt calls. Action: Check MS fleet. Cell Load Sharing. Dynamic Half-Rate Allocation and FR-HR Mode Adaptation etc .
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