N A S A TECHNICAL

October 1974

MEMdRANDUM
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Utclas 5267b

MSiC SKYLA8 M l S S ION REPORT-SATURN VBORKSHOP
Skylab Program Office

NASA

George C. ~ZlarshallSpace FZigbt Center Marshall Space Flight Celzter, A labuma

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- C o r m 3100 F

(Rev

J u w 1371)

1. REPORT NO.

2. GOVERNMNT ACCESSION NO.

T E C H N I C A L REPORT S T A N D A R D T I T L E P A G : 3. RECIPIEI(T8S CATALOG NO.

N S TM X-66814 AA
a
T ITLE AND S I I T I T L C :

MSFC SKYLAB MISSION REPORT--SATURN WORKSHOP

9.

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5 . REPORT DATE

October 1974

6. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION CCOE
8. PERFORMING ORGAN1 ZAT ION REPOR r

7. AUPHOA(S)
PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME AND ADDRESS

George C. Marshall Space F l i g h t Center MarsSall Space F l i g h t Center, AL 35812 Technical Memorandum

2. SPONSPRING AGENCY NAME ANO ADDRESS

National Aeronautics and Space Administration Washington, D.C. 20546

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15. SUPPLEMENTARY NCTES

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The S k l l a b ' s Saturn Wnrks'nop missim performance is presented. The Saturn Workshop c i r c l e d t h e Earth every 9 3 minutes a t approximately 435 kilometers a l t i t u d e w i t h i t s o r b i t i n c l i n e d 50 degrees from t h e Equator. I t was rnann.ed by 3 d i f f e r e n t crews f o r 171 of t h e 272 days covered by t h i s r e p o r t . A v a r i e t y of experiments were conducted t o determine man's a b i l i t y t o l i v e and work i n space f o r extended p e r i o d s , t o make Sun and Earth inv e s t i g a t i o n s , and t o advance s c i e n c e and technology i n s e v e r a l a r e a s of space a p p l i c a t i o n s . Performance is compared w i t h design parameters, and problem causes and s o l u t i o n s a r e t r e a t e d . The Saturn Workshop s u c c e s s f u l l y performed its r o l e and advanced t h e technology o f space systems design.

7. k E t WOROS

(8. DlSTRI0UTlON STATEMENT

Thermal Zonf i g u r a t i o n llission ~unanaxy C r e w System 3 t r u c t u r a l 6 Kechanical Contamination Environmental Experiments Attitude 6 Pointicg Contzol Electrical [nstrumentatior and Communications
9 . SEC :<lTY CLASSIF. ( d t h h n o a m
20.

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'chairman, Skylab Mission Evaluation Working Group
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NO. OF PAGES

SECURITY CLASSIF. (01 t h h *#a)

Unclaseif i e d
ISPC. Yorm 8 2 B l ( R e v December I # ? # )

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Unclassified

For ~ d !e National Ttchnicnl Inlotmatinn Service, Sptin~fitld, b y Virgldl~22 1 5 1

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TABLL: OF CONTENTS

Page SECTION 1.
. SECTION 2

MISSION SUMMAKY

SECTION 4.

.......... .......... .. Saturn Workshop Launch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . First Unmanned Period . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . First Manned Period . . . . . . . . . , . . . . . . . . . . 3.3.1 Activation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.3.2 Operations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.3.3 Deactivation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Second Unmanned Period . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Second Manned Period . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.5.1 Activation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.5.2 Operations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.5.3 Deactivation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Third Unmanned Period . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Third Manned Period . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.7.1 Activation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.7,2 Operations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.7.3 Deactivation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Tests and Orbital Storage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Mission Operations Support . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Performance Srmmary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Accomplishments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . STRUCTURES Ah7D HECHANISMS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Structures...................... ... 4.1.1 Primary Structures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.1.2 Pressure Vessels . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.1.3 Secondary Structures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Mechanisms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.2.1 Deployment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.2.2 Doors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Anomlies . . . . . . . . . . . . . , . . . . . . . . . . . 4.3.1 Workshop Meteoroid Shield . . . . , . . . , . . . . 4.3.2 Workshop Solar A.rray . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.3.3 Solar Observatory Aperture Doors . . . . . . . . .

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Page SECTION 5. 5.;

............. Data System;. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.1.1 Data A c q u h i t i o n . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.1.2 Data Rscording . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . R F T r a n s m i s s i o n . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.1.3 Cormand Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.2.1 Laboratory D i g i t a l Command System . . . . . . . . . 5.2.2 Solar Observatory D i g i t a l Comaand System . . . . . Audio System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . TeJ.evision System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.4.1 Laboratory Television . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.4.2 Solar Observatory Television . . . . . . . . . . . .................
INSTRUMENTATION AND c ~ I C A T I O N S Caution and Warning System Timing..... 5.6.1 Laboratory Time Reference System Solar Observatory Time Reference System 5.6.2 Rendezvous, Ranging, and Docking Aids Ammlies S.8.1 Laboratory Low-Level Multiplexers 5.8 2 Laboratory Transmitter A (10-Wat t ) 5.8.3 Solar Obsewatory RF Coaxial Switch 5.8.4 Audio System Channel B 5.8.5 Video Tape Recorder 5.8.6 Television Monitor

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SECTION 6. 6.1

...................... ......... ...... ........... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. .. .. .. .. .. ... . ........ . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. ....... ... ................ ............. ATTITUDE AND POINTING CONTROL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A t t i t u d e Control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.1.1 System Requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.1.2 SystemDesign. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.1.3 Operational Modes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.1.4 Mission Perfxmance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.1.5 System Performance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Solar Observatory Fine Pointing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.2.1 System Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.2.2 SystemOperation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . homalies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.3.1 Rate Gyros . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.3.2 ControlMomentGyros . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.3.3 S t a r Tracker . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

SECTION 7.

...................... Mission Performance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Laboratory Power System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7.2.1 Solar Array . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7.2.2 Power Conditioners . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7.2.3 Power D i s t , ~ b u t i o n . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Solar Observatory Power Systeni . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7.3.1 Solar Array . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7.3.2 Power Conditioners . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7.3.3 PowexDistribution . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
ELECTRICAL P W R O E

Y a r a l l e l Operations

SECTION 8. 8.1

SECTION 9.

......................... .................... Anomalies SolarArrayPower,................ 7.5.1 7.5.2 Power Conditioners . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7.5.3 Television Power Bus . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . TEEWIAL C N R L . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . OTO Laboratory Thermal Control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8.1.1 Passive Thermal Control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8.1.2 Active Thermal Control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Auxiliary Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8.2.1 S u i t Cooling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . EquipmentCooling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8.2.2 8.2.3 Refrigeration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Solar Observatory Thermal Control . . . . . . . . . . . . . Anomalies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8.4.1 Laboratory Coolant Loops . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8.4.2 Refrigeration Loops . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . L B R T R A M SH R A O AO Y T OP E E . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Gas Supply . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Atmosphere P u r i f i c a t i o n . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Ventilating and Condit ioninf, . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Al?.omalit?s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9.4.1 Molecular Sieve Iwerter . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9.4.2 Water Condensate System . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
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SECTION 10. 10.1 H a b i t a b i l i t y Provisions 10.1.1 Crew S t a t i o n s 10.1.2 Water System 10.1.3 Wasce System 10.1.4 Personal Hygisne 10.1.5 Sleep. 10.1.6 Food System 10.1.7 Housekeeping 10.1.8 TrashMsposal 10.1,9 Debris Control 1G. 1.10 Mobility-S t a b i l i t y Aids 10.1.11 Stowage 10.1.12 Illumination 10.1.13 Crew Commrunications Controls and Displays Crew Operatione of Experiments I n f l i g h t Maintenance Solar Obewva tory Film Retrieval

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....................... 11.1 Induced Atmosphere . . . . . . . . . . . 11.2 Operational Constraints . . . . . . . . 11.3 Measurement and Evaluation . . . . . . . 11.4 Contaminant Effects . . . . . . . . . . 11.4.1 Solar Observatory Experiments . 11.4.2 Earth Observation ErperFments . 11,4.3 Scientific Airlock Experiments 11.4.4 Other External Experiments . . 11.4.5 Windows . . . . . . . . . . . 11.4.6 Star Tracker . . . . . . . . . 11.4.7 Thermal Control Surfaces . . . 11.4.8 Solar Arrays . . . . . . . . . . SECTION 12. EXPERIMENTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12.1 Solar Physics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12.1.1 White Light Coronagraph (S052) . . . . . . . . . . 12.1.2 X-Ra3 Spectrograph (S054) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12.1.3 Ultraviolet Scsnning Polychromator Spectroheliometer (S055A) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12.1.4 X-Ray Telescope (S056) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12.1.5 Extreme Ultraviolet Spectroheliograph (S082A) . . . 12.1.6 Spectrograph and Extreme Ultraviolet Monitor (S082B) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12.1.7 HydrogenAlpha . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12.2 Astrophysics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12.2.1 Nuclear Emulsion (S009) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12.2.2 Gegerlschein and Zodiacnl Light (S073) . . . . . . . 12.2.3 Galactic X-Ray Mapping (SUO) . . . . . . . . . . . 12.2.4 Ultraviolet Panorama (S183) . . . . . . . . . . . . 12.2.5 Transuranic Cosmic Rays (S228) . . . . . . . . . . 12.2.6 Magnetospheric Particle Composition (S230) . . . . 12.2.7 Cometary Physics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12.3 Materials Science and Manufacturing in Space . . . . . . . . 12.3.1 Materials Processing Facility (M512) . . . . . . . 12.3.2 Multipurpose Electric Furnace (MS18) . . . . . . . 12.3.3 Zero Gravity Plam~ability (M479) . . . . . . . . . 12.4 Engineering and Technology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12.4.1 Thermal Control Coatings (D024) . . . . . . . . . . 12.4.2 Thermal Control Coatings, Instrument Unit (M415) . . 12.4.3 Habitability of Crew Quarters (M487) . . . . . . .
SECTION 11 COhTAMIAATION 12.4.4 12.4.5 12.4.6 12.4.7 12.4.8 12.4.9 Manual Navigation Sight ings (T002) Inflight Aerosol Analysis (T003) Crew Vehicle Disturbances (T013) Foot Controlled Maneuvering Unit (TO2O) Contamination Measurement (TO27) Proton Spectrometer

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12.5

12.6

Student 12.5.1 12.5.2 12.5.3 12.5.4 12.5.5 12.5.6 12.5.7 12.5.8 12.5.9 12.5.10 12.5.11 12.5.12 12.5.13 12.5.14 12.5.15 12.5.16 12.5.17 12.5.18 12.5.19 12.5.20 12.5.21 12.5.22 Science 12.6.1 12.6.2 12.6.3 12.6.4 12.6.5 12.6.6 12.6.7 12.6.8 12.6.9 12.6.10 12.6.11 12.6.12 12.6.13 12.6.14 12.6.15 12.6.16 12.6.17

REFERENCES

................... .. ............... .............. ....... .................. ........... ............ .......... ............ ............ ......... ............... ... ........... .............. .............. .............. ....... ..... .............. .............. ............. ................... ........ ......... ............. ............ ............ .......... ......... .... ............. ............ ......... .............. ........... .......... ......... ......... ...... ............................
Investigations Atmospheric Attenuation of Radiant Energy (E~11) Volcanic Study (ED12) Libration Clouds (ED21) Objects Within ~ercury'sOrbit (ED22) Quasars (ED23) X-Ray Stellar Classes (ED24) X-Rays from Jupiter (ED25) Ultraviolet from Pulsars fED26) Bacteria and Spores (ED31) In Vitro Immunolcgy (ED32) Motor Sensory Performance (ZD41) Web Formatior (ED52) Plant Growth and Plant Phototropism (ED61-62) Cytoplasmic Streaming (ED63) Capillary Study (ED72) Mass Measurement (ED74) Neutron Analysis (ED75) Liquid Motion in Zero Gravity (ED78) Microorganisms in Varying Gravity (ED33) Chick Embryology (ED51) BrownianMotion (ED75) Universal Gravity (ED77) Demonstrations Fluid Mechanics Series (SD9-TV107) Diffusion in Liquids (SD15-TV115) IceMelticg (SD16-TV111) Ice Formation (SD17-TV112) Effervescence (SD18-TV113) Immiscible Liquids (SD19-TV102) Liquid Floating Zone (SD20-TV101) Deposition of Silver Crystals (SD21-TV106) Liquid Films (SD22-TV103) Lens Formation (SD23-TV116) Acoustic Positioning (SD24-W114) Gyroscope (SD28-TV104) Clour! Formation (SD29-TVl18) Orbital Mechanics (SD30-TV110) fiochelle Salt Growth (SD33-TV105) Neutron Z3vironment (SD34-TVlO8) Charged Particle Mobility (SD35-TV117)

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SECV!ON- 1
INTRODUCTION

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The use of space is a l r e a d y a f f e c t i n g t h e l i v e s of most of t h e peoples of t h e world, d i r e c t l y o r i n d i r e c t l y . Space, because of i t s unique vantage p o i n t f o r observations, vacuum, and n u l l i f i e d g r a v i t y e f f e c t , o f f e r s p o t e n t i a l a p p l i c a t i o n s impossible t o achieve on Earth. The f i r s t United S t a t e s manned f l i g h t s i n t o space, taken only ti few y e a r s ago, were d i r e c t e d toward demonstrating t h e f e a s i b i l i t y of space f l i g h t . Mercury and Gemini program f l i g h t s were made p r i marily t o e v a l u a t e , in s u c c e s s i v e l y longer f l i g h t s , t h e a b i l i t y of men t o l i v e and work s a f e l y in space. The next manned space program, Apollo, culminated in s i x s u c c e s s f u l landings on t h e Moon, and demonstrated t h a t t h e d i r e c t involvement of man i n space f l i g h t was of i n e s t i m a b l e value iu t h e performance of experiments, observation of new phenomena, and o p e r a t i o n of t h e s p a c e c r a f t . The Skylab p r o g r m ( r e f . 1 ) was a l o g i c a l c o n t i n u a t i o n i n t h e manned exp l o r a t i o n of space and t h e development of space a p p l i c a t i o n s . The Apollo program hbd l e f t some important quest i o n s unanswered. The long-range p h y s i o l o g i c a l and psychological e f f e c t s of weig;~tleseness on man were udcnown. Nor was i t known i f man could perform v a r i e d and comple:. t a s k s f o r an extended t i m e i n space. There was a l s o i n t e r e s t i n whether t h e vacuum and zero g r a v i t y could be used t o r e a l i z e economic r e t u r n s . To answer t h e s e and many o t h e r q u e s t i o n s , t h e Apollo Applications program, l s t e r renamed t h e Skylab program, w a s i n s t i t uted. A number of proven f l i g h t designs, along w i t h e x i s t i n g ground f a c i l i t 4es , launch v e h i c l e s , and o t h e r hardware l e f t from t h e Apollo program, were t o be w e d . This program l e d t o t h e design of t h e Saturn Workshop, which t o g e t h e r with t h e command and s e r v i c e module made up t h e Skylab v e h i c l e , t h e f i r s t United S t a t e s space laboratory. Its c a p a b i l i t i e s derived, n o t from a major technological breakthrough, but from a combination of e x i s t i n g components and new designs. Unl'ke our previous manned s p a c e c r a f t , t h e Saturn Workshop contained a h a b i t a b l e volume l a r g e enough t o allow t h e crew t o move about f r e e l y and a source of power which was a o t l i m i t e d by an expendable supply of i u e l . Five major o b j e c t i v e s evolved f o r Skylab: t o determine man's a b i l i c y t o l i v e and work i n space f o r extended periods, t o determine and e v a l u a t e man's a p t i t u d e s and physiological responses eo space and h i s a d a p t a t i o n a f t e r r e t u r n i n g t o Earth, t o advance techniques of s o l a r astronomy beyond t h e l i m i t s of Earth-based observat i o n s , t o develop improved techniques f o r surveying Earth resources from space, an3 t o add t o knowledge i n o t h e r s c i e n t i f i c and technolo@cal f i e l d s . The Saturn Workshop was designed t o support t h e s e o b j e c t i v e s . The launch v e h i c l e provided t h e payload c a p a b i l i t y f o r i n s e r t i n g i n t o Earth o r b i t t h e f a c i l i t i e s , equipment, and instruments required t o conduct an extensive experiment program. The iwmber and v a r i e t y of t h e s e experiments g r e a t l y excee6ea those of any previous f l i g h t . Desiened t o s a t i s f y t h e s t a t e d program o b j e c t i v e s , t h e experiments f e l l i n t o s e v e r a l brosd c a t e g o r i e s . One was a gro2p of b i o l o g i c a l

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and medical experiments t o provide d a t a on t h e p h y s i o l o g i c a l r e a c t i o n s of Che crews t o prolonged exposure t o t h e space environment. There were s e v e r a l groups of experiments concerned with s c i e n c e , technology, and space a p p l i c a t i o n s , These included observations of t h e Sun and sky, observations of the s u r f a c e of t h e Earth, and t h e a p p l i c a t i o n of weightlessness and vacuum. L a t e r , some experiments developed by high school s t u d e n t s were incorporated i n t o t h e scheduled program and s e v e r a l science demonstrations were introduced. O May 14, 1973, t h e Skylab mission began with the launch of t h e Saturn n Workshop i n t o a nearly c i r c u l a r o r b i t a t an a l t i t u d e of approximately 435 k i l o meters and a t an i n c l i n a t i o n of 50 degrees from the E a r t h ' s Equator. This a l t i tude was high enough above t h e E a r t h ' s atmosphere t o e l i m i n a t e o p t i c a l i n t e r f e r ence and excessive aerodynamic drag, y e t low enough t o allow a l a r g e payload and high o r b i t i n c l i n a t i o n within t h e performance c a p a b i l i t y of t h e l a u n l h v e h i c l e . The a r e a of view a t 50 degrees i n c l i n a t i - o n included most of t h e populated and food-producing a r e a s of t h e Earth. The mission l a s t e d 212 days, during which time nine men i n t h r e e d i f f e r e n t three-man crews manned the Skylab f o r periods of 28, 59, and 84 days. Despite Rome problems, t h e t o t a l time which t h e crews spent onboard t h e Skylab substant i a l l y exceeded t h a t which had been planned. Furthermore, the crews performed both scheduled at.d unscheduled o p e r a t i o n s with l e s s d i f f i c u l t y than had been anticipated. The achievements of t h e Skylab program g r e a t l y surpassed expectations. One measure of success of t h e prcgram i s a comparison of a c t u a l and planned performance of experimeuts. Goals were exceeded by a s i g n i f i c a n t percentage i n most experiment c a t e g o r i e s : biomedical--32 percent; s c l a r physics--27.5 percent; Earth observations--60 percent; astrophysics--1C5 percent; engineering, technology and space mancfacturing--10 percent; and s t u d e n t investigations--18 percent. The ext e n t of t h e work accomplished by t h e crews i n t h e conduct of experiments demons t r a t e d man's a b i l i t y t o accomplish u s e f u l and meaningful work i n space. The ext e n t of t h e r e p a i r s , f a r beyond t h a t envisioned before f l i g h t , and t h e a l t e r n a t i v e o p e r a t i o n a l modes t h a t were developed during t h e mission t o counteract problems demonstrated anew t h e v a l u e of man i n c e r t a i n space missions. The success of t h e Skylab mission means t h a t t h e foundation f o r f u t u r e orb i t a l s t a t i o n s has been s i g n i f i c a n t l y enhanced. Except f o r food production and t h e r e c y c l i n g of wastes, few advances beyond present space technology should be required f o r extremely long missions. For s h o r t e r missions, t h e v a s t aggregation of flight-proven hardware can c o n t r i b u t e g r e a t l y t o a u s e f u l inventory of standa r d i z e d , low-cost space components and systems f o r both manned and unmanned programs. The procedures used i n design, development, Amulation, and o p e r a t i o n of Skylab, with minor modifications, a r e a l s o a p p l i c a b l e t o f u t u r e programs. This r e p o r t c o n t a i n s t h e niajor r e s u l t s of t h e Saturn Workshop e v a l u a t i o n t h a t was accomplished t o support t h e mission and t o determine performance i n mission and t h e s a f e t y d e t a i l . Yhis e v a l u a t i o n contributed t o the svccess of t t ~ e of the crew through determination of anomalous $erformance and system t r e n d s , thereby p e r m i t t i n g real-time a c t i o n s t o s o l v e o r compensate f o r problems. The r e p o r t a l s o c o n t a h s a b r i e f d e s c r i p t i o n of t h e Saturn Workshop c o n f i g u r a t i o n , a summary of t h e mission and o p e r a t i o n s , and b r i e f d e s c r i p t i o n s of t h e v a r i o u s systemb. Performance of n a j o r systems of t h e Saturn Workshop are reported i n sepa r a t e s e c t i o n s . The r e p o r t is based p r i m a r i l y cn the systems t e c h n i c a l r e p o r t s ( r e f . 2 through 12).

This r e p o r t is l i m i t e d t o t h e Saturn Workshop, and t o those experimente t h a t were t h e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of t h e Marshall Space F l i g h t Ce;~:er. It a l s o includes t h e e v a l u a t i o n of i n t e g r a t i o n i n t o t h e Saturn Workshop of hardware o r e x p e r i ~ e n t sdeveloped by o t h e r s . The e v a l u a t i o n s of t h e launch v e h i c l e and .?d launch, by Marshall Space F l i g h t Center and Kennedy Spece Center, a r e T \ - ' i n r e f e r e n c e s 1 3 and 14. Crew performances and hardware and experimcili:c. devr Other oped by Johnson Space Center a r e reported in r e f e r e n c e s 1 5 through 17 information concerning Skylab can be found i n r e f e r e n c e s 18 through 50. The r e f e r e n c e list does not include experiment r e p o r t s , which w i l l be issued i n t h e future. This r e p o r t h a s been prepared t o s e r v e a s a u s e f u l r e f e r e n c e t o those involved i n f c t u r e space a p p l j c a t i o a s a s w e l l a s those who were involved i n t h e design, development, o p e r a t i o n , o r u t i l i z a t i o n of Skylab. I t is intended f o r general a p p l i c a t i o n and a s a guide t o a r e a s of s p e c i f i c i n t e r e s t . Because of t h e broad range of s u b j e c t m a t t e r , t h e depth of t e c h n i c a l d i s c u s s i o n has been r e s t r i c t e d t o t h a t necessary t o give a general understanding of each major topic. General terminology has been used i n l i e u of c e r t a i r . t e c h n i c a l o r spec i f i c nomenclature used during the Skylab program. Units used i n t h e design of t h e Saturn Workshop have been used i n t h i s r e p o r t , r e s u l t i n g i n some mixture between English u n i t s and those of t h e I n t e r n a t i o n a l System of Units. Time i n days is referenced t o t h e launch of t h e Saturn Workshop on Day 1, and d a i l y t i m e is given i n Greenwich mean time.

This s e c t i o n p r e s e n t s some p e r t i n e n t background i n f o r m a t i o n t h a t a f f e c t e d t h e S a t u r n Worlcshop's c o n f i g u r a t i o n and a n o v e r a l l d e s c r i p t i o n o f t h a t configurat i o n . It is a guide t o t h e v e h i c l e ' s g e n e r a l arrangement and s i z e and, t o a s m a l l degree, e x p l a i n s how i t developed. Many f a c t o r s i n f l u e n c e d t h e d e s i g n , and an important one, economics, l e d t o an e a r l y d e c i s i o n t o u s e hardware, where p o s s i b l e , t h a t had been developed f o r o t h e r programs, e s p e c i a l l y t h e f.pollo l u n a r program. T h i s r e s u l t e d f i r s t i n a concept f o r t h e conversion in o r b i t o f a n e x i s t i n g launch v e h i c l e s t a g e i n t o a h a b i t a b l e workshop. I n t h i s concept, t h e second s t a g e o f a manned S a t u r n I B launch v e h i c l e would have a d u a l f u n c t i o n . A f t e r r e a c h i n g o r b i t , t h e second s t a g e hydrogen t a n k would b e d r a i n e d o f r e s i d u a l f u e l and vented. The crew would t h e n t r a n s f e r t o t h e hydrogen t a n k and c o n v e r t i t i n t o l i v i n g q u a r t e r s and a workshop. The s t r u c t u r a l components n o t a f f e c t e d by hydrogen would be i n s t a l l e d bef o r e launch, b u t t h e crew would have t o t r a n s f e r a l l food, s u p p l i e s , l i g h t i n g , and o t h e r equipment from t h e i r stowage l o c a t i o n s t o t h e tank. This concept l a t e r became known as t h e "wet workshop . I 1 An a i r l o c k was r e q u i r e d between t h e Apollo command module and t h e wor~:shop t o g i v e t h e crew a means of e g r e s s t o space f o r e x t r a v e h i c u l a r a c t i v i t i e s . I n -?d i t i o n , t h e a i r l o c k s t r u c t u r e would p r o v i d e a p l a c e f o r e x t e r n a l stowage o f ' pressure-gas b o t t l e s and o t h e r hardware. A f t e r a c h i e v i n g o r b i t , t h e corn;, s e r v i c e module wauld dock t o t h e a i r l o c k , and t h e crew would o u t f i t t h e wc Cshop. During t h e S a t u r n Workshop c o n c e p t u a l d e s i g n p e r i o d , s e v e r a l i n d e p e n d e n t l y launched experiment payloads were under development o r c m s i d e r a t i o n , ss w e l l a s r e s u p p l y v e h i c l e s t o extend m i s s i o n d u r a t i o n s . h e experiment payload, a s o l a r o b s e r v a t o r y , was t o be launched on a S a t u r n 1B. It wci.116 have t h e n e c e s s a r y systems t o o p e r a t e independently i n o r b i t and could dock w i t h a s e p a r a t e l y laun;k?d command and s e r v i c e module. When i t became o l v i o c s t h a t t h e r e were advantages i n combinicg t h e workshop and experiment m i s s i o n s , a docking a d a ? t e r w i t h m u l t i p l e docking p o r t s was added t o t h e workshop concept r o p e m i t docking of t h e v a r i o u s payJ.oads, i n c l u d i n g t h e s o l a r o b s e r v a t o r y . Hardware procurement was begun. However, a f t e r t h e f i r s t l u n a r l a d i n g , a Saturn V launch v e h i c l e became a v a i l a b l e from t h e Apollo l u n a r program. S i n c e t h i s v e h i c l e u s l n g o n l y two of i t s t h r e e s t a g e s could p l a c e s e v e r a l times as g r e a t 3 payload i n o r b i t a s t h e S a t u r n I B , t h e S a t u r n V t h i r d s t a g e ( t h e same a s t h e S a t u r n I B second s t a g e ) could b e modified and f u l l y equipped b e f o r e launch. The "dry workshop" concept had many advantages, such a s t h e capability f o r complete prelaunch checkout of hardware and systems, more time f o r crews t o conduct usef u l work i n o r b i t in l i e u of t r a n s f e r r i n g and i n s t a l l i n g equipment, and i n t e g r a t i o n i n t o one payload of most o f t h e experiments p r e v i o u s l y planned f w s e p a r a t e launches. It would allgw a l a r g e r c o n t r o l c e n t e r f o r o p e r a t i n g t h e s o l a r observa t o r y and l o n g e r p e r i o d s of o p e r a t i o n . Moreover, t h e s o l a r o b s e r v a t o r y ' s indcpendent communication, e l e c t r i c a l , and a t t i t u d e c o n t r o l systems would p r o v i d e t h e d r y workshop with a d d i t i o n a l and i n some r e s p e c t s dual c a p a b i l i t i e s i n t h e s e

systems. Since t h e e x g e r i n e n t payloads would no l o n g e r be launched s e p a r a t e l y , t h e docking a d a p t e r p o r t s were reduced t o two, one f o r normal u s e and one f o r r e s c u e capability

.

Major d e s i g n changes r e q u i r e d t o c o n v e r t t h e launch s t a g e i n t o a d r y worksiiop included e l i m i n a t i o n of t h e e n g i n e s and o t h e r f l i g h t hardware, i n s t a l l a t i o n of experiment: hardware and l i f e s u p p o r t systems, aild stowage of consunables (food, w a t e r , and so f o r t h ) . The c o m l n d and s e r v i c e module c a r r y i n g t h e crew had t o be launched s e p a r a t e l y s i n c e t h e d r y workshop would have no f l i g h t t e s t i n g t o permit manrating i t . Thus, economic f a c t o r s , i n c l u d i n 6 t h e use o f p r e v i o u s l y deveJ.oped Apollo and Gemini hardware and t h e r e t e n t i o n o i hardware s t a r t e d f o r t h e wet workshop, had a major i n f l u e n c e 011 t h e c o n c e p t u a l development and f i n a l d e s i g n o f t h e S a t u r n Workshop. When launched, i t c o n t a i n e d a l l t h e e l e n e n t s needed t o s u s t ~ i n h e crew and t o p e r a t i o n s . Focd and w a t e r a r e s t o r e d on board and t h e n e c e s s a r y hardware i~provided f c r : o l l e c t i o n and d i s p o s a l o f human wastes. There a r e p r o v i s i o n s f o r supp l y i n g a bre:,thable atmosphere and c o n t r o l l i n g temperature, p r e s s u r e , and humidi t y . E l e c t r i c a l power i s produced by d i r e c t conversion of s o l a r energy, using two s e t s of s o l a r a r r a y s , one mounted on t h e workshop and t h e o t h e r on t h e s o l a r o b s e r v a t o r y . The n e c e s s a r y system s e n s o r s , c o n t r o l s , co~umunicationsd e v i c e s a r e included s o t h a t d e c i s i o n s can be made aad implemt..~ed e i t h e r by t h e crew o r ground c o n t r o l l e r s . Means of c o n t r o l l i n g p r e c i s e l y t h e o r i e n t a z i o n of t1.r Saturn Workshop a r e provideL. t o f a c i l i t a t e t h e g e n e r a t i m of r e q u i r e d e l e c t r i c a l power and t h e e f f i c i e n t c o l l e c t i o n of experiment d a t a .
-9-+

The S a t u r n Wo.'cshop f a r exceeds i n s i z e and c ~ m p l e x i t yany p r e v i o u s spacec r a f t . I t i s a c l u s t e r of f o u r s e p a r a t e l y manufactured modules and, when a s sembled i n i t s f l i g h t c o n f i g u r a t i o n , is 86 f e e t long and weighs 195,000 pounds. The modules a r e d e s i g n a t e d , a c c o r d i n g :o t h e i r f u n c t i o n s , t h e docking a d a p t e r , a i r l o c k , workshop, and s o l a r o b s e r v a t o r y . F i g u r e 2-1 i d e n t i f i e s t h e i n d i v i d u a l modules and shows t h e designed c o n f i g t i r e t i o n . The i n s t r u m e n t u n f t , shown a s p a r t of t h e Saturn Workshop, i s a f u n c t i o n a l p a r t of t h e launch v e h i c l e and becomes i n a c t i v e a f t e r t h e S a t u r n Workshop is i n i t i a l l y a c t i v a t e d . An aerodynamic shroud c o v e r s t h e s o l a r o b s e r v a t o r y , docking a d a p t e r , and a i r l o c k d u r i n g launch, and i s e j e c t e d a f t e r o r b i t a l i n s e r t i o n . Next, t h e s o l a r o b s e r v a t o r y i s primary ( a x i a l ) p o r t r o t a t e d 90 d e g r e e s from i t s launch p o s i t i o n , c l e a r i n g ~ h e f o r command and s e r v i c e module docking. The s o l a r a r r a y s a r d o t h e r components a r e then deployed t o p u t t h e S a t u r n Workshop i n i t s o r b i t a l c o n f i g u r a t i o n . This r e p o r t c o v e r s performaace of t h e i n t e g r a t e d systems of t h e S a t u r n Workshop; however, module nomenclature i s used where n e c e s s a r y t o i d e n t i f y t h e locat i o n of components o r systems. Figure 2-2 is a cutaway view of t h e s e modules. When t h e command and s e r v i c e modclle i s docked, t h e h a b i t a b l e volume o f t h e Skylab is w i t h i n t h e command module, doc,king a d a p t e r , a i r l o c k , and workshop. C e r t a i n components o r systems a r e i d e n t i f i e d p r i m a r i l y w i t h t h e S a t u r n Workshop's h a b i t a b l e volume ( t h e docking a d a p t e r , a i r l o c k , and workshap), and, f o r convenience, these three m d u l e s a r e c o l l e c t i v e l y referred t d i n t h i s report a s the laboratory. Docking of t h e command module and t r a n s f e r of personnel and equipment ts normally through t h e a x i a l p o r t c f t h e docking a d a p t e r , but t h e r e i s a backup o r r e s c u e p o r t on t h e -Z a x i s . The docking a d q p t e r , 10 f e e t i n d i a m e t e r and 17 f e c t long, i s che c o n t r o l c e n t e r f o r t h e v a r i o u s s o l a r , E a r t h o b s e r v a t i o n , and nretals and m a t e r i a l s p r o c e s s i n g experiments. The equipment f o r t h e numerous e x p e r i r e n t s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h each o f t h e s e i s l o c a t e d n e a r t h e i r c o n t r o l s . The dccking a d a p t e r

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(Continued)

The launch of t h e f i r s t c r e k , which was supposed t o have followed t h e launch of t h e S a t u r n Workshop by 1 day, was delayed f o r 1 0 days t o a l l o w t i m e f o r a s s e s s i n g t h e s i t u a t i o n and d e c i d i n g t h e s t e p s t o be taken. Assignments were s e n t o u t t o v a r i o u s National Aeronautics and Space A d m i n i s t r a t i o n c e n t e r s and c o n t r a c t o r s . Marshall Space F l i g h t Center was asked t o conduct a s e r i e s of a n a l y t i c a l s t u d i e s t o p r e d i c t t h e e f f e c t s of what was hewn from t e l e m e t r y . These a c t i v i t i e s i n cluded p r e d i c t i o n s o f what t h e t e m e r a t u r e s would be i n t h e f i l m v a u l t s , t h e food l o c k e r s , and t h e medicine c o n t a i n e r s and what e f f e c t high temperatures would have If on t h e polyurethane foam i n s u l a t i o n bonded t o t h e i n n e r w a l l o f t h e workshop. t h e temperatures i n t h e u n r e f r i g e r a t e d food l o c k e r s and f i l m v a u l t s exceeded t h e t s p e c i f i c a t i o n l i ~ i t sh e Eood would s p o i l and t h e very s e n s i t i v e f i l m would fog. I t was necessary t c p u t t h e S a t u r n Workshop i n t o a n a t t i t u d e t h a t would keep t h e t e m p s r s t u r e s a s OW a s p o s s i b l e . Through a n a l y s i s and e x p e r i m e n t a t i o n t h e optimum a t t i t u d e f o r t h e S a t u r n Workshop was sought. To reduce t h e i n c i d e n c e of t h e Sun's r a y s on t h e workshop and thereby reduce o v e r h e a t i n g t o t h e maximum e x t e z t p o s s i b l e , t h e S a t u r n Workshop was placed i n a p o s i t ' m where t h e s o l a r o b s e r v a t o r y s o l a r a r r a y s were no l o n g e r f u l l y e f f e c t i v e . Then t h e b a t t a r i e s were endangered, a d t h e changing a t t i t u d e a l s o caused t h e a u x i l i a r y c o o l i n g systems t o approach t h e f r e e z i n g temperature. I t was a p p r o x i ~ a t e l y14 hours i n t o t h e f l i g h t b e f o r e a n a t t i t u d e was found t h a t would he s u i t a b l e hoth t h e r m a l l y and e l e c t r i c a l l y . Workshop i n t e r n a l temperat u r e s reached approximately 130°F, and t h e e s s e n t i a l systems were maintained w i t h t h e e l e c t r i c a l power a v a i l a b l e . Meanwhile, i t w a s concluded t h a t t h e S a t u r n Workshop had, i n f a c t , l o s t a l most a l l of t h e meteoroid s h i e l d and t h e whole workshop a r r a y wing 2, and t h a t a r r a y wing 1 was r e s t r i c t e d from deploying. Simultaneously s e v e r a l o r g a n i z a t i o n s independently conceived ways i n which a thermal s h i e l d c o u l J be r i g g e d by t h e crew r o make t h e S a t u r n Workshop h a b i t a b l e . Johnson Space Center designed a p a r a s o l thermal s h i e l d t o f i t i n a small c a n i s t e r t h a t had been d e s i ~ n e dt o house an zxperiment t o be deployed through t h e s c i e n t i f i c a i r l o - k which i s on t h e s i d e o f t h e workshop norma1J.y f a c i n g t h e Sun. It o p e r a t e d much a s a normal p a r a s o l , having f o u r s t r u t s and a cenLer p o s t . The c e n t e r p o s t w a s held by t h e crew i n t h e workshop, and t h e s t r u t s were shoved o u t through t h e c a ~ i i s t e rextendj-ng through t h e +Z s c i e n t i f i c a i r l o c k . The s t r u t s were s p r i n g loaded s o t h a t they extended when t h e y c l e a r e d t h e c a n i s t e r . Another Johnson Space Center concept was t o l e t t h e crew r i g a s h i e l d w h i l e s t a n d i n g i n t h e open comand module hatch. The crew was t o t a k e a f a b r i c s h i e l d and, u s i n g p o l e s with hooks a t t h e i r ends, a t t a c h p u l l e y s and r o p e s t o t h e S a t u r n Workshop t o r i up a shade. T h i s concept seemed s i m p l e , b u t t h e n e c e s s i t y f o r ~ keeping t h e command module c l o s e t o t h e S a t u r n Workshop and t h e u n c e r t a i n t y o f t h e crew's being a b l e t o t i e t h e s h i e l d f i r m l y u s i n g a p o l e l e d t o r e t a i n i n g t h i s conc e p t only a s an a l t e r c a t e method. Marshall Space F l i g h t Center developed a thermal s h i e l d coqcept w h i c ' l r e q u i r e d t h e crew t o perform an e x t r a v e h i c u l a r a c t i v i t y , going o u t t h e a i r l o c k and hanging a f a b r i c thermal s h i e l d from a twin-pole frame. The top o f t h e frame would be attached a t t h e s o l a r o b s e r v a t o r y work s t a t i o n , then t h e 55-foot-long p o l e s would be extended down t h e s i d e of t h e workshop, and t h e thermal s h i e l d would be s t r e t c h e d between t h e p o l e s .

The Langley Research Center developed a concept u t i l i z ! ~ g Echo S a t e l l i t e type m a t e r i a l . This was an umbrella made of aluminized mate,-ial held i n p l a c e by i n f l a t e d balloon r i b s r m n i n g its l e n g t h and width. These r i b s would be t i e d t o t h e workshop's s t r u c t u r e . Among o t h e r concepts suggested but not used f o r varioxs reasons were p a i n t i n g of t h e workshop e x t e r i o r , a bungee-connected s h i e l d , and a weather balloon. In an e f f o r t concurrent with t h e development of t h e thermal s h i e l d , MarshaJ.3 Space F l i g h t Ctnter was asked t o determine what could be done about f r e e i n g t h e remaining workshop s o l a r a r r a y wing. There was no way t o determine what was preventing t h e deploymerhc of t h e s o l a r a r r a y wing, so a l l a l t e r n a t i v e s had t o be i n v e s t i g a t e d . liowe,~er, six+problem almost c e r t a i n l y involved t h e s o l a r a r r a y beam's a c t u a t o r - d u p e r , which r e s m b l e s an automobile' s h y d r a u l i c shock absorber. This c y l i n d e r moves t h e beam o u t when 2 i s r e l e a s e d i n t h e normal mode. o r i g i n a l l y t h e beam was t o be deployed i m n e d i a t e i j upon reaching o r b i t , but s i n c e t k t could not be done, t h e a c t u a t o r had had a chance t o cool t o about -50°F, which was near t h e h y d r a u l i c f l u i d ' s f r e e z i n g point. There was a high p r o b a b i l i t y t h a t t h e actuator-damper attachment would have t o be broken t o deploy t h e beam.
X r e l a t e d problem w a s t h a t t h e s o l a r a r r a y wing s e c t i o n s , which unfold in accordion-like fashion from t h e beam, a l s o have actuator-dampers l i k e t h e one f o r deploying t h e beam. The only d i f f e r e n c e s v e r e t h a t t h e a c t u a t o r s contained a l e s s viscous f l u i d and were mounted i n such a p o s i t i o n t h a t they could be exposed t o the Sun a f t e r beam deployment. It w a s hoped the Sun could warm them s o t h a t t h e wing s e c t i o n s would deploy.

I3 a d d i t i o n t o t h e l o s s of t h e meteoroid s h i e l d , t h e l o s s of one workshop s o l a r a r r a y wing, and t h e f a i l u r e of t h e o t h e r t o deploy, another problem w a s apparent. The workshop has polyurethane foam bonded t o t h e i n t e r n a l w a l l s f o r i n s u l a t i o n . A t temperature and pressure c o n d i t i o n s s i m i l a r t o those t h a t e x i s t e d i n t h e workshop, t h e decomposition of polyurethane c r e a t e s gases which can be dangerous. Extensive and a c c e l e r a t e d tests were made t o determine tile decomposit i o n t h a t might occur a t t h e high workshop temperatures.
With personnel working around t h e clock, meetings were held t o determine what simulators and mockups were needed, which thermal modeis were t o be used, when proceduiies and t r a i n i n g f a c i l i t i e s were r e q u i r e d , which manufacturing personnel were needed, what computer f a c i l i t i e s were r e q u i r e d , and how crew p a r t i c i pation should be schedujed, a l l i n suppor' of t h e four major problems being worked. Testing of various m a t e r i a l s f o r use i n t h e thermal s h i e l d proceeded, s i n c e whatever the thermal s h i e l d s t r u c t u r e concept chosen, a s h i e l d m t e r i a l would be needed. When the s t r u c t u r a l designs were completed, s t a t i c and dynamic t e s t i n g was performed. Figure 3-5 shuws t h e f a b r i c a t i o n of t h e parasol. I n i t i a l t e s t s were performed i n t h e n e u t r a l buoyancy tank a t Marshall Space F l i g h t Center t o confirm t h e design and t o a s s i s t i n developing deployment procedures. This f a c i l i t y s i m ~ r l a t e si n a l a r g e water tank the zero-gravity condition of space and i s used to develop crew procedures t h a t w i l l work i n z e r o g r a v i t y . Full-scale mockups were placed i n t h e tank and used f o r t h e thermal s h i e l d deployment tests. Testing of t h e polyurethane i n s u l s t i o a provided confidence t h a t t h e i n s u l a t i o n would a o t s e p a r a t e from t h e workshop's w a l l s and t h a t t h e r e would be no loose p a r t i c l e s . However, i t was found t h a t a p p r e c i a b l e amounts of gases were emitted from the i n s u l a t i o n a t 300°F. Updated information was obtained from

from t h e open command module hatch, and toxic-fume-protection-detection equipment. Some i t e m s such a s drugs, medications, aud experiment f i l m were stowed a s replacements because of t h e p o s s i b i l i t y of damage from t h e high temperatures i n t h e workshop. Meanwhile, a program of careful. management of a t t i t u d e and power had been i n s t i t u t e d t o keep temperatures w i t h i n t h e workshop a s low a s p o s s i b l e while providing enough power t o keep t h e Saturn Workshop o p e r a t i o n a l . Available power was s t r i c t l y a l l o c a t e d , and, as f a r as p o s s i b l e , systems u s i n g power were turned o f f o r operated i n t e r m i t t e n t l y . Heaters, one coolant pump, and telemetry t r a n s mitters, f o r example, were cycled on and o f f o r were operated i n reduced power modes. The e l e c t r i c a l power systems themselves were a l s o managed t o check o u t and p r o t e c t t h e systems. The two major problems, high workshop temperatures and a general power shortage, s t i l l e x i s t e d a t l i f t o f f of t h e launch v e h i c l e c a r r y i n g t h e firs: crew.
A sequence of t h e major e v e n t s t h a t occurred d u r i n g t h e f i r s t unmanned period is shown i n f i g u r e 3-7.

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tank depressurization 17:40

V Refrigeration system r a d i a t o r s h i e l d jettisoned 17:40

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V Shroud j e t t i s o n e d 17:45

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3.3

FIRST MANNED PERIOD

The conmand and s e r v i c e module c a r r y i n g t h e f i r s t crew was launched a t 13:OO Cnat on Day 1 2 from Launch Complex 3 9 ~ - s Kennedy Space Center, F l o r i d a , t

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Two h a r d , d r e problems occurred e a r l y i n t h e o p e r a t i o n s phase o f t h e f i r s t unmanned p e r i o d . The f i r s t , on Day 1 0 , was t h e f a i l u r e of s o l a r o b s e r v a t o r y power c o n d i t i o n e r 15. The power c o n d i t i o n e r s c o n t r o l t h e energy r e c e i v e d from t h e s o l a r c e l l p a n e l s ; each c o n s i s t s of a b a t t e r y c h a r g e r , a r e c h a r g e a b l e b a t t e r y , and a l o a d r e g u l a t o r . The second problem was a f a i l u r e of one of t h e r a t e - s e n s i n g gyros used t o maintain s p a c e c r a f t a t t i t u d e c o n t r o l . S o l u t i o n s f o r bo2h problems were worked o u t on t h e ground and e v e n t u a l l y implemented d u r i n g e x t r a v e h i c u l a r a c t i v i ties.
A number of r a t e gyro anomalies occurred d u r i n g t h e f i r s t 23 days a f t e r launch cf t h e S a t u r n Workshop, i n c l u d i n g fundamental problems of d r i f t , o s c i l l a t i o n s , high t e n p e r a t u r e i n d i c a t i o n s , and o t h e r f a i l u r e s . A development program was i n i t i a t e d t o p l a c e s i x modified gyros i n t h e docking a d a p t e r . The development program was keyed t o t h e launch o f t h e second crew, and l e s s t h a n 2 months was a v a i l a b l e t o p e r f e c t and d e l i v e r t h e nev gyro package.

Meanwhile, work was still i n p r o g r e s s on t h e procedures :o be used i n f r e e i n g t h e s o i a r a r r a y wing. The Skylab ground teams used t h e flyaround t e l e v i s i o n p i c t u r e s of the r e s t r a i n e d beam f a i r i n g a s a b a s i s f o r t h e s e procedures. Simul a t i o n played an important p a r t i n t h e procedure development because t h e t a s k would have t o he conducted i n a w e i g h t l e s s environment. Procedures were caref u l l y thought o u t and developed w i t h crewmen i n t h e Marshali Space F l i g h t Center n e g t r a l buoyancy tank. The beam f a i r i n g ' s actuator-damper mounting c l e v i s would probably have t o be broken b e f o r e t h e a r r a y would deploy s i n c e t h e f l u i d was

p r o b a b l y f r o z e n . 'The t e c h n i q u e f o r b r e a k i n g i t was developed. The p r o c e d u r e s were u p l i n k e d t o t h e crew on t h e t e l e p r i n t e r (5.?.1), and on Day 25 t h e crew performed an e x t r a v e h i c u l a r a c t i v i t y t.o f r e e t h e a r r a y . The Ccmma.,der p o s i t i o n e d h i m s e l f , b e i n g c a r e f u l n o t t o s n a g his s p a c e s u i t or. t h e jagged r e n a i n s of t h e meteoroid s h i e l d . l h e S c i e v ~ c eP i l o t was s t a t i o n e l ! n e a r t h e a i r l o c k h a t c l , r e a d y t o a s s i s t i f r e q u i r e d . The Commander hooked a beam e r e c t i o n t e t h e r t o t h e forward beam f a i r i n g v e n t module and s e c u r e d the o t h e r end t~ t h e f i x e d a i r l o c k s h r o u d . With c o n s i d e r a b l e d i . I f i c u l t y , he c u t away t h e al:~minum s t r a p t h a t k e p t t h e heam f a i l i n g from d e p l o y i n g . With t h e r e s t r a i n t removed t h e beam f a i r i . . g deployed about 20 d e g r e e s . The Commander and t h e S c i e n c e P i l o t ~ u g g e dand p u l l e d on t h e beam e r e c t i o n t e t h e r rope and f i n a l l y succeeded i n b r e d k i n g t h e a c t u a t o r - d a m p e r c l e v i s . The beam f a i r i n g tmmediately deployed anc l o c k e d , and t h e wing s e c t i ~ n s p a r t i a l l y deployed. Skylab was maneuvered t o a i l o w s o l a r h e a t i n g o f t h e f l u i d i n t h e wing s e c t i o n actuator-dampers. S i x h o u r s l a t e r t h e workshop s o l a r a r r a y wing s e c t i o n s were f u l l y d e p l o y e d . The power c a p a b i l i t y i n c r e a s e d from 4000 w a t t s t o a p p r o x i m a t e l y 7000 watts upon f u l l d e p l o p e n t o f t h e s o l a r a r r a y wing. On the ground, t e s t s were b e i n g r u n on power c o n d i t i o n e r s t o t r y t o i d e n t i f y t h e f a i l u r e mode o f power c o n d i t i o n e r 1 5 . N e i t h e r t h e r e g u l a t o r c a r t h e c h a r g e r would draw power. The c o n c l t l s i o n r e a c h e d was t h , t t h e i n p u t r e l a y c o n t a c t o r was s t u c k . A p r o c e d u r e was d e v e l o p e d t o r a p t h e power c o n d i t i o n e r w i t h a hammer t o t r y t o f r e e t h e r e l a y . T h i s would b e a t t e m p t e d d u r i n g t h e e x t r a v e h i c u l a r a c t i v i t y on Day 37. The ~ c c o m p l i s h m e n t of o b j e c t : -res d u r i n g t h e f i r s t manned p e r i o d was remarka51e, e s p e c i a l l y c o n s i d e r i n g t h e r e d u c t i o n i n e x p e r i m e n t t i q e a v a i l a b l e b e c a u s e of t h e manual deployments and o t h e r s y s t e m p r o t ems t o be worked. A l l p r i m a r y o b j e c t i v e s were accomplished and most o f t h e a s s i g n e d d e t a i l e d e x p e r i u e n t a l o b j e c t i v e s were completed. Of t h e 44 p l a n n e d t e l e c a b t s , 28 wet performed. S i n c e 2 o f t h e planned t e l e c a s t s were r e p e a t e d , and t h e r e were 3 impromptu t e l e c a s t s , t h e t o t a l number w a s 33. There were t h r e e e x t r a v e h i c u l a r a c t i v i t i e s performed d u r i n g t h e f i r s t manned p e r i o d f o r a t o t a l o f 6 h o u r s and 20 minil:--s. One w a s performed from t h e open comma d module h a t c h and two were from t h e a i r l o c k T a b l e 3-111 shows t h e d i s t r i b u t i o n o f manhours f o r t h e f i r s c manned p e r i o d . There were 392 h o u r s s p e n t on e x p e r i m e n t a t i o n , o r 20.6 p e r c e n c o f t h e t i m e a v a i l a b l e . T h i s p e r c e n t a g e was reduced c o n s i d e r a b l y from tha: p l a n n e d because o f t h e T a b l e 3-111.I

Manhour U t i l i z a t i o n During t h e F i r s t Manned P e r i o d

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Ac~ivity

-

Manhours 145.3 117.2 71.4 65.4 675.6 103.6 56.2 232.3 1944.4

! Percent
7.5
6.0 3.7 3.4

Medlcal experiments Solar observatory experiments Earth observation experlments Corollary and student experiments, a i d detailed t e s t o b j e c t t v : ~ Sleep, r e s t , o f f duty Pre- and post-sleep a c t f v i t y ( 2 mehis Ir.::~&dj Lunch Housekeeping Physical trainlng and personal hygtene Other operations (extravehicular a c t i v i t y , actlvatlon and deactlvttlon, televisfon) Total

12.0 100.0

An o v e r a l l t i m e l i n e f o r t h e f i r s t manned period is shown i n f i g u r e 3-14.

Saturn Yorkshw mission dqy

Figure 3-14.-

Summary of events of f i r s t manned period.

3.4

SECOND UNMANNED PERIOD

Following crew departure, d e p r e s s u r i z a t i o n of t h e Saturn Workshop w a s i n i t i a t e d t o lower t h e dewpoint t o approximately 3S°F t o prevent condensation i n t h e Saturn Workshop a s t h e i n t e r n a l temperature decreased. The d e p r e s s u r i z a t i o n iontinued f o r approximately 6 hours and was terminated a t approximately 2 p s i a . The workshop pressure was allowed t o decay t o 1 9 p s i a , which i n d i c a t e d a normal . leakape r a t e throughout t h e unmanned phase.

The r e f r i g e r a t i o n system showed an abnormal temperature rise a t t h e time of t h e f i r s t manned period's f i n a l closeout. Ground-commanded troubleshooting continued :or s e v e r a l hours. The p r i n c i p a l a c t i v i t y was c y c l i n g between primary and secondary loops and cyclcng ~ a l v e s . S a t i s f a c t o r y o p e a t i o n was subseqaently res t o r e d a f t e r 2 days.
Solar observatory o p e r a t i o n s were c a r r i e d out a s planned by ground c o n t r o l u n t i l Day 64, when the experiment p o i n t i n g c o n t r o l primary up-down r a t e gyro f a i l e d . The s o l a r observatory experiment o p e r a t i o n s were terminated because of

t h i s anomaly. On Day 67 a test was perf; -ded using t h e secondary up-down r a t e gyro, and operation was s a t i s f a c t o r y . To preclude a malfunction, l i m i t e d s o l a r observatory operations were performed u n t i l the next nanned period. The t e s t i n g of t h e package of six supplementary r a t e gyros, c a l l e d t h e "six-pack," f o r i n s t a l l a t i o n by t h e second crew, was already in progress on Day 60. Three u n i t s were b u i l t i n order t h a t p a r a l l e l development e f f o r t s could be carried out. One u n i t went t o the contractor in St. Louis f o r f i t checks on t h e backcp docking adapter and then t o Johnson Space Center f o r crew t r a i n i n g . The second u n i t was undergoing dynamic t e s t i n g a t Milishall Space F l i g h t Center, where t h e t h i r d ( f l i g h t ) u n i t was a l s o undergoing acceptance t e s t i n g . The f l i g h t u n i t w a s completed and shipped t o Kennedy Space Center on Day 71, 5 days before laufich of the second crew.
An improved version of t h e parasol thennal s h i e l d was developed by Johnson Space Center. The crew trained i n t h e deployment of the new p a r s s o l and t h e M n - p o l e thermal s h i e l d developed by Marshall Space Flight Center. The twin-pole shield had been stowed in t h e Saturn Workshop by t h e f i r s t crew. The improved parasol w a s c a r r i e d by t h e second crew. Major resupply items f o r t h e second manned period were t h e supplementary r a t e gyro package and cables, the improved parasol, experiment f ih, f m d f o r a 3-day mission extension, various assemblies t o replace f a i l e d experiment components, and two laboratory d a t a tape recorders.

About 40 hours before t h e launch of the second crew, t h e Saturn Workshop vent valves were commar.ded open, r e s u l t i n g i n f i n a l depressurization of t h e Saturn Workshop down t o 0.65 psia. Xepressurization began imnediately and w a s terminated a t 5 psia approximately 20 boilrs before launch. h sequence of major events of the second unmanned period is shown i n f i g u r e 3-15.
k

r~rdocki4 r S lashdpln

Y

Operations

I

Refrigeration system troubleshooting Saturn Wo+kshop' depreisurization I bExperirnent po-nting control primary r a t e gyroscope I Ovations Limited umnneb sol& observatory operations

f '
h

I

i *. 'lure

40

41

'

64

65

66

67

68

69

70

71

72

73

74

75

76

77

Saturn Workshop mission day

Figure 3-15.-

Su~rmaryof events of second unmanned period.

3.5

S C N MANNED PERIOD EOD

The second crew was launched a t 1 1 : l O Gmt I Day 75 from Launch Complex 39B a t Kennedy Space Center. The crew consisted of Captain Alan L. Bean, USN, Commander; D r . Owen K. G a r r i o t t , Science P i l o t ; and Major Jack R. Lousma, U M , S C P i l o t . The o r i g i n a l plan was t o launch the second crew on Day 96. However, because of the degradation of t h e r a t e gyros and the possible d e t e r i o r a t i o n of the thermal s h i e l d , i t was d e s i r a b l e t o return a s soon a s possible. Upon the s a t i s f a c t o r y assksement of t h e f l i g h t e f f e c t s on t h e f i r s t crew, preparation of the launch vehicle, assembly of r e p a i r m a t e r i a l s , and the completion of necessary

crew t r a i n i n g , t h e crew was launched on Day 76. The second manned period w a s extended 3 days beyond t h e planned 56 days t o allow more work time and permit a more favorable splashdown area.

3.5.1

Activation

S h o r t l y a f t e r o r b i t a l i n s e r t i o n , t h e P i l o t began t o experience motion s i c k ness. H e obtained r e l i e f by taking one anti-motion-sickness capsule and w a s a b l e t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n t h e a c t i v a t i o n a f t e r docking. Rendezvous w a s s u c c e s s f u l l y attained and a flyaround i n s p e c t i o n a s performed. During t h e flyaround the spacec r a f t w c s flown s o near t h e thermal p a r a s o l t h a t t h r u s t e r exhaust impingement caused movement t h r e a t e n i n g p a r a s o l damage. Contamination of t h e s o l a r c e l l s a l s o was l i k e l y , s o t h e .Inspection was terminated. P r i o r t o docking, a l e a k had been decected i n t h e s e r v i c e module r e a c t i o n was c o n t r o l system. T r 0 ~ 0 l e ~ f i 0 0 t i n g performed, i s o l a t i n g t h e problem t o quad B. The quad was d e a c t i v a t e d f o r t h e remainder of t h e v i s i t . Docking t o the Saturn Morkshop was accomplished e a s i l y , and t h e crew e n t e r e d t h e v e h i c l e w i t h i n 2 hours a f t e r docking. A c t i v a t i o n r e q u i r e d more time than was planned when a l l t h r e e crew members developed motion s i c k n e s s , which slowed t h e i r a c t i v i t y . A s a r e s u l t t h e f i r s t e x t r a v e h i c u l a r a c t i v i t y w a s delayed 6 days, u n t i l Day 85. The a c t i v a t i o n procedures were performed and were s i m i l a r t o those d u r i n g t h e f i r s t manned period. Additionally, t h e r e were s e v e r a l r e p a i r and troubleshooti n g t a s k s t o be accomplished before t h e schedule of system and experiment o p e r a t i o n could begin.
3.5.2

Operations

A p r e s s u r e l e a k i n t h e condensate dump system occurred soon a f t e r a c t i v a t i o n , causing t h e system t o f u n c t i o n improperly. Troubleshooting was unsuccessful i n l o c a t i n g t h e leak. Procedures were modified t o c o l l e c t condensate d i r e c t l y i n t o t h e workshop s t o r a g e tank and t o vent t h e s t o r a g e tank i n t o t h e ~ o r k s h o pwaste tank d a i l y . A heated dump probe, which appeared t o have an o b s t r u c t i o n , u..s replaced, and t h e condensate system operated normally. The l e a k w a s probably a t a quick-disconnect, s i n c e d u r i n g t h e troubleshooting and probe replacement s e v e r a l quick-disconnects were exercised.

O Day 83 t h e s e r v i c e module r e a c t i o n c o n t r o l system quad D was found t o 5e n leaking. S y s t e ~ pressures and temperatures i n d i c a t e d t h a t o x i d i z e r was v e n t i n g ; within t h e engine housing. The quad vss i s o l a t e d by c l o s i n g t h e p r o p e l l a n t i s o l a t i o n valves. Plans t o use t h i s system f o r t r i m maneuvers t o e s t a b l i s h a r e p e a t a b l e ground t r a c k were abandoned. With t h i s second f a i l u r e of t h e s e r v i c e module react i o n c o n t r o l system, the p o s s i b i l i t y of terminating t h e mission was considered. Acceptable c o n t r o l modes and d e o r b i t and e n t r y procedures were defined c o n s i s t e n t with t h e c o n s t r a i n t s imposed by t h e two problems. When t h e d e c i s i o n t o proceed with t h e mission was made, checkout of t h e rescue launch v e h i c l e and r e s c u e command and s e r v i c e module was i n i t i a t e d i n c a s e t h e command and s e r v i c e module docked t o t h e Saturn Workshop was incapable of r e t u r n i n g . On Day 84 a cqolant l e a k in the primary l a b o r a t o r y coolant loop was i n d i c a t e d by a low pump inlet pressure warning. Ground a n a l y s i s showed a long term decrease i n pressure. The crew performed a v i s u a l i n s p e c t i o n of t h e coolant system, looking

f o r t h e leak, but no evidence of the coolant f l u i d was found. On Day 85, during t h e f i r s t extravehicular a c t i v i t y , an inspection was performed outside Skylab t o t r y t o l o c a t e residue from a coolant leak, but with no success. During t h i s extravehicular a c t i v i t y t h e Science P i l o t and the P i l o t , besides inspecting t h e cooling system, r e t r i e v e d and replaced f i l m c a n i s t e r s i n the s o l a r observatory, deployed the tvin-pole thermal s h i e l d over t h e parasol, inspected and repaired the u l t r a v i o l e t spectrometer, and deployed an experiment t o c o l l e c t interplanet a r y dust t o study its nature and d i s t r i b u t i o n . The extravehicular a c t i v i t y l a s t e d 6.5 hours. Several unscheduled maintenance t a s k s were performed i n s i d e during the setond manned period. Some of these were replacement and e l e c t r i c a l continuity t e s t s of the heated water dump probe; disassembly, inspection, and replacement of laboratory tape recorders; removal of four printed-circuit cards i n s i d e the video tape recorder; r e p a i r of an ergometer pedal; i n s t a l l a t i o n of the supplementary r a t e gyro package in t5e docking adapter; and tightening of t h e chain linkage on t h e a r t i c u l a t e d mirror system f o r one of the experiments.
On Day 91 a saturated control gyro r e s u l t e d i n temporary l o s s of control gyro a t t i t u d e control. The l o s s of control occurred during an attempted momentum dump maneuver following two back-to-back Earth observation passes. Automatic switchover t o t h r u s t e r control regained spacecraft control but r e s u l t e d in a r e l a t i v e l y l a r g e (2584 Ib-sec) expenditure of t h r u s t e r propellant.

The pressure i n t h e primary laboratory coolant loop became s o low on Day 102 t h a t the pump was shut o f f . Flight data indicated t h a t the secondary loop was leaking hut was s t i l l operational and providing t h e required cooling. Ground support personnel began t r y i n g t o determine the best method f o r r e s e r v i c i n g t h e p r i mary loop i n o r b i t . This l e d t o the development of a r e s e r v i c e k i t t o be c a r r i e d by t h e t h i r d crew. Carbon dioxide sensor c a r t r i d g e s from t h e carbon dioxide removal system were returned f o r a n a l y s i s t o determine whether o r not coolant was present. The theory w a s t h a t t h e coolant loop leaks were s o small t h a t t h e coola n t was evaporating i n t o the laboratory atmosphere a s soon as i t . leaked. Examination of the carbon dioxide sensor c a r t r i d g e s subsequently established this. The second extravehicular a c t i v i t y was performed D Day 103 t o install t h e n cable interconnecting t h e r a t e gyros on t h e s o l a r observatory and t h e supplement a r y r a t e gyro package i n t h e docking adapter, work on s o l a r observatory doors, and r e t r i e v e and replace s o l a r observatory f i l m c a n i s t e r s . The extravehicular a c t i v i t y l a s t e d 4.5 hours. The previouslv i n s t a l l e d supplementary r a t e gyro package was activated and operated successfully. The gyros' alignment was e x c e l l e n t , and no adjustment was necessary. Use of t h e s i x new gyros combined with the t h r e e best ones from the o r i g i n a l nine ended major r a t e gyro problems f o r the r e s t of t h e mission. The experimental operations planned f o r t h e secand manned period were essent i a l l y completed. There were 39 passes made with t h e Earth observation cameras operating and recording data. These passes covered North and South America, Europe, and northwestern Africa. Thruster leak problems in the s e r v i c e module reaction control system precluded the planned trim maneuvers t o r e e s t a b l i s h the nominal Skyl a b ground track, which had d r i f t e d t o t h e e a s t . Sixty-nine separate t e l e v i s i o n sequences were made of experiments, crev q u a r t e r s , meal preparation, exercises, demonstrations, e t c . A g r e a t many Earth t e r r a i n photographs and observations were made of hurricanes, t r o p i c a l etcrms, volcanoes, c i t i e s , water, mountain

Table 3-IV shows t h e d i s t r i b u t i o n of manhours f o r t h e second manned pertod. There were 1085 hours spent on experimentation, o r 27.7 percent of t h e time a v a i l a b l e . This was a 7 percent increase over experiment time i n t h e f i r s t mimed period. Table 3-1V.ktlvlty

W o u r U t i l i z a t i o n During the Second Pfanned Period

-

-

1

#nhwrs
312.5 305.1 223.5 243.6 1224.5 837.6 138.1 158.4 202.2 279.7 3925.2

Percent

k d l c a l experieents Solar observatory experirmts Earth observation upertuents Corollay and student cxperiunts, a d dltalled test objectlvcs Sleep, rest, off 6 t y Pre- and post-sleep activity (2 meals included) Lunch Housekeeping Physical training aJ personal hygiene Other operatfons (extravehicular activfty, activation and deactlvation, television) Total

8.0 7.8 5.7 6.2 31 - 2 21 - 3 3.5 4.0 5.2 7.1
100.0

3.5.3

Deactivation

The d e a c t i v a t i o n of t h e Saturn Workshop proceeded a s scheduled and w a s similar t o t h a t c a r r i e d o u t by t h e f i r s t crew. A p o r t a b l e f a n was mour.t.td i n t h e docking adapter t o c i r c u l a t e air over t h e supplementary r a t e gyro p p ~ k a g ef o r cooling during t h e unmanned period. The t h i r d e x t r a v e h i c u l a r a c t i v i t y was performed as planned t o change s o l a r observatory f i l m and r e t r i e v e v a r i o u s experiment samples. More time than was planned was s p e n t on command and s e r v i c e module a c t i v a t i o n . The checkout of t h e s e r v i c e module r e - c t i o n c o n t r o l system was lengthy tc ensure t h a t t h e system operated s a t i s f a c t o r i l y . Undocking, on Day 135, was normal and no flyaround of t h e Saturn Workshop was made because of t h e problems with the r e a c t i o n c o n t r o l quads.
An o v e r a l l t i m e l i n e f o r t h e second manned period is shown i n f i g u r e 3-17.

Saturn Workshop d e a c t f v a t f o n I satirrn Workshop closeout r Uwock!np r Splashdown
76

I

77

78

79

80

81

82

83

84

85%

102

103

%

131

132 133

134 135

Saturn Workshop mfsslon day

Figure 3-17.-

Summary of e v c x s of second manned period,

3.6

THIRD U M N E PERIOD N A ND

Thd launch of t h e t h i r d crew was postponed u n t i l November 16 t o o b t a i n b e t t e r and extended viewing of Comet Kohoutek and t o plan f o r extending t h e v i s i t t o 84 days. The f i n a l d e c i s i o n on t h e extension would not be made u n t i l about 50 days i n t o t h e t h i r d manned period. Comet Kohoutek was discovered on Narch 7, 1973, by Dr. Lubos Kohoutek a t t h e Hamburg Observatory. Its approach during t h e Skylab mission w s an unprecedented opportunity. a
Work continued on t h e l a b o r a t o r y coolant loop r e s e r v i c e kit. The prototvne k i t was compleced on Day 121 a ~ was used by t h e Commander and P i l o t of t h e t h ~ r d d crew f o r t r a i n h g . The k i t contained a tank and panel assembly f i l l e d with coola n t , t h r e e s h o r t hoses and a d a p t e r s , r e p a i r s e a l s , and v a l v e s f o r connecting t o t h e s p a c e c r a f t coolant l i n e s . The f l i g h t r e s e n r i c e k i t underwent t e s t i n g and acceptance and was a t Kennedy Space Center on Day 176 f o r stowage i n t h e command module. Analysis of f i v e carbon d i o x i d e censor c a r t r i d g e s r e t u r n e d w i t h t h e second crew shared t h a t two contained traces of t h e coolant. Other tests confirmed t h a t coolant d i d not harm t h e f i l t e r s i n t h e carbon dioxide removal system, t h a t t h e f i l t e r s cleaned t h e atnosphere every 20 hours, and t h a t t h e coolant would n o t support combastioc. Further, t h e Johnson Space Center medical d i r e c t o r a t e confirmed t h e r e was no t o x i c i t y problem. The primary coolant loop had been s h u t o f f on Day 102, and t h e estimated d a t e f o r t h e secondary loop t o be d e p l e t e d w a s Day 207. The o v e r a l l conclusion w a s t h a t i t w a s both s a f e and mandatory t o r e s e r v i c e t h e primary coolant loop.
On Day 135 t h e Saturn Workshop was depressurized t o 2 p s i a t o lower t h e dewpoint and was then r e p r e s s u r i - e d t o 5 p s i a with n i t r o g e n t o a i d i n cooling t h e s i x gyros i n t h e docking adapter. The p r e s s u r e decayed a t t h e normal l e a k r a t e t o 4.05 p s i a by Day 164. The l a b o r a t o r y was then r e p r e s s u r i z e d t o 4.5 p s i a and again decayed t o 3.75 p s i a on Day 185.
On Day 174 c o n t r o l gyro 1 wheel speed decreased from 9123 t o 9060 rpm. The c u r r e n t i n one motor winding increased s l i g h t l y . After 1 hour, t h e wheel speed and c u r r e n t r e t u r n e d t o t h e normal reading.

Unmanned s o l a r observatory experimerts were performed a s scheduled u n t i l Day 185, when t h e primary experiment ~ o i n t i n g o n t r o l o r b i t a l l o c k f a i l e d t o r e l e a s e . c Use of t h e secondary experiment p o i n t i n g c o n t r o l l e r permitted normal operations. Data t a k i n g f o r s e v e r a l s o l a r experiments was then c u r t a i l e d u n t i l t h e crew arrived. One s o l a r observatory experiment continued t o oFecate because i t d i d n o t use t h e experiment p o i n t i n g c o n t r o l l e r .
On Day 185 t h e S a t u r n Workshop's p r e s s u r e was decreased t o 0.7 p s i a t o remove an abnormal mixture of n i t r o g e n and oxygen used f o r r a t e gyro cooling. The Saturn Workshop was then repxessurized back t o 5 p s i a with t h e normal mixture of n i t r o g e n and oxygen.

Figure 3-18 i s a summary of t h e e v e n t s o c c u r r i n g during t h e t h i r d unmanned period.

k

h

h

Y

V

perations

135

137

163

165

167

172

174

184

186

188

Saturn Uorkshop missfon day

Figure 3-18.I

Summary of e v e n t s o f t h i r d untanned period. 3.7

THIRD M N E PERIOD A ND

The command and s e r v i c e module c a r r y i n g t h e t h i r d crew was launched a t 14:Ol
Gmt on Day 187 from Launch Complex 39B a t Eennedy Space Center, on a Saturn I B iaunch v e h i c l e . The crew c o n s i s t e d of Lieutenant Colonel Gerald P. Carr, USMC, Commander; Edward G. Gibson, Science P i l o t ; and Colonel W i l l i a m R. Pogue, USAT,

Pilot. The t h i r d named period w a s o r i g i n a l l y planned t o l a s t 56 days; however, because of t h e success of t h e f i r s t two manned p e r i o d s and because t h e prime viewing times f o r Comet Kohoutek were around Day 236, t h e period w a s extended t o 84 days. A f t e r t h e 56-day p o i n t w a s reached t h e crew was given weekly go-aheads based on medical d a t a s e n t t o t h e ground and s u c c e s s f u l l y completed an 84-day mission. 3.7.1 Activation

Rendezvous with t h e Saturn Workshop was accomplished with l i t t l e d i f f i c u l t y , but t h r e e a t t e m p t s a t docking were necessary before a hard dock w a s achieved. The extension of t h e manned period and r e s u l t i n g changes i n requirements required new equipment t o be c a r r i e d up, s o a c t i v a t i o n o f t h e l a b o r a t o r y was slowed sonie by t h e l a r g e number of iterils t o be t r a n s f e r r e d from t h e command module. Also, t h e crew experienced "stomach awareness" probl'=ms, which slowed t h e i r a c t i v i t y somewhat.

On Day 190, a s p a r t of t h e a c t i v a t i o n sequence, t h e primary l a b o r a t o r y coola n t loop was reserviced and resumed s a t i s f a c t o r y operation throughout t h e rest of t h e mission. The secondary loop was t o be r e s e r v i c e d c n l y i f necessary.
3.7.2 Operat i o n s

The t h i r d manned period was h i g h l i g h t e d by t h e photography of Comet Kohoutek gyros. Extravehicular a c t i v i t i e s were and problems experienced with t h e c o ~ t r o l c a r r i e d out i n a r o u t i n e manner.
O Day 191 t h e coolant loop f o r t h e s o l a r observatory c o n t r o l and d i s p l a y n panel and Earth observation equipment e x h i b i t e d e r r a t i c flowrates. Contamination

was suspected, and on Day 219 t h e coolant loop f i l t e r was r e p L c e d with a s p a r e liquid-gas s e p a r a t o r . There was some contamination and gas, which t h e s e p a r a t o r removed. New f i l t e r s were i n s t a l l e d and t h e loop's f l o w r a t e returned t o normal.

I

On Day 194 c o n t r o l gyro 1 s p i n motor c u r r e n t showed a r a p i d rise, i n d i c a t i n g Motor c u r r e n t s increased from 1 t o 2 amperes. Control gyro power was turned o f f by ground command. This was sensed by t h e s o l a r observatory d i g i t a l computer, and a c o n t r o l mode using c o n t r o l gyros 2 and 3 was i n i t i a t e d . On Day 194 t h e f i r s t photographs of Comet Kohoutek were taken. A s t h e comet neared t h e Sun more time was spent photographing i t . hL h i r d e x t r a v e h i c u l a r a c t i v i t y , on t Day 231, was devoted e x c l u s i v e l y t o study of t h e comet and t h e SULI. Photographs were taken with a s p e c i a l camera brought up w i t h t h e t h i r d crew f o r t h a t purpose. Photographs were a l s o taken of t h e comet using t h e s o l a r observatory instruments and instruments from o t h e r experiments.

a failure.

On Day 206, c o n t r o l gyro 2 began showing s i g n s of i r r e g u l a r o p e r a t i o n , This z t t i t u d e c o n t r o l system s i t u a t i o n threatened an e a r l y termination t o t h e mission. The gyro symptoms were s l i g h t l y lower q e e d and s l i g h t l y h i g h e r temperatures and c u r r e n t s . The gyro would o p e r a t e abnormally f o r a period and then would r e t u r n t o proper operation. The periods of abnormal o p e r a t i o n became longer a s t h e mission progressed. Throughout t h e remainder of t h e mission, grotind c o n t r o l c l o s e l y monitored t h e operatson of c o n t r o l gyro 2. A f t e r considerable t e s t i n g and a n a l y s i s a d e c i s i o n was made t o c o n t r o l t h e c o n t r o l gyro h e a t e r s manually. These h e a t e r s maintained t h e gyro beariags at a constant temperature. A t t h e end of thf: t h i r d manned period, c o c t r o l gyro 2 was s t i l l o p e r a t i n g i n t h i s manner.
During t h e t h i r d manned period 70 t e l e v i s i o n sequences were made of experiments, crew a c t i v i t i e s , comet observations, s c i e n c e demonstrations, Earth s u r f a c e f e a t u r e s , e t c . A l a r g e n mber a£ Earth t e r r a i n photographs and observations were made of volcanoes, r i v e r s , c i t i e s , v e g e t a t i o n , ocean c u r r e n t s , Earth f a u l t s , and o t h e r f e a t u r e s . Figure 3-19 shows a p i c t u r e of Mobile Bay, Alabama, taken with one of t h e Earth observation cameras. A p a r t i a l s o l a r e c l i p s e was photographed on Day 225. The t h i r d crew held two t e l e v i s e d p r e s s conferences from Skylab. There were 45 passes made f o r Earth observations experiments. There were t h r e e maneuvers performed t o maintain a r e p e t i t . i v e ground t r a c k every 5 days f o r t h e Earth observations experiments. Most of t h e planned s t u d e n t experiments were performed, and 17 s c i e n c e demonstrations were performed. Four e x t r a v e h i c u l a r a c t i v i t i e s were performed d u r i n g the t h i r d manned period f o r a t o t a l of 22 hours and 1 3 minutes, During t h r e e of t h e e x t r a v e h i c u l s r a c t i v i t i e s the crew changed s o l a r observatory f i l m , deployed experiments, pinned s o l a r observatory doors open, and r e t r i e v e d experiment samples and film. During t h e o t h e r e x t r a v e h i c ~ l a ra c t i v i t y ;hey photographed Comet Kohoutek.

I n a d d i t i o n t o r e s e r v i c i n g t h e primary l a b o r a t o r y coolant loop and t h e s o l a r observatory c o n t r o l and d i s p l a y panel coolant loop, some of t h e maintenance performed by t h e crew consisted of r e p l a c i n g s o l a r observatory t e l e v i s i o n monitor 1 i n t h e c o n t r o l and d i s p l a y panel, r e p a i r i n g l a b o r a t o r y tape r e c o r d e r s , r e p l a c i n g an e l e c t r o n i c u n i t i n t h e video tape r e c o r d e r , and r e p l a c i n g a d e f e c t i v e s e a l i n t h e washcloth squeezer.

Table 3-i'.-

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Manhour U t i l i z a t i o n During t h e Third Manned Peric>d

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- Medical expertments
Activity Solar observatory experiments Earth observation experiments Corollary and student experiments and detailed test objectives Kohoutek observations Sleep, rest, o f f duty Pm- and post-sleep a c t i v i t y ( 2 meals included) Lunch Housekeeping Physical training and personal hygiene Other operations (extravehicular a c t i v i t y , activation and deactivatlon, television) Tota 1

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A f t e r t h e workshop was c l o s e d o u t and b e f o r e undocking, t h e s e r v i c e module r e a c t i o n c o n t r o l system was used co i n c r e a s e t h e S a t u r n Workshop's o r b i t from 444 by 431 k i l o m e t e r s t o 455 by 433 k i l o m e t e r s . This maneuver l a s t e d 380 seconds and r e s u l t e d i n an i n c r e a s e i.1 o r b i t a l l i f e t i m e of about 1 year. Undocking w a s normal on Day 271.

A o v e r a l l t i m e l i n e f o r t h e t h i r d manned period i s shown i n f i g u r e 3-20. n

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Summary of e v e n t s of t h i r a manned p e r i o d . 3.8 TESTS AND ORBITAL STORAGE

End-of-mission e n g i n e e r i n g t e s t s began s h o r t l y a f t e r command and s e r v i c e module undocking on Day 271 and continued f o r 32 hours b e f o r a t h e S a t u r n Workshop was completely powered down. The i n t e n d p r e s s u r e was decreased t o 0.5 p s i a and was allowed t o decay. The engineering : a s t i and t h e r e s u l t s a r e shown i n - t a b l e 3-VI .

Table 3-V1.Tests Control gyro 1 spinup attempt.

Summary of Postmission T e s t s
Results Control gyro 1 wheel d i d not overcome the bearing f r i c t i o n . Control gyro 2 was w i t h i n l i m i t s but was s l i g h t l : higher than normal and gyro 3 was normal. Laboratory power conditioner b a t t e r i e s exhibi t e d very 1i t t l e degradation. Cycling o f the r a d i a t o r bypass valves i n both the primary and secondary r e f r i g e r a t i o r system loops f a i l e d t o r e t u r n the loops t o t h e i r o r i g i n a l performance. The rack r a t e gyros which exhibited excesrive d r i f t rates e a r l i e r continued t o do so. Inverter 1 i n the laboratory secondary coolant loop had f a i l e d . Tests on system which had n o t previously been used showed the systems t o be f u l l y operational. Tests on systems which h d n o t previously been used showed the systems t o be f u l l y operatlonal. The f s i l e d transmitter d i d n o t recover. Tests on systems which had . used showed the systems o Tests on systems which had used showed the systems t o n o t prevlously been be f u l l y operational. n o t previously been be f u l l y operational.

Control gyro 2 and 3 bearing drag tests. Laboratory power rondi t i o n e r b a t t e r y capacity tests. Seco. Jary r e f r i g e r a t i o n system opera t i o n and an attempt t o get both the prlmary and secondary loop r a d i a t o r bypass valves returned t o the normal mode o f operation. Rack r a t e g y m turned on t o provide data on the heater control c i r c u i t s . Laboratory secondary coolant loop troubleshooting. Operation o f the secordary pulse code modulation d i g i t a l data acquisition sys tern. Operation o f the secondary data storage interface u n i t . Testing o f laboratory 10-watt transmitt e r A. Memry load u i i t t e s t using the program tape. 72 k i l o b i t s per second uplink t e s t .

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D i g i t a l command from t h e ground is p o s s i b l e whenever t h e s o l a r a r r a y i s receiving s u f f i c i e n t s u n l i g h t . It i s a l s o p o s s i b l e that: a s u i t e d crewman could enter and a c t i v a t e systems under t h e condition t h a t t h e s o l a r a r r a y s a r e r e c e i v i n g s u n l i g h t . The Saturn Workshop is expscted t o have an o r b i t a l l i f e t i m e of about iG vears. This l i f e t i m e is estimetdd by use of a mathematical model t h a t accounts f o r t h e b a l l i s t i c c o e f f i c i e n t of t h e Saturn Workshop--a parameter based on c r o s s - s e c t i o n a l a r e a , mass, and aerodynamic drag coefficient--and the d e n s i t y of t h e atmosphere, which, a t t h i s a l t i t u d e , i s l a r g e l y dependent upon s o l a r a c t i v i t y . Data were take^ during t h e mission on t h e l e v e l s of s o l a r a c t i v i t y and on changes i n t h e o r b i t t o allow comparison of t h e mathematical model w i t h t h e a c t u a l condit i o n s . Nw e s t i n a t ~ s e were made during t h e mission a s t h e mathematical model was r e f i n e d anci a s t h e b a l l i s t i c c o e f f i c i e n t of t h e v e h i c l e changed. These a r e summarized i n t a b l e 3-VII. The l o s s of one s o l a r wing changed t h e c r o s s - s s c t i o n d Table 3-VII. Varl a t i o n s i n P r e d i c t e d Values f o r t h e Saturn Workshop
Premlsslon 122 2360 Mlsrlon Mission end

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B a l l i s t i c coefficient, kg/m 2 Predicted l i f e t i m e , days

170 2970

207 3610

a r e a and t h e mass from t h e v a l u e s used i n t h e premission c a l c u l a t i o n s . The l o s s of t h e meteoroid s h i e l d a l s o reduced t h e mass. Other changes which o c c u r r e d were t h e e x p e n d i t u r e of consumables and v e l o c i t y r.har.ges made t o g i v e t h e d e s i r e d ground t r a c k . A t t h e end of t h e t h i r d manned p e r i o d t h e o r b i t a l a l t i t u d e of t h e S a t b r n Workshop was i n c r e a s e d , u s i u g t h e r e a c t i o n c o n t r o l t h r u s t e r s of t h e command and s e r v i c e wodule. A f t e r t h e f i n a l crew l e f t , t h e S a t u r n Workshop was rot a t e d t o t h e g r a v i t y - u r a d i e n t a t t i t u d e , w i t h t h e docking a d a p t e r away from t h e E a r t h and t h e s o l a r o b s e r v a t o r y t r a i l i n g . These two changes a f f e c t e d t h e f i n a l e s t i m a t e of t h e o r b i t a l l ~ f e t i n i eshown i n f i g u r e 3-21; t h i s e s t i m a t e r e f b e c t s t h e refinements made i n t h e mathematical m-del and t h e d a t a o b t a i n e d on s o l a r a c t i v i t y d u r i n g t h e mission.

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S a t u r n Workshop p r e d i c t e d o r b i t a l decay.

The elements ~ h i c h were j e t t i s o n e d o r l o s t have inuch s h o r t e r l i f e t i m e s ; some had a l r e a d y e n t e r e d t h e atmosphere w i t h i n GO days. The f o u r s e c c i o n s o f t h e shrcud have e s t i m a t e d l i f e t i m e s v a r y i n g between 700 and 1000 days, and t h e p r e d i c t e d l i f e t i m e of t h e l o s t s o l a r wing i s 1500 day;.

3.9

MISSION OPERATIONS SUPPORT

The Skylab mission w a s c o n t r o l l e d from t h e Johnson Space Center w i t h Y a r s h a l l Space F l i g h t Center p r o v i d i n g t e c h n i c a l support on system2 and zxperiments f o r which i t had development r e s p o n s i b i l i t y . An o p e r a t i o n s - s u p p o r t c e n t e r w a s e e t a b l i s h e d a t Marshall Space F l i g h t Center and was manned by s p e c i a l i z e d s u p p o r t grow-s. These groups, c o n s i s t i n g of government and c o n t r a c t o r p e r s o n n e l , evalua t e d t h e performance of t h e S a t u r n Wurkshop systems and experiments. This techn i c a l s u p p o r t was provided 24 h o u r s a ddy and 7 days a week. A d d i t i o n a l t e c h n i c a l s u p p o r t was a l s o a v a i l a b l e t o t h e s u p p o r t c e n t e r fr2m o t h e r Marshall p e r s o n n e l , c o n t r a c t o r p l a n t s , and o t h e r agencies. Real-time and onboard recorded d a t a ( t a k e n between ground s i t e s ) were received a t t h e rzmote ground s i t e s , processed by t h e s i t e f o r redundancy r e m o v d , and t r a n s m i t t e d i n d i g i t a l form t3 Johcson Space Center. S e l e c t e d d a t a were a v a i l a b l e f o r real-time d i s p l a y a t both c e n t e r s . A l l d a t a on Marshall-developed equipment were t h e n e x t r a c t e d and r e l a y e d t o t h e Marshall Space F l i g h t Centei. These d a t a were reproduced a t low sample r a t e s i n d a t a books and i n u s e r t a p e s f o r r o u t i n e d a t a a n a l y s e s . The remote s i t e a l s o g e n e r a t e d analog d a t a t a p e s and r e t a i n e d them f o r backup t r a n s m i s s i o n system cnecks, and d e l i v e r y i f r e q u i r e d f o r s p e c i a l purposes.

The Marshall n e u t r a l buoyancy simulator (a water tank 75 f e e t i n diameter, and 40 f e e t deep) provided a simulated zero-gravity environment f o r f u l l - s c a l e t r a i n e r s and mockups for design evaluations and crew training. Before launch the normal extravehicular a c t i v i t y t r r i n i n g was the major function of the simul a t o r . After the launch anomaly, the s h u l a t o r was used extensively t o evaluate p o t e n t i a l f l i g h t r e p a i r s t h a t could be accomplished through extravehiculer act i v i t y . Two af the more s i g n i f i c a n t r e p a i r s were e r e c t i o n of the two thermal s h i e l d s and deployment of t h e workshop s o l a r array. More informat2on on t h e n e u t r a l buoyancy simulator can be found i n reference 36.
A high-fidelity simulator of t h e laboratory instrumentatiiin and communicat i o n s system, h c l u d i n g a ground s t a t i o n , was located a t St. Louis. This t e s t u n i t and a s o l a r observatory instruinentation and communications simulator located a t Harshall were used t o reproduce anomalous conditions and determine applicable c o r r e c t i v e action. P r i o r t o launch, t h e u n i t s were used t o v e r i f y radiofrequency i n t e r f a c e s between t h e grcund tracking s t a t i o n s and the Saturn Workshop, and between t h e experiments and thz d a t a system. Ouring t h e mission s e v e r a l f a i l u r e s were simulated t o determine the cause and c o r r e c t i v e action. Some of t h e items investigated were the l a b o r a t i c y tape recorders, a 10-watt t i a n s m i t t e r , a video Cape recorder, the multiplexers, a t e l e v i s i o n mmitor, and a coaxial switch.

The s o l a r observatory f l i g h t backup u n i t a t Marshall w a s used a s a simulator t o resolve problems. Tests associated with t h e X-ray spectrographic telescope v e r i f i e d t h a t i t was possible f o r t h e crew t o move a stuck f i l t e r wheel during extravehicular z c t i v i t y and a l s o replace t h e film maga2ir.e with t h e instrument power on during extravehicular a c t i v i t y . The cause of t h e thermal s h i e l d a p e r t u r e door f a i l u r e and t h c i n s t a l l a t i o n of t h e spectrograph and extreme u l t r a v i o l e t monitor a u x i l i a r y timer were v e r i f i e d . Satisfactory thermal and environmental control f o r t h e Saturn Workshop w a s made possible by a continuous support e f f o r t . Different computer programs were available f o r analyzing t h e Saturn Workshop thermal control. Individual systems and components were processed on several computers depending on t h e complexity of t h e analvsis. These became p a r t i c u l a r l y important a f t e r t h e l o s s of t h e meteoroid shield. Many simulators were used in t h e design and v e r i f i c a t i o n of t h e a t t i t u d e and pointing control system. Seventeen v a r i a t i o n s were used, ranging from f u l l s o f t ware modeling of t h e o v e r a l l system t o simulators h i c h used a c t u a l hardware wherever possible. Six of these simulators were developed and used a t Marshall, including one which used flight-type hardware snd software. The o t h e r simulators were developed and used a t various co3tractor f a c i l i t i e s . These simulators were developed t o v e r i f y system operation and were a v a i l a b l e through t h mission f o r ~ problem diagnosis. One d e l used extensively l a t e i n t h e mission simulated t h r u s t e r f i r i n g s f o r given maneuvers and recorded gas used. This simulator proved valuable when one control g)ro f a i l e d , putting a greater demand on t h e t h r u s t e r gas. With the a i a of t h i s model, timing r a t e s of v e h i c l e maneuvers were c a r e f u l l y planned t o minimize t t r u s t e r f i r i n g s s o t h a t Earth obsenrations could continue and meet experiment objectives.

Two simulators were used t o support a n a l y s i s of t h e Skylab e l e c t r i c a l power system before and during t h e mission. A computer program w a s developed f o r siml a t i o n of the e l e c t r i c a l power system performance over a wide range of operating

conditions and environments. The program was used on a d a i l y b a s i s during the mission, p a r t i c u l a r l y i n t h e a n a l y s i s of proposed Z l o c a l v e r t i c a l and quasii n e r t i a l a t t i t u d e modes. It was a l s o used on an around-the-clock b a s i s during the c r i t i c a l period following t h e launch of the Saturn Workshop. The program proved t o be extremely valuable i n mission p r o f i l e a n a l y s i s and power management. The power system simulator located a t Marshall consisted of flight-type power equipment except f o r s o l a r arrays, which were simulated. I n addition t o premission checkout and v e r i f i c a t i o n t e s t s , t h e simulator w a s used t o provide hardware and powdr system theory indoctrination and experience f o r t h e f l i g n t cont r o l l e r s and the f l i g h t crews. During t h e mission, the simulator provided continuous support during a c t i v a t i o n and d e a c t i v a t i m periods a s well as during pcriods when anomalous f l i g h t conditions imposed c l o s e monitoring and v e r i f i c a t i o n of hardware performance. One major support e f f o r t was t h e v e r i f i c a t i o n t h a t the laboratory b a t t e r i e s could successfully survive the abnormal extended 'storage imposed e a r l y i n t h e mission. High f i d e l i t y mockups of a l l the modules were a v a i l a b l e f o r f i t , function, and other purposes. Backup f l i g h t modules were a l s o a v a i l a b l e , a s well as numerous components f o r mission period t e s t s and simulations, s t o r a g e analysis, and other operations support functions. 3.10
PERFORMANCE S M A Y AND COXCLUSIONS U MR

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The o v e r a l l performance of t h e Saturn Workshop w a s very satisfactctry, and s e v e r a l conclusions can be drawn from t h e r e s u l t s of d a t a evaluation. Some systems experienced d i f f i c u l t i e s ; however, through redundant loops, workarounds, maintenance, and r e p a i r s , t h e objectives of the mission were accomplished and exceeded i n most cases. The primary s t r u c t u r e of the Saturn Workshop withstood the loads encountered during powered f l i g h t and throughout t h e mission without any evidence of deformation o r unusual s t r e s s e s . The only s e r i o u s s t r u c t u r a l problems were t h e l o s s of t h e workshop's neteoroid s h i e l d during launch and t h e subsequent l o s s of a s c l a r array wing because of t h e premature deployment of t h e meteoroid s h i e l d . There were a few unexplainable s t r u c t u r a l noises and v i b r a t i o n s i n o r b i t , but they caused no problems. The deployment sequence t o convert from the launch confjguration t o t h e o r b i t a l configuration was completed as planned with t h e exception of the meteoroid s h i e l d and t h e workshop s o l a r arrays. Leakage of laboratory atmospkre was much l e s s than design s p e c i f i c a c i o n s allowed. There were problems with the ~ p e r s t f s r ic d t h e s o l a r observatory experiment e x t e r n a l aperture doors, but operational o r mt&i?ei~ance prccedures permitted continuation of the experiments. The instrumentation and communications systems performed s a t i s f a c t o r i l y during tl~e mission, although some problems occurred. There were some minor problems i n the audio subsystem with feedback, noise, and component f a i l u r e s . Modified operat i o n a l procedures and replacement with spare u n i t s enabled continued use of the. subsystem. None of these problems i n t e r f e r e d with crew operations. There were several problems with t h e t e l e v i s i o n subsystem, but these were solved by i n - o r b i t r e p a i r o r by replacement of equipment with spares. The portable t e l e v i s i o n camera f o r external viewing of Skylab was not deployed because t h e parasol thennal s h i e l d occupied the +2 s c i e n t i f i c a i r l o c k and t h e r e was l i t t l e viewing required i n t h e -2 area. The deployment mechanism became inoperative and was j e t t i s o n e d on Day 83.

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The operation of t h e comand tubsystem was s a t i s f a c t o r y , and t h e f l e x i b i l i t y designed i n t o t h e system proved adequate when major a t t i t u d e c o n t r o l problems had t o be solved. The d a t a subsystem performance was s a t i s f a c t o r y except f o r s e v e r a l problems involving t h e t r a n s m i t t e r s and s i g n a l processing components which res u l t e d i n s l i g h t l y reduced d a t a and transmission c a p a b i l i t i e s . The caution and wsming subsystem operated s a t i s f a c t o r i l y , informing the crew of impe~.A,ing probl e m s and al1owir.g proper r e a c t i o n times t o c o r r e c t them. The rendezvous 2nd ranging subsystem was operated f o r each command and s e r v i c e module docking acd provided a c q u i s i t i o n of t h e Saturn Workshop a t ranges exceeding s p e c i f i c a t i o n s . A t t i t u d e c o n t r o l of t h e Saturn Workshop w a s t r a n s f e r r e d from t h e instrument u n i t t o t h e Saturn Workshap a t t i t u d e c o n t r o l system as planned, -&th c o problems. The system performed maneuvers and a t t i t u d e s t a b t l i z a t i o n throughout t h e mission. The use of l a r g e momertum s t o r a g e gyros f o r a t t i t u d e c o n t r c l and maneuvering a g a i n s t g r a v i t y g r a d i e n t torque t o manage t h e s e gyros' momentum was s u c c e s s f u l l y proven f o r t h e f i r s t time. Maneuvers were smooth and a c c u r a t e ; however, t h i s d i d t a k e t i m Q away from s t a b i l i z e d experiment a c t i v i t i e s . The f l e x i b i l i t y of t h e system c o n t r i b u t e d t o t h e success of t h e mission. TSe system was designed with in-orbit r e p r o g r i m h g capabiliicy and e x t e n s i v e automatic redundancy management. The d i g i t a l compute= c o n t r o l programs w x e r e v i s e d t o meet new mission objectives. A s an example, a technique was cieveloped t o r e f i n e t h e s o l a r observatory p o i n t i n g system f o r Comet Kohoutek. This tgchniqile was implemented i n t h e t h i r d manned periad

c

.

The t h r u s t e r a t t i t u d e concrol system performed properly thro-ghout t h e expanded missiou. During t h e f i r s t unmanned period, a f t e r t h e l o r s of t h e uteteoroid s h i e l d , a l a r g e amaunt of p r o p e l l a n t was used t o maneuk.. r t h e v e h i c l e t o t h e a t t i t u d e which kept t h e l a b o r a t o r y i n t e r n a l temperatures and electrical power a t an acceptable l e v e l . The l o s s of a c o n t r o l gyro during t h e t h i r d manned period reduced t h e c o n t r o l aomentum s t o r a g e c a p a b i l i t y , n e c e s s i t a t i n g a l a r g e r amowt of t h r u s t e r c o n t r o l and p r o p e l l a n t usage than had been a n t i c i p a t e d . However, t h e p r o p e l l a n t supply was ample t o provide t h e r e q u i r e d c o n t r d t h r c -b t h e mission period with a r e s e r v e f o r contingency operation. Marginal performances and s e v e r a l f a i l u r e s occurred e a r l y i n t h e mission i n r a t e gyro processors. The c o n t r o l system had s u f f i c i e n t b u i l t - i n redundancy a v a i l a b l e , and by s e l e c t i n g o t h e r gyros t h e system was a b l e t o s a t i s f y a l l t h e imposed maneuver requirements. As t h e mission progressed, t h e gyros were augmented by a supplementary rate gyro package, c o n t a i n i n g modified gyros, which w a s c a r r i e d up and i n s t a l l e d by t h e second crew. A f t e r augmentation t h e rate-sensing system performed w e l l . The s o l a r observatory experiment p o i n t i n g c o n t r o l system performed b e t t e r than expected. The system experienced s e v e r a l minor problems, but t h e l o s s o f d a t a w a s minimal. The e l e c t r i c a l power system f o r t h e Saturn Workshop operated s a t i s f a c t o r i l y throughout t h e mission, i n s p i t e of t h e l o s s of one workshop s o l a r a r r a y wing. Because of reduced power, management of t h e e l e c t r i c a l l o a d s was necessary throughout t h e mission. The two independent Saturn Workshop power systems were designed t o be operated i n p a r a l l e l . This permitted s h a r i n g of powsr i n e i t h e r d i r e c t i o n and provided t h e required f l e x i b i l i t y of t h e power system throughout t h e e ~ + r r e mission and p a r t i c u l a r l y u n t i l workshop s o l a r a r r a y wing deployment. The --.. =LC d i s t r i b u t i o n system experienced a problem when one of t h e t e l e v i s i o n poij; - '

1 I

A redundant t e l e v i s i o n power bus was used f o r t h e remainder of short-circuited. t h e mission. There were some minor p r ~ b l e m sw i t h t h e s o l a r observatory power conditioners and b a t t e r i e s , b u t none of these i n t e r f e r e d with the management of t h e power system. Ground t e s t procedures used with t h e s o l a r observatory batt e r i e s r e s u l t e d in t h e launch of b a t t e r i e s having undetected, premature degradat i o n of capacity. Despite t h i s , t h e b a t t e r i e s performed s a t i s f a c t o r i l y . The s o l a r a r r a y s worked properly and t h e s o l a r c e l l d e t e r i o r a t i o n w a s less than expected.

vhen t h e meteoroid s h i e l d w a s t o r n o f f .

Much of t h e c a p a b i l i t y f o r passive thermal c o n t r o l in the workshop w a s l o s t The r e s u l t i n g high temperatures were brought under c o n t r o l only when t h e p a r e s o l thermal s h i e l d w a s deployed on Day 14. A f t e r t h e Saturn Workshop was a c t i v a t e a and t h e workshop shielded, temperat u r e s throughout t h e l a b o r a t o r y remained within t h e s p e c i f i e d range. The elect r i c h e a t e r s developed no problems, and t h e few problems a s s o c i a t e d with mechanical components i n t h e coolant loop w e r e correcred. There was an unexplained l o s s of coolanr, and t h e t h i r d crew replenished t h e supply of coolant. The ref r i g e r a t i o n system f a i l e d t o nraintain t h e s p e c i f i e d temperature f o r a s h o r t time, b u t t h e problem ws c l e a r e d up b e f o r s t h e e f f e c t s became s i g n i f i c a n t . The coolant a system f o r t h e c o n t r o l s and d i s p l a y s used f o r o p e r a t i n g t h e instruments in t h e s o l a r observatory developed some minor problems t h a t d i d not i n t e r f e r e with the c o l l e c t i o n of data. The environmental l i f e support system operated s a t i s f a c t o r i l y throughout t h e mission. The supply of n i t r o g e n and oxygen w a s more than adequate, d e s p i t e some unplanned l a b o r a t o r y atmosphere purges with n i t r o g e n deemed necessary because of t h e p o s s i b i l i t y of t o x i c Sases during t h e f i r s t days of t h e mission. There were came minor problems with valves, leakage, and t h e candensate dump system, but none of these i n t e r f e r e d w i t h crew operations. Some crewmen thought t h a t the humidity was too low. Others would have p r e f e r r e d ways t o c o n t r o l a i r flow i n areas where t h e r e were no duct o u t l e t s , but o v e r a l l atmospheric c i r c u l a t i o n was good.

The crew syetems provisions were g e n e r a l l y s a t i s f a c t o r y . There were a few problems w i t h t h e o p e r a t i o n of supporting equipment, such as the washcloth squeezer, water h e a t e r , shower blower, tr.ash a i r l o c k , and water dispenser, but t h e s e d i d not i n t e r f e r e with t h e mission o r crew comfort. A l l crews p r e f e r r e d the o r i e n t a t i o n in t h e workshop, with f l o o r s , w a l l s , and c e i l i n g s , t o t h e c y l i n d r i c a l arrangement in o t h e r p a r t s of t h e laboratory. The water supply and management were s a t i s f a c tory. Disposal of t r a s h and wastes w a s handled s a t i s f a c t o r i l y , although t h e r e were some minor problems in t h e systems. Sleep provisions caused minor annoyance t o some crewmen, but t h i s seemed t o r e s u l t mostly from i n d i v i d u a l physiological d i f f e r e n c e s o r preferences. More handholds would have been h e l p f u l i n t h e a r e a s =ay from t h e work s t a t i o n s . Crewmen usually pushed o f f and d r i f t e d LO t h e t a r g e t s p o t , and they needed r i g i d r e s t r a i n t s o r p r o j e c t i o n s f o r changing d i r e c t i o n . Lighting throughout the l a b o r a t o r y was adequate f o r most purposes, but crewmen needed L r i g h t e r l i g h t f o r p r e c i s e maintainance t a s k s and f o r reading. Crewmen a l s o recommended a number of improvements t o c o n t r o l and d i s p l a y layouts. Extravehicular a c t i v i t y o p e r a t i o n s were highly s a t i s f a c t o r y . I n f l i g h t maintenance operations f a r exceeded p r e d s s i o n planning and showed t h a t t h e r e a r e few l i m i t a t i o n s t o r e p a i r s t h a t could be accomplished i n o r b i t . The q u a n t i t y of contaminants induced by Skylao i n i t s surrounding environment r e s u l t e d i n a background k r i g h t n e s s l e v e l t h a t was higher than predicted. However,

the steady-state level was maintained below the threshold s e n s i t i v i t y l e v e l s of the experiments while d a t a was being taken. Deposition on w a l t z c r y s t a l microbalances with Skylab surfaces i n t h e i r f i e l d of view is believed t o be the r e s u l t s of outgassing and s e r v i c e module engine f i r i n g s . Heasured deposition correlated c l o s e l y with t h e premission math model predictions a s updated f o r the configuration change of t h e added thermal s h i e l d , and docking and fly-around o e e f f e c t s . There w a s no contamination e f f e c t on s m experiments, while t h e e f f e c t on o t h e r s associated with anomalous contaminatiori conditions w i l l not be known w t i l t h e experiment r e s u l t s a r e completed. White thermal coatings on s u r f a c e s turned t o a tan-brown color, and the r o l e of contamination in t h i s is s t i l l under investigation. Solar array power slmwed no d i s c e r n i b l e degradation due t o contamination. The s t a r t r a c k e r apparently tracked con-inant particles until changes in operational procedures eliminated t h i s problem. I n general, t h e contaminatiorr control incorporated i n t o t h e Saturn Workshop design and Skylab m i s s i o n procedures appears t o have been e f f e c t i v e . The performance of experiments, with few exceptions, was a s planned o r b e t t e r than expected. Some equipment problems w e r e experienced and some crew time w a s diverted f o r varioas reasons; however, t h e e f f i c i e n c y cf the crew acd t h e extension of t h e mission m r e than compensated f o r t h e time l o s t . The majority of t h e student experiments and science demonstrations planned were successfully completed. The i n t e g r a t i o n of t h e equipment associated with t h e l i f e science experiments functioned s a t i s f a c t o r i l y and provided necessary medical d a t a t o e s t a b l i s h confidence t h a t crews could perform without detriment t o t h e i r health. experiment had some type of d i f f i c u l t y associated Every s o l a t o b s e r ~ a t o ~ r y =%th i t ; however, no problem rcndered experiment equipment inoperative. Three of t h e astrophysics e-eriments had t o be relocated o u t s i d e Skylab because t h e +2 s c i e n t i f i c &lock was occupied by t h e thermal s h i e l d support. Data were obtained from all of these experiments by use of a l t e r n a t e procedures o r by r e p a i r o r replacement or' f a i l e d items. Viewing requirements f o r Comet Kohoutek were established before t h e beginning of t h e t h i r d m a ~ e d period. Most of t h e instruments used t o photograph t h e comet were already on Skylab, and new procedures were developed f o r d a t a recording. One extravehicular a c t i v i t y WJS devoted t o photographing Comet Kohoutek. There were no problems with t h e experiments, and most of t h e planned o b j e c t i v e s were m e t . The materials and manufacturing experiments m e t a l l premission r 'nlrements. Returned specimens from t h e metals processing experiments were s o impr -.ssive t h a t it was decided t o resupply mre semples f o r the t h i r d manned p x i o d . Tile procedures and methods of i n v e s t i g a t i o n were changed t o give more data. 3.11 ACCOMPLISHMENTS
.

3

Tables 3-VIII and 3-IX summarize t h e accomplishments and r e s u l t s of t h e mission. The rnanned f l i g h t time and t h e time spent on experiments and extravehicular a c t i v i t y exceeded t h e accumulated t o t a l s of a l l of t h e world's previous manned space f l i g h t s . The number of revolutions and t h e o r b i t a l path permitted c l o s e viewing of t h a t 75 percent of the Earth's s u r f a c e whidi contains 90 percent of the human population. The s o l a r observatory accumulated over 941 hours of s o l a r viewing and included periods of many and d i v e r s e s o l a r a c t i v i t i e s .

2

Table 3-VII I.
hvr

-

Mission Summary

r * ,
Ptlot kfentlst pilot

II
I
I

Charles tonrad. k. Paul J. Ycitr Joseph P. h l n

Alan L. ikrn Jack 2. Louos
Qn, It. b r r i o t t

. 6 m l d P Or* Y f l l i u R. Pogw €hard G. Gibson

~runchts
Rctorcrlcr

rrw n i9n. .
9:00 M Edt Jnnt 22. 19n. 9:49 M Edt

l l ~ r a b ~ 1973. 16. 9:01 IV1 Lst

k
I

Totals

I

kptskr 25. l9?3. 6:19 PW Edt
S r m IB

I

Fckuary 8. 1974. ll:17 U Edt

ktwn v llly 14. 1973. 1:30 PH Edt
no#orlrtely 435 k i l a t e r s

bbfUl f n c l i n r t l m
@*Itat - period

50 dcc~rr?cs

Ilpppximtcly 93 mfnutes

Orblrl distrbca

26,515 miles
11.5 i l l1 24.5 m f l l i a mlles 59 days. 11 harm. 9 minutes 34.5 mflllon miles

--

Distancf b'rveld
bmad)

I

70.5 mfllfon ofles

rrcd prl*

49 m f m t a

ad . m

Extravehicular
actfvltfes

d

sn t &
2 3 4

'l ( q

a d m f c e mdule) 1

h y 25. 1973,
37 mirutes

Ju 1, 1973.

3 wts. 30 minutes

June 19. 1cJn.

1 hour. 44 mimtes

-st 6, 19?3. 6 hours. 29 mfnutes August 2% 1973, 4 han. 30 mimt?s kptskr 22. 1973, 2 hours. 45 minuter

N~abcr 22. 1973. 6 hc~rs,33 =im* Dccslbcr 25, 1913. 7 hcm. 1 mlnute Dccaba 29. 1973. 3 hnrrr. 28 minutes

Totals

Table 3-IX.-

13 hours. U s h t a

Experbent Suncmry

C m1 Solar physics

C m 2
305.1

Crew 3
519.0

Total 941.3

Planned
8(Wt

Actual

Percent deviation 7.1

*

117.2

1

941'

Life science Englncalng a d technology Ilrterials x l m e and mwfacturlng i n space Student

-

Totals Film, frmes

" Film.

frucr

13sgnetfc tam?. feet

The c a p a b i l i t y t o conduct longer manned missions was conclusively demons t r a t e d by t h e good health of t h e t h i r d crew a f t e r they had stayed i n space f o r 84 days. The e f f e c t i v e n e s s of the crews exceeded a l l premission expectations. Their a b i l i t y t o perform complex r e p a i r tasks was instrumental i n rccovering the f u l l mission c a p a b i l i t y , and a l s o contributed g r e a t l y t o f u l i i l l i n g planned operations throughout t h e extended period. They exceeded t h e o p e r a t i o n ~ l and experimental requirements placed upon them by the premission f l i g h t plan i n addition t o overcoming the numerous problems encountered. The t h i r d crew performed a number of s c i e n t i f i c i n v e s t i g a t i o n s and demonstrations not i n i t i a l l y scheduled, including t h e Comet Kohoutek study and s e v e r a l science demonstrations. The Skylab operation was a spectacular success. It marks the t r a n s i t i o n from t h e exploration t o t h e e x p l o i t a t i o n of this vantage point f o r the b e n e f i t of mankind. The v a s t achievements of t h e mission w i l l be unfolding f o r a long t i m e , y i e l d i n g new knowledge i : technology a s w e l l as its application. The exr psrience and documented i e s u l t s w i l l s e r v e as a l o g i c a l stepping stone t o missions of t h e future.

SECTION 4 STRUCTURES AND M E C H A N I S M S

S t r u c t u r e s a r e divided i n t o t h r e e p a r t s , primary o r load bearing s t r u c t u r e s , secondary s t r u c t u r e s , and pressure vessels. Evaluation of a l l these is limited because instrumentation was not i n s t a l l e d f o r ir'nis purpose. The performances of t h e deployment mechanisms and t h e s o l a r observatory doors a r e included here. The mechslnical devices which a r e an i n t e g r a l p a r t of a system a r e described and evaluated with t b a t system. Additional information concerning t h e s t r u c t u r a l system and a l l tk mechanical equipment is contained i n reference 10. 4.1 STRUCTURES

S t r u c t u r a l elements of t h e Saturn Workshop must s a t i s f y several requirements. The s t r u c t u r e must withstand a l l loads encountered during prelaunch handling, launch, ascent, deployment, a t t i t u d e changes, docking, and other a c t i v i t i e s i n o r b i t . Maximum loads, in most cases, occur during launch. Engine t h r u s t produces compressive loads over t h e whole length of t h e vehicle, and gimbaling t h e engines generates bending loads. Aerodynamic f o r c e s r e s u l t i n g from t h e flow f i e l d around t h e v e h i c l e produce a d d i t i o n a l compressive and bending loads. Tens i l e and shear loads r e s u l t from l o c a l reactions. Superimposed on t h e s e a r e v i b r a t i o n and acoustic loads. The s t r u c t u r e mst a l s o provide r a d i a t i o n protection and a pressure-tight enclosure f o r t h e laboratory with a very low p r o b a b i l i t y of micrometeoroid penetration. 4.1.1 Primary S t r u c t u r e s

The major elements of t h e Saturn Workshop ( f i g . 2-1) a r e subjected t o d i f f e r e n t loads, and t h e design of each takes i n t o account t h e c r i t i c a l load o r combination of loads i t c a r r i e s . Durifig launch the shroud is subjected t o aerodynamic loads and t h e e f f e c t s of a c c e l e r a t i o n upon i t s own mass, and a l s o c a r r i e s p a r t of t h e load produced by t h e s o l a r observatory during acceleration. The aerodynamic loads predominate on t h e g r e a t e r p a r t of t h e s t r u c t u r e , producing compressive loads and bending loads due t o t h e angle of a t t a c k r e s u l t i n g from t h e launch v e h i c l e p i t c h program. Generally, t h e c r i t i c a l condition occurs when t h e product of dynamic pressure and t h e v e h i c l e angle (of a t t a c k reaches i t s maximum value. 3 t h e r loads t h a t a c t on t h e shroud govern i n limited regions but impose no a d d i t i o n a l requirements on t h e b a s i c s t r u c t u r e .
. ,
I
!

3

i
:

.

,

:?

.I

t

I

i

The s o l a r observatory c o n s i s t s of t h e c a n i s t e r , which is a cylinder containing instruments; t h e spar, which i s a cruciform supporting s t r u c t u r e i n s i d e t h e c a n i s t e r ; and t h e rack, which is an assembly of trrlsses surrounding t h e c a n i s t e r . The rack transmits loads from equipment mounted on t h e rack, s o l a r arrays, and c a n i s t e - e i t h e r t o the shroud o r t o t h e supporting t r u s s , which i s t h e permanent s t r u c t u r a l l i n k between t h e s o l a r observatory and the a i r l o c k t r u s s e s . A c r i t i c a l load on t h e rack occurs a t t h e time of f i r s t - s t a g e separation. The supporting t r u s s c a r r i e s a p a r t of th.r loads during ascent and r e a c t s t o vari.ous forces during deployment of t h e s o l a r observatory. Another c r i t i c a l load occurs during docking because of the l a r g e moment associated with t h e o f f s e t mass of the s o l a r observatory.

The docking adapter i s subjected only t o i n e r t i a l l o a d s during launch, s i n c e i t i s surrounded by t h e shroud. The l a r g e s t loads a r e t h e impact l o a d s t h a t occur during docking. Loads a c t i n g on t h e docking adapter a r e transmitted t o t h e s t r u c t u r a l t r a n s i t i o n s e c t i o n and through t h i s t o t h e a i r l o c k t r u s s e s , which a l s o support t h e a i r l o c k , s o l a r observatory, n i t r o g e n s t o r a g e tanks, b a t t e r i e s , and o t h e r components. The i n e r t i a l load a s s o c i a t e d with maximum a c c e l e r a t i o n is c r i t i c a l f o r both t h e s t r u c t u r a l t r a n s i t i o n s e c t i o n and t h e a i r l o c k t r u s s e s . These loads, a s w e l l as t h e shroud loads, a r e t r a n s f e r r e d t o t h e f i x e d a i r l c c k shroud, and from t h e r e t o t h e instrument u n i t s t r u c t u r e . The combined load reaches its highest v a l u e a t t h e time of maximum a c c e l e r a t i o n . Loads o t h e r than those due t o i r i t e r n a l pressure o r r e a c t i o n s a r c transmitted from t h e instrument u n i t t o t h e forward s k i r t of t h e workshop, through t h e c y l i n d r i c a l s e c t i o n of t h e tank t o t h e a f t s k i r t , and from t h e r e t o t h e launch v e h i c l e i n t e r s t a g e . I n add i t i o n t o compressive and bending loads c a r r i e d through t h e instrument u n i t , t h e W ~ K S ~ must c a r r y i t s own i n e r t i a l and aerodynamic loads, and i t must withO ~ stand t h e i n t e r n a l pressure necessary t o give s t r u c t u r a l s t a b i l i t y t o t h e cylind r i c a l s e c t i o n . The e f f e c t s of bending predominate, and t h e maximum aerodynamic load during ascent e s t a b l i s h e s t h e c r i t i c a l design load f o r t h e workshop. Only l i m i t e d d a t a a r e a v a i l a b l e f o r q u a n t i t a t i v e v e r i f i c a t i o n , b u t t h e i n t e g r i t y of t h e Saturn Workshop's primary s t r u c t u r e s was demonstrated by successf u l performance. Data from sensors on t h e Saturn Workshop ~ n d launch v e h i c l e showed s t r o n g disturbances when t h e meteoroid s h i e l d was l o s t ; a rate-sensing gyroscope i n d i c a t e d a clockwise r o t a t i o n with a maximum r a t e of 3 deglsec, and an accelerometer showed a shock with a maximum amplitude of 17.2 g's. Although t h e s e values exceeded t h e design c r i t e r i a , c a l c u l a t i o n s based on d a t a obtained from t h e launch v e h i c l e i n d i c a t e d t h a t s t r u c t u r a l design l o a d s of major components were not exceeded. N evidence of y i e l d i n g was reported by t h e crews, nor o i s any apparent i n photographs taken from t h e command module. There were no d a t a on i n t e r n a l sound l e v e l s . External sound-pressure l e v e l s during launch were l e s s severe than had been expected. tow-frequency v i b r a t i o n i z t a from two p o i n t s i n t h e Saturn Workshop showed no s i g n i f i c a n t e f f e c t s on t h e s t r u c t u r e . 4.1.2 Pressure Vessels

Except f o r t h e workshop, t h e l a b o r a t o r y i s designed t o o p e r a t e a t 5 p s i and withstand a b u r s t i n g p r e s s u r e of 6.2 p s i . To provide added r i g i d i t y and s t r e n g t h a t launch, t h e workshop is p r e s ~ u r i z e dt o between 23 and 26 p s i a . The a i x l o c k and docking adapter a r e a t ambient pressure a t launch and a r e vented during ascent. The i n t e r n a l p r e s s u r e i n o r b i t reached a maximdm v a l u e of 5.8 p s i a when experiments were conducted with t h e maneuvering u n i t during t h e t h i r d manned period. I n a d d i t i o t t" withstanding i n t e r n a l pressure, t h e s t r u c t u r e must a l s o cont r o l leakage of the i n t e r n a l atmosphere. A t 5 p s i a and 70°F, t h e leakage r a t e allowable by design f o r t h e Saturn Workshop is 14.7 l b l d a y , b u t t h e average r a t e during t h e mission was only approximately 3 lblday. The laboratory p r e s s u r e v e s s e l a l s o provides t h e primary r a d i a t i o n protect i o n . In-orbit measurements i n t h e a i r l o c k showed t h e average i n t e r n a l r a d i a t i o n t o be about 0.1 radlday, w e l l below t h e design l i m i t of 0.6 radlday.
A number of pressure v e s s e l s were required t o s t o r e t h e gases needed t o supp l y t h e atmosphere and t o meet o t h e r demands. S i x 57 f t 3 c y l i n d r i c a l tanks i n s i d e t h e fixed aq.rlock shroud ( f i g . 4-1) c o n t a i n oxygen a t ambient temperature and a t an i n i t i a l pressure of about 3000 p s ' ~ . Six 19.3 f t 3 s p h e r i c a l tanks on t h e a i r l o c k t r u s s e s ( f i g . 4-2) c o n t a i n nitrogen, a l s o a t ambient temperature and a t about 3000 p s i a . These tanks f u r n i s h gas f o r the i n t e r n a l atmosphere and f o r

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taken t o e n s u r e t h a t a l l f a s t e n i n g r i v e t s be e i t h e r f l u s h w i t h o r below t h e Teflon s u r f a c e of t h e s h i e l d . I n y r e p a r a t i m f o r launching, t h e s h i e l d was t i g h t e n e d a g a i n s t t h e workshop i n an e f f o r t t o g e t c o n t a c t aver t h e e n t i r e s u r f a c e . The launch p o s i t i o n of t h e s h i e l d i s shown i n f i g u r e 4-13 and t h e s h i e l d deIt can be s e e n from f i g u r e 4-13 t h a t ployment mechanism is d e s c r i b e d i n 4.2.1. when t h e ordnance f i r e d a t p o s i t i o n I V and r e l e a s e d t h e s h i e l d , t h e t o r s i o n l i n k s on one s i d e rotat.ad i n a d i r e c t i o n o p p o s i t e t o t h o s e on t h e o t h e r s i d e . The t o r s i o n r o d s and t h e b u t t e r f l y h i n g e s on each s i d e of t h e main t u n n e l caused t h e r a d i a l displacement of t h e s h i e l d . The meteoroid s h i e l d should t h e r e f o r e be regarded a s a very limp system which depended on being s t r e t c h e d t i g h t around t h e workshop t o withstand t h e aerodynamic, v i b r a t i o n , f l u t t e r , and t h r u s t l o a d s d u r i n g boost f l i g h t . A f t e r deployment, i t needed very l i t t l e s t r e n g t h t o s e r v e i t s p r i mary f u n c t r o n a s a meteoroid s h i e l d . The f i r s t ax~omalous i n d i c a t i o n was an i n c r e a s e i n t h e second s t a g e t e l e m e t r y reflec'ied power, from a s t e a d y 1 . 5 watts, beginning a t 59.80 seconds a f t e r launch. B 61.04 seconds, t h e r e f l e c t e d power had reached about 1.75 w a t t s , and by 80.38 y seconds, i t had s t a b i l i z e d a t abovt 2 w a t t s . This abnormal i n c r e a s e i n power might be i n d i c a t i v e of a v e h i c l e p h y s i c a l c o n f i g u r a t i o n change which a l t e r e d t h e antenna ground plane c h a r a c t e r i s t i c . A t 60.12 seconds, t h e s h i e l d t o r s i o n rod 7 forward (measurement G7036) i n d i c a t e d a s l i g h t change toward t h e deployed condit i o n . The l o c a t i o n of t h i s an2 o t h e r i n s t r u m e n t a t i o n a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t.he meteo r o i d s h i e l d is shown i n f i g u r e 4-14. At 61.78 seconds, t h e v e h i c l e r o l l r a t e decreased s l i g h t l y from t h e normal v a l u e of 1.1 d e g l s e c clockwise l o o k i n g forward. Figure 4-15 i s a graph of t h e r o l l r a t e v e r s u s range rime d u r i n g t h e time of int e r e s t . The next t o r s i o n rod 7 f o m a r d sample, a t 62.52 seconds, r e v e a l e d a f u r t h e r r e l a x a t i o n . The i n c r e a s e i n t e l e m e t r y r e f l e c t e d power and t h e movement of t o r s i o n rod 7 forward tend t o i n d i c a t e l i f t i n g of t h e meteoroid s h i e l d between p o s i t i o n s I and 11. A s e n s o r on t h e workshop f i l m v a u l t showed an abnormal v i b r a t i o n a t 62.75 seconds, which was followed by d i s t u r b a n c e s throughout t h e v e h i c l e sensed by o t h e r accelerometers. A t 62.78 seconds, t h e r s X r a t e gyro sensed a sudien clockwise r o l l r a t e r e s u l t i n g i n a peak. amplitude o i 3.0 d e g l s e c clockwise a t 62.94 seconds. A s e n s o r i n t h e instrument u n i t showea a maximum peak-to-peak shock of 17.2 g ' s a t 63.17 seconds. During t h e t i m e t h e v e h i c l e was s e n s i n g "ese d i s t u r b a n c e s , s e v e r a l s l o w e r - r a t e s h i e l d and a r r a y wing measurements showed d r a s t i c changes. Because t h e s e measurements were sampled o n l y once every 0.1, 0.8, o r 2.4 seconds, i t i s u n c e r t a i n when t h e p h y s i c a l c o n d i t i o n a c i u a l l y changed. Figure 4-16 is a g r a p h i c r e p r e s e n t a t i o n of some of t h e a p p l i c a b l e measurements a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the 63-second anomaly. For t h e s h i e l d and a r r a y wing d a t a , t h e last normal and f i r s t abnormal times a r e shown. Where no l a s t "normal" sample. i s shown, t h e s a m ~ l i n g s continuous o r has no s i g n i f i c a n t b e a r i n g on t h e ideni t i f i c a t i o n of t h e f a i l u r e mode.
A t 62.78 seconds, C7011, a temperature measurement, was l o s t . This measurement f a i l u r e could have been caused by damage t o t h e s e n s o r o r i t s c a b l i n g , shown i n f i g u r e 4-16 by dashed l i n e s . This was most l i k e l y a r e s u l t of s h i e l d f a i l u r e i n t h e z r e a between p o s i t i o n s I and 11. The measurements K7211, C7013, K7010, K7011, and K7012 can be considered normal a t t h a t time because they were normal d u r i n g t h e previous sample and were sampled l a t e r than 62.78 seconds and s t i l l found t o be normal. Since array-wing-secured i n d i c a t i o n s and ordnance t e n s i o n s t r a p i n d i c a t i o n s were known t o be good then, t h e evidence l e a d s t o two

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Figure 4-13.-

Meteoroid s h i e l d in launch position.
krxiliary tunnel bin tunnel Ordnrnce plat*

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Torsfon position 0 0 1 0 throu h a012 Ordnance breakwire sensors K7211 and 3 2 1 2 Solar array wings secure 4 - 1nrtrumrit.tlos wire r o u t ~ ~ (exterior Torsion rod Mnkr

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Figcre 4-15.-

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Figure 4-16.

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Time sequence of 63-second anomaly inst rumentation.

conclusions at t h i s p o i n t : t h e meteoroid s h i d d f a i l u r e bsgan b e f o r e a r r a y v i n g 2 became unlatched, and t h e ordnance d i d n o t f i r e prematurely. The t e n s i o n s t r a p measurements K7010 and K701.1 were normal a t 62.80 seconds, and K7012 was normal a t 62.87 seconds. ilowever, by 62.91 seconds, measurements C7012, K7010, K7011, and K72J.1 had f a i l e d , w h i l e K7212 (wing 1 s e c u r e d ) and C7013 were known t o be - ~ r m a lby a l a t e r sample. The abnormai t e l e m e t r y i n d i c a t i o n s C7012, K7010, and K7011, l i k e C7011. could have been caused by s e n s o r o r w i r i n g damage. Measuremcats K7910, K7011, and K7012 were, i n f a c t , o n l y breakwires placed a c r o s s t h e ordnance t e n s i o n s t r a p . The f a i l u r e of measurement n7211, howe v e r , r e v e a l s t h a t t h e a r r a y wing 2 was no l o n g e r securad t o t h e workshop. This i s an i n d i c a t i o n t h a t t h e wing had moved o u t a t l e a s t between 4.7 and 20.2 i n c h e s a s measured a t t h e a f t end of t h e wing p e r p e n d i c u l a r t o t h e workshop.
A t 62.97 seconds, measvlrement K7012 (tensior. strss: 73s d e t e c t e d a s f a i l e d . S l i g h t l y l a t e r , a t 63.04 seconds, t h e f i r s t i n d i c a t i o n o f i n c r e a s e d a r r a y wing v o l t a g e appeared, !-\en measurement M0103 showed a s l i g h t i n c r e a s e . T h i s i s a t t r i b u t e d t o s u n l i g h t i l l u m i m t i n g exposed s e c t i o ~ s c: i h e p a r t i a l l y deployed (unlatched) wing 2. Other a r r a y v o l t a g e s f l u c t u a t e d throughout t h e remajnder of tho launch phase f o r t h c same reason. Between 62.97 and 64.89 seconds, a l l of t h e measurements r e l a t e d t o t h e s h i e l d b e c a m abnormal, b u t t h e wing-1-se :ed measurement (K7212) was s t i l l normal.

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The d a t a i n d i c a t e t h a t t h e most probable sequsnce ~f meteoroid s h i e l d f a i l u r e was i n i t i a l s t r u c t u r a l f a i l u r e between a r r a y wing 2 and t h e main t u n n e l (between p o s i t i o n s I and 1 1 ) . I t a p ? e a r s l i k e l y t h a t t h e i n i t i a l f a i l u r e propa g a t i o n was from t h i s a r e a , s i n c e t h e wardroom window thermocoup1.e i n d j - c a t i o n (C701?) remained normal a t 62.94 seconds, a f t e r t h e K7010 and i(i01L t e n s i o n ;,rap measurements had f a i l e d a t 62.90 seconds, and a f t e r wing 2 w a s 5 n d i c a t e d unl a t c h e d a t 62.93 seconds. The a u x i l i a r y t u n n e l . shown i n f i g u r e 4-17, extended t b e f u l l l e n g t h of t h e s h i e l d . The d e s i g n i n t e n t was t h a t t h e a f t end o f t h e t u n n e l be c e a l e d f o r "no leakage" and t h a t t h e forward end be vented i n t o t h e base r e g i o n of t h e forward f a i r i n g s o a s t o d i s c h a r g e a i r i n t o t h e forward low-pressure r e g i o r , This was in'iended t o p r o v i d e a c r u s h i n g p r e s s i x e (an e x t e r n a l p r e s s u r e exceeding t h e int e r n a l p r e s s u r e ) o v e r t h e e n t i r e t u n n e l . Venting was provided through an o u t l e t of 10 i n . 2 under t h e c o r r u g a t i o n s of t h e t u n n e l cover a t t h e a f t end o f t h e forward f a i r i n g . The t u n n e l was i n t e n d e d t o be s e a l e d a t t h e a f t end by a rubber boot assembly, shown i n f i g u r e 4-18 i n b o t h t h e szi.wed and deployer! p;. . i t i o n s . The f i g u r c shows t h a t t h e t u n n e l was d i s p l a c e d home 5 o r 6 i n c h e s c i r - u m f e r e n t i a . ~ l y upon deployment of t h e s h i e l d . Post f l i g h t i n v e s t i g a t i c d r e v e a l e d , however, t h a t t h e a f t end of t h e t u n n e l was no?. completely s e a l e d i n t h r e e p l a c e ? ( f i g . 4-19) because o f : a . The ul.expiained omission of a z s a l o r cap on two hollow s t r u c t u r a l t s t r i n g e r s on t h e a f t s k i r t which extended i ~ t oh e a f t f a i r i n g of t h e a u x i l i a r v t u n n e l , r e s u l t i n g i n a leakage a r e a ul' about 2.2 h . 2 . b. A inadequate metal-to-.?eta1 f i t between t h e a f t f a i r i n g of t h e a - a i lin a r y t u n n e l ar?d two circumferent-a1 s t i f f e n e r s , r e s u l t i n g i r ; approximately 2 i n . 2 of a d d i t i o n a l leakage a r e a . c . An unplanned v e n t i n g r e s u l t i n g from leakage p a s t a molded rubber Loot used t o s e a l t h e m o v ~ b l ej o i n t st t h e rearward f a c i n g end of t h e a u x i l i a r y t u n n e l . A metal yokt: proviced .-. p o s i t i v e clamp t o a molded f l a n g e on t h e bottom of t h e

boot over t h e r i g i d a f t f a i r i n g . A bonded s e a l was achieved between t h e upper molded flange on t h e boot and t h e a u x i l i a r y tunnel. Because t h e a u x i l i a r y tunn e l was required t o l i f t f r e e l y away from t h e worksl~opand move c i r c u m f e r e n t i a l l y upon deployment i n o r b i t i n t o t h e p o s i t i o n shown i n f i g u r e 4-18, only a wiping When a b u t t s e a l could be achieved along t h e bottom edges of t h i s boot "seal d i f f e r e n t i a l pressure was applied t o t h e boot, t h e b u t t seal d e f l e c t e d away from t h e vnrkshop suzZsce and c r e a t e d two o r i f l c e s of semi-oval c r o s s s e c t i o n whose s i z e depended upon the a p p l i e d p r e s s u r e d i f f e r e n t i a l . A f u l l - s c a l e test was performed t o d e t e m f , e t h e leakage r a t e a t t h e bottom edge of t h e rubber boot, and t h i s i n d i c a t e d ~ h a c pressure-dependent leakage a r e a o f 1.8 i n . 2 would oca c u r under t h e f l i g h t - . n v i r o m n t e x i s t i n g a t 63 seconds.

."

The above t h r e e sources of unplanned Leakage r e s u l t e d in a higher p r e s s v r e i n t h e a u x i l i a r y tunnel and a p r e s s u r e d i f f e r e n t i a l s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t from the design. P o s t f l i g h t c a l c u l a t i o n s i n d i c a t e d t h a t , f o r t h e t o t a l 6 in.* of leakage area i n t o t h e a f t end of t h e tunnel, t h e p r e s s u r e d i s t r i b u t i o n along t h e t u n n e l a t Hach 1 would give a b u r s t i n g pressux over t h e forward pakt and a These deduced crushing p r e s s u r e over t h e r e m i n d e r as shorn in f i g u r e 4-20. p r e s s u r e s produced l a r g e l i f t i n g f c r c e s on t h e f3rward p a r t of t h e tunnel and adjacent s h i e l d areas. Tke e. .-act would be t o l i f t t h e f o m a r d end of t h e auxi l i a r y t u n n e l and t h e a d j a c e n t s h i e l d u n t i l a c r i t i c a l p o s i t i o n was reache6 where high v e l o c i t y r m air vould rush under t h e s h i e l d and tear i t outward from a i t s mountings on t h e workshop. Another mear.s of broduc5ng b u r s t i n g p r e s s u r e s ur.3er the forward edge of t h e s h j e l d in the regim 6 I t h e . a u x i l i a r y ttmn e l could have t e e n a wave pattern produced by the f l a r e d parti- o the a u x i l i : ary t u n n e l forward f a i r i n g : A t low super- . oonic f l i g h t speeds, t h e high . a d low press u r e regions ( t h e c-ressi n an3 +an*: sioo from the f l a r e ) wterrd - to w&afde+able d i s t m c c s away .from tne .tun&l i t s e l f . lligh p,msm.zf; o ~ t h e -meteoroid shieLd r ~uxil fary tiinnel 7 forward-ed* and: 10-r prrseuxes a f t would tend $0 l i f z . t * overil~strixture. liftSartial seal vent (fomrd) :aft) . - ing due ta this &c:fihiliss mcl&be Cndis1- - t f n y i s h a b l e f rm &ha;- due-. tc a u x i l i a r y . Figure 4-20.Calculated eycI~$t&: tunnel leakage described &;. tunnel p r e s s u r e differential. -.P o s t f l i g h t z & l y t ~ c a l stwiies using a f i n i t e element model indic-ated t h a t t h e d e f l e c t i o n of the auxiliary'cuonel and s h i e l d asay from t h e w o r k s h e tends t o become d i v e r g e n t - That is, as a n a r e a of t h e s h i e l d becomes exposed to.a -d i f f e r e n t i a l b u r s t p r e s s u r e , t h e s h i e l d l i f t s up, exposing a d d i t i o n a i a r e a , which r e s u l t s in .Curther l i f cing- - ~ x ~ e r i m e n t stuGies el were a l s o made using an air bladder t e s t r i g r o g e c e r a t e b u r s t p r e s s u r e s over t h e forward edge of r 3%: a u x i 1 i a . q tunnel a r e a and crush p r e s s u r e s over t h e r e a r . The conclusion of both of t h e s e e f f o r t s is thac t h e meteoroid s h i e l o and a u x i l i a r y tunnel were q ~ . i t elimp and e a s i l y ' s i f t e d from t h e workshop i n t o t h e s l i p s t r e a m . A burst pressure of about 0.5 p s i was founc!:to-be s u f f i c i e n t t o e f f e c t t h i s f a i l u r e mode.
2.4 ~ s i

+

-

-

<

The postulated sequence of t h e most probable f a i l u r e mode is shown In f i g u r ? 4-21. The events a r e des-Igna-ed on t h e f i g u r e by times which a r e c o n s i s ~ e n t ~ u i z h t h e a v a i l a b l e d a t a , and are described below:

llON1 roll race. l& / . gm h t * ~ k l ~

Sia8tlon a t 62.79

I

s u

Slturtion a t 62.85

s u

m1 Situation at 63.4

a 1 m

s a

S l t u r t l m a t 63.70

i

sa:

-.

Figure 4-21.-

Meteoroid s h i e l d dynamics.
~

40.12 seconds.- Metexoid s h i e l d l i f t a f f and l o c a l i n f l a t i o n - in' t h e viclhity of rhe a u x i l i a r y tunnel w s s ' i n d i c a t e d by a s m a l l s h i f t in p o s i t i p a - o f t h e & r s i o u .- .. . rod on t h e forward edge j u s t t o t h e l e f t of the tunnel. 61.78 seconds.- Air entered t h e forward f a c i n g opening, ,kisbg the press u r e under t h e s h i e l d , and hlgh mse flows escaped t h r o u g h t h e a d j a c e n t holes in t h e b u t t e r f l y hinge. This flow produced r e a c t i v e force_s -causing a gradual dec r e a s e i n roll rate betveen 61.78 seconds and 62.74 seconds. 52.74 t o 62.79 secolids Burst p r e s s u r e under t' e a u x i l i a r y t u n n e l and adjacent s h i e l d caused a l a r g e t a n g e n t i a l load o n the forward s e c t i o n of t h e butt e r f l y hinge, causing t h e s h o l c hinge ts break..-Flyaround i n s p e c t i o n i n d i c a t e d t h a t t h e f a i l u r e of t h e b u t t e r f l y hinge occurc-pd a t the hinge line adjacent t o -t h e main tunnel. Aerodynamic drag on t h e shkgld, including t h e bulky a u x i l i a r y tunnel, produced tension in rhe s h i e l d and p u ~ & d t h e v e h i c l e so as to roll on i t i n t h e d i r e c t i o n shown, t h a t is, o p p o s i t e t t r ' t h a t nored earlier. The i a r g e a r e a and mass of t h i s metal "flagt' induced a more- r&pM -chaage .kt roll r a t e than e a r l i e r j e t t i n g through che b u t t e r f l y hinge. This yroc&s terminated as t h e s h i e l d s t a r t e d : wrap around and l i f t ving 2. o

--

.-

62.79 t o 62,90 seconds.- DurFng this i n t e r v a l the s d e l d was vrapping around a r r a y wing 2, producing a negative r o l l torque in the v e h i c l e . A t about 62.85 seconds t h e wing tiedownb were broken.
62.90 seconds.- Upon r e i e a s e of wing 2, the tension ir, t h e s h i e l d was transf e r r e d t o t h e trunnions, causlzlg f a i l u r e cf t h e trunnion s t r a p s . Upon s e p a r a t i o n of t h i s s e c t i o n of the s h i e l d , t h e negatLve r o l l torque ended.

62.90 t o 62.95 seconds.- I n t h i s i n t e r v a l , the remaining s e c t i o n of t h e s h i e l d began unwinding, fntroducing L l a r g e p o s i t i v e r o l l torque. 63.17 seconds.- A l a r g e shock was detected by the instrument unit upper mounting r i n g v i b r a t i o n sensor because of t h e -act of the separated s e c t i o n of t h e s h i e l d upen t h e conical i n t c r s t a g e between t h e workshop and t h e launch vehicle. 63.73 seconds Y e s h i e l d c ~ n t i n u e dt o unwind and whip u n t i l 63.70 seconds, when it reacheo a i r a y wing 1. As the s h i e l d began t o wrap around t h i s wing, a negative r o l l torque resulted. The s h i e l d then ripped a p a r t frcm top t o bottom a t the 1ongi:udinal j o i n t adjace2t t o wing 1, p u l l i n g a portion of t h e j o i n t assembly over t n e ving as t h e s h i e l d s e c t i o n departed. However, it did 'not p u l l t h e .dug loose. From t h i s point on, t h e vehicle showed normal response t o its roll control system. Figure 3-10 is a photograph which shows a portion of t n e meteoraid s h i e l d t h a t r w a i n e d and hov i t was attached t o array
vlag 1 .

.-

The l o s s of meteoroid protection did not a f f e c t t h e missioz, bid t t e res u l t a n t thermal problems and the subsequent l o s s of the workshop s o l a r a r r a y wing 2 from the damage caused when t h e s h i e l d was t o r n off had major impacts on g e t t i n g t h e mlssion s t a r t e d . These a r e described Aq sscLiccsii S, 7, 8, and 9. However, t h e successful r e p a i r s a d changes i~ o p e r a t i o c a l procedures t h a t were eade t o counteract these l o s s e s enat led e v q u s l c o q l e z i o n of the mission with no degradation in r e s u l t s . Additional info'idiation concerning t h i s anomaly is contained in reference 31. . . 4.3.2
.

.

Workshop

~

b Array ~ ~

r
. - - ..b

,i && :solar array wing 9 w a s ,@.atch&d and p a r t i a l l y deployed, a s evidenced b y r--~hdi';\ialiati&s t h e e l e c t r i c a l voltages and wing temperatures. F u l l deplogin ment during t h e remainder of pow5red f l i g h t was prevented by t h e aerodynamic . f o r c e s and a c c e l e r a t i o ~ . A t t h e completion of second s t a g e powered f l i g h t the four 35,000-pound-thrust retroror-lrets f i r e d f o r approximately 2 seconds conuaencing a t 591.1 sccands, and spacecrafr. separation followed iusnediately. The e f f e c t of retrorocket p l w impingelrent was observed almost immediately on t h e a r r a y wing 2 temperature and on vehicle body r a t e s . Figure 4-22 shows t h e l o c a t i o n and o r i e n t a t i o n of the r e t r o r o c k e t s r e l a t i v e t o a r r a y wing 2.
Rena'ning meteoroid shield

As a mnsequecce of t h e meteorold shield f a i l u r e a t approximately 6;-sec--

--

~ c m i n l n~ r ; a win? 1 ~ ~ meteomid shield

Figure 4-22.-

Retrorocket impingement force s-hematic.

The time sequence of observed changes i n the affected measurements is shown i n figure 4-23. The response of the vehicle and the corrective action of the attitude control system m y be seen in figure 4-24. a
-1

Mnan ------------ -

I nm bo l

Figure 4-23.-

593-second anomaly time sequence.
(593) End o f S-I1 retrc f i n (593.4) I n i t l a l transfer o f *lag 2 caentw
to vxkshop

(591.1) 5-11 r e t m f i r e . r w n d a d p l w i.plngamt on f r r m t s
on quadrant 11-111 Thruster attitude control system operating to.null out rates and attitudes Induced by rttmrodret pluc l.pingamt (592.3) Array ulng 2 deployed into retrorocket p l w t and crerts force on uorkshop

(592)

(593.9) F i n 1 transfer o f wing 2 #ntu
to workshop

590

592 594 5% Range time, seconds

598

.590

597

591

5%

598

Range time. suonds

Figure 4-24.-

Instnolent unit measurements during 593-second period.

The following sequence of events is believed t o have occurred. A t 591.1 seconds, t h e retrorocket i g n i t i o n command was i n i t i a t e d , and plume impingement caused a p o s i t i v e yaw r a t e buildup and a reduction i n t h e p o s i t i v e p i t c h rate. A t 592.3 seconds, array wing 2 deployed i n t o t h e plume of the retrorocket i n I-l[V q u a d r m t and began t o a f f e c t r i g i d body r a t e s , causing a l a r g e negative r o l l r a t e .and a small negative p i t c h rate increuient. This impjngement force deformed t h e arm as a c a n t i l e v e r beam i n t h e -2 d i r e c t i o n and produced a negat i v e yav r a t e which overcame t h e p o s i t i v e r a t e previously induced by plume impingement on t h e workshop. The retrorocket plume impingement a l s o accelerated t h e deployment rate of array wing 2. These retrorocket exhaust plume impinge~ e n forces are shom in figure 4-25. t
1.grloS

28x102

r

r

A r r a y beam

rotation

Range time, seconds

Figure 4-25.-

Plume impingement f o r c e on s o l a r a r r a y whg 2.

A t 593.0 seconds r e t r o f i r e ceased, and t h e basic r i g i d body r a t e s became constant. The r e l e a s e of t h e s i d e force on a r r a y wing 2, which had stored s t r a i n energy in t h e wing arm (and i n t h e support point) i n t h e d i r e c t i o n normal t o t h e hinge line, caused l o c a l s t r u c t u r a l dynamic a c t i v i t y . This showed up as o s c i l t a t i o n s in t h e r o l l , pitch, and yaw s a t e s . The instrument u n i t accelerome t e r s a l s o picked up a l o c a l t r a n s i e n t a t t h i s time. Wing 2 continued t o deploy. A t 593.4 aecouds wing imparted momentum t o t h e vehicle, probably by h i t t i n g and breaking t h e 90-degree f u l l y deployed stops, and a t 593.9 seconds it imparted a f i n a l kick as it t o r e completely f r e e a t the hinge link. In-orbit photographs show c l e a r l y t h e wing attachment point and t h e various wires which =re t o r n looae a t t h e i n t e r f a c e (fig. 4-9). An a n a l y s i s of t h e impingeant forczs on t h e wing was made and compared t o t h e force required t o produce t h e oLwrved vehicle motion. This comparrson pmvideo a reasonable f i t f o r t h e f i r s t 59 t o 60 degrees of wing r o t a t i o n , oe shown i n f i g u r e 4-25.

The l o s s of t h e workshop a r r a y wing 2 and t h e f a i l u r e of a r r a y wing 1 t o deploy s e v e r e l y l i m i t e d t h e Skylab power i n t h e e a r l y days of the mission. A f t e r a r r a y wing 1 was deployed on Day 25, t h e r e was adequate power t o complete t h e mission and meet o r s u r p a s s a l l o b j e c t i v e s . Additional information concerning t h i s anomaly is contained in r e f e r e n c e 31.

9.3.3

S o l a r Observatory Aperture Doors

The f i r s t a p e r t u r e door malfunction cccurred on Day 20 when t h e X-ray spectrograph door became s t u c k i n the closed p o s i t i o n a f t e r only 25 cycles. Both motors were used t o o p e r a t e i t and i t was l e f t i n an i ~ d i c a t e d open p o s i t i o n . On Day 25, during an e x t r a v e h i c u l a r a c t i v i t y , i t w a s found t o be !.n a closed posit i o n . The crew then l a t c h e d i t i n t h e open p o s i t i o n . The u l t ~ . a v i o l e tscsncing polychromator spectroheliometer door f i r s t malfunctioned on Day 31, but o p e r a t i o n was continued with two motors. A f t e r continued i n t e r m i t t e n t problems, t h e r a p l a t c h ws removed on Day 85 and t h e door then operated normally wi-tt; one motor a f o r t h e rest of t h e mission, completing 2800 cycles. The X-ray t e l e s c o p e door malfunctioned on Day 35, but two-motor o p e r a t i o n enabled use u n t i l t h e ramp l a t c h could be removed on Day 103. It then functioned s a t i s f a c t o r i l y on a s i n g l e motor f o r a t o t a l of 800 .cycles. On Day 83, t h e white l i g h t coronagraph door telemetry i n d i c a t e d t h e doo . was open when i n a l y s i s showed i t closed. F u r t h e r a n a l y s i s theorized t b z t t h e problem was e l e c t r i c i d - , and t h e door operated normally f o r t h e remainder of t h e mission, c o m p l e t n g 3000 cycles. The extreme u l t r a v i o l e t spectrohelfograph door was switched t o two-motor operation on Day 98 a f t e r some opening and c l o s i n g problems. The ramp l a t c h was removed on Day 103, and one-mctor o p e r a t i o n was resumed. A f t e r o t h e r problems required a r e t u r n t o two-motor o p e r a t i o n , t h e door was l a t c h e d open or. Day 326, having compieted 400 cycles. -The hydrogen a l p h a 2 door f a i l e d t o c i o s e on Day 118 a f t e r 750 cycles. When i t became e v i d e n t during subsequent malfunction procedures t h a t t h e primary motor c i r c u i t had f a i l e d , t h e door w a s l a t c h e d open on Day 193. During t h e t h i r d manned period; t h e u l t r a v i o l e t spectrograph door began t~ f a i l t o open and c l o s e on one motor a f t e r 475 cycles. This door was then , ? l e c t r i c a l l y i n h i b i t e d i n t h e open p o s i t i o n on Day 231 and remained in t h a t posit i o n f o r t h e rest of t h e mission. The c o r r e c t i v e a c t i o n s describe-d above w e r e supported by analyses and t e s t s . Cycle times f o r each door were r e d o r i e d throughout the mission. Spot checks were made from time t o t i m e t o .determine dagradation i n opering and c l o s i n g times f o r t h e doors. However, t h e r e were no t r e n d s i n the d a t a t h a t would allow p r e d i c t i o n of door Cailure. Operating times required with two u o t o r s were approximately 2 seconds less than with a s i n g l e motor. A 100-cycle t e s c made with t;Jo motors o p e r a t i n g i n t h e prototype s o l a r observatory showed c o n s i s t e a t times of 10 seconds t o open and l O seconds t o c l o s e . After the 100-cycle t e s t with two motors, single-motor o p e r a t i o n was attempted with f i r s t t h e primary and then t h e secondary motor. During f i v c c y c l z s using the primary motor t h e opening time was 1 3 t~ 14 seconds, but t h e t i m e t o c l o s e increased from 21 seconds on t h e f i r s t c y r i e t o 43 seconds on t h e f i f t h cycle. The f i r s t c y c l e on t h e secondhry motor took 1 3 seconds t o open, but t h e door reached t h e ramp l a t c h on t h e closed c y c l e and did not c l o s e s i n c e t h e l i m i t switches could not then be t r i g g e r e d A t t h i s point, during a ttst with two motors o p e r a t i n g , t h e door Look 1 0 seconds t o open and 10 seconds to close. The t e s t was resumed a f t e r approximately 90 minutes with s i x c y c l e s using t h e primary motor; time for t h e door t o open and c l o s e increased from 20 seconds on t h e f i r s t c y c l e t o 52 seconds on t h e f i f t h c y c l e ? O the s i x t h c y c l e , n

i
I

!

I

iI

the secondary motor opened t h e door in 1 3 seconds but would not close i t , a l though t h e ramp l a t c h was reached i n 15 seconds. A l u b r i c a n t was applied t o the ramp l a t c h i n an attempt t o a l l e v i a t e t h e problem. The door was opened and closed f i v e times wLth each motor. The primary a o t o r opened the door i n 1 3 seconds and closed i t i n 15 seconds. The time t o reach the l a t c h was 12 t o 12.5 seconds. A f i n a l test was made a f t e r removing t h e ramp l a t c h . I n a five-cycle test t h e secondary motor opened the door i n 1 3 t o 14 seconds and closed i t i n 14 seconds, and the ? r h a r y motor opened t h e door i n 1 3 seconds and closed i t i n 14 seconds. I n f i v e cycles using both motors, the opening and closing times were a constant 10 seconds. The ramp l a t c h e s a r e aluminum, coated with a bonded s o l i d iubricant. Three tk3t were removed were returned f o r inspectioh1 and analyses. A l l showed g a l l i n g on the surfaces. The s o l i d l u b r i c a n t used is capable of supporting the design load i f t h e s u b s t r a t e i s s u f f i c i e n t l y hard. However, the aluminum used was not hard enough t o support high s t r e s s loadings. Noreover, any s l i g h t mitraiignment would have r a i s e d the s t r e s s e s t o unacceptable l e v e l s f o r the materials used. Xard anodizing should have been used p r i o r t o a p p l i c a t i o n of the lubricant.

- -- .

fi

!
! I

!
!

i

SECTION 5 INSTRUMENTATION AND COMMUNICATIONS

The Saturn Workshop instrumentation and communications equipment includes data, command, voice corpmunications, television, onboard monitoring, caution and warning, timing, and rendezvous and ranging sysrems. Those systems that support the laboratory and those associated with the observatory are referred to Reparately since their operation is largely independent. The solar observatory equipment is contained within the observatory with the exception of the control and display console located within the docking adapter. Acquisition and communication of infomation is a primary function of the Saturn Workshop es~entialto the control and gathering of performance and experiment data. Figure 5-1 is a simplified diagram of the instrumentation and communications systems. As this figure shows, certain systems use equipment in the command and service wdule for their operction. More detailed information on the instrumentation and communication systems and their performance can be found . in reference 5

1-4 ,t
'aund unit

1

D t t r d lines enclose ita show! for referenu only.

Figure 5-1.-

Saturn Yorkshop instrumentation and communications systems.

51 .

DATA SYSTEMS

The data systems collect, code, fonuat, and tranmit data throughout the Saturn Workshop to the ground stations. All transmitted uata are pulse code modulated. This method reduces the effect of noise on data accuracy during

;tansmission. Sensors, s i g n a l c o n d i t i o n e r s , m u l t i p l e x e r s , t r a n s m i t t e r s , antennas, and r e l a t e d c i r c u i t r y a r e used t o yerform t h i s operation. The Saturn Workshop d a t a systems sampled 2060 sensors a t various r a t e s and coded t h e i r o u t p u t s i n t o 8- o r 10-bit words, producing 123,200 d a t a b i t s p e r second. While i n cont&.ct with t h e ground s t a t i o n s , a b u t 32 percent of t h e t i m e , a l l RF d a t a ..ere t r a n s m i t t e d i n r e a l t i m e . Curiug t h e 68 p e r c e a t of t h e f l i g h t tfme when t5ere was no s t a t i o n c m t a c t , s e l e c t e d d a t a were recorded onboard f o r subsequent transmission. These d a t a c o n s t i t u t e d approximately 40 percent of t h e t o t a l d a t a t r a n s m i t t e d , The s o l a r observatory, including i t s d a t a transmission system, i s enclosed by t h e shroud during launch, and measurements required f o r launc!~ and early-deployment performance information a r e processed through t h e l a b o r a t o r y system. I)ynamics and a c o u s t i c measurements during launch were t r a n s m i t t e d through t h e launch v e h i c l e system, which had analog d a t a transmission c a p a b i l i t y . T~iagraus of t h e d a t a systems a r e shown i n f i g u r e s 5-2 and 5-3.

Transmitter select

diplnmr Caufrl switch

Digteal

I

at.

Oisplayl

Figure 5-3.-

S o l a r observatory d a t a system.

The l a b o r a t o r y d a t a system was a c t i v e during t h e h u n c h phasc using a press u r i z e d 2-watt RF t r a n s m i t t e r . This t r a n s m i t t e r was s e l e c t e d launch d a r a d a Secause t h e unprf . ,x i z e d 10-watt t r k m i t t e r s used f o r 0 r b i t u ~ ~ t would be s u b j e c t t o corona L s c h a r g e when passlng through t h e upper atmosphere, with res u l t a n t d a t a l o s s . Ten minutes a f t e r l i f t o f f , the l a b o r a t o r y t a p e recordere were a c t i v a t e d , and 5 minutes l a t e r t h e dlscone antennas were deployed. Transi:2r of data from the 2-watt t o t h e 10-watt t r a n e m i t t e r s was accomplhhed a t 22 minutes after liftoff

.

The s o l a r observatory and i t s s o l a r a r r a y wings deployed a s planned 25 minIts d a t a system was a c t i v a t e d 9 udnutes l a t e r , and a l l utes a f t e r l i f t o f f . systems i n d i c a t e d proper operation. A t 1 hour 44 minutes a f t e r launch, a f t e r s e v e r a l r o u t i n e switchings of t h e t r a n s m i t t z r s and antennas t o o b t a i n t h e b e s t s t a t i o n coverage, t h e s o l a r observatory t r a n s m i t t e r 1 would n o t o p e r a t e on t h e wing 4 antenna. Operation on t h e wing 1 antenna was normal, and d a t a transmiss i o n f o r t h e remainrier of t h e mission was constrained t o t r a n s m i t t e r 1 u s i n g the wing 1 antenna. Transmitter 2 w a s not a f f e c t e d by t h i s c o n s t r a i n t . The d a t a systems were s u b j e c t e d t o t h e h e a t extremes during the f i r s t unmanned period, but t h e r e w a s no evidence of system degradation from t h e s e adverse conditions. The only d e v i a t i o n from normal procedure was t o monitor t h e tape recorder temperatures and t o o p e r a t e t h e two s o l a r observatory t a p e recorde r s a l t e r n a t e l y t o allow a cooling period. The o r i g i n a l conczpt t o u:c one recorder continuously and t o r e s e r v e t h e o t h e r a s a s p a r e u n i t was modified t o o p e r a t e t h e backup r e c o r d e r a t l e a s t once per day t o maintain bearing l u b r i c a t i o n and o t h e r conditioning. A f t e r deployment of t h e p a r a s o l thermal s h i e l d , a l t e r n a t i n g use of t h e r e c o r d e r s t o cool then! was no longer necessary; however, t h e r e c o r d e r s continued t o be a l t e r n a t e d , with recorder 1 being used approximately 60 percent of t h e t o t a l mission t i m e . There were some d a t a dropouts e a r l y in t h e mission during playback o f t h e s e r e c o r d e r s t o c e r t a i n ground s t a t i o n s . Evaluatior i n d i c a t e d t h a t no problem e x i s t e d i n t h e a i r b o r n e system, and ground s t a t i o n procedure changes provided s u c c e s s f u l d a t a recovery. The l a b o r a t o r y tape r e c o r d e r s , u n l i k e t h e s o l a r observatory tape r e c o r d e r s which had been designed f o r t o t a l mission l i f e , were o r i g i n a l l y designed f o r t h e Gemini program. These u n i t s were updated and r e f u r b i s h e d , but t h e i r l i f e c y c l e was f a r s h o r t of t h e mission d u r a t i o n . Problems i n l a b o r a t o r y tape record=, m e r a t i o n s were ident i f i e d and were corrected p r i m a r i l y by r e p l a c i n g t h e malfunctioning recorder. With one excepLion, t h e tape r e c o r d e r s operated beyond t h e i r s p e c i f i e d l i f e cycles. Other problems included a l a b o r a t o r y low-level-multiplexer n o i s e s i g n a l which appeared on t h e m u l t i p l e x e r s during t h e t h i r d manned p e r i o d , and one u n i t which operated i n t e r m i t t e n t l y throughout a p o r t i o n of thi. , .ion ana subsequent~,ited low r a d i a t e d l y f a i l e d . The l a b o r a t o r y telemetry 10-watt t r a n s m i t t ? ' pawer e a r l y i n t h e mission. Thp 2---att launch txacsmit n.:. used t o r e p l a c e In e ~ i ~ l e ..:.eas, r e p a i r . t h i s t r m s m i t t e r f o r t h e remainder of t h e missiox.. o r replacement of equipment by t h e ctew or workaround ? r c : * l r ~ z implemented s u c c e s s f u l l y with minimuin e f f e c t on the mission. N p r o b l e v o i -aunt ered l i ~ t esystem. with s i g n a l c o n d i t i o n e r s , power modules, o r o t h e r compcnen2:
,

5.1.1

Data Acquisition

The d a t a a c q u i s i t i o n subsystems comprise sensors, s i g n a l c m d i t i o n e r s , m u l t i p l e x e r s , encoders, and a s s o c i a t e d components. Sensors.- Approximately 2100 s e p a r a - e mkasurements a r e acquired, 2060 of which a r e transmitted t o t h e ground s t a t i o n s . Those measurements not telemetered a r e displayed onboard o r were connected t o an umbilical f o r prelaunch checks. These sensors l o c a t e d throughout the systems and experiments convert physic a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s co e l e c t r i c a l s i g n e l s . Varknus types of s e n s o r s a r e used f o r temperatures, p r e s s u r e s , p o s i t i o n s , f l o w r a t e s , vol.tages, c u r r e n t s , a c c e l e r a t i o n , and various parameters. Table 5-1 summarizes the Saturn Workshop measurements f o r t h e mission p e r i o d , 1j.sting t h e sensors by type, q u a n t i t y , and performance.

Table 5-1.Saturn Workshop Measurement Summary
7-I.

3-1.-

I.,."-.u

lururrs

-,,

S i l n a l Conditioners Signal conditione-s modify e l e c t r i c a l s i g n a l s from t h e s e n s m s t o mi. them compatible with t h e telemetry e q ~ l p m e n tonboard d i s p l a y s and i n some casee supply power f o r t h e sens o r s . Included a r e power s u p p l i e s , amplif i e r s , f i l t e r s , and o t h e r c o n t r o l s . There were no f a i l u r e s of s i g n a l cond i t i o n i n g modules, bus modules, f u s e modu l e s , o r dc-to-dc power converters. The 5 vdc e x c i t a t i o n power c o n v e r t e r s operatad s a t i s f a c t o r i l y a s v e r i f i e d by t h e s t a b i l i t y of r e f e r e n c e v o l t a g e measurements. Data i n t a b l e 5-11 dre t y p i c a l and i n d i c a t e t h a t t h e c a l i b r a t i o n and r e f e r e n c e v o l t a g e s f o r t h e d a t a system were q u i t e s t a b y e and accurate.

.-

The aeasurements displayed o n b o a ~ dwere s a t i s f a c t o r y except f o r one minor n problem. O Day 86 t h e r e w a s a s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e i n temperzture i n d i c a t i o n s between t h e telemetered d a t e and t h e onboard d i s p l a y f o r molecular s i e v e h e a t exchangers. Subsequent e v a l u a t i o n determined t h a t t h e telemetered vnlue w a s c o r r e c t and t h a t onbcard meters were i n e r r o r . After some unsuccessful t r o a b l e s h o o t i n g was performed by t h e crew, t h e onboard readings were discounted. Table 5-11. Typical Reference Voltage Data f o r Selected Samples

1

Equipment Remote multiplexer Remote mu1ti plexer Remote mu1t i p l e x e r Remote mu1ti plexer Multiplexer A1 Multiplexer A1

I1
3 3 6 5

-

VU!
I

tage

Cplibratian value

I

7 -

Day -4

1

I Launch I Day 135 1

Multiplexer-Encoder.The m u l t i p l e x e r s accept analog v o l t a g e i n p u t s from the sensors and sample earh a t a p r e s e l e c t e d r a t e . Laboratory measurements are sampled a t r a t e s from 0.42 t o 320 samples per second, depending on s p e c i f i n d requirements. X l a r g e m a j o r i t y of measurements a r e made a t r a t e s of 0.42, 1.25, o r 10 samples per second. Most temperatures vary q u i t e slowly and a r e sampled a t once every 24 seconds. More r a p i d l y changing temperatures, such as t h c s e n e a r a c t i l e thermal c o n t r o l eJemetts, and most p r e s s u r e s a r e sanpl.ed once every 8 seconds. A 10-sample-per-second r a t e is used f o r d a t a which r e q u i r e s l i g h t l y g r e a t e r sampling r a t e s , and f o r t h e majority of d i s c r e t e w e n t s , which allows che determination of event time ccccrrence t o w i t h i n 0 . 1 second. S o l a r observatozy d a t a measurements a r e sampled a t r a t e s of one sample every 15 seconds t o 120 samples per second, depending on t h e s p e c i f i c v a s u r e m e n t requirements. The m a j o r i t y of thede measurements a r e sampled a t 4 sr 1 2 o a m ~ l e sper second.

1 eve1 and 14 lowThe laboratory dhta measurements a r e sampled by 1 h i r l e v e l t l u l t i p l e x e r s . High-level m u l t ~ p l e x e r ssample up t o 32 analog s i g r a l s

I

(0 t; 5 vdc) and 40 h i l e v e l s i g n a l s ( 0 t o 28 vdc) each. Low-level m u l t i p l s x e r s sample 32 low-level s i g n a l s (0 t b 20 mvdc) each and amplify t h e s i g n a l s by 250 s o t h e y f a l l between 0 and 5 vdc. The o u t . . l t s of t h e m u l t i p l e x e r s a r ? s e n t t o t h e encoders If a l r e a d y compatible, o r through t h e i n t e r f a c e u n i t i f r t q u i r e d . Tkte i n t e r f a c e :nit provides t i s i n g s i g n a l s t o d r i v e t h e m u l t i p l e x e r s and performs t h i r d t i e r . s w i t c h i n g and i n t e g r a t i o n of t h e i r o u t p u t s . The i n t e g r a t e d m u l t i p l e x e r o u t p u t is s e n t t o t h e encod-r , which c o n v e r t s t h e a n a l o g s i g n a l s t o an e q u i v a l e n t 8 - b i t b i n a r y number and ,.ambines them w i t h d i g i t a l and synchron i z i n g d a t a f o r onboard r e c o r d i n g o r d i r e c t t r a n s m i s s i o n t o t h e ground s t a t i o n s . The s o i a r o b s e r v a t o r y d a t a measurements a r e sampled and ~ n c o d e dby s i x remote analog s u b m u i t i p l e x e r s , f o u r time d i v i s i o i l m u l t i p l e x e , ~ , s i x remote d i g i t a l m u l t i p l e x e r s , and two encoders. Each remote analog s u b m u l t i p l e x e r a c c e p t s 60 s i g n a l s (0 t o 20 mvdc) from t h e s i g n a l c o n d i t i o n e r s . These s i g n a l s a r e samp l e d 12 times p e r second, a m p l i f i e d t o a range of 0 t o 5 vdc, and a p p l i e d ca a s i n g l e o u t p u t l i n e t o 6 i n g u t channels of a time d i v i s i o n m u l t i p l e x e r . The time d i v i s i o n m u l t i p l e x e r s a c c e p t 234 u s a b l e s i g n a l s from t h e remote s a n a l o g s u b m u l t i p l e r o r from t h e 0 t o 5 vdc analog d a t a s o u r c e s , Each t i m e d i v i s i o n m d t i p l e x e r samples each of i t s 30 channels 12u times p e r second. Outp u t i s s e n t t o t h e e n c o d t r s . Each remote d i g i t a l m u l t i p l e x e r can a c c e p t 100 b i t s of d i g i t a l measurement d a t a . These d a t a b i t s a r e ;tored as t m 1 0 - b i t words u n t i l t h e encoder i s ready t o r e c e i v e them, The encoders a c c e p t b o t h a n a l o g a2d d i g i t a l d a t a . The a n a l d g d a t a from t h e time d i v i s i o n mu1 t i p l e x e r s a r e encoded i n t o 10-bit d i g i t a l words. These words a r e combined w i t h t h e d i g i t a l i n p u t s from t h e remote d i g i t a l m u l t i p l e x e r s and d i r e c t d i g i t J d a t a from t h e computer and s o l a r experiments and arranged i n t o t h e s t a n d a r d p u l s e code m o d u l a t i o ~format, which i s a p p l i e d t o e i t h e r t h e teleme t r y transmitters o i the tape r e c ~ r d e r s . The d a t a systems sampled t h e m b o a r d p a r a m e t e r s c o n t i n u o u s l y 24 h o u r s a day throughout t h e 272 dav mission. T h i s r e s u l t e d i n 1 . 3 x 1012 d a t a b i t s outp u t from t h e workshop encoder and 1 . 7 x 1012 d a t a b i L s o u t p u t from thr? s o l a r o b s e n a t o r y encoder, o r a t o t a l of 3 x 1012 d a t a b i t s . While i n c - q t a c t w i t h t h e ground s t a t i o n s , o v e r 9. t x 1011d l t a b i t s were r a c e i v e d by t h e ground s t a t i o n s i n r e a l time and 6.4 x 1011from t h e onboard r e c o r d e r s . The performance of t h e mul:iplexers, encoders, and a s s o c i a t e d e l e c t r o n i c s i n t h e d a t a s y s t e m v ~ w e l l w i t h i n p r e d i c t e d c a p a b i l i t i e s . Except f o r a few s i n s t a n c e s where a h i g n e r ?ampling r a t e would have a s s i s t e d i n t h e r e s o l u t i o n of anomalies, w i t h t h e r e l a t e d measurements s e l e c t e d f o r t h e s e high r a t e s , che d*ta r a t e s choe- n provided s u f f i c i e n t i n f o r m a t i o n t c r~erforma l l mission t a s k s . Data p r o c e s s i n g and formatt'.,;,. f o r t r a n s m i s s i o n t o t a ground and onboard r e c o r d i n g : were e x c e l l e n t . Problems were encountered i n t h e low-level a u l t i p l e x e r s . 3ne l a b o r a t o r y low-level m u l t i p l e x e r e x h i b i t e d e r r a t i c performarice on Day 82. L a t e r , s p o r a d i c perfcrmance was noted and on Day 123 t h e m u l t i p i i x e r r e t u r n e d t o normal o p e r a t i n g c o n d i t i o n . This m u l t i p l e x e r remained i n t e r m i t t e n t f o r t h e remainder of t h e mission. The problem a f f e c t e d 28 m a s u r e n e n t s i n t h e workshop t h a t were n o t c r i t i c a l t o t h e mission. These m u l t i p l e x e r s axe s u b j e c t t o s o a e d e g r a d a t i e n and s e v e r a l u n i t s had been exposed t o extreme temperatures. Inasmuch as co-relat i n g d a t a were a v a i l a b l e t o work around t h e l o s t measurements, no t r o u b l e s h o o t i n g o r s p e c i a l p r o c ~ d u r e swere i n i t i a t e d .

The f i r s t e i g h t channels of another low-level m u l t i p l e x e r showed excessive n o i s e on its output on Day 216, and he f i r s t e i g h t channels on each of t h e workshop low-level m u l t i p l e x e r s and nine channels of t h e programer e x h i b i t e d noisy outputs on Day 224. Table 5-111 sunrmarizes t h a performance h i s t o r y of t h e multiplexer-encoder components .

Table 5-111.I

Performance History of Multiplexer-Encoder Subsystem
Quanti ty used A n w l ies

Component Laborator Enco& Low-leir. I multiplexers

Problem node

.

Hone
Intenni t t e n t throughout mission; steering diode f a i t u r e suspected (1). Noisy; second level t i e r switch f a i l u r e (1). Noise; f i r s t 8 channels o f each u n i t Reference voltage problem suspected (6).

.

High-level mu1tiplexers Solar Observatcty Enccders Hultip!exen Remote analog submultiplexers Digital mu1ti plexers

I

I

I

I
2

4
6 6

0

I
0

i

The l o s s of t h e s e n s o r s caused by t h e f a i l u r e of t h e meteoroid s h i e l d and s o l a r a r r a y wing, t h e i n d i v i d u a l s e t s o r f a i l u r e s , and t h e m u l t i p l e x e r f a i l u r e s a f f e c t e d 141 of t h e t o t a l 2060 measurements. This r e p r e s e n t s a 93 percent d a t a recovery rate a t t h e end of t h e mission. However, t h e m a j o r i t y of the multiplexer problems occurred during t h e t h i r d manned period so t h a t t h e a c t u a l percentage of recovered d a t a was g r e a t e r f o r a long period of t i m e ( t a b l e 5-11. 5.1.2 Data Recording

Tape recorders s t o r e s e l e c t e d d a t a when t h e Saturn Workshop is not i n cont a c t with any ground s t a t i o n . Recorder playback i s scheduled over s e l e c t e d stat i o n s , dependent upon t h e amount of d a t a s t o r e d and t h e time d u r a t i o n of s t a t i o n c o c t a c t . The d a t a recordinp systems comprise l i v e tape recorders, t o g e t h e r with a s s o c i a t e d i n t e r f a c e u n i t s , power s u p p l i e s , and c o n t r o l s . Three 2-track t a p e r e c o r d e r s a r e used i n t h e l a b o r a t o r y d a t a system. The t a p e r e c o r d e r s record v o i c e only on one t r a c k , and p u l s e code modulated d a t a only on t h e o t h e r track. The p u l s e code format i s based on a master frame r a t e ~f 40 per second. P o r t i o n s of t h e master frame t i m e (0.025 second) are broken down i n t o f i v e a d d i t i o n a l subframes by t h e multiplexers. Subframes 1 through 4 may be recorded, but subframes d a t a a r e only a v a i l a b l e i n real time. The pulse coded d a t a a r e recorded a t a r a t e of e i t h e r 5120 b i t s p e r s ~ c o n d ,which i s every 1 0 t h sample of t h e encoder output, o r 5760 b i t s per second, which is t h e output of t h e experiment d a t a system. Each of t h e 3 r e c o r d e r s is capable of s t o r i n g up t o 3 hours of informatton and playing bac a t a speed 22 times f a s t e r than recording speed: 112.64 o r 126.73 k i l o b i t s per second. The s o l a r observatory d a t a recording system i n c l ~ ~ d e s i n t e r f a c e u n i t , a an memory u n i t , dc-to-dc power c o n v e r t e r s , and two tape recorders. The system

5-7

i
accepts a p a r a l l e l 72-kilobit-per-second d a t a format and synchronization s i g n a l s from t h e encoders and converts them i n t o a 4-kilobit-per-second d a t a stream f o r recording on tape. The i n t e r f a c e u n i t s e l e c t s t h e measurement words i d e n t i f i e d by t h e memory u n i t . The s e l e c t e d words a r e s t o r e d in t h e memory. On t b c proper read coaamand, d a t a a r e t r a n s f e r r e d from t h e memory t o t h e i n t e r f a c e u n i t , where t h e proper t a p e s t o r a g e format is generated and a p p l i e d t o t h e t a p e r e c o r d e r input. The maximum record time f o r each tape r e c o r d e r is 90 minutes, which is approximately t h e time of one Skylab o r b i t . Playback time is 5 minutes, o r 18 times t h e record speed, i n c r e a s i n g t h e 4 - k i l o b i t r a t e t o 72 M l o b i t s p e r second, which is t h e same a s t h e real-time rate. Only one t a p e r e c o r d e r can be operated i n t h e record o r t h e playback mode a t any given time because of an electrical i u t e r lock; however, both r e c o r d e r s may o p e r a t e simultaneously i n o p p o s i t e modes. Four s p a r e l a b o r a t o r y r e c o r d e r s were launched with t h e Saturn Workshop, and t h e l a b o r a t o r y d a t a recording and playback were accomplished as planned. During t h e f i r s t loanned period two of t h e o p e r a t i n g r e c o r d e r s experienced malfunctions. The f i r s t r e c o r d e r f a i l e d and w a s replaced on Day 26 with a s p a r e u n i t . The second problem occurred w h i l e t h e f i r s t crew was p r e p a r i n g t o r e t u r n , and inasmuch as t h e two o p e r a t i n g r e c o r d e r s were s u f f i c i e n t f o r d a t a s t o r a g e during t h e unmanned period, replacement w a s delayed u n t i l t h e a r r i v a l of t h e second crew. Tvo more s p a r e u n i t s were brought onboard by t h i s crew, and t h e f a i l e d u n i t was replaced on Day 79.
A recorder nad numerous b i t e r r o r s and l o s s o f synchronization on Day 123, and w a s replsced. Subsequent troubleshooting by t h e crew revealed t h a t t h e t a p e path was i n c o r r e c t . Thz t a p e path w a s c o r r e c t e d and t h e heads and i d l e r s were cleaned. The recorder was stowed f o r p o s s i b l e use a s a spare. Another t a p e recorder w a s replaced on Day 127. Although t h e recorder was s t i l l performing propezly i t w a s replaced before t h e t h i r d unmanned period because i t had accumul a t e d 1500 bours and s p e c i f i e d l i f e i s 750 hours. It was replaced t o preclude a f a i l u r e during t h e unmnnned period when t h e r e c o r d e r could n o t be replaced by t h e crew. A fourch t a p e recorder f a i l d r e occurred on Day 252 and t h e u n i t w a s replaced. Another r e c o r d e r was replaced on Day 253. Although t h i s u n i t was performing properly, i t had exceeded i t s expected o p e r a t i n g l i f e by more than 800 hours, and was rep1ac.d as a precautionary measure.

i

The tape r e c o r d e r u t i i i z a t i o n plan c a l l e d f o r a t o t a l of 1217 hours during t h e launci:, a c t i v a t i m , and f i r s t manned period and 1652 hours during t h e secocd unmanned and manned periods. The l a b o r a t o r y t a p e r e c o r d e r s recorded 1480 hours of d a t a through t h e end of t h e f i r s t manned period. This was approximately 260 hcurs over planned use. The major cause of t h i s time overran was t h e 10-day delay i n the l a . ~ n c hgf t h e f i r s t crew. Actual rise during t h e second period was 2188 hours. The a d d i t i o n a l 536 hours over planned use was due mainly t o t h e increased use by Mission Control f o r d a t a a n a l y s i s and system troubleshooting. During the t h i r d unmanned and manned p e r i o d s t h e r e c o r d e r s o p r a t e d 6320 hours, longer than Ciley operated f o r t h e previous periods combined, This was l a r g e l y because t h c s ~periods were longer (52 days unmanned and 84 days manned). Therc were approximately 714 d a t a playbacks t o t h e ground s t a t i o n s during t h e f i r s t mannsd period, 1.160 playbacks during t h s second unmanned and manned peril-& and 3 176 playbacks during t h e t h i r d unmanned and manned periods. The recorders i n genersl performed well. The s p e c i f i e d o p e r a t i n g t i m e of 750 hours

f o r each t o t a l e d 5250 hours f o r t h e seven recorders. Twoo d d i t i a n a l r e c o r d e r s were supplied during t h e r i s s i o n , r a i s i n g t o t a l c a p a b i l i t y t o 6750 hours. Actual o p e r a t i n g tlme f o r t h e n i n e r e c o r 2 e r s during t h e mission was 9884 hours, mceedi n g requirements by more than 3100 hours. A t the end o f t h e h i s s i o n , tvo o f the t h r e e raainiag tape r e c o r d e r s had exceeded s p e c i f i e d l i f e by 249 hours, and a l l recorder8 were o p e r a t i n g n o r r a l l y . Ground recovery of t h e dclaped tire d a t a from the-recorder playbacks was e x c e l l e n t , and t h e delayed time voice was c o n s i s t e n t l y good*

Table 5-IV provides a s u m a n of l a b o r a t o r y t a p e r e c o r d e r use fo:. t h e adssion. The t a b l e i d e n t i f i e s t a p e recorder u n i t s by a e r i a l number am! shows where they -re used in t h e a i r l o c k by p o s i t i o n number. S i n c e recorderis had been space
Table ED.Laboratory Tape Recorder Performance History

1

13 22

R

R

280 230

32
2

21

I R

220

30 34

a
I

535 305 145 424 138
219

62 89 76 56 31 9

617 266 1229 338 1330 703

1214

660
1450 818 1499 931

Failed Dql 26 FalldOqy10 Failed 252

duc to uccsslve

Replaced b y 127

use--no f a i l u t c H

ewatlc operation. Replaced Day 253-

*

Operrtfng a t end of rtssion. as A v ~ i l J l e :nflight contingency spare.

-

q u a l i f i e d f o r t h e Gemini program, same were reclaimed from t h a t program and refurbished f o r Skylab and some new u n i t s were d s o obtained. Figure 5-4 shows t h e l i f e performance of t h e recorders. The upper curve shows t h e t o t a l capabili t y of t h e r e c o r d e r s in hours, based on a l i f e of 750 hours per recorder. The i n i t i a l c a p a b i l i t y of 5250 hcurs f o r t h e seven onboard r e c o r d e r s increased t o 6750 hours when t h e second crew c a r r i e d up two a d d i t i o n a l recorders. The o t h e r v a r i a t i o n i n c a p a b i l i t y is an i n c r e a s e when t h e r e c o r d e r s exceed a n s e f u l l i f e of 750 hours and a decrease when a r e c o r d e r f a i l s t o achieve p r e d i c t e d capabili t y . The middle curve shows t h e t o t a l o p e r a t i n g time, which i n c l u d e s vendor and ground t e s t i n g and checkout before t h e Saturn Workshop launch. The lower curve i s t h e t o t a l cumulative hours of i n f l i g h t operation r e l a t i v e t o mission time. The s o l a r observatory d a t a recording system perfonned f l a w l e s s l y throughout tile mission. Control c i r c u i t r y performed on command, and d a t a playbacks were performed over s e l e c t e d ground h tat ions more than 4300 times. During t h e e a r l y period of t h e mission when Skylab was flown i n t h e v a r i o u s non-solar-inertial a t t i t u d e s , t h e s o l a r observatory tape r e c o r d e r s l o s t t h e p r o t ~ c t i o nof t h e s o l a r observatory sunshield and were exposed t o d i r e c t s o l a r r a d i a t i o n . The high tempe r a t u r e s experienced during t h i s period made continuous monitoring of the recorder temperatures necessary s o t h a t each recorder could be turned o f f when c r i t i c a l temperatures were observed.

Saturn workshop missinn day

Figure 5-4.-

Laboratory tape recorder l i f e performance.

There was no evidence of system degradation from t h e excessive heat o r from o t h e r adverse conditions. During some e a r l y d a t a transmissions, primarily over t h e Vanguard receiving s t a t i o n , recorded d a t a recovery tapes contained numerous d a t a dropouts. Investigation indicated t h a t t h e r e was no problem i n t h e o r b i t i n g system and t h a t t h e d a t a were being properly decommutated a t the ground s t a t i o n s . The probable cause was high electromagnetic i n t e r f e r e n c e surrounding t h e ground s t a t t o n . The Vanguard ground s t a t i o n is a tracking ship which w a s docked at Mr d e l P l a t a , Argentina. The Vanguard tracking s h i p was relocated a away from t h e docks, which a l l e v i a t e d t h e problem. The recorders were designed f o r 5000 hours operational l i f e each. A t t h e end of t h e mission, t h e recorders had operated 6340 hours o u t of a predicted mission use of 6956 hours. A breakdown of s o l a r observatory tape recorder use is given i n t a b l e 5-V. Table 5-V.Recorder number

Solar Observatory Tape Recorder U s e
Mission time. hours 3750.5 2589.3

Test time, hours

Total, hours
39ti9.5 3043.3

Totals

673

6339.8

7012.8

5.1.3

ICF Transmission

Saturn Wozkshop d a t a were downlinked during launch by the 2-watt transmitter. During t h e mission it and f i v e logwatt t r a n a a d t t e r s were used with t h e i r associated RF equipment operating i n t h e VHF band. The flow of d a t a was maintained by providing t h e maximum lumber of ground s t a t i o n o t h a t could be economically accamd a t e d anci by using t r a n s m i t t e r s with s u f f i c i e n t output: power d r i v i n g antennas of t b e c o r r e c t type and l o c a t i o n ou t n e vehicle s t r u c t u r e t o provide adequate antenna coverage and s i g n a l gain. Figure 5-5 shows t h e antenna location@. Several ~f these antennae a r e shown i n Figure 4-6 also.

Comnd dipolt antenna deployable

Tele~try antenna dcplwable d i w l e

.- .. .

t dqrecs from +Z tuward -Y

Caaand stub antenna

antenna Deployable antenna

Telemeter lam& stub antenna 0.122 radians fran +Y toward -2

45 degrees fram -2 toward -Y

*4

\

Deployable discone telemetry antennas

-2 toward +Y

45 degrees fo rm

Figure 5-5.-

Antenna l o c a t i o n s .

A s p e c i a l computer program w a s used t o generate t r a c k m g d a t a throughout t h e Skylab mission. Data were generated f o r t r a c k i n g l o c a t i o n s at St. l o u i s and at Marshall Space F l i g h t Center, in a d d i t i o n t o S p a c e f l i g h t Tracking and Data Network s t a t i o n s . Tracking d a t a were computed f o r approximately 2-week periods (300 r e v o l u t i o n s ) , and, a t each such i n t e r v a l , c u r r e n t t r a j e c t o r y paranteters were used t o update t h e computer o r b i t a l model. This updating procedure p l u s s p o t checks a g a i n s t o t h e r sources of d a t a ensured t h a t t h e t r a c k i n g d a t a used i n t h e model update had a high degree of accuracy. A sumnary of t r a c k i n g d a t a provided f o r t h e complete Skylab mission was compiled t o determine t h e a c t u a l coverage provided by t h e ground s t a t i o n network and t h e v a l i d i t y of pred s s i o n p r e d i c t i o n s . Grould s t a t i o n c o n t a c t time is summarized i n t a b l e 5-VI.

Laboratory antennas. A flush-mounted s t u b antenna f o r use during launch through o r b i t a l i n s e r t i o n and two discone antennas mcunted on e x t e n d i b l e booms which a r e deployed a f t e r shroud s e p a r a t i o n compose t h e l a b o r a t o r y d a t a antenna subsystem. Antenna coverage is defined a s t h e percentage of t o t a l antenna patt e r n which y i e l d s g a i n l e v e l s high enough t o accomplish p o s i t i v e Rl? l i n k margino a t a maximum s l a n t range of 1300 nmi. The l a b o r a t o r y t e l e m e t r y antennas produced t h i s margin of gain l e v e l s over 95 percent of each discone antenna p a t t e r n and 93 percent of t h e s t u b antenna p a t t e r n when a l k a t t s i g n a l was r a d i a t e d . The %watt t r a n s m i t t e r power output provided p o s i t i v e c i r c u i t margins over 80 percent of t h e discone antenna p a t t e r n s and 68 percent of t h e telemetry s t u b antenna p a t t e r n at t h e normal 1300 nmi range. The reduction of power from 1 0

-

Table 5-VI.-

Saturn Workshop Contact Summary
contact' U lnutes

Coverage Station Yamurrd S h i ~ ~a&&

--m e

Percent

hdrtd

Goldstonc Honeysuckle C m k Merri tt Island Texas Canary Island Carmwon Hawai l Gum Ascension lsland Total contact Station overlap Cunulrtlvt nonoverlappinq station coverage time o f no contact 'ffssion duratfon Predicted coverage Fl rst urnanned and manned periods Sucnd urrnanned and manned perlods T h i A umnned and manned Deriods

36.08 4.42 32.46 67.54 100.00 33.2 33.3 32.7

w a t t s (40 dbm) t o 2 w a t t s (33 dbm) y i e l d s a r a t i o of 1:5, which corresponds t o a 7 d d c i b e l l o s s . To maintain t h e c i r c u i t margin which t h e 10-watt t r a n s m i t t e r provided, t h e a t t e n u a t i o n o f space ( d i s t a n c e ) must be reduced f o r t h e 2-watt t r a n s m i t t e r by 7 d e c i b e l s . This r e d u c t i o n converts t h e 1300 nlri maximum t o approximately 600 nmi. A t s l a n t ranges of 600 nmi o r less, antenna gain l e v e l s t h a t w i l l s t i l l produce p o s i t i v e c i r c u i t margins are achievable over 95 percent of t h e discone antenna p a t t e r n s . Performance p r e d i c t i o n s f o r t h e l a b o r a t o r y telemetry l i n k s a r e presented i n f i g u r e 5-6. The f i g u r e i n d i c a t e s t h a t an approximately +8 d e c i b e l c i r c u i t marg i n should be expected from t h e discone l i n k s a t maximum s l a n t range. -4 more realistic average margin t o expect would be a s s o c i a t e d with a medium range of 650 nmi o r a margin of +15.5 d e c i b e l s . A t t h e top of t h e c i r c u i t margin range of values would be a margin i n c r e a s e o f +23 d e c i b e l s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h maximum s l a n t range l o s s . l'hese v d u e s are achievable with l a b o r a t o r y antenna g a i n s which e x i s t over 75 percent of t h e antenna p a t t e r n s , so a small number of passes can be expected with margin values o u t s i d e t h e +8 t o +23 d e c i b e l range. Assuming ground s t a t i o n r e c e i v e r s e n s i t i v i t i e s of 108 d e c i b e l s below 1 m i l l i w a t t , t h e above range of c i r c u i t margins would i n d i c a t e t h a t most p a s s e s should y i e l d received s i g n a l s t r e n g t h s between 100 and 85 d e c i b e l s below 1 m i l l i w a t t . Laboratory Rf System.- Data blackout and p o s s i b l e damage t o RF components were avoided by using t h e l a b o r a t o r y 2-watt t r a n s m i t t e r during t h e launch p e r i o d , s i n c e the r e l a t i v e l y higher power output of t h e loowatt t r a n s m i t t e r s would be more l i k e l y t o cause corona discharge a t t h e upper atmosphere regions. A s t u b antenna was used u n t i l t h e two discone antennas could be deployed, Laboratory t r a n s m i t t e r A began c o n t i n u a l real-time d a t a transmission when t h e 2-watt t r a n s m i t t e r was s h u t down a f t e r 22 minutes, Transmitters B and C were used p e r i o d i c a l l y a s planned t o

L_r".i
Receiver

Receiver Sensi t i v i
t mwgi n

--

t%-T.
I i
i

-108.0

I

8.1

I

--

I

1

F i g u r e 5-6.-

Laboratory t e l e m e t r y l i n k c a l c u l a t i o n s .

p r o v i d e t r a n s m i s s i o n s o f recorded d a t a . When two l a b o r a t o r y t a p e r e c o r d e r s a r e played back s i m u l t a n e o u s l y , s e p a r a t e t r a n s m i t t e r s a r e r e q u i r e d . During e x t r a v e h i c u l a r a c t i v i t y o p e r a t i o n s on Day 25, a l o s s of r e a l - t i m e t e l e m e t r y s i g n a l from t r a n s m i t t e r A was noted. T h i s c o n d i t i m w a s due t o corona i n t h e q u a d r i p l e x e r caused by i-enting of t h e a i r l o c k . The 2-watt t r a n s m i t t e r was r e a c t i v a t e d a t t h i s t i m e . Ap2roximately t, h o u r s l a t e r , t h e r e a l - t i m e t e l e m e t r y t r a n s m i s s i o n s were r e c o n f i g u r e d f o r t r a n s m i t t e r A which o p e r a t e d s u c c e s s f u l l y u n t i l Day 30. On Day 30, t h e received s i g n a l s t r e n g t h from t r a n s m i t t e r A i n d i c a t e d z 12- t o 14-decibel d e c r e a s e . Analysis i n d i c a t e d t h a t t h e t r a n s m i t t e r A RF power a m p l i f i e r had f a i l e d . This c o n c l u s i o n was based on a review of c a s e t e m p e r a t u r e , bus v o l t a g e d a t a , and s i m u l a t i o n t e s t s . The 2-watt t r a n s m i t t e r w a s a g a i n a c t i v a t e d , and i t s s i g n a l s t r e n g t h was 2 t o 3 d e c i b e l s g r e a t e r t h a n t h a t of t r a n s m i t t e r A. T r a n s m i t t e r B was t h e n used f o r t h e real-time t e l e m e t r y . The 2-watt t r a n s m i t t e r was used f o r r e a l - t i m e t e l e m e t r y d u r i n g t i m e s when b o t h t r a n s m i t t e r s B and C were r e q u i r e d f o r t a p e r e c o r d e r playback. T r a n s m i t t e r C was used o n l y f o r t r a n s m i s s i o n s of recorded d a t a . This procedure w a s followed f o r t h e remainder of t h e mission. The u s e of t h e 2-w'ltt t r a n s m i t t e r r e q u i r e d a r e d u c t i o n of t h e p r e d i c t e d c i r c u i t margins of approximately 7 d e c i b e l s . The d i s c o n e a n t e n n a s were used f o r a l l l a b o r a t o r y RF t r a n s m i s s i o n s a f t e r o r b i t a l i n s e r t i o n . S e l e c t i o n between d i s c o n e a n t e n n a s 1 and 2 was made approximately 5500 times throughout t h e mission t o o p t i m i z e antenna coverage. The ind i c a t o r f o r t h e change between t h e 2-watt t r a n s m i t t e r and t r a n s m i t t e r A f a i l e d on Day 43; however, performance a n a l y s i s r e v e a l e d t h a t t h e s w i t c h was o p e r a t i n g normally. Telemetry t r a n s m i t t e r C f a i l e d t o respond t o commands o v e r one s t a t i o n b u t responded t o t h e same command o v e r t h e n e x t ground s t a t i o n on Day 202 and Day 220. The cause w a s e i t h e r an i n t e r m i t t e n t r e l a y c o n t a c t o r a m a l f u n c t i o n i n g outp u t power c i r c u i t . The average power o u t p u t s of t h e l a b o r a t o r y t e l e m e t r y t r a n s mitters f o r t h e m i s s i o n a r e shown i n Table 5-VII.

Table 5-VIP.Transmitter

Laboratory Telemetry Transmitter Average Power Output

I

Average power output, watts

I

1

Ground s t a t i o n telemetry r e c e i v e r s i g n a l s t r e n g t h d a t a were a n d y z e d t o veri f y l a b o r a t o r y RF system performance. The d a t a analyzed were r e c e i v e r automatic gain c o n t r o l v o l t a g e p r o f i l e s received from grounc! s i t e s . The automatic gain c o n t r o l voltages a r e a d i r e c t i n d i c a t i o ~of t e l o a e t r y l i n k s i g n a l s t r e n g t h . These d a t a were compared with c i r c u i t margin p r e d i c t i o n s of l i n k performance. Signal s t r e n g t h d a t a f o r s h o r t p e r i o d s of time were exaniined from s e v e r a l of t h e groand s t a t i o n s t o determine and l o g t h e average s i g n a l s t r e n g t h and a l s o t h e high and low peaks experienced during t h e s t a t i o n passes. These d a t a were summarizeci i n t a b l e 5-VTII . Table 5 - V I I 1 . Laboratory t o Ground S o l a r Observatory RF System.Two VHF t r a n s m i t t e r s praduce 10-watt frequency modalated o u t p u t s i n t h e 225 t o 260 megah e r t z range with a peak d e v i a t i o n of 72 k i l o h e r t z . Input s4.t zhing permits e i t h e r t r a n s m i t t e r t o t r a n s m i t real-time o r recorded d a t a o r both t r a n s m i t t e r s t o t r a n s m i t t h e same type of d a t a simultaneously.
A v o l t a g e s t a n d i n g wave measuring assembly measures t h e i n d i c e c t and r e f l e c t e d RF power a t t h e output of t h e t r a n s m i t t e r s . The t r a n s m i t t e r o u t p u t s a r e fed t o t h e antennas by means of two c o a x i a l switches and two d i p l e x e r s . The switches s e l e c t t h e antenna o r antennas t o be used, and t h e dip l e x e r s provide maximum RF power t r a n s f e r by maintaining an impedance match between t h e t r a n s m i t t e r s and t h e antennas.

One antenna is mounted on t h e t i p of s o l a r a r r a y wing 1 and t h e o t h e r on s o l a r a r r a y wing 4. These a r e d i p o l e antennas and provide complementary r a d i a t i o n patt e r n s . They a r e used s i n g l y o r i n p a i r s ; e i t h e r t r a n s m i t t e r can feed e i t h e r , but c o t both, of t h e antennas simultaneously. i h e telemetry antenna on s o l a r a r r a y wing 1, when d r i v e n by t h e 10-watt t r a n s m i t t e r s , produces an antenna gain over 84.5 p e r c e n t of i t s p a t t e r n , which r e s u l t s i n a p o s i t i v e c i r c u i t margin a t t h e ground s t a t i o c r e c e i v e r s a t s l a n t ranges up t o 1300 mi. The antenna on wing 4 produces such antenna g a i n s over 93 percent of i t s p a t t e r n . Performance p r e d i c t i o n s f o r t h e s o l a r observatory telemetry l i n k s a r e presented i n f i g u r e 5-7. The f i g u r e i n d i c a t e s t h a t an approximately +6 d e c i b e l

T

A f t telemetry antenna

deployable dipole

F i g u r e 5-7.-

Solar observatory telemetry l i n k calculations.

c i r c u i t margj-n shouid b e expected from t h e s o l a r o b s e r v a t o r y l i n k s a t 1300 nmi s l a n t range. A more r e a l i s t i c average margin t o e x p e c t would be a s s o c i a t e d w i t h a medium range of 650 nmi, o r a margin of +13.5 d e c i b e l s . A t t h e cop o f t h e range o f v a l u e s would b e a c i r c u i t margin i n c r e a s e o f +21 d e c i b e l s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h mini m u m s l a n t range l o s s . These v a l u e s are a c h i e v a b l e w i t t i antenna g a i n s which exi s t over 75 p e r c e n t of t h e a n t e m a p a t t e n l s , s o a s m s l l number of p a s s e s can be expected when c i r c u i t margin v a l u e s extend o u t s i d e t h e +6 t o +21 d e c i b e l range. Assuming ground s t a t i o n r e c e i v e r s e n s i t i v i t i e s of 108 d e c i b c l s below 1 m i l l i w a t t , t h e above r a n g e o f c i r c u i t marzins would i n d i c a t e t h a t most p a s s e s should p r o v i d e s i g n a l s t r e n g t h s between PO2 and 87 d e c i b e l s belqw 1 m i l l i w a t t a t t h e rec e i v e r w i t h an average l e v e l o f 94.5 d e c i b e l s below 1 m i l l i w a t t b e i n g q u i t e common. The RF t r a n s m i s s i o n system performance was s a t i s f a c t o r y throughout t h e m i s ~ l o n . One minor problem was encountered 1 hour 44 minutes a f t e r l i f t o f f . A f t e r s e v e r a l t r a n s m i s s i o n s and s w i t c h i n g o p e r a t ~ o n shad been performed, t r msmit t e r 1 was switched t o t h e wing 4 a n t e n n a and a h i g h r e f l e c t e d power was i n d i c a t e d . Invest i g a t i o n i n d i c a t e d r h e m m t ' p r o b a b l e cause t o be a f a i l e d c o a x i a i switch. Transm i t t e r 1 was switched t o t r a n s m i t through t h e forward a n t e n n a , on wing 1, f o r t h e remainder of t h e mission. Tower o u t p u t s o f both t r a n s m i t t e r s , a s w e l l as modulation c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and c a r r i e r d e v i a t i o n , were w i t h i n s p e c i f i e d ranges throughout t h e m i s s i o n . Output power f o r t r a n s m i t t e r s 1 and 2 was 13.6 and 14.4 w a t t s , r e s p e c t i v e l y , throughout t h e mission. S i g n a l s t r e n g t h d a t a f o r t h e RF downlink were analyzed f o r s e l e c t e i i ground s t a t i a n s and s t a t i o n p a s s e s throughout t h e m i s s i o n . Tabie 5-IX is a summary of t h i s d a t a .
The crew deployed a thermal s h i e l d on Day 13. The s h i e l d c o n s i s t e d of a l a r g e a r e a of aluminized c l o t h gnd gave two a n t e n n a p a t t e r n e f f e c t s . F i r s t , i t p r e s e n t e d a p h y s i c a l blockage over s m a l l a e c t o r s of t h e antenna p a t t e r n s , which

Table 5-1X.- S o l a r Observatory t o Ground S t a t i o n Telemetry S i g n a l

4"Cral)c ;

aanw

A -

M 99 95 I7 iX1 94 91 lo3 101 1W 95 100 96 95 1M 96 103

/

: 9
91 95 91

1 W
98 93 89 98 56 99 95 98
5J

The command systems r e c e i v e an$ decode more than 1000 d i s c i n c t d i g i . t a 1 commanc . f o r t h r e e e s s e n t i a l f u n c t i o n s . These comI W lm mands a r e used f o r system c o n t r o l and 95 9a . o p e r a t i o n , f o r updating t h e time r e f e r e n c e 98 98 / 89 system, and f o r messagzs c o n t a i n i n g information and i n s t r u c t i o n s f o r t h e crew t h a t a r e produced by a n onboard t e l e p r i n t e r . These commands a r c p r i m a r i l y t r a n s m i t t e d from t h e ground s t a t i o n s ; however, t h e crew a l s o may i n i t i a r e c o n t r o l com,man& fiom the c o n t r o l and d i s p l h y p a n e l s . The system u s e s comy.'.ett redundancy t o ensure r e l i a b i l i t y .
.
IO

98 95 95 iO2 95 105 93 92

& to , 90 to 1' 0 ' 92 +o 99 ' 91 tc 101 91 to 1JI j W :o la3 , V t o Ill1 91 t IG; , 89 to 10; 94 to IOP 88 to 101 , 9'. to 107 8 to 101 : 90 to 101 4 tc 105 : 92 to 98 ' 95 : 101 o 92 to 39 , *1 to 100 91 to 100 8 to lo! ' 90 to 137 92 to 152 85 t~ 134 35 to 95 92 to 107 9! to 101 ' 53 to 157 , 9; to 98 92tn115 : d4 to 111 9: to 153 92 to 98 9: tc 130 93 101 88 .o 107 98 to 101 1 8: to lC3 R t? 101 l 01 to 103 93 tr lo7 1 84 tu 151 to 107 I 90 tc 101 91 to 127 83 t 98 ;

reduced antenna coverage, and secondly, i t modified antenna p a t t e r n s which were prev i o u s l y measured t o d e t e r m i n e antenna s e l e c t i o n d u r i n k t h e mission. N e i t h e r of t h e s e e f f e c t s was c o n s i d e r e d g r e a t l y d e t r i mental. The r e d u c t i o n i n coverage t o t h e s o l a r o b s e r v s t o r y a n t e n n a s on wing 3 (command a n t e n n a ) , wing 4 ( t e l e m e t r y a n t e n n a ) , and, t o a l e s s e r e x t e n t , wing 1 ( t e l e m e t r y and command antenna) was l e s s than 3 perc e n t . The amount of a n t e n n a p a t t e r n d i s t o r t i o n due t o r e f l e c t i o n s from t h e thermal s h i e l d could n o t be determined because of t h e m u l t i p l i c i t y and randomness of t h e v a r i a b l e s i n v o l v e d , but i t was e s t i m a t e d t o have been minimal. The l a b o r a t o r y d i s cone antennas were ox l o n g booms below t h e v e h i c l e and were n o t a f f e c t e d by t h e thermal shield. 5.2
COMMAND SYSTEMS

5.2.1

Laboratory D i g i t a l Command S y s t e n

Two command receiver-decoders, f v u r r e l a y u n i t s , a command rcalny d r i v e r , a coa x i a l s w i t c h , and a s t u b antenna a r e used. I n a d d i t i o n , t h e r e c e j v e r s s h a r e t h e q u a d r i p l e x e r , s w i t c h e s , and a n t e n n a s used by t h e l a b o r a t o r y d a t a t r a n s m i s s i o n system. Figure 5-8 i s a diagram o f t h i s system. Each command receiver-decoder c o n t a i n s two r e c e i v e r s and one decoder s e c t i o n . The primary receiver-decoder u n f t h a s a s e n s i t i v i t y of 104 d e c i b e l s below 1 m i l l i w a t t . The secondary receiver-decoder u n i t h a s a s e n s i t i v i t y of 48 d e c i b e l s below 1 m i l l i w a t t . The two receiver-decoder u n i t s a r e of d i f f e r e n t d e s i g n and t h u s have d i f f e r e n t s e n s i t i v i t y c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . The primary arid secondary receiver-decoder s e t s a r e redundant. Each receiver-decoder h a s a unique a d d r e s s , r ~ h i c ha l l o w s t h e ground c o n t r o l l e r s t o s e l e c t t h e r e c e i v e r t h e y wish t o command. r h i s two-address c o n t r o l was chosen t o enhance t h e r e l i a b i l i t y of t h e system by p r o v i d i n g il f u l l y o p e r a t i o n a l system should one u n i t f a i l . . Control of t h e power t o t h e u n i t s i s p r i m a r i l y by ground command; however, should one r e c e i v e r i n d i c a t e improper performance, i n t e r n a l m o n i t o r i a g a u t o m a t i c a l l y s w i t c h e s t h e u n i t s . Commands a r e t r a n s m i t t e d from t h e ground s t a t i o n s t o one of t h e receiver-decoders. The o u t p u t s of t h e r e c e i v e r s a r e summed and s e n t t o t h e decoder s e c t i o n . A v e r i f i c a t i o n p u l s e is r e t u r n e d t o t h e t e l e m e t r y system f o r each v a l i d message c o r r e c t l y r e c e i v e d and

Stub I antennas

I

I

I
Ground

I

I

I

Primary

I Receiver 1 I Receiver 2 1 I Receiver 1 I~ e c e i v w21 4 - 4 & Secondary ! Decoder 1 ;I Decoder 2 1
Electronic t i m e r and time correlation Timing

L
* Shared
with laboratory data transmi ssion system

Ce!ay

-

units

cI

I

Individual comnands

F i g u r e 5-8.-

Labora~\wy ccmmand system.

decoded. The decoder sends d i g i t a l dat:i t o t h e t e l e p r i n t e r , t h e time r e f e r e n c e system, o r t h e command r e l a y l r i v e r u n i t s , o r sends d i s c r e t e p u l s e commands t o a r e l a y i n one of t h e module u n i t s . The command r e l a y d r i v e r u n i t c o n v t r t s t h e d i g i t a l o u t p u t of t h e decoder i n t o a d d i t i o n a l r e a l - t i m e commands. Two i d e n t i c a l s u b u n i t s a r e p a r a l l e l e d t o p r o v i d e a common o u t p u t of 480 p u l s e commands w h ~ c hc o n t r o l rel.*:rs. The command r e l a y d r i v e r u n i t a l s o p r o v i d e s a d i g i t a l o u t p i t t o t h e t e l e m e t r y system i n d i c a t i n g t h a t t h e s p e c i f i c r e l a y command was p r o c e s s e d . Each of t h e 4 r e l a y u n i t s c o n t a i n s 8 l a t c h i n g r e l a y s , which p r o v i d e s a t o t a l o f 32 r e a l - t i m e channels. Each r e l a y p r o v i d e s an o u t p u t t o t h e t e l e m e t r y system t o indicate its position. The d i g i t a l command system o p e r a t e d s u c c e s s f u l l y throughout t h e m i s s i o n , p r o c e s s i n g more than 100,000 commands. Eoth primary and secondary d i g i t a l command subsystems were powered up from launch t o Day 4. The secondary subsystem was powered down from Day : o Day 12 t o c o n s e r v e power. The secondary subsystem was a g a i n a c t i v a t e d on Day 1.. t o s e r v e a s backup f o r t h e f i r s t crew rendezvous and then powered down on Day 13; i t remained powered down through Day 140, l h e

secondary subsystem was powered up on Day 140 because t h e secondary e l e c t r o n i c timer was c p e r a t i n g and i t was d e s i r e d t o m a i n t a i n t h e d i g i t a l command system and e l e c t r o n i c t i m e r on s e p a r a t e buses t o avoid a s i n g l c p o i n t f a i i u r e p o s s i b i l i t y . The primary subsystems were r e a c t i v a t e d on Day 190 f o r t h e remainder of t h e mission. F- cormnand was s e n t on Day 182 t-o remove t h e f a s t forward cormand f o r t a p e r e c o r d e r 2 , but no response was observed. Telemetry d a t a i n d i c a t e d t h a t t h e c o n t r o l r e l a y f o r t h i s f u ~ l c t i o nd i d n o t change i t s p o s i t i o n . The r e l a y was succ e s s f u l l y r e s e t on Day 183, and t h e f a s t forward command was not used a f t e r t h a t . The l a b o r a t o r y command system provided cominands t o t h e a c q u i s i t i o n and docki n g l i g h t s , t h e VHF rendezvous and r a n g i n g system, t h e Ciscone a n t e n n a deployment, t h e l a L v o t o r y d a t a system, t h e environmental c o n r r o l systems, t h e ~ a b o r a t o r y power s y s t m , and s e v e r a l experiments. The system a l s o provided backup commands t o o p e r a t e t h z s o l a r o b s e r v a t o r y d a t a and command systems. The t e l e p r i n t e r provides t h e crew w i t h hard copy i n s t r u c t i o n s Teleprinter. and messages from miss!on c o n t r o l . 1'he t e l e p r i n t e r i s t h e f i r s t hard-copy communication system used i n space. P r i n t i n g i s done by thermal contacc on s t a n d a r d thermal coated p r i n t e r paper. The t e l e p r i n t e r i s d r i v e n by commands i s s u e d from Mission Control through t h e l a b o r a t o r y d i g i t a l command system. Each t r a n s n i t t e d t e l e p r i n t e r command c o n t a i n s 24 t j t s . Three b i t s a d d r e s s t h e v e h i c l e , t h e n e x t t h r e e a d d r e s s t h e t e l e p r i n t e r , and ;he remaining S i t s a r e t h e d a t a word. Each t e l e p r i n t e r character r e q u i r e s s i x data b i t s ; heref fore, t h r e e c h a r a c t e r s a r e p r i n t e d f o r each comand. Ten comailds ,.re processed t o p r o v i d e 1 l i n e (30 chara c t e r s ) on t h e t e l e p r i n t e r . An adcztess i n c e r r o g a t e s i g n a l e n a b l e s t h e i n t e r f a c e u n i t and t h e t e l e p r i n t e r s u b s y s t e a when d a t a a r e t o be p r i n t e d f o r t h e crew. Figu r e 5-9 shows t h e t e l e p r i n t e r i n s t a l l a t i o n p a p e i c a r t r i d g e and a t e s t p r i n t o u t The t e l e p r i n t e r w a s a c t i v a t e d on Day 1 3 , a f t e r :he f i r s t crew a r r i v e d , operated s u c c e s s f u l l y throughout t h e mission. The c r e u r e p o r t e d on t h e f i r . s day t h a t t h e p r i n t i n g a t ';he end of t h e f i r s t message and on succeeding mess 2 f o r t h a t day was f a i n t . A low t e m p e r ~ t u r et e s t performed GTI a t e s t u n i t on t h e ground i n d i c a t e d t h a t rhe f a i n t p r i n t i n g was due Lo 1015 t e m p e r a t u r e s a t t h r t e l e p r i n t e r ' s locatio:?. A f t e r t h e s u r r o u n d i n g s warmed 27, t h e p r i n t i n g was d a r k enough. i'he t e l e p r i n t e r system was r e a c t i v a t e d by t h e second crew D Day 76. n Its o p e r a t i o n was normal u ~ t i Day 86, when t h e paper d r i v e mechanisu on t h e l t e l e p r i i l t e r f a i l e d . The u n i t was r e p l a c e d by t h e onboard s p a r e , which performed s a t i s f a c t o r i l y d u r i n g t h e remainder of t h e m i s s i o n . One problem w i t h t h e p r k t e s seemed t o o c c u r i n t e r m i t t e n t l y w i t h t h e normal replacement of phper c a r t r i d g e s . Sonetimes a f t e r a replacement t h e crew would r e p o r t l i g h t p r i n t i n g , b u t normally t h e p r i n t q u a l i t y was good. The c a u s e of t h i s r e c u r r i n g problem was e v i d e n t l y r e l a t e d t o use and maintenance. A f t e r t h e crew c l e a ~ e d che t e l e p r i n t e r p r i n t head w i t h c o t t o n swabs and a l c o h o l on Day 256, t h e problem c l e a r e d up and d i d not r e c u r . More t h a n 300 messages were s e n t t o t h e crews d u r i n g t h e m i s s i o n , r e q u i r i n g about 30 r o l l s , o r 3600 f e e t , of t e l e p r i n t e r paper.
5.2.2

-

-

S o l a r Observatory D i g i t a l Command S y s t e a

The system c o n s i s t s o f d u a l d i p o l e command a n t e n n a s , r e c e i v e r s , and decoders. F i g u r e 5-10 i s a diagram of t h i s command system. The components a r e a r r a n g e d t o p r o v i d e cwo independer.t , p a r a l l e l s i g n a l p a t h s . The two p a t h s a r e redundant, s i n c e o n l y one s i g n a l p a t h is r e q u i r e d f o r implementing t h e u p l i n k commands. Thz ground s t a t i o n s can a d d r e s s e i t h e r , o r b o t h , o f t h e systems.

couple; no.

1

F i g u r e 5-:f.-

S o l a r o b s e r v a t o r y command s y s t e m .

t h e o t h e r is mounte2 on s o l a r a r r a y wing e ar t o t a n cf t -h i s geometry g i v e s a q u a d r a t u r e r c pa tripoennsdhiicpu l between h eh ~ itwo e n t eh e a wings. l l t e a nn patterns. The d i p o l e s e x h i b i t ~ r e d o m i n a n t l pl i n e a r p o l a r i z a t i o n , o m r ? i d i r e c t i o n a l c o v e r a g o , a n d a 20-megahert 2 bandwidth.

Thc d e c o d e r s e n d s commands t o f o u r s k - i t c h s e l e c t o r s and u p d a t e s i n f o r m a t i o r ? t o t h e computers. The s w i t c h s e l e c t o r s p r o v i d e c o m a n d s t o t h e power s y s t e m c a n i s t e r rhermal system, d a t a s y s t e n , a t t i t u d e c o n t r o l system, s o l a r e x p e r i n e n - s , s and t e l e v i s i o n svstem. Thz s ~ i t c h e l e c t o r s and t h e c o m p u t e r s may a l s o b e add r e s s e d by t h e ,rev from t h e d i g i t a l a d d r e s s s y s t e m keyboard on t h e c o n t r c l and d i s p l a y p a n e l . The u s e of t h e keyboard a u t o m a t i c a l l y i n h i b i t s t h e grvund command s y s t e n . The ground conmaad c a n a l s o b e i r h i b i t e d t o t a l l y o r i n p a r t by s w i t c h e s on the control panel.
The d i g i t a l ccmmand s y s t e m was activates on Day 1 and remained i n c o n t i n u o u s c p e r a c i o r ? f o r a p p r o x i x a t e ! . , 6,546 !?ours w i t h o u t e r r o r o r problems d u r i n g t h e Skylab m i s s l o n . (jn t y p i c a l rnmned d a y s s u c h a s Da, , 1.9 and 225 t h e s y s r e m proc e s s e d a p p r o x i m a t e l y 275 commands. On unmanned d a y s s u c h a s Day 10 a p p r o x i m a t e l y 150 corrmdnds were p r o c e s s e d . Approximately 5 3 , 5 5 0 commands were e x e c u t e d d u r i n g t h e Skylab mission.

Secausi. 2 1 t h e l a u n c h a n o m a l i e s and t h e i e s u l t i - n g h i g h t e m p e r a t u r e p r o b l e m s , the coramnd s y s t e x was used much more t h a n a n t i c i p a t e d d u r i n g L,,L e a r l y d a y s o f were e n c a u n t e r s d . Both p r i m a r y a r d s e c o n d a r y d i g t h e m i s s i o n , b u t no ~ r c b l e m i t a i c o m d n d s y s t e m s were o p e r a t i n g n o r m a l l y , w i t ' : no i n d i c a t i o n s of d e g r a d a t i o n , a t t h e end of r h e m i s s i o n . T a b l e 5-X i s a summary of t h e c o a n a n d s .

5.3

AUDIO SYSTEI.1

The a u d i o s y s t e n s u p p o r t s v o i c e communications f w crewmen b o t h w i t h i n S k y l a h and vhi1.e t h e y a r e engaged i n e s t r a v e h i c u l a r a c t i v i t i e s . I t a l s o provides a r e a l t i x e t w o - u ~ y communi-cation 1i n k be tween ground s t a t i o n s and t h e crewmar?. Voice r e c 0 r d j r . g c a p 2 b i l i t y i s a l s o p r o v i d e d on t h e d a t a r e c o r d e r . I n a d d i t i o n , t h e sy=tern s u p p o r t s t h e g a t h e r i n g of b i o m e d i c a l d a t a and o p e r a t i o n o f t h e c a u t i o n and warning system a d provides audio t o t h e v i d e o tape r e c o r d e r . F i g u r e 5-11 i s a f u n c t j . o n a 1 diagram of t h e s y s t e m which c o n s i s t s of t h e f o l l n w i n g : 13 s p e a k e r i n tercom a s s e m h l i r s , 2 e x t r a v e h i c u l a r a c t i v i t y p a n e l s , 1 i n t r a v e h i c u l a r a c t i v i t v

T a b l e 5-X.System control l e d Them1 E l e c t r i c a l powels A t t i t u d e control Telemetry Extravehicular a c t i v i t i e s Television Env! ronmental snd thermal Experinents Zero t e s t Register t e s t C o ~ p u t e rc m n d s * Total

S o l a r O b s e r v a t o r y Command Sumruary

-

Number o f comaands per system 19 93 119 103

*

5
8
4

The computer has a c a p a b i l i t y o f 16.384 16b i t words i n the memory. A l l memory locations can be addressed through the conmand recei ver-decoder.

96
4 4

m

00

F i g u r e Z -1 1

.-

Audio s y s t e m .

p a n e l , 2 a u d i o l o a d c o m p e n s a t o r s , 3 command module a u d i o c e n t e r s , and a command module s p e a k e r box. F i g u r e 5-12 shows a t y ~ i c a lLritercom i n s t a l l a t i o n . Two i n d e p e n d e n t c h a n n e l s , A and R , p r o v i d e r e d u n d a n t v o i c e communication cap a b i l i t y t h r o u g h o u t t h e S k y l a b . V o i c e from a n y i n p u t u n i t c a n b e r o u t e d t h r o u g h e i c h e r c h a n n e l . Each c h a n n e l h a s a s e p a r a t e a u d i o l o a d c o m p e n s a t o r which rec e i v e s a microphone s i g n 2 i from a n input: and r o u t e s i t t o t h a command module a u d i o c e n t i . i a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h e s e l e c t e d c h a n n e l . The a u d i o s y s t e m c a n b e o p e r a t e d u s i n g e i t h e r t h e s g s a k e r i n t e r c o m a ~ s e m b l i e so r h e a d s e t s . The r e a l - t i m e v o i c e is t r a n s m i t t e d t o t h e g r a u n d s i t e s t h r o u g h t h e command and s e r v i c e module. Recorded v o i c e is t r a n s m i t t e d through t h e l a b o r a t o r y d a t a system.
A c!lannel s e l e c t o r s w i t c h on t h e i n t e r c o m p a n e l a l l o w s s e l e c t i o n o f t h e "ON" and "SLEEP" mode f o r e i t h e r c h ? n n e l . The c h a n n e l s e l e c t c s w i t c h i n t h e "ON" mode l i n k s t h e i n t e r c o m t o a n a u d i o l o a d c o m p e n s a t o r . The s e l e c t o r s w i t c h i n t h e l l ~ ~ ~ ~ p t l mode d i s a b l e s t h e s p e a k e r o u t p u t o f t h e i n t e r c o m e x c e p t wher. a "CALI," s i g n h l o r ground-commanded crew a l e r t i s r e c e i v e d . The i s t e r c o m c a l l s w i t c h must be m a n u a l l y m a i n t a i n e d i n t h e p u s h - t o - t a l k p o s i t i o n . The c a l l s w l t c t i e n a b l e s t h e i n t e r c o m l o o p on b o t h c h a r i n e l s by s u p p l y i n g t h e microphone s i g n a l t o b o t h a u d i o l o a d compensat o r s s i m l l l t a n e o u s l y . The l a b o r a t o r y h a s 1 3 i ~ t e r c o m s , some o f which d i r e c ~ l yfac.e

crew was s t i l l an annoyance d u r i n g t h e second manned p e r i o d . Less feedback occ u r r e d d u r i n g r e a l - t i m e v o i c e t r a n s m i s s i o n , however, because of improved i n t e r con c o n f i g u r a t i o n c o n t r o l . Thc channel A a u d i o system was used e x c l u s i v e l y t o p r o v i d e r e a l - t i m e a i r - t o ground communications, onboard connnunications, and recorded v o i c e t r a n s m i s s i o n s through Day 79. The q u a l i t y of crew v o i c e t r a n s m i s s i o n s was s a t i s f a c t o r y througho u t t h i s period. Qn Day 79 t h e channel B audio c i r c u i t w a s a c t i v a t e d t o make r e c o r d i n g on t h e l a b o r a t o r y r e c o r d e r s p o s s i b l e . A f t e r t h i s a c t i v a t i o n , v o i c e r e c e p t i o n from t a p e playbacks was u n i n t e l l i g i b l e a t t h e ground s t a t i o n s . Ths crew s u c c e s s f u l l y i n i t i a t e d a number of v o i c e t a p e playbacks or, Day 80 u s i n g Channel A, i n d i c a t i n g t h e t a p e r e c o r d e r was n o t t h e s o u r c e o f t h e problem. The audio system was reconfigured t o p r o v i d e r e a l - t i m e air-to-ground communications, on-board communications on t h e channel B a u d i o c i r c u i t , and recorded (delayed-time v o i c e ) c ~ m m u n i c a t i o n son t h e channel A a u d i o c i r c u i t , and i t remained i n t h i s c o n f i g u r a t i o n f a r t h e remainder o f t h e second macned p e r i o d . The crew conducted a t r o u b l e s h o o t i n g procedure on t h e channel B a u d i o c i r c u i t on Day 88 which i n d i r a t e d t h a t t h e recorded v o i c e problem was due t o degraded o p e r a t i o n of t h e t a p e r e c o r d e r a m p l i f i e r and a s s o c i a t e d power supply p o r t i o n of t h e a u d i o l o a d compensator. Noise o s c i l l a t i o n s a t 4 h e r t z were heard on t h e intercom l o o p (channel B) on Day i 3 2 , :.-ompanied by a drop i n t h e earphone l e v e l . However, communication could be maintained i n s p i t e of t h i s problem, which l a s t e d no mcre t h a n 1 day. The channel B audio load compensator was i d e n t i f i e d a s a p o s s i b l e cause. Following d e a c t i v a t i o n of t h e a u d i o system on Day 135, t h i s same problem o c c u r r e d i n t h e command module audio system a f t e r undocking. Because of t h i s o c c u r r e n c e , t h e n o i s e problem was a t t r i b o t e d t o t h e command module components o f t h e system. Because of t h e l o s s of one of t h e t a p e r e c o r d e r a m p l i f i e r s , a contingency v o i c e t a p e r e c o r d e r a d a p t e r c a b l e was developed a s a means o f v o i c e r e c o r d i n g should t h e one e x i s t i n g channel A f a i l . A m o d i f i c a t i o n k i t was a l s o developed f o r p r o v i d i n g an a d d i t i o n a l load on t h e S a t u r n Workshop command module microphone l i n e s t o reduce t h e i n p u t l e v e l t o t h e command module a u d i o c e n t e r and t o l o a d t h e earphone l i n e s when t r a n s m i t t i n g from t h e S a t u r n Workshop t o t h e ground. The r e c o r d e r c a b l e and k i t were c a r r i e d up by t h e t h i r d crew. The a u d i o system was r e a c t i v a t e d on Day 188, and t h e a n t i f e e d b a c k m o d i f i c a t i o n was i n s t a l l e d i n t h e cornand module on Day 195. O n Day 200, a n i n t e r c o m u n i t i n t h e docking a d a p t e r l o s t i t s microphone a m p l i f i e r and w a s r e p l a c e d w i t h a s p a r e u n i t . On Days 251 and 253, audio channel B again experienced n o i s e and low volume. While t h e n o i s e problems on Days 132 and 251 l a s t e d approximately 1 day, t h e n o i s e occ u r r e n c e b e g i m i n g on Day 253 l a s t e d throughout t h e mission. A l t h o ~ g ht h e f i r s t o c c u r r e n c e was conclu.'. : t o be i s o l a t e d t o t h e command module ( s - m e t h i s n o i s e was a l s o heard d u r i n g t h e r e e n t r y ) i t i s p r o b a b l e t h a t a l l t h r e e n o i s e o c c u r r e n c e s and low volume were d ~ : et o i n t e r m i t t e n t component d e g r a d a t i o n i n t h e channel B a u d i o load conpensator earphone a m p l i f i e r , which f i n a l l y f a i l e d on Day 254. The intercoms were h e a v i l y used d u r i n g t h e m i s s i o l ~p r i m a r ? l y because t h e y d i d not encumber t h e crew's m o b i l i t y i n t h e l a r g e volume provided. Headsets and u m b i l i c a l s were used f o r e x t r a - ~ e h i c u l a ra c t i v i t i e s and v o i c e a n n o t a t i o n . Comb i n i n g t h e i n t e r n a l communication, air--to-ground t r a n s m i s s i o n , v o i c e a n n o t a t i o n , and biomedical, c a u t i o n and warning, and headset i n t e r f a c e s w i t h i n one intercom

1.nj.t r e q u i r e d t h e use of a l a r g e number (13) of t h e s e u n i t s . These v a r i e d req ~ i r e m e n t sr e s u l t e d i n n i n e intercoms i n t h e lower h a l f of t h e workshop, r e q u i r The i n s t a l l a t i o n df t h e : J I ~ J c o n s i d e r a b l e crew d i s c i p l i n e t o p r e v e n t feedback. a n t i f e e d b a c k network assembly, which reduced t h e s y s t e c g a i n , proved t o be very ef.f e c t i v e d u r i n g t h e t h i r d manned p e r i o d . Although two f a i l u r e s o c c u r r e d i n t h e a u d i o l o a d compensator, i t s redundant

. e&gn enabled i t t o m a i n t a i n a two-channei o p e r a t i o n as w e l l a s v o i c e r e c o r d
:apability. Hcwever, t h e l o s s o f t h e channel B t a p e r e c o r d e r a m p l i f i e r and t h e n e c e s s i t y o f opening a c i r c u i t b r e a k e r t o d i s a b l e a n o i s y earphone a m p l i f i e r and of c l o s i n g i t wherc r e c o r d i n g was a major problem. F o r t u n a t e l y t h i s o c c u r r e d l a t e t h e t h i r d manned period. The system provided t h e r e q u i r e d voice comunicar i o n throughout t h e mission. I n p a r t i c u l a r , t h e backup a d redundancy p r o v i s i o n s were a prime f a c t o r i n m a i n t a i n i n g t h e system a t i t s f u l l c a p a b i l i t y . Tabie 5-XI . i s t s s i g n i f i c a n t e v e n t s f o r t h e a u d i o system. Table 5-XI.S a t u r n Workshop Audio System Events
System o p e r a t i o n Audio system a c t i v a t i o n . Audio feedback occurred periodically during nission. Audio systen~e n l c t i v a t e d . Audici system r e a c t i v s t e d . Garbled voice from l a b o r a t o r y tape playbacks (recorder) a m p l i f i e r f a i l u r e i n Channel 0). Only one recorder d m p l i f i e r a v a i l a b l e f o r r e s t o f mission. Channel A and Channel B c o n f i g u r a t i o n reversed, i.e.. C h d ~ n e l1 - Voice recording Channel 8 Intercom and comnunication ~ i t ground. h Broken switch on i n t e r c o n (replaced). stowed, and n o t used. Hand-held micropnone n o i s y Noise o s c i l l a t i o n a t 4 h e r t z heard on Channel 8 , assoc i a t e d w i t h l o s s o f system gain. Problem disappeared sane day and system r e t u r n e d t o normal. Audio system deactivated. Audio system r e a c t i v a t e d . Antifeedback communication network i n s t a l l e d . Intercom f a i l u r e i n docking addpter. (replaced by onboard spare). Channel B earphone a m p l i f i e r noise. Channel B audio load compensator earphone a m p i i f i e r failure. Audio system deactivated.

Rnned period First First Second Second

I
Second Second Secono Second Third Third Third 251 and 253 254 Third Third Third

-

-

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I

1

210

I

I
.
5.4

TELEVISION SYSTEM

T. : yylab t e l e v i s i o n system h a s two v i d e o networks f o r s e p a r a t e purposes. h 'The l a b o r a t o r y network provides views of t h e crew's a c t i v i t i e s , hardware, p a n e l s , m d J t h e r items requested by t h e ground o b s e r v e r s . P r e s s c o n f e r e n c e s and views of eath her phenomena and o t h e r E a r t h f e a t u r e s a r e a l s o t r a n s m i t t e d t o t h e ground ,cations. The s o l a r o b s e r v a t o r y v i d e o network p r o v i d e s s o l a r experiment p o i n t i n g arid adjustment and s c i e n t i f i c d a t a . The ground t r a c k i n g sites used t o r t e l e vis:on a r e mair,iy t h e c o n t i n e n t a l United S t a t e s s t a t i o n s of Goldstone, Texas, and M e r r i t t ~ s l a n d . These s t a t i o n s a r e connected by v i d e o l i n e s t o Johnson Space Celjter. Figure 5-13 i s a diagram o f t h e t e l e v i s i o n system.
5.4.1 Laboratory T e l e v i s i o n

The l a b o r a t o r y system i n c i u d e s two p o r t a b l e c o l o r came^-as and s i x t e l e v i s i o n i n p u t s t a t i o n s l o c a t e d throughout t h e Skylab s o t h a t t h e crew can program

C m r a dnd mni t o r configured for external

us*

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lens

control

asseubly

F i g u r e 5-13

.-

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system.

t e l e v i s i o n s c e n e s of s e l e c t e d a c t i v i t i e s . E x t e r i c r s c e n e s can be viewed by 1-ooki n g o u t windows, by t a k i n g a camera o u t t h e a i r l o c k h a t c h , by e x t e n d i n g t h e came r a on a boom from t h e s c i e n t i f i c a i r l o c k i n t h e workshop, o r by u s e of an a a a p t e r w i t h an experiment v i e w f i n d e r t r a c k i n g system. The system a l s o a l l o w s t h e t e l e v i s i o n s i g n a l f r o = any one of t h e f i v e s o l a r o b s e r v a t o r y cameras t o be s e l e c t e d f o r transmission o r recording.
A video t a p e r e c o r d e r c o n t r o l l e d by t h e crew can r e c o r d up t o 30 minutes o f

video information. Playback i s c o n t r o l l e d f r m t h e ground and r e q u i r e s t h e same t i m e span used f o r r e c o r d i n g . During r e c o r d e r playback t o t h e ground s t a t i o n s , l i v e t e l e v i s i o c coverage is n o t a v a i l a b l e . The l a b o r a t o r y t e l e v i s i o n performed a s p r e d i c t e d w i t h few s i g n i f i c a n t problems. S e l e c t e d video r e c o r d i n g s were cnalyzed t o e v a l u a t e t h e c o l o r and v o i c e q u a l i t y . The c o l o r c o n v e r t e r was s e t up u s i n g s t a n d a r d c o l o r b a r s i g n a l s t h a t had been prerecorded a t t h e beginning and end of e a c h scene. T h i s gave t h e conv e r s i o n system a s t a n d a r d s e t u p w i t h no compensation f o r t h e camera c o l o r wheel f i l t e r s o r t h e n07,standard c o l o r temperature of t h e l i g h t i n g aboard Skylab. Under t h e s e c o n d i t i o n s a l l s c m e s have a y e l l o w i s h t o g r e e n i s h t i n t t o them, p a r t i c u l a r l y with camera No. 3005. Scenes t a k e n w i t h camera No. 3002 were n o t a s prominently o f f c c l o r , and a t times f l e s h t o n e s o f t h e crew were almost a normal suntan c o l o r . A l l s c e n e s e x h i b i t e d a lack. of c o l o r s a t u r a t i o n . The c o l o r d i f f e r e n c e s between s c e n e s were caused by l i g h t i n g c o n d i t i o n s as a crewman moved around. This was most a.pparent i n s c e n e s of t h e a i r l o c k e x t r a v e h i c u l a r a c t i v i t i e s . A l l of t h e s e e f f e c t s , however, were compensated i n t h e c o l o r c o n v e r t e r and t e l e v i s i o n p r o c e s s i n g . This r e q u i r e d i n d i v i d u a l manual s e t up of scenes with d i f f e r e n t i l l u m i n a t i o n t o o b t a i n t h e b e s t a p p a r e n t pict.ure q u a l i t y ; however, i t was w e l l w i t h i n t h e p r o c e s s i n g c a p a b i l i t i e s . The normally converted and compensated p i c t u r e s r e l e a s e d t o t h e commercial networks a r e o f good q u a l i t y . The compensation worked w e l l ; l a c k of c o l o r s a t u r a t i o n i n t h e v i d e o was n o t a system c o n s t r a i n t . Figure 5-14 shows a crewman u s i n g ;he t e l e v i s i o n camera t o photograph an experiment.

through t h e v i e w f i n d e r t r a c k i n g system. I n t h i s scene t h e s p o t s were w e l l focused, and e s t i m a t e s of t h e number of s p o t s range from 25 t o 50. An examination of t h e camera a f t e r t h e end of t h e f i r s t manned p e r i o d d i s c l o s e d t h a t t h e s p o t s were small contamination p a r t i c l e s on t h e f a c e of t h e v i d i c o n . These s p o t s were extremely s m a l l , probably l e s s t h a n 0.025 m i l l i m e t e r i n d i a m e t e r , but t h e magn i f i c a t i o n of t h e t e l e v i s i o n system made them v e r y n o t i c e a b l e on t h e monitor. The sound from t h e video t a p e r e c o r d e r was very i n t e l l i g i b l e and o f good comnunication q u a l i t y . When t h e l i g h t w e i g h t headset was hand h e l d , , t h e l e v e l v a r i e d g r e a t l y because cf t h e d i r e c t i o n and d i s t a n c e of t h e microphone in r e l a t i o n t o t h e sound sources. The second crew c a r r i e d up a n o t h e r p o r t a b l e c o l o r camera, No. 3006, t o rep l a c e t h e f a i l e d u n i t . On Day 76, t h e f i r s t day of t h e second manned p e r i o d , t h i s t e l e v i s i o n camera's c o l o r wheel f a i l e d t o r o t a t e . The wheel s t u c k i n such a p o s i t i o n as t o shadow t h e upper h a l f o f t h e p i c t u r e . However. t h e lower h a l f w a s good monochrome v i d e o and w a s a i r e d by s e v e r a l networks. S e v e r a l days l a t e r , t h e crew removed t h e camera l e n s and spun t h e c o l o r wheel manually. T h i s a c t i o n e v i d e n t l y f r e e d t h e wheel, s i n c e i t o p e r a t e d normally d u r i n g t h e remainder of t h e mission.
On Cay 81, t h e video t a p e r e c o r d e r f a i l e d d u r i n g p l a y b d c . The ground s t a t i o n s r e p o r t e d no modulation on t h e t r a n s m i t t e r c a r r i e r . Ollboard t r o u b l e s h o o t i n g was u n s u c c e s s f u l , s o t h e crew r e p l a c e d t h e m a l f u t c t i o n i n g r e c o r d e r w i t h t h e s p a r e r e c c r d e r . The crew removed s e v e r a l p r i n t e d c i r c u i t boards from t h e r e c o r d e r and r e t u r n e d them f o r exam..nation. A v i d e o limiter-demodulator board was found t o be d e f e c t i v e . Replacement p r i n t e d c i r c u i t boards were t e s t e d and c a r r i e d up by t h e t h i r d crew. The replacement r e c o r d e r on t h e v e h i c l e performed p r o p e r l y f o r t h e remainder o f t h e m i s s i o n , s o t h e s p a r e p r i n t e d c i r c u i t boards were never used.

On Day 90, d u r i n g a video t a p e playback, t h e a u d i o w a s garbled.. I n v e s t i g a t i o n showed t h a t t h e problem was caused by a f a u l t y hand-held microphone. The microphone was removed from s e r v i c e and t h e problem never r e c u r r e d .
During an e x t r a v e h i c u l a r a c t i v i t y on Day 103, a crewman c a r r i e d p o r t a b l e camera No. 3002 o u t s i d e t h e v e h i c l e . Thermal a n a l y s i s had p r e d x t e d a maximum camera temperature o f 125OF. However, when t h e temperature climbed above t h e ope r a t i n g limit of 129OF and approached 158"F, t h e camera was t u r n e d o f f and allowed t o cool. When t h e camera was r e a c t i v a t e d , no o u t p u t was r e c e i ?d. F a i l u r c was a t t r i b u t e d t o t h e high temperature e x p e r i e n c e d by t h e camera. The o t h e r t e l e v i s i o n camera was used foz t h e remainder of t h e second manned p e r i o d .
On Day 123, one of t h e t e l e v i s i o n camera power c a b l e s and one o f t h e t e l e v i s i o n monitor c a b l e s were found t o hzve i n t e r m i t t e n t c i r c u i t s when f l e x e d . These were r e p l a c e d by t h e c a b l e s f o r t h e o t h e r camera and normal performance was restored.

Another p o r t a b l e c o l o r camera, No. 3004, and a p a i r o f replacement c a b l e s were brought up w i t h t h e thi-d creN. During t h e t h i r d manned p e r i o d , on Day 229, t h e crew r e p o r t e d t h a t w h i l e a t t e m p t i n g t o connect t h e camera c a b l e t o t h e t e l e v i s i o n i n p u t s t a t i o n , a broken p i n f l o a t e d o u t of t h e connector on t h e i n p u t s t a t 4 0 n . The connector on t h e c a b l e was i n s p e c t e d and was determined t o b e undamaged. A s p a r e i n p u t s t a t i o n was i n s t a l l e d by t h e crew in p l a c e of t h e def e c t i v e u n i t . Operation from t h i s s t a t i o n , as w e l l a s a l l t h z o t h e r s , was normal f o r t h e r e m i n d e r of t h e mission.

5.4.2

S o l a r Observatory Television

The s o l a r o b s e r v a t o r y v i d e o network c o m p r i s e s f i v e t e l e v i s i o n cameras anti a s s o c i a t e d e l e c t r o n i c s . The o u t p u t s o f t h e s e cameras a r e monitored by t h e crew from d i s p l a y s on a c o n s o l e i n t h e d o c k i n g a d a p t e r . S y n c h r o n i z i n g g e n e r a t o r s p r o v i d e d r i v e s i g n a l s t o t h e cameras and t h e c o n s o l e m o n i t o r s . Two v i d e o s w i t c h e r - p r o c e s s o r s add s y n c h r o n i z i n g s i g o a l s t o t h e vicleo o u t p u t s and c o n d i t i o n them f o r v i d e o r e c o r d i n g o r t r a n s m i s s i o n t o t h e ground s t a t i o n s . Approximately o n e - t h f r d o f t h e t e l e v i s i o n downlink t i m e was d e v o t e d t o s o l a r o b s e r v a t o r y t e l e v i s i o n . The hydrogen a l p h a t e l e s c o p e , w h i t e l i g h t c o r o n a g r a p h , and extreme u l t r a v i o l e t m o n i t o r s e q u e n c e s gave v e r y good views o f t h e Sun, which gave t h e P r i n c i p a l I n v e s t i g a t o r s a preview o l t h e d a t a t o be e x p e c t e d . On Day 23, w h i l e t h e d o o r s o f t h e w h i t e l i g h t c o r o n a g r a p h camera were b e i n g c l o s e d t o g i v e a test p a t t e r n , a sudden l i g h t o v e r l o a d t o t h e v i d i c o n o c c u r r e d . T h i s was caused by s u n l i g h t b e i n g r e f l e c t e d from somewhere w i t h i n t h e t e l e s c o p e c a n i s t e r , t h e n o f f t h e d o o r s , which were moving t o t h e c l o s e d door p o s i t i o n , and i n t o t h e o camera. N damage t o t h e c a s e r a c o u l d b e dett.,.red a f t e r t h i s o c c u r r e n c e . A 250ampere c u r r e n t s p i k e o c c u r r e d on t h e s o l a r o b s e r v a t o r y bus 2 on Day 6 3 , and a s h o r t t h e l a t e r t h e v o l t s g e went t o z e r o . I n v e s t i g a t i o n showed t h a t s s h o r t had o c c u r r e d . A l l equipment was removed from b u s 2 and t r a n s f e r r e d t o bus 1. The t e l e v i s i o n equipment o p e r a t e d n o r m a l l y f o r a p e r i o d o f t i m e . Monitor 1 f a i l e d on Day 132. I t was r e p l a c e d d u r i n g t h e t h i r d manned p e r i o d (5.8.6). This m o n i t o r had e x p e r i e n c e d t r a n s i e u ~u ~ . ~ r s t r e s s e i n t e r n a l l y d l l r i n g tlic bus f a i l u r e . s On o c c a s i o n , t h e crew o b s e r v e d a s l o w l y o s c i l l a * i n g blooming o f t.he image from t h e hydrogen a l p h a 2 camela. A p a r t i c u l a r chnnge i n l i g h t c o n d i t i o n s a t ce:tain zoom lens s e t t i n g s caused o s c i l l a t i o n s i n t h e a u t o m a t i c g a i n c o n t r o l c i r c u i t r y of t h e t e l e v i s i o n camera. T h i s c o n d i t i o n was r e a d i l y c o r r e c t e d by zooming toward t h e 5X p o s i t i o n u n t i l t h e o s c i l l a t i o n s t o p p e d and t h e n zooming back t o t h e d e s i r e d p o s i t i o n . Because of t h e l e n g t h of t h e s e c o l ~ dand t h i r d manned p e r i o d s , a much g r e a t e r volume o f ciats was accumulated t h a n e x p e c t e d . A r e v l e u o f t h e ground s t a t i o n v i d e o r e c o r d i n g s showed t h a t t h e o v e r a l l qua1 i t y o f t h e t e l e v i s i o n p i c t u r e s was g e n e r a l l y t h e same a s e x p e r i e n c e d d u r i n g t h e f i r s t manned p e r i o d and remained c o n s t a n t t h r o u g h o u t t h e m i s s i o n . 5.5 CAUTlON KL';D WARNING SYSTEM

The c a u t i o n and w a r n i n g s y s t e m m o n i t o r s t h e p e r formance o f t h e Sat;lrn Workshop s y s t e m s and a l e r t s t h e crew t o h a z a r d s o r out-o f - t o l e r a n c e c o n d i t i o n s t h a t c o u l d r e s u l t i n j e o p a r d i z i n g t h e crew o r could compromise p r i m a r y m i s s i o n objectives. The c a u t i o n and warning s y s t e m c o n s i s t s o f two i s o l a t e d s u b s y s t e m s , t h e emergency s u b s y s t e m .and t h e c a u t i o n and warning subsystem. Figure! 5-15 i s a diagram o f t h e system. The emergency s u b s y s t e m a l e r t s t h e crew t o a f i r e o r r a p i d l o s s of p r e s s u r e r e q u i r i n g immediate crew r e s p o n s e . The c a u t i o n and warni n g subsystem a l e r t s tile crew t o s y s t e m o u t - o f - t o l e r a n c e c o n d i t i o n s t h a t r e q u i r e crew r e s p o n s e immediate1y (warning) o r w i t h i n a s h o r t time (rail t i o n )

.

The o u t - o f - t o l e r a n c e c o d i t i o n a c t i v a t e s an a u d i b l e t o n e and i l l u m i n a t e s an i n d i c a t o r l i g f r t i d e n t i f y i n g t h e o u t - o f - t o l e r a n c e p a r a m e t e r . The t o n e s a r e coded a c c o r d i n g t o t h e l e a c t i o r ~time r e q u i r e d o f t h e crew. The emergency alarm h a s two d i f f e r e n t t o n e s : a s i r e n i n d i c a t i n g a f i r e and a b u z z e r i n d i c a t i n g a r a p i d c l u s t e r p r e s s u r e l o s s . The t o n e s a r e b r o a d c a s t t h r o u g h o u t c h r S k y l a b by two k:;,xm-type h o r n s , one l o c a t e d i n t h e workshop and one l t x a r e d i n t h e a i r l o c k .

Sign31 conditioners

Intercom audio Iritercom l i g h t s Cdutian and rzrni ng electronics unit

Caution (41) warni ng ( 2 3 ) sensors

Inhibit panel

display

Conmand and s e r v i c e module
I

Remote display
-

swi tch panel

b

Emergency electronics unit

4

LA
T

I
K awn l horns ( 2 )

Control and display 1

F i g v r e 5-15.-

Caution c;ld warning system.

A warning alarm, r e q u i r i n g immediate crew r e s p o n s e , has a modulated 1 - k i l o h e r t z tone. A c a u t i o n alarm, r e q u i r i n g crew response w i t h i n a r e a s o n a b l e time, has a 1 - k i l o h e r t z continuous tone. The c a u t i o n and warning t o n e s are b r o a d c a s t througho u t t h e Skylab by t h e s p e a k e r intercom a s s e m b l i e s . There a r e 40 i n d i c a t o r l i g h t s on t h e a i r l o c k p a n e l which a i d t h e crew i n i d e n t i f y i n g t h e o u t - o f - t o l e r a n c e cond i t ion.

Emergency and warning i n d i c a t o r l i g h t s a r e c o l o r coded a v i a t i o n r e d ; c a u t i o n i n d i c a t o r l i g h t s a r e c o l o r e d a v i a t i o n yellow. S e l e c t e d measurement i n d i c a t o r s a r e a l s o i l l u m k a t e d on t h e workshop r e p e a t e r panel. The major power and c o n t r o l s w i t c h e s f u r t h e S a t u r n Workshop c a u t i o n arid warning system a r e l o c a t e d on a p a n e l i n t h e a i r l o c k . The master alarm i r i d i c a t o r l i g h t s w i t c h , which is c o l o r e d a v i a t i o n r e d , i s i l l u m i n a t e d when e i t h e r an emergency, warning, o r c a u t i o n parameter i s a c t i v a t e d . When d e p ~ r s s e d , t h e master alarm l i g h t switch p r o v i d e s a r e s e t s i g n a l t o t h e c a u t i o n and warning u n l t e l e c t r o n i c s t o t e r m i n a t e t h e a u d i o t o n e s and e x t i n g u i s h a l l m a s t e r alarm l i g h t s w i t c h e s and n a s t e r alarm s t a t u s l i g h t s . The memory r e c a l l l i g h t swirch h a s an amber l e n s and i s u s e l t o r e c a l l t h e measurement which a c t i v a t e d t h e subsystem. Depressing t h e :.,emery r e c a l l l i g h t s w i t c h c a u s e s t h e i d e n t i f i c a t i o n l i g h t s t o be i l l u m i n a t e d Cor t h e measurement s t o r e d I n memory. This p r o v i d e s a f t e r t h e - f a c t i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of s h o r t term suLsystem a c t i v a t i o n s . A s w i t c h e r a s e s t h e memory c:rcuitry i n t h e u n i t and e x t i n g u i s h e s t h e r e c a l l light s w i t c h . Three powcr s w i t c h e s a r e provided f o r c o n t r o l l i n g t h e c a u t i o n and warning system. One switch is used t o c o n t r o l power t o t h e c.auclcn and warning subsystem, and t h e o t h e r two ,witches a r e used f o r t h e emergency subsystem. Four t e s t switches--one each To f i r e , r a p i d p r e s s u r e change, warning, and caution--are provided f o r t e s t i n g t h e c a u t i o n and warning subsystem e l e c t r o n i c s , a u d i o tone, and v i s u a l prgvided f o r c o n t r o l l i n g t h e a u d i o d i s p l a y s . Three volume c o n t r o l s a r e a l s ~ l e v e l s of t h e emergency, wzrning, and c a u t i o n tones.

The c a u t i o n and warning system was a c t i v a t e d on Day 13 and d e a c t i v a t e d on Day 40 a t t h e end of t h e f i r s t manned p e r i o d . The system o p e r a t e d s a t i s f a c t o r i l y throughout t h i s period and was t r i g g e r e d approximately 60 times. Control moment gyro s a t u r a t i o n , a t t i t u d e c o n t r o l malfunction of t h e r a t e g y r o s , c o o l a n t loop low flow and low temperature, carbon d i o x i d e p r e s s u r e , condensate tank p r e s s u r e , low workshop bus v o l t a g e , and r a p i d cabin p r e s s u r e change were a few of t h e outo f - t o l e r a n c e c o n d i t i o n s d e t e c t e d . Many of t h e alarms occurred because of system management and w?re e i t h e r a n t i c i p a t e d o r e x p l a i n a b l e . On Days 21 chrough 26 emergency subsystem 1 and r a p i d p r e s s w e change s e n s o r During t h i s time a l l f i r e s e n s o r s were powered from s i d e 2 of t h e f i r e s e n s o r c o n t r o l panel. S i d e 2 of t h e redundant c a u t i o n and warning s u b u n i t was powered down duri n g crew wake p e r i o d s d u r i n g t h i s p e r i o d . Na d e t r i m e n t a l e f f e c t s were d e t e c t e d d u r i n g t h e abnormal system o p e r a t i o n .

i were powered down d u r i n g crew wake p e r i o d s because of l i m i t e d power.

There were s i x f a l s e alarms d u r i n g t h e f i r s t manned p e r i o d , a l l a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h e f i r e s e n s o r a s s e m b l i e s . Three f a l s e a l c i x occurred on Day 1 3 s h o r c l y a f t e r c a u t i o n and warning system a c t i v a t i o n . The a l a r m s were a t t r i b u t e d t o exc e s s i v e l y high w a l l temperatures (approximately 144OF in t h e workshop). The f i r e s e n s o r assembifes a r e q u a l i f i e d f o r a n o p e r a t i n g t e n p e r a t a r c of 120°F. Two more f a l s e f i r e alarms a c c u r r e d d u r i n g p s s e s through t h e South A t l a n t i c Anoioaly, where t h e ~ a r t h ' smagnetic f i e l d d i p s i n k a r d , a l l o w i n g h i g h energy rad i a t i o n t o come c l o s e r t o t h e Earth. THe alarms ocr-urred on Days 14 and 19. Both alarms were x t i v a t e d by t h e f i r e s e n s c r s l o c a t e d i n t h e a f t compartment workshop c o o l i n g module. According t o d o s i m e t e r and proton s p e c t r o m e t e r d a t a , t h e alarms occurred d u r i n g pea. r a d i a t i o n l e v e l s . A s t a t i s t i c a l a n a l y s i s of system c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , based on estlmz.tes of r a d i a t i o n l e v e l s expected t o be encountered i n t h e Skylab o r b i t , had i n d i c a t e d t h a t a ttireshold of 35 cotmts per seccnd and a time c o n s t a n t of i seccnd would p r e c l u d e more than 1 f a l s e alarm f o r each 56-day b z - c d p e r i v d . T c o ~ p n s a t ef o r t h e unexpected, however, t h e . , f i r e s e n s o r s were designed t o a l l o w s e l e c t i o n of s e n s i t i v i t y s e t t i n g s from 25 t o 75 counts p e r second i n 10-count increments. The s e n s i t i v i t y of t h e a c t i v a t e d f i r e s e n s o r was reduced from 35 t o 45 c o u n t s per second. The crew r e p o r t e d a low l a b o r a t o r y bus v o l t a g e alarm on Day 20. Real-time t r o u b l e s h o o t i n g . e v e a l e d t h a t t h e c a u t i o n and warning workshop bus 1 and 2 sensi n g c i r c u i t b r e a k e r s and a workshop power f e e d e r c i r c u i t b r e a k e r were open. A system checkout procedure l q i t i a t e d on Day 22 r e , l e d no system anomalies. The c i r c u i t b r e a k e r s were c l o s e d and t h e low l a b o r a t o r y bus v o l t a g e d a m was rea c t i v a t e d . The system performed normally through completion of t h e mission.
A r a p l d p r e s s u r e change a l a r m o c c i ~ r r e dt h r e e times d u r i n g t h e f i r s t manlred p e r i o d . The f i r s t alarm occurred on Day 24 j u s t b e f o r e e x t r a v e h i c u l a r a c t i v i t y . The crew had t o perform a system r e c o n f i g u r a t i o n . The s l i g h t p r e s s Q r e d i f f e r e n t i a l between compartments when t h e a i r l c c k t o workshop h a t c h was opened a c t i vated t h e f i r s t alarm. The o t h e r two were expected alarms t h a t o c c u r r e d d u r i n g a i r l o c k r e p r e s s u r i z a t i o n a f t e r e x t r a v e h i c u l a r a c t i v i t i e s on Days 25 and 37.

During t h e f i r s t e x t r a v e h i c u l a r a c t i v i t y on Day 25, a f i r e s e n s o r l o c a t e d i n ;he a f t a i r l o c k compartmellt was a c t i v a t e d by s u n l i g h t through t h e opened h a t c h , g e n e r a t i n g t h e s i x t h f a l s e alarm. The crew p r o c e d u r e s were changed t o

i n h i b i t these f i r e sensors during extravehicular a c t i v i t y , s i n c e the a f t a i r l o c k compartment i s evacuated d u r i n g t h i s p e r i o d . Also on Day 25, t h e crew reported t h a t no pump-pressure-difference a l a n n was r e c e i v e d when t h e s u i t umbili c a l system pump was a c t i v a t e d b e f o r e t h e e x t r a v e h i c u l h r a c t i v i t y . Undei- normal system o p e r a t i o n , an alarm would be g e n e r a t e d d u r i n g a c t i v a t i o n . The c a u t i o n and warning p r e s s u r e s e n s o r may have been damaged when t h e s u i t u m b i l i c a l system was exposed t o extremely low temperature e a r l i e r t h a t day. A c t i v a t i o n and checko u t of t h e s u i t u m b i l i c a l system by t h e secclnd crew v e r i f i e d t h a t t h e pump press u r e s e n s o r had f a i l e d . On Day 2 7 , a f i r e system t e s t w a s performed and a f i r e s e n s o r f a i l e d t o r e spond. On Day 28 a f i r e system f a i l u r e i s o l a t i o n t e s t was performed which i n d i c a t e d a f a i l u r e of s i d e 2 of t h e f i r e s e n s o r p a n e l . The f i r e s e n s o r c o n t r o l panel was s u c c e s s f u l l y r e p l a c e d w i t h an i n f l i g h t s p a r e . The removed panel was r e t a i n e d onboard a s an i n g l i g h t s p a r e f o r two workshop l o c a t i o n s which o n l y use s i d e 1. The f i r e s e n s o r , a s w e l l a s t h e c o n t r o l p a n e l , was r e p l a c e d d u r i n g t h e i s o l a t i o n t e s t . The removed s e n s o r b a s marked "USED" and stowed anboard t h e vehicle. The second crew a c t i v a t e d t h e c a u t i o n and warning system a c t i v a t e d it on Day 135. During e x t r a v e h i c u l a r a c t i v i t i e s on and warning subsystem 2 and emergency s u b ~ y s t e m2 were turned m i n h i z e systc.m l o a d i n g . The system performed s a t i s f a c t o r i l y m m load c o n f i g u r a t i o n . u on Day 76 and deDay 103, c a x t i o n o f f f o r 6 hours t o d u r i n g t h i s mini-

The systeul o p e r a t e d s a t i s f a c t o r i l y throughout t h e second manned p e r i o d and generated i n excess of 100 alarms. The parameters t h a t g e n e r a t e d t h e a l a r m s were: Skylab a t t i t u d e ( t h r u s t e r s t u c k on h i g h r a t e ) ; primary and secondary coola n t flow; a t t i t u d e c ~ n t r o l system malfunction ( c o n t r o l moment gyro s a t u r a t e d , t h r u s t e r c o n t r o l o n l y ) ; molecular s i e v e o u t , carbon d i o x i d e p r e s s u r e h i g h ; command and s e r v i c e module m a l f u n c t i o n ; f i r e ; s i e v e gas flow; workshop g a s i n t e r change; condensate tank p r e s s u r e change; c a u t i o n and warning power; emergency power; e x t r a v e h i c u l a r a c t i v i t y ; and r a p i d p r e s s u r e change. The m a j o r i t y of t h e s e alarms were due t o e x c e s s i v e a t t i t u d e change r a t e s caused by experiment v e n t i n g and system mauagement and were e x p l a i n . s b l e . There were t h r e e f a l s e alarms g e n e r a t e d d u r i n g t h e second manned p e r i o d . Of t h e f a l s e alarms, one was a warning and t h e remaining tm g e r e f i r e alarms. The f a l s e warning a l r n n occurred on Day 103, dur:.ng t h e e x t r a v e h i c u l a r a c t i v i t y i n which he supplementary r a t e gyro package was i n s t a l l e d . The crew a t t e m p t e d t o i d e n t i f y t h e cause of t h e alarm, but t h e tiemory r e c a l l f a i l e d t o i n d i c a t e which parameter t r i g g e r n d t h e alarm. A lamp t e s t was performed on Day 104, but no burned o u t i n d i c a t o r l i g h t s were found. A warning system t e s t was i n i t i a t e d 1 on Day 1 1 t o check t h e memory r e c a l l c a p a b i l i t y of t h e warning parameters. N o problems were found.
~ Both of t h e f a l s e f i r e alarms were a t t r i b u t e d t , h i g h amounts of w l t r a v i o l e t r a d i a t i o n e n t e r i n g t h e v e h i c l e through windows which had t h e i r s u n s h a d t : ~ removed fo: p i c t u r e t t k i n g . The f i r s t a l a r m , on Day 83, was i n i t i a t e d by a .~al.droom f i r e s e n s o r assembly. The wardroom window b a s f a c i n g t h e E a r t h w h i l e t h e sunshade was removed. The second f i r e alarm o c c u r r e d on Day 114. Performance of c e r t a i n ex-perircents r e q u i r e d t h a t t h e sunshade be removed from a s c i e n t i f i c a i r l o c k window. The u l t r a v i a l e t r a d i a t i o n which e n t e r e d t h e v e h i c l e i l c ~ i v a t e dtwo f i r e s e n s o r assemblies.

During t h e second manned p e r i o d , r a p i d p r e s s u r e change a l a r m s o c c u r r e d f o u r times. Two of t h e s e were e x p e c t e d alarms t h a t o c c u r r e d d u r i n g a i r l o c k r e p r e s s u r i z a t i o n a f t e r e x t r a v e h i c u l a r a c t i v i t i e s on Days 76 and 132. ' f i e crew c a u s e d two r a p i d p r e s s u r e change a l a r m s by a c c i d e n t a l l y i n t e r r u p t i n g emergency power when t h e y t r i p p e d a c i r c u i t b r e a k e r on Day 117 and a power s w i t c h on Day 120.
The crew d e a c t i v a t e d t h e c a u t i o n and w a r n i n g s y s t e m on Day 135. During t h e second crew d e b r i e f i n g , t h e crew s u g g e s t e d i n h i b i t i n g t h e f o l l o w i n g c a u t i o n par a m e t e r s : workshop g a s i n t e r c h a n g e , s i e v e A and B g a s f l o w , and s i e v e A and B o u t l e t c z r b o n d i o x i d e p r e s s u r e . When t h e g a s f l o w is s w i t c h e d from o n e bed t o t h e o t h e r , a s m a l l amclunt o f u n p r o c e s s e d g a s b y p a s s e s t h e b e d s , c a u s i n g t h e c a r bon d i o x i d e p r e s s u r e s e n s c r i n t h e bed d i s c n a r g e o u t l e t t o ; r i g g e r t h e a l a r m . A t l e a s t c i n e s i e v e A g a s flow a l a r m s were g e n e r a t e d b e c a u s e o f t h e s p o r a d i c f l o w caused by bed c y c l i n g . S i e v e A g a s flow was j ~ h i b i t e don Day 1 2 3 . On Day 90, d u r i n g t h e second manned p e r i o d , m o i e c u l a r s i e v e A carbon d i o x i d e p r e s s u r e t r i g g e r e d t h e system. T h i s p a r a m e t e r w a s i n h i b i t e d on Day 9 1 and remained s o f o r t h e rest o f t h e m i s s i o n . The workshop g a s i n t e r c h a n g e p a r a m e t e r w a s i n h i b i t e d on Day 1 1 8 f o l l o w i n g a t l e a s t two a l a r m s and r e p l a c e m e n t of t h e a i r l o c b duct fan.

The t h i r d crew a c t i v a t e d t h e c a u t i o n and warning s y s t e m on Day 188. Checko u t and t e s t w a s by p r o c e d u r e , w i t h no problems. Out of the 40 a l a r m s w i i c h occ u r r e d d u r i n g t h i s p e r i o d , two f a l s e a l a r m s were o b s e r v e d . Both o f t h e s e were g e n e r a t e d by f i r e s e n s o r s w h i l e t r a v e l i n g t h r o u g h t h e h i g h r a d i a t i o n b e l t s o f t h e South A t l a n t i c Anomaly on Days 232 and 252. These s e n s o r s had n o t been adj u s t e d t o t h e h i g h e r l e v e l o f r a d i a t i c n t h s t t h e o t h e r s were s e t f o r d i l r i n g t h e f i r s t manned p e r i o d a f t e r t h e r a d i a t i o n b e l t had caused a l a r m s . A s t h i s was l a t e i n t h e missi.on, t h e i r s e n s i t i v i t y w a s n o t changed, and no f u r t h e r f a l s e f i r & a l a r m s o c c u r r e d . About h a l f o f che a l a r m s were from t h e a t t i t u d e c o n t r o l s y s t e m and a l l w e r e e x p l a i n a b l e . High a t t i t u d e r a t e changes c a u s e d gyro s a t u r a t i o n a l a r m s d u r i ~ g maneuvering f o r E a r t h o b s e r v a t i o n s and comet o b s e r v a t i o n s . !.-gh t o r q u e s on t h e v e h i c l e caused by t h e crew d u r i n g e x t r a v e h i c u l a r a c t i v i t y and by e x p e r i m e n t v e n t i n g a l s o g e n e r a t e d t h e s e a l a r m s . O t h e r a l a r m s were g e n e r a t e d by c o o l m t l o o p f l o w s e n s o r s d u r i n g t h e crew r e s e r v i c i n g of t h e c o o l a n t f l u i d and s u b s e q u e n t t e s t i n g of t h e system. Housekeeping t a s k s which r e q u i r e d t u r n i n g o f f f a n s and o t h e r equipment caused o t h e r a l a r m s . Rapid p r e s s u r e change a l a r m s were c a u s e d by r e p r e s s u r i z a t i o n of t h e a i r l o c k a f t e r e x t r a v e h i c u l a r a c t i v i t f - e s , which a l s o had happened d u r i ~ g h e p r e v i o u s manned p e r i o d . t

0 1 Days 243 and 264, t h e c a u t i o n a l d w a r n i n g s y s t e m s were t u r n e d o f f d u r i n g x E a r t h o b s e r v a t i o n and e x p e r i m e n t p o i n t i n g nla l e u v e r s a s a power c o n s e r v a t i o n measu r e . On Day 261, t o p r e c l u d e a l a r m d u r i n g t h e d a t a - t a k i n g t i m e , t h e e i g h t l a b o r a t o r y b a t t e r y low c h a r g e (70 p e r c e n t d i s c h a r g e d ) s e n s o r s w>?re d i s a b l e d d u r i n g an E a r t h o b s e r v a t i o n p a s s .
On Day 268, t h e crew i n h i b i t e d s e n s o r s on t h e s o l a r o b s e r v a t o r y c a n i s t e r pump p r e s s u r e , c a n i s t e r c o o l a n t t e m p e r a t u r e , and c a n i s t e r h e a t e r t e n ~ p e r a t u r e t o p r e c l u d e a l a r m s d u r i n g ground t e s t i n g o f t h e s y s t e m s . The caui-ion and w a r n i n g s y s t e m was t u r n e d o f f on Day 271 in a c c o r d a n c e w i t h t h e f i n d d e a c t i v a t i o h procedure. The crews performed emergency s u b s y s t e m t . e s t i n g p e r i o d i c a l l y throuz'.out t h e m i s s i o n . These t e s t s i n c l u d e d emergency s y s t e m v e r i f i c a t i o n , f i r e se!-L-.r. veri f i c a t i o n , and r a p i d p r e s s u r e change s e n s o r v e r i f i c a t i o n . T e s t s were a l s o performed on t h e c a u t i o n and w a r n t n g subsystem. These i n c l u d e d check.; on crew a l e r t

c a p a b i I . i t y , t e s t s of a n n u n c i a t c j ~p a n e l l a ~ p s ,an, warning s y s t e m v e r i f i c a t i o a t e s t s . A l l of t h e t e s t s were performed w i t h o u t i n c i d e n t . During t h e Skylab m i s s i o n , t h e c a u t i o n and lgarning s y s t e m i n t h e f l i g h t backt up r i t and i : ~h e Skylab t e s t u n i t were m a i n t a i n e d i n a m i s s i o n s u p p o r t rnoce. The oackup c a u t i o n an? warning s y s t e m c o n f i g u r a t i o n was i d e n t i c a l t o t h a t b r t h e f l i g h t v e h i c l e . S p e c i a l t e s t s and o p e r a t i o n a l modes were performed a s r e q u i r e d t o s u p p o r t t h e r e s o l u t i o n o f problems o r s u s p e c t e d problems on t h e S a t u r n Workshop i n f l i g h t . Data were p l o t t e d on a l l s y s t e m - r e l a t e d p a r a m e t e r s t o m o n i t o r s y s t e m performance and t u o b s e r v e p a r a m e t e r t r e n d s f o r o u t - o f - t o l e r a n c e o r any e r r a t i c c p e r a t i o n . The t e s t and backup u n i t s were used t o h e l p s o l v e ~ r e a l s m s o c c u r r i n g d u r i n g t h e m i s s i o n t h a t i n v o l v e d f i r e s e n s o r f a l s e a l a r m s and b u s 1 and 2 low v o l t a g e ?].at-ms. The c a u t i o n and w a r ~ i n gs u b s y s t e m ' s a u d i b l e a l c m s a r e t r a n s m i t t e d zhrougho u t t h e - r e h i c l e by t h e i n t e r c z m a s s e m b l i e s . A h i g h l e v e l a u d i o a m p l i f i e r powers t t h e s p e a k e r s . The c a u t i o n a2.l' w , ~ . l ~ i n g o s p e a k e r i~..:.-rface f l - i c t i o n e d a s exp e c t e d t h r o u g h o u t t h e m i s s i o n . The crews r e p o r t e d t h e t h e c a u t i o n a d warning Lone l e v e l s were a d e q u a t e . N i n f l i g h t a d j u s t m e n t s were require;. o The c a u t i o n and w a r n i n g s y s t e m p e r f o m l a n c e w t a l l r n i s s i o ~ i r r : j u i r e r u e n t s . The a l a r m g e n e r a t e d were c o r r e l a t e d w i t h t e l e m e t r y d a t a and p r o v i d e ? a good c r o s s check of s y s t e m s t a t u s . A l l a l a r m s were - s p l a i . n d b l e and most were exp e c t e d . Ground c o n t r o l l e r s s t u d i e d eacil d a i l y f l i g h t p l a n , housekeeping and t r o u b l . e s h o o t i n g p r o c e d u r e , ar,l maneuvering. and v e n t i n g o p e r a t l . -1, and a l e r t e d t h e crew t o pending a l a r m a c t i v a t i o n s . Being a b l e t o r e c a l l t h e a l a r m s o u r c e and t o i n h i b i t z x p e c t e d a l a r m s e n s o r s e n a b l e d t h e crew t o p e r f o r m t h e planned a c t i v i t i e s w i t h o u t unnecessary i n t e r r u p t i o n . No f a l s e a l a r m s o c c u r r e d as t h e r e s u l t o f abnormal c a u t i o n and warning s y s The s y s t e m was o p e r a t i o n a l durin:: a l l tern b e h a v i o r o r component m a l f u n c t i o n s . manned p h a s e s o f t h e m i s s i o n and s u c c e s s f u l l y monitored a l l 76 p r e s e l e c t c d par a m e t e r s , r e l i e v i n g t h e crew t o p e r f o r m o t h e r a s s i g n e d a c t i v i t i e s . T L crew r e p o r t e d t h a t t h e s y s t e m performed i n a n o u t s t a n d i n g manner and t h a t t h e y were w e l l p i e a s e d w i t h a l l c s u t i o n and warning s y s t e m and crew i n t e r f a c e s , s u c h a s s y s t e m c o n t r o l and i n h i b i t s w i t c h d s , a u d i o a l a r m s , i n d i c a t o r l i g b t s , p a r a m e t e r c e t e g o r j e s , c:emory reca2.1, slid s y s t e m r e s e t c a p a h i l i t i e s . Out o f t h e 76 parame t e r s monl t c , r e d , o n l y t h e gas f l o w , t h e carbon d i o x i d e > e n s o r , and t h e c o n t r o l moment gyro s a t u r a r e d s i g n a l s n c t i v a t e d t h e system an excessi.ve number of t i m e s . The c o n t r o l moment ;:yro s a t u r a t i o n a l a r m was a c t i v a t e d f r e q u e n t l y d u r i n g p e r i o d s o f h i g h a c t i v i t y and b e c a x e o f r a t e g y r o f a i l u r e s , w h i l e t h e c a r b o n dioxL.:e l e v e l and g a s f l o w a l a r m s r e s u l t . e d from t h e m a r g i n a l s e n s i n g t e c h n i q u e s used.

5.6

TIMING

The S a ~ u r n Workshop u s e t two i,rdependent t i n e rrfe:.ence s y s t e m s f o l i t s ope r a t i o n s . The l a b o r a t o r y time r e f e r e n c e i s p r o v i d e d by p r e c i s i o n ~ l e c t r c n i c t i m e r s and a s s o c i a t e d hardware. The s o l a r o b s e r v a ~ ~ j rcomputer g e n e r a t e s m i s y s i o n time and d i s t r i b u t s s i t i n t h e r e q u i r e d form by means ciL' ~ ~ f t w a r e programing. 5.6.1 I.,iboratory T i z e R e f e r z n c e System

The l a b o r a t o r y t.ime r e f e r e n c e s y s t e m p r o v i d e s onboard t i m e d i s p l a y s , genera t e s time c o r r e l n t i o : l f o r t h e i n s t r u m e n t a t i o n s y s t e m and E a r t h o b s e r v a t i o n

e x p e r i a e n t s , i n i t i a t e s t ime-dependent s w i t c h o v e r t o r e d u n d a n t components w i t h i n t h e d i g i t a l c~mmardsystem, and i n i t i a t e s o t h e r time-dependent equipment c o ~ t r o l . %e system c o n s i s t s of two e l e c t r o n i c t i m e r s , two time c o r r e l a t i o n b u f f e r s , tro d i g i t a l d i s p l a y u n i t s , and an e v e n t timer. F i g u r e 5 - ? 6 i s a diagram o f t h e t i m e subsystem.

' -I
F i g u r e 5-16.-

E a r t ~cbjervation timin;

L a b o r a t o r y t i m e r e f c r e n c e system.

Each e l e c t r o n i c t i w r h a s t h r e e m 3 g n e t i c s h i f t r e g i s t e r s . One register c o u n t s ug i ~ . 0.25-second i n c r e m e n t s ; t h e o t h e r two fount down by t h e same amoupt. The coust-up r e g l s t e r d a t a are c o n ~ e r t e di n t h e t i m e b u f f e r t o b i n a r y coded decir.a.1 s i g n a l s which d r i v e t h e c l o c k s . These c l o c k s d i s p l a y t i m e s y n c h r o c i ~ e dt o Greenwich mean time. ;?he d i s p l a y s have a aaximun~d i s p l a y c a p a b i l i t y o f 399 d a y s 23 h o u r s 59 minutes 59 <,econds. A p e r i o d i c r e s e t of t h e count-up r e g i s t e r sets t h e h o u r s , m i n u t e s , anci s e c o n d s d i s p l a j r s t o z e r o , s y n c h r o n i z i n g t h e two c l o c k s . T h i s reset is e a a b l e d by d i g i t a l corrmind i s s u e d by t h e ground s t a t i o n , and o c c u r s t a t Got midnight. Tho countdown r e g i s t e r s are ~ s e d o g e n e r a t e s i g n a l s which zes e t s e l e c t e d r e l a y s i n t h e d i g i t a l c o m a n d s y s t e m , a l l o w i n g equipment t o b e t a m e d o f f when t h e S s t u r n Workshop l c s e s s t a t i o n c o n t a c t . The e v e n t t i m e r d i s p l a y s t i m e a t any s e l e c t e d r a t e up t o a maximum of 999 h c u r s 53 m i n u t e s 59 s e c c . -. The e v e n t cirner is manually control1.e.d. , The primary e l e c t r o n i c t i m e r o p e r a t e d c o ~ t i n u o u s l ya f t e r l a u n c h . The e l a p s e d time d r i f t e r r c r a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h i s timer a v e r a g e d ? d s s t h a n 0.25 Thi; e r r o r r a t e i s c o n s i d e r a b l y b e t t e r t h a n t h e t i m e r s p e c i f i c a t i o n sec/day. of 3 s e c / d a y . A l l t i m e r e g i s t e r u p d a t e s were s u c c e s s f u l l y accomplished. During ~ n n a n n e dj r r i o d s , w h i l e che s e c o n d a r y d i g i t a l cornman6 s y s t e m w a s powered dovm, the the-to-transfer register was k e p ~ updated t o a ; p r o x i m a t e l y 3 h o u r s . While t h e c r e v was o n b c a r d , a u t m a t i c s w i t c h o v e r o f t h e c o m a n d s y s t e m was n o t req u i r e d , and t h e t i m e - t o - t r a n s f e r r e g i s t e r w a s updated t o a p p r o x i m a t e l y 1 6 d a y s . The count-up time r e g i s t e r w a s r e s e t ta z e r o a t G m t midnight a p p r o x i m a t e l y s e v e n t i m e s d u r i n g t h e f i r s t marned p e r i o d t o m a i n t a i n a d r i f t e r r o r o f less t h a n 1 second. The t i m e c o r r e l a t i o n b u f f e r , e v e n t timer, and d i g i t a l d i s p l a y u n i t s o p e r a t e d w i t h no known d i s c r e p a n c i e s . During t h e second unnanned and manned p e r i o d s t h e t i m e s y s t e m o p e r a t e d norma l l y , s i n g t h e primary e l e c t r m i c t i m e r , u n t i l Day 104. On t h a t d a y , t h e s e c ~ n d a r ye l e c t r m i c t i m e r was a c t i v a t e d f o l l o w i i i g a crew r e p o r t t h a t b o t h d i g i t a l d i s p l a y u n i t s were c o u n t i n g e r r a t i c a l l y . Timing i n p u t s t o o t h e r s y s t e m s from t h e primary e l ~ c t r o n i ctimer were e b s e r v e d t o b e normal. The e r r a t i c d i s p l a y r e a d o u t s o c c u r r e d f o l l o w i n g t h e i n s t a l l a t i o n o f t h e s u p p l e m e n t a r y r a t e g y r o packa g e a d were c o n s i d e r e d t o be m l s e r e l a t e d . B z f o r e s e c o n d a r y timer a c t i v a t i o n , t h e primary tiiner had o p e r a t c d c o n t i n u o u s l y f o r a p p r o x i m a t e l y 2478 h o u r s .

A f t e r approximately 584 hours of o p e r a t i c n , t h e secondary e l e c t r o n i c timer e l a p s e d time d a t a a l s o became e r r a t i c on Day 129. T h i s f a i l u r e c o n s i s t e d of d n u s 2 hours 16 minutes (tl minute) time jumps observed on both d a t a a r d d i s plays. Only t h e e l a p s e d time r e g i s t e r o u t p u t was observed t o be e r r a t i c . The primary e l e c t r o n i c timer was r e a c t i v a t e d and o p e r a t e d s a t i s f a c t o r i l y . The secondary e l e c t r o n i c timer w a s r e a c t i v a t e d e n Day 133 t o determine what backup cap a b i l i t y w a s remaining. The u n i t s u c c e s s f u l l y provided 25 h c u r s 3 minutes 33 seconds of e l a p s e d time d i s p l a y ; 23 hours 15 minutes 42 seconds of t h i s t o t a l time c c c u r r e d a f t e r a n e l a p s e d time r e s e t t o z e r o a t G m t midnight on Day 1 3 4 . & Day 134 t h e primary e l e c t r o n i c timer was a g a i n r e a c t i v a t e d and o p e r a t e d satI i s f a c t o r i l y f o r t h e remainder o f t h e mission. The e l a p s e d time e r r o r f o r t h e primary timer averaged approximately 0.25 s e c / d a y t o o f a s t w h i l e t h e secondary t i m e r e r r o r averaged a p p r o x i m t e l y 0.4 s e c l d a y t o o slow. The e r r o r from b o t h t i m e r s i s c o n s i d e r a b l y b e t t e r t h a n t h e e r r o r s p e c i f i c a t i o n of 0 2 0.875 s e c l d a y . 5.6.2 S o l a r Observatory Time Reference System

The s o l a r o b s e r v a t o r y computer i s programed t o p r o v i d e n a v i g a t i o n and timing information f o r t h e S a t u r n Workshop. The naviga ?on program m a i n t a i n s knowledge of S a t c r n Workshop p o s i t i o n i n o r b i t r e l a t i v e t o o r b i t a l midnight, S i g n i f i c a n t o r b i t a l event times a r e c a l c u l a t e d and a r e used, a l o n g w i t h p c s i t i o n i n o r b i t , t o determine t h e day-night phase of o r b i t acd t h e time remaining i n t h e p r e v a i l i n g o r b i t a l phase. This i n f o r m a t i o n , a l o n g w i t h s e v e r a l i n t e r m e d i a t e parameter c s l c u l a t i o n s , is used t o s u p p c r t o t h e r f u n c t i o n a l a r e a s of t h e program such a s w n e u v e r i n g , momentum management, o r b i t a l p l a n e e r r o r , and r o l l r e f e r e n c e , a s w e l l a s f o r d i s p l a y purposes and experiment timing. Mission time f o r d i s p l a y i s maintained from one of two a v a i l a b l e mission t i m e r s . The rf-dundant m i s s i o n timers a r e 29-bit r e g i s t e r s t h a t s t o r e time i n terms of days, hours, minutes, and seconds. These t i m e r s u s e b a s i c o s c i l l a t o r s s e p a r a t e from t h o s e used t o provide computer s o f t w a r e timing. E i t h e r tfmer may be s 2 l e c t e d and timer d r i f t c o r r e c t e d by d i g i t a l command from t h e ground s t a t i o n . Figure 5-17 shows t h e sol a r observatory timing i n t e r f a c e s .

Canputer

Address

decder

I

S o l d r 0bserv3'cry

F i g u r e 5-17.-

S o l a r o b s e r v a t o r y time r e f e r e n c e system.

The t e l e m e t r y system p r o v i d e s two s y n c h r o n i z a t i o n s i g n a l s t o t h e computer t o provide t i n e c o r r e l a t i o n w i t h t h e computer and experiments. The t r a n s m i t t e r p r o v i d e s 1-pulse-per-second and 24-pulses-per-second interrupt signals t o the computer. The 1-pulse-per-second i n t e r r u p t c a u s e s t h e computer t o l o a d t h e ex?eriment r e g i s t e r w i t h mission t i m i n g , which i s t h e n t r a n s f e r r e d t o t h e e x p e r i ments once each second t o be f i l m recorded. The 24-per-second i n t e r r u p t p u l s e c a u s e s t h e computer t o g e n e r a t e a 50-bit ~ o r d ,which g i v e s computer s t a t u s , and t o t r a n ~ . f e rt h e word t o t h e t e l e m e t r y r e g i s t e r . Immediately a f t e r a 24-pulsesper-second t e l e m e t r y s i g n a l i s t r a n s m i t t e d t o t h e computer, t h e c o n t e n t s o f t h e 50-bit t e l e m e t r y i n t e r f a c e r e g i s t e r are sampled by t h e t e l e m e t r y system and

t r a n s m i t t e d t o ground s t a t i o n s . The t e l e m e t r y system a l s o samples and trmsmits t h e c u r r e n t c l o c k time w i t h alternating 30-bit t e l e m e t r y words. A backup 1 pulse-per-second s i g n a l i s a l s o g e n e r a t e d by t h e conputer from t h e 24 p u l s e s p e r second t o allow experiment t i m i n g i n c a s e t h e 1-pulse-per-second s i g n a l from t h e t e l e m e t r y system should f a i l . During t h e f i r s t 26 days of t h e Skylab mission, t h e rrwo timers were used a l t e r n a t e l y i n a n e f f o r t t o determine which timer was most s t a b l e . The f i r s t 1 1 t i m e r update o c c u r r e d on Day 1 when t i m e r B was updated by - 1 seconds. On Day 21 timer A w a s updated by -4 seconds. On Day 24 t i m e r B w a s updated f o r t h e last time by -18 seconds. A f t e r t h e s w i t c h o v c ~t o t h e secondary computer, on Day 27, t i n e r A w a s used f o r t h e remainder o f t h e mission. During t h i s t i n e , timer A e x h i b i t e d a p o s i t i v e d r i f t o f approximately 0.3 s e c l d a y which was w e l l w i t i i n t h e s p e c i f i c a t i o n t o l e r a n c e . Following s w i t c h o v e r , t h e t i m e r was h e l d w i t h i a an accuracy of 3 seconds, r e q u i r i n g a n update every 1 t o 1 3 days. This r e s u l t e d 1 i n a t o t a l o f 2 1 updates t o t h e secondary computer t i m e r A. The cornpalter timing-telemetry i n t e r f a c e s a t i s f i e d a l l mission requirements w i t h no known problems. However, some o f t h e e x p e r i m a i t d a t a could have been analyzed t o a g r e a t e r d e p t h had t h e computer and t h e t e l e m e t r y t i m i n g been more c l o s e l y synchronized. Had conputer t i m e been a m u l t i p l e o f t e l e m e t r y t i m e , sync h r o n i z a t i o n would have been improved.

5 . 7 RENDEZVOUS, RANGING, AXD DOCKING AIDS
Two methods a r e used f o r rend-zvous, r a n g i n g , and docking w i t h t h e S a t u r n Workshop. E l e c t r o n i c d e v i c e s p r o v i d e r a d i o l o c a t i o n and r a n g i n g i ~ . f o r m a t i o n . H' F i g u r e 5-18 shows t h e V: rendezvous and r a n g i n g system. Visual a i d s a l s o prov i d e l o c a t i o n i n f o r m a t i o n , p l u s a t t i t u d e alignment f o r t h e f j n a l phase o f rendezvous marrewering. High i n t e n s i t y t r a c k i n g l i g h t s , c o l o r e d docking l i g h t s , docking t a r g e t s , and o p t i c a l s i g h t s compose t h e v i s u a l a i d s . Figure 5-19 shows t h e v i s c a l t r a c k i n g and docking a i d s .
Scimitar antennas Transmitter ?5S

'
v
Di p l exer

7

llecei v e r

Display Cmpu t e r

Oiplexer Helix antenna

Range demodulator
C

kceiver
.

--

296.E FHz

296.8

%r

Transmitter

I
Transceiver assembly Saturn kqrkshop

J

Comrnnd and servlce madulr

Figure 5-18.-

Rxtdezvous and r a n g i n g system.

The VHF rendezvous and r a n g i n g system determines t h e c l o s i n g d i s t a n c g and r a t e between t h e command and s e r v i c e module and t h e S a t u r n Workshop. :,:ring rendezvous t h e command mcdule t r a n s m i t s a tone-modulatzd s i g n a l . A transponder onboard t h e S a t u r n Workshop r e c e i v e s and r e t r a n s m i t s t h e s i g n a l . Command module

+z

Docking t a r g e t

Oissone actenna l i g h t s ( 4 ) 0.7 w a t t bite l i g h t s ( t y p i c a l 2 places\

F i g u r e 5-19.-

Tracking and docktng a i d s .

computers msasure t h e phase d i f f e r e n c e s o f t h e s e s i g n a l s and d i s p l a y t h e d i s t ance betweec t h e two s p a c e c r a f t i n increments of 0.1 nmi. Maximum d i s t a n c e f o r VHF r a n g i n g lockup i s approximately 300 nmi. The VHF r a n g i n g system o p e r a t e d twice d u r i n g t!te f i r s t crew rendezvous f o r 3 h o u r s and 2 hours, r e s p e c t i v e l y . During rendezvous, t h e S a t u r n Workshop was was i n a 5C-degree pitch-up a t t i t u d e f o r t h e r m a l c o n t r o l . The 135 rxai a c q u i s i t i o n range r e p o r t e d by t h e crew i s c o n s i d e r e d v e r y s a t i s f a c t o r y c o n s i d e r i n g t h a t t h e antennas were not p r o p e r l y a l i g n e d . Tho- system o p e r a t e d f o r 4.5 hours d u r i n g t h e second crew rendezvous on Day 76. I n i t i a l a c q u i s i t i o n o c c u r r e d a t a range of 390 mi. This rendezvous w a s conducted w i t h t h e S a t u r n Workshop i n a s o l a r i n e r t i a l a t t i t u d e t o m a i n t a l n f u l l power c a p a b i l i t y . T h i s p m f i l e w a s a l t e r e d from t h e premission p l a n i n which t h e S a t u r n Workshop was t o be i n a Z-axis l o c a l v e r t i c a l a t t i t u d e d u r i n g much of t h e time t h e rendezvous systems were t o be act i v e . The s o l a r i n e r t i a l a t t i t u d e caused some abnormal l o o k a n g l e s , r e s u l t i n g In p r e d i c t a b l e p e r i o d s of l o s s of c o n t a c t betweer t h e comand and s e r v i c e module and t h e Saturn Workshop. The i.i~ird rendezvous c . Day 187 used t h e system f o r approximately 4 hours. A c q u i s i t i o n was made a t a range q f 209 nmi. The rendezvous was conducted w i t h t h e S a t u r n Workshop i n a s o l s r i n e r t i a l a t t i t u d e , a s i n t h e prev 3 u s rendezvous. Again, some p r e d i c t a b l e p e r i o d s of l o s s o f c o n t a c t r e s u l t e d from t h e abnormal l a o k a n g l e s . The t o t a l S a t u r n Workshop system o p e r a t i n g time was 247.5 hours f o r t h e e n t i r e Skylab mission w i i h f i v e c y c l e s o f o p e r a t i o n . Of t h i s , approximatelv 234 hours of o p e r a t i o n occurred d u r i n g the f i r s t manned period t o provide h e a t t o t h e c o o l a n t loop. The system n e t o r exceeded a l l of i t s d e s i g n o b j e c t i v e s d u r i n g t h e mission and w a s c o n s i d e r e d t o be a n o p e r a t i o n a l system a t t h e end of t h e mission w i t h no d e g r a d a t i o n i n c a p a b i l i t y . Four modified Apollo t r a c k i n g l i g h t s p r o v i d e a v i s u a l means of l o c a t i n g t h e S a t u r n Workshop f ~ rendezvous d u r i n g o r b i t a l n i g h t . The Apollo s e x t a n t o r t h e r o p t i c a l alignment d e v i c e can be used f o r l o n g range a c q u i s i t i o n . Each t r a c k j x g l i g h t c o n s i s t s of a f l a s h lamp mounted on t h e s o l a r o b s e r v a t o r y deployment assembly, an e l e c t r o n i c s u n i t , and i n t e r c o n n e c t i n g c o n t r o l c a b l e s . The minimum l i g h t i n t e n s i t y i s 1000 beam-candle-seconds i n a r e g i o n which is e s s e n t i a l . l y a

90-aegree coce centered about t h e Saturn Wor:cshop +X a x i s . The t r a c k i n g l i g h t s f l a s h at a r a t e of 50 t o 65 f l a s h e s per minute with a maximum f l a s h d u r a t i o n of 0.3 millisecond. Normally two t r a c k i n g l i g h t s a r e a c t i v e and two a r e for backup. An automatic c o n t r o l switches t o t h e backup l i g h t s i f the primar) l i g h t s f a i l . Control of t h e l i g h t s is normally provided by t h e d i g i z a l command system; however, an onboard switch is a v a i l a b l e f o r crew use. The e l e c t r o n i c timer provides an a l t e r n a t e means of d e a c t i v a t i n g the t r a c k i n g l i g h t s when t h e spacec r a f t is out of range of a t r a c k i n g s t a t i o n . The t r a c k i n g l i g h t subsystem operated f o r each rendezvous. On Day 12. thp f i r s t crew twice requircd trackirlg l i g h t s f o r rendezvous f o r 3 hours and 2 -houis, r e s p e c t i v e l y . The l i g h t s were fir;, reported by the crew a t a d i s t a n c e of 390 mi, which is in excess of t h e expected range. Rendezvous of t h e second a d t h i r d crews were conducted with t h e Saturn Uorksho? i n t h e s o l a r i n e r t i a l a t t i t u d e . This a t t i t u d e caused some abnormal viewing angles tux t '-4.' t r a c k i n g l i g h t s , r e s u l t ing i n some p r e d i c t a b l e periods of l o s s of c o n t a c t between t h e command module and During t h e f i n a l rendezvous cn Day 187, t h e t r a c k i n g l i g h t s c t e Saturn Wcrkshop. q e r a t e d f o r approximately 4 hours. The crew d i d n o t r e p o r t .cl.len t h e t r a c k i n g l i g h t s were f i r s t sighted. Eight colored docking l i g h t s a r e mounted on t h e Saturn Workshop. The c o l o r s of t h e l i g h t s s e r v e a s r e f e r e n c e s i n maneuvering t h e command module, u s u a l l y from about 200 f e e t out from t h e Saturn Worksho~t o w i t h i n 50 f e e t of 'the docking p o r t . The discone arrtennas a r e a l s o illuminated with white l i g h t s s o t h a t t h e crew can avoid t h e antennas during flyaround and docking maneuvers. The docking l i g h t s a r e normally c o n t r o l l e d by t h e d i g i t a l corernand system; however, an onbqard switch provides t h e c a p a b i l i t y f o r crew c o n t r o l i n t h e event of an e x t r a v e h i ~ u l a r c t i v i t y a o r a rescue m i s s i o ~ . The i n d i v i d u a l l i g h t s a r e not redundant s i n c e t h e l o s s of s e v e r a l l i g h t s would n o t jeopardize docking. The docking l i g h t s were operated during the period ~f rendezvous termination u n t i l docking, o r approximately 1.5 hours f o r each manned period. There a r e two docking t a r g e t s mounted on t h e Saturn \Jorks:top, one near each docking p o r t . These are used i n conjunction with t h e o p t i c a l alignment s e t , which i s mounted on t h e window frame i n t h e comand module. The t a r g e t and alignment s e t allow t h e o r i e n t a t i o n of t h e v e h i c l e w i t h i n t h e 1 0 degree v a r i a t i o n from c e n t e r range r e q u i r e d f o r probe and drogue macing. The docking t a r g e t system w a s used e x t e n s i v e l y during t h e Apollo missions, s o t h e procedures and crew t r a i n i n g were w e l l developed before t h e Skylab missicn. The f i r s t crew made s e v e r a l docking attempts because of probe problems; however, n e i t h e r they nor t h e second o r t h i r d crew made anjr comments about t h e alignment system operations. 5.8 ANOMALIES

Most of t h e anomalies described i n t h i s s e c t i o n were t h e r e s u l t s o f component f a i l u r e s i n equipment i n i n a c c e s s i b l e l o c a t i o n s , s o examination of the f a i l e d items was not f e a s i b l e . I n most c a s e s tests, s i m u l a t i o n s , and d a t a a n a l y s i s loc a l i z e d t h e f a i l u r e s . The use of redundant equipment, t h e s e l e c t i o n of a l t e r n a t e modes and procedures, and, where p o s s i b l e , t h e replacement of f a i l e d hardware enabled s a t i s f a c t o r y performance of t h e i n s t r u m e n t a t i o n and communications system throughout ;he mission.

5.8.1

Laboratory Low-Level M u l t i p l e x e r s

I n t e r m i t t e n c e of one of t h e low-level m u l t i p l e x e r s was probably a f a i l u r e of t h e nonredundant p u l s e s t e e r i n g d i o d e s used i n t h e c o u n t e r nodule i n p u t s . The e x a c t n a t u r e o f t h e f a i l u r e was n o t determined. Noise on t h e r e f e r e n c e v o l t a g e and seven o t h e r measurements on a n o t h e r low-level m i i l t i p l e x e r was most probably caused by a change i n "turn-on" c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of a s e c o n d - t i e r switch. The n o i s e which occurred on t h e f i r s t e i g h t channels of a l l of t h e low-level multip l e x e r s and n i n e channels of t h e programer on Day 224 was most l i k e l y caused by a v a r y i n g v o l t a g e propagated on t h e 3 - m i l l i v o l t (15 p e r c e n t ) r e f e r e n c e l i n e connected t o t h e a f f e c t e d m u l t i p l e x e r and programers.

5.8.2

Laboratory T r a n s m i t t e r A (10-Wattj

The l o s s i n t h e RF o u t p u t power of t r a n s m i t t e r A was a t t r i b u t e d t o t h e RF power a m p l i f i e r s e c t i o n ' s degrading t o a n unusable l e v e l . The c a u s e w a s n o t determined.

5.8.3

S o l a r Observatory KF Coaxial Switch

Approximately 7 hours a f t e r t h e S a t u r n Workshop was launched, high r e f l e c t e d RF power w a s e x h i b i t e d by t h e s o l a r o u s e r v a t o r y KF l i n k c o n s i s t i n g o f t r a n s m i t t e r 1, c o a x i a l switch 1, RF mu-ticoupler 1, and t h e a f t antenna. The r e f l e c t e d power was e . 6 w s t t s ; t h e n 0 ~ ; 3 1-.due i s less thzn 0.5 w a t t .z?d t,h2 s p e c i f i c a t i o n v a l u e is less than 2.0 w a t t s . T r a n s m i t t e r 2 i n c i 'nt and r e f l e c t e d power remained normal on both forward and a f t antennas.

RF m u l t i c o u p l e r .

The p o s s i b l e l o c a t i o n o f t h e f a u l t was l i m i t e d t o t h e c o a x i a l s w i t c h and t h e The c o a x i a l s w i t c h f a i l u r e s i m u l a t i o n corresponded more c l o s e l y t o t h e a c t u a l f l i g h t c o n d i t i o n ; t h e r e f o r e , i t was assumed t h a t t h e s w i t c h was t h e f a i l u r e p o i n t . The s w i t c h o p e r a t e d p r o p e r l y ir, t h e t r a n s m i t t e r "to forward antenna" p o s i t ion. 5.8.4 k d i o System Channel B

The f i r s t playback of t h e recorded v o i c e s o f t h e second crew o v e r sudio chann e l B was u n i n t e l l i g i b l e a t t h e ground s t a t i o n . The crewmen a l s o noted c h a t t h e intercom speaker volume T.I channel B was lower t h a n t h a t on channel A. The crew performed a d i a g n o s t i c procedure uplinked from t h e ground whereby each o f t h e redundant earphone a m p l i f i e r s was d i s a b l e d , one a t a time. The earphone a m p l i f i e r s were o p e r a t i n g s a t i s f a c t o r i l y , s i n c e t h e s p e a k e r volume decreased e q u a l l y when each of t h e c i r c u i t b r e a k e r s was t u r n e d o f f . The crew t h e n d i s c o c n e c t e d t h e t a p e r e c o r d e r and recorded channel B v o i c e on t a p e r e c o r d e r s 2 and 3, which r e s u l t e d i n garbled v o i c e playbacks f r o a b o t h r e c o r d e r s . I n a ground u n i t test, t h e power supply p r o v i d i n g r e g u l a t e d power t o t h e t a p e r e c o r d e r a m p l i f i e r and one of t h e two channel B earphone a m p l i f i e r s was reduced from t h e normal +20 udc t o 1 6 vdc. The t a p e r e c o r d e r a m p l i f i e r c i r c u i t t h e n produced low frequency o s c i l l a t i o n s and g a r b l e d v o i c e s i m i l a r t o t h e problems encountered i n f l i g h t . A t t h e same time t n e v o i c e o u t p u t a t t h e c:pcaker decreased. It was concluded t h a t t h e c a u s e of garbled channel B audio was a degraded power supply f o r i t s r e c o r d e r a m p l i f i e r . With only one t a p e r e c o r d e r a m p l i f i e r remaining f o r t h e rest of t h e m i s s i o n , an a l t e r n a t e mode of recording v o i c e was developed and a m o d i f i c a t i o n k i t was fabr i c a t e d on t h e ground and c a r r i e d up by t h e t h i r d crew.

The t h i r d crew reported on Day 261 t h a t a n o i s e on t h e channel B intercom loop which had been p r e s e n t f o r a s h o r t period on Day 132 was back again, occurr i n g a t a r a t e of approximately 6 h e r t z . The crew implemented a procedure which switched t h e backup audio c e n t e r o n t o t h e dlannel B c i r c u i t . The problem s t i l l e x i s t e d , s o troubleshooting of t h e earphone a m p l i f i e r s of audio channel B was ini t i a t e d . The two b u f f e r a m p l i f i e r c i r c u i t b r e a k e r s were opened and closed seq u e n t i a l l y , and t h e n o i s e disappeared when c i r c u i t breaker number 1 w a s opened. It was concluded t h a t t h e n o i s e source w a s t h e secondary channel B earphone amplifier. Opening c i r c u i t breaker number 1 d i s a b l e d t h e remaining operat i o n a l t a p e recorder a m p l i f i e r of channel A. Therefore, i t was necessary t o c l o s e t h i s c i r c u i t breaker during v o i c e recording. This procedure was accepta b l e s i n c e t h e r e were only 16 days l e f t i n t h e mission before f i n d deactivat i o n . N o t h e r a c t i o n was taken. o

5.8.5

Video Tape Recorder

The video t a p e r e c o r d e r l o s t playback c a p a b i l i t y on Day 81. It showed only a c a r r i e r modulation corresponding t o a d c b i a s i n p u t t o t h e t r a n s m i t t e r . The b i a s l e v e l i n d i c a t e d a f a i l u r e i n t h e video demodulator c i r c u i t r y . Four p r i n t e d c i r c u i t boards were brought back f o r a n a l y s i s . The f a i l u r e was £0-md t o be a t open c i r c u i t i n a v a r i a b l e c o i l i n t h e dem modulator. The d e f e c t i v e c o i 1 was remnved fr ~ the video l i m i t e r - d e w d u l e t n r board and subjected t o temperature shocks. High temperature reopened i t . X-rays of t h i s c o i l and a c o n t r o l sample from t h e same l o t showed i n s u f f i c i e n t c o i l w i r e wrepped around t h e terminal and t h e absence of a s o l d e r f i l l e t a t t h e j u n c t i o n . The c o i l s were microsectioned, and t h e i n s p e c t i o n confirmed t h e X-ray finding. Further a n a l y s i s showed t h a t t h e d e f e c t was n o t caused by an e x t e r n a l c i r c u i t o r e l e c t r i c a l t r a n s i e n t anomalies. Very few d a t a were l o s t as a r e s u l t of t h e anomaly.

5.8.6

T e l e v i s i o n Monitor

One of t h e two t e l e v i s i o n monitors on t h e s o l a r observatory c o n t r o l and d i s play panel l o s t i t s r a s t e r on Day 132. Telemetry d a t a showed t h a t t h e nionitor was not using any e l e c t r i c a l c u r r e n t . F a i l u r e s i s u l a t i o n t e s t i n g showed t h a t when power was switched on a normal monitor, a c h a r a c t e r i s t i c c u r r e n t t r a n s i e n t always occurred on t h e input power l i n e Secause of c a p a c i t o r charging i n t h e low v o l t a g e power supply. This was not observed when t h e onboard u n i t was turned on and o f f . It was concluded t h a t t h e i s o l a t i o n diode f o r t h e low v o l t a g e power supply had f a i l e d open. During t h e remaining week of t h e sec0r.d manned period, t h e crew wac =ons t r a i n e d t o one monitor. This imposed an u n d e s i r a b l e procedural con st^. . . ' on the crew. A new monitor was s e n t up f o r t h e t h i r d manned period. It was i . 1 s t a l l e d and operated normally f o r t h e r e s t of t h e mission.

SECTION 6 ATTlTUDt A N D P O I N T I N O CONTROL

The Saturn Workshop was designed w i t h no major a r t i c u l a t i n g elements because of t h e use of e x i s t i n g hardware, c o s t l i m i t a t i o n s , and o t h e r development conside r a t i o n s , The f i x e d s o l a r a r r a y s , antennas, and experiment mounts made a t t i t u d e c o n t r o l very important f o r g e n e r a l o r i e n t a t i o n . Some experiments r e q u i r e d reasonably p r e c i s e o r i e n t a t i o n and s t a b i l i t y , and t h e s o l a r observatory r e q u i r e d a very p r e c i s e pointing c o n t r o l . Many techniques were a v a i l a b l e f o r a t t i t u d e maneuvering and s t a b i l i z a t i o n in low Earth o r b i t , and s e v e i a l f a c t o r s influenced t h e s e l e c t i o n of t h e c o ~ t r o l system. Aerodynamic e f f e c t s , g r a v i t y f i e l d s , and magnetic f i e l d s a s w e l l a s onboard d i s t u r b a n c e s had t o be .overcome f o r s t a b i l i t y . A t t i t u d e change r a t e and mission l i f e t i m e requirements a l s o influenced t h e s e l e c t i o n of maneuvering techniques. Onboard d i s t u r b a n c e s were minimized by techniques such as nonpropulsive venting. External torques were a l s o minf-mized where p o s s i b l e by keeping t h e X p r i n c i p a l moment of i n e r t i a a x i s i n the orbit ?lane 2nd redzcing aercd;=aic asymmetry. KO p r o v i s i o - s were maue i n t h e Satuin Workshop f o r l i n e a r accelerat i o n f o r o r b i t t r i m s . This f u n c t i o n , when r e q u i r e d , was t o be performed by t h e command and s e r v i c e module.
A summary of t h e design and performance of t h e system i s presented, includi n g a b r i e f d e s c r i p t i o n of t h e anomalies. More d e t a i l e d information i s contained i n r e f e r e n c e 3.

6.1 6.1.1

ATTITUDE CONTROL System Requirements

The system requirements f o r a t t i t u d e c o n t r o l f o r t h e Saturn Workshop were unique. The a t t i t u d e c o n t r o l system had t o a c c u r a t e l y p o i n t t h e s o l a r observatory a t t h e Sun and t h e Earth observation s e n s o r s a t t h e Earth, and t o maneuver t h e 100-ton Skylab t o v a r i o u s a t t i t u d e s . The system was required t o perform these o p e r a t i o n s in Earth o r b i t f o r a period of 1 0 months without r e p a i r o r resupply. The system had t o be capable of p o i n t ' .g t h e s o l a r observatory a t t h e Sun with an accuracy of 26 arc-min about t h e Saturn Workshop X and Y axes, and $10 arc-min about t h e Z a x i s . This, t h e v e h i c l e ' s primary a t t i t u d e , i s c a l l e d t h e s o l a r ine r t i a l a t t i t u d e ( f i g . 6-1). The p o i n t i n g s t a b i l i t y r e q u i r e d i n t h i s a t t i t u d e was f9 arc-min f o r 1 5 minutes about t h e X and Y axes, and +7.5 arc-min f o r 1 5 minutes about t h e Z a x i s . The system had t o ke capable of p o i n t i n g up t o f 4 degrees away from t h e s u n l i n e while maintaining t h i s accuracy and s t a b i l i t y . For t h e Earth observation s e n s o r s , t h e required a t t i t u d e was with t h e -Z a x i s pointed a t t h e Earth's c e n t e r and t h e +X a x i s i n t h e d i r e c t i o n of t h e o r b i t a l v e l o c i t y v e c t o r ( f i g . 6-1). This, c a l l e d t h e Earth observation o r Z l o c a l v e r t i c a l a t t i t u d e , had t o be maintained t o w i t h i n 2.5 degrees. The system had t o be capable of maneuvering t h e Saturn Workshop from t h e s o l a r i n e r t i a l a t t i t u d e t o any o t h e r a t t i t u d e , holding t h e new a t t i t u d e i n e r t i a l l y f i x e d , and then r e t u r n i n g t o t h e solar inertial attitude.

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Othcr requirements were e s t a b l i s h e d f o r rendezvous and o r b i t t r i m . The rendezvous a t t i t u d e p o i n t e d t h e -Z a x i s toward t h e c e n t e r of t h e E a r t h , and t h e -X a x i s i n t h e d i r e c t i o n o f t h e o r l i b a i v e i o c i t y v e c t o r . T h i s a t t i t u d e was t o be maintained t o w i t h i n f12 d e g r e e s about t h e S a t u r n Workshop Y-axis, and +6 d e g r e e s about t h e X and Z a x e s , During o r b i t t r i m maneuvers, t h e system was required t o maintain the s o l a r i n e r t i a l a t t i t u d e within 1 0 degrees. 6.1.2 System Design

The a t t i t u d e c o n t r o l system was designed t o s a t i s f y t h e above requirements an o r b i t a l environment which i n c l u d e d g r a l - i t y g r a d i e n t t o r q u e s a p p l i e d by t h e E a r t h ' s g r a v i t a t i o n a l f i e l d , aerodynamic t o r q u e s , v e n t t o r q u e s , and crew motion d i s t u r b a n c e s . Analysis s b w e d t h a t a g a s r e a c t i o n c o n t r o l system c a p a b l e of meeting t h e d e s i g n requirements f o r a 10-month p e r i o d would r e q u i r e a p r o h i b i t i v e amount of p r o p e l l a n t , s o t h e momentum exchange system which w a s a l r e a d y designed i n t o t h z s o l a r o b s e r v a t o r y w a s upgraded and adopted a s t h e S a t u r n Workshop's primary c o n t r o l system. T h i s system r e q u i r e d o n l y e l e c t r i c a l power f o r o p e r a t i o n , and could meet t h e system d e s i g n requirements f o r 1 0 months w i t h a minimum weight requirement.
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T h i s was t h e f i r s t manned s p a c e c r a f t t o u s e l a r g e momentum c o n t r o l gyros f o r a t t i t u d e c o n t r o l , t h e f i r s t - t o manage c o n t r o l gyro momentum by maneuvering i n t h e g r a v i t y g r a d i e n t f i e l d , t h e f i r s t t o use a d i g i t a l l y implemented c o n t r o l system w i t h i n - o r b i t reprograming c a p a b i l i t y , and t h e f i r s t t o u s e an a t t i t u d e r e f e r e n c e based on a four-parameter c a l c u l a t i o n . A d i g i t a l computer was provided t o perform t h e f u n c t i o n s of a t t i t u d e c o n t r o l , maneuvering, n a v i g a t i o n and t i m i n g , momentum management, and redundancy management. A s i m p l i f i e d block diagram of t h e a t t i t u d e c o n t r o l system is p r e s e n t e d i n f i g u r e 6-2. Figure.6-3 shows s e v e r a l elements of t h i s system i n s t a l l e d on t h e s o l a r o b s e r v a t o r y . Sun s e n s o r s , a s t a r t r a c k e r , and r a t e gyros provided t h e S a t u r n Workshop c o n t r o l system w i t h p o s i t i o n and a n g u l a r rate information. A c o l d g a s t h r u s t e r system was provided f o r a u x i l i a r y use.

The d i g i t a l computer and i & - f a c e u n i t a r e mounted on D i g-- a l it Computer.t h e s o l a r o b s e r v a t o r y s t r u c t u r e ( f i g . 6-3). The d i g i t a l computer m a i n t a i n s t h e a t t i t u d e r e f e r e n c e , performs n a v i g a t i o n and timing computations, commands t h e c o n t r o l moment gyros and t h r u s t e r s t o maintain a t t i t u d e o r t o maneuver a s req u i r e d , manages t h e c o n t r o l gyro system momentum, manages t h e redundant system components, and provides system mode c o n t r o l , d a t a h a n d l i n g , and ex: i i m e n t support. Computer redundancy was s u p p l i e d by a backup d i g i t a l computer. Comp u t e r memory o r t h e a c t u a l computer program could be modified by ground command o r by t h e crew, by rreans of t h e d i g i t a l command system. Three double-gimballed gyros a r e m ~ u n t e dorthogControl Moment Gyros.o n a l l y on t h e s o l a r o b s e r v a t o r y s t r u c t u r e ( f i g . 6-3 and 6-4). They a r e o r i e n t e d so that when a l l t h r e e a r e i n t h e z e r o p o s i t i o n t h e i r momentum v e c t o r s ( s p i n axes) a r e p a r a l l e l t o the S a t u r n Workshop X, Y , and Z axes. Each c o n t a i n s a 0.53 meter d i a m e t e r , 65.8-kilogram wheel which is double-gimballed t o provide two degrees of freedom w i t h i n t h e l i m i t s of mechanical s t o p s . I n n e r gimbal t r a v e l i s l i m i t e d t o 160 d e g r e e s , w h i l e o u t e r gimbal t r a v e l i s 350 d e g r e e s . The wheels s p i n a t about 9000 rpm and have a n g u l a r momentum of 3000 N-m-sec. The d i g i t a l computer commands t h e gimbals t o d r i v e a t t h e r e q u i r e d a n g u l a r vel o c i t y w i t h maximum r a t e s set a t 7 d e g l s e c . The gimbals move t h e momentum vect o r s , applying t h e d e s i r e d t o r q u e s t o t h e S a t u r n Workshop. Any two of t h e t h r e e c o n t r o l moment gyros have s u f f i c i e n t mcmentum f o r c o n t r o l . C o n t r o l moment gyro d e t a i l s a r e shown i n f i g u r e 6-5. ,

Figure 6-4.-

Control moment gyro mientation.

F i g u r e 6-5.Cutaway of c o a t r ~ l moment gyro wheel and i n n e r gimbal.

Rate Gyros.Three groups of t h r e e r a t e gyros a r e mounted o r t h o g o n a l l y on t h e s o l a r o b s e r v a t o r y s t r u c t u r e ( f i g . 6-3). Each r a t e gyro can o p e r a t e i n a f i n e mode k i t h a range of 0 t o 0 . ' d e g l s e c , o r a c o a r s e mode o i from 0 t c 1 . 0 d e g l s e c . The f i n e o r c o a r s e mode i s commanded f o r a l l n i n e r a t e gyros s i m u l t a n e o u s l : ~by t h e computer, depending on r a t e s . Outputs a r e used by t h e computer t o c a l c u l a t e v e l o c i t y 6nd p o s i t i o n . Normally, any two r a t e gyros i n each a x i s a r e p a i r e d , with t h e ccin2uter averaging t h e i r o u t p t t s f o r r a t e i n f o r m a t i o n , w h i l e t h e t h i r d i s a spare.

Figure sensor provide The Sun pletely systems

Sun Sensor and S t a r Tracker.kttit u d e r e l a t i v e ~o the s u n l i n e i s measured d u r i c g o r b i t a l day by a two-axis Sun sens o r mounted on t h e s o l a r o b s e r v a t o r y dete<tots s t r u c t u r e . The two Sun s e n s o r o p t i c a l a s s e m b l i e s ( f i g . 6-3 and 6-6) comprise two p i t c h and two yaw d e t e c t o r s p l u s a Sun presence d e t e c t o r . The p i t c h and yaw d e t e c t o r s a r e mounted i n p a i r s w i t h s e m i c i r c u l a r o c c u l t i n g b a f f l e s on oppos i t e s i d e s . When t h e d e t e c t o r s a r e facing the S m , the output s i g n a l s cancel u,o.L nrI.. o u t , g i v i n g a n u l l i n d i c a t i o n . When ,tdlgr:,' CCtCCtOr t h e d e t e c t o r s a r e t i l t e d away from t h e s u n l i n e , t h e unbalanced o u t p u t p r o v i d e s t h e magnitude and d i r e c t i o n of t h e o f f 6-6.A c q u i s i t i o n Sup s e t e r r o r . The o u t p u t s a r e used by t h e computer t o update i t s c a l c u l a t i o ~ sof o p t i c a l assembly. a t t ~ t u d e . The o u t p u t s may be b i a s e d t o an o f f s e t p o i n t i n g c a p a b i l i t y 01 up t o 4 d e g r e e s from t h e s u n l i n e . s e n s o r i s designed t o be comredundant w i t h two independent o p e r a t i n g a t all times.
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F i g u r e 6-7.-

Star tracker.

T h r u s t e r Control System.- This blowdown system, l o c a t e d on t h e workshop s t r u c t u r e , a s noted i n f i g u r e s 6-8 and 6-9, c o n s i s t s of s i x c o l d gas ( n i t r o g e n ) t h r u s t e r s and t h e i r a s s o c i a t e d c o n t r o l e l e c t r o n i c s and r o p e l l a n t - s t o r a g e s p h e r e s . I n i t i d gas s t o r a g e p r e s s u r e i s ebout 22 N/mm Gas p r e s s u r e and t h r u s t l e v e l decay a s t h e n i t r o g e n supply i s d e p l e t e d . The impulse of a s i n g l e f i r i n g i s kept c o n s t a n t a t aborlt 22 N-sec by l e n g t h e n i n g t h e f i r i n g time a s t h e t h r u s t l e v e l decays. There a r e no backup t h r u s t e r s ; however, redundancy i s provided i r c o n t r o l c i r c u i t r y and v a l v i n g . The system i s used f o r a t t i t u d e c o n t r o l a f t e r launch v e h i c l e s e p a r a t i o n and b e f o r e spinup of t h e c o n t r o l moment gyros. I t a l s o a s s i s t s the c o n t r o l moment gyro system i n c o n t r o l l i n g t h e a t t i t u d e when c o n t r o l moment gyro momentum approaches s a t u r a t i o n . I n a d d i t i o n , should t h e a t t i t u d e e r r o r exceed 20 d e g r e e s , t h e computer s w i t c h e s t o t h r u s t e r - o n l y c o n t r o l and i n h i b i t s t h e c o n t r o l moment gyros. T h r u s t e r system c o n t r o l can a l s o be commanded by t h e crew o r from t h e ground.

E.

g. Rendezvous mode T h i s mode i s i d e n t i c a l t o t h e E a r t h o b s e r v a t i o n mode e x c e p t t h a t t h e workshop -X a x i s i s p o i n t e d a l o n g t h e v e l o c i t y v e c t o r i n t h e o r b i t a l p l a n e . T h i s mode was d e s i r e d f o r u s e d u r i n g rendezvous wit:, t h e command and s e r v i c e module b u t was n e v e r used because o f t h e d e s i r e t o c o n s e r v e t h r u q t e r propellant.

-

The f l i g h t progra.- i n t h e computer m a i n t a i n s s e v e r a l p a r a m e t e r s f o r t h e c o n t r o l systemt8 They a r e b r i e f 1 y d e s c r i b e d . A t t i t u d e R e f e r e n c e . - The a t t i t u d e referent? i s a f o u r - p a r a m e t e r c o m p u t a t i o n based on ~ u i e r ' s r o t a t i o n a l e q u a t i o n s . The computation i s used t o c a l c u l a t e t h e a t t i t u d e w i t h r e s p e c t t o t h c a t t i t u d e r e f e r e n c e coc r d i n a t e s y s t e m and t h e o r i e n t a t i o n of t h e a t t i t u d e r e f e r e n c e c o o r d i n a t e s y s t e m w i t h r e s p e c t t o t h e s o l a r v i n e r t i a l c o o r d i n a t e system. S a t a r n Workshop a n g ~ l a r e l o c i t i e s a r e used f o r t h e computation of t h e e q u a t i o n s . LLlring o r b i t a l day i? t h e s o l a r i n e r t i a l and s o l a r o b s e r v a t i o n modes, t h e Sun s e n s o r o u t p u t s a r e used f o r u p d a t e s . Once p e r o r b i t , at m i d n i g h t , i n f o r m a t i o n from t h e s t a r t r a c k e r o u t e r gimbal i s a170 u s e d t o upd a t e t h e computations. N a v j g a t i o n and ' i ' i m l x . The f l i g h t program a i n t a i n s knowledge o f tilt. p o s i t i o n i n o r b i t r e l a t i v e t o c r b i t a l n i h i g h t . I t a l s o c a l c u l a t e s s i g n i f i c a n t orb i t a l e v e n t t i m e s and d e t e r m i n e s ;::c day-night o r b i t a l phase and t h e t i m e remaini n g i n each phase. I t computes t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p o f t h e o r b i t 1 p l a n e t o t h e e q u a t o r i a l p l a n e , and t h e o r i e n t a t i o n o f :he Sun v e c t o r r e l a t l v e t o t h e o r b i t a l p l a n e . I t a l s o m a i n t a i n s m i s s i o n t4.me. A l l t h e c o m p u t a t i o n s assume a c i r c u l a r o r b i t and i g n o r e t h e movement o f t h e E a r t h a b o u t t h e Sun and t h e r e z r e s s i o n c f t h e l o n g i t u d e of t h e o r b i t a l n s c e n d i n g node L .tween o r b i t a l m i d n i g h t s . 2'0 ccm1 p e n s a t e f o r t h e r e s u l t i n g d r i f t , 1 n a v i g a t i o n p a r a m e t e r s can be ~ p d a t e dbp ground c o n t r o l by means of t h e d i g i t a l command s y s t e r The f l i g h t program u s e s t h e c o ~ p u t a t i o n st o d e t e r m i n e A t t i t u d e Control.t h e a t t i t u d e e r r o r . The r a t e gyro o u t p u t s a r e compared w i t h t h e commanded r a t e s a t c d e t e r m i n e t h r a t e e r r o r . The a t t i t u d e and r a t e e r r o r s i ~ n a l s r e combined, m o d i f i e d by t h e a p p r o p r i a t e g a i n s , p a s s e d t h r o c g h d i g i t a l bending mode f i l t e r s , and m e d t o d r i v e t h e c o n t r o l l a w l o g i c c i r c u i t s f c r t h e c o n t r o l moment g y r o s . The c o n t r o l law s e c t i o n u s e s t h e t h r e e commands from t h e bending mode f 7 -~ t e r s l and t h e a r i t t n t a t i o n of t h e c o n t r o l mon~snt gyro momentum v e c t o r s t o g e n e r a t e t h e s i x c o n t r o l moment gyro gimbal s t ~ e r i n gand r o t a t i o n commands. These commands a r e modified t o minimize t h e p o s s i b i l i t y of d r i v i n g t h e g i m b a l s i n t o t h e s t o p s , and t o keep t h e gimbal rates w i t h i n l i m i t s . I f c o n t r o l moment gyro momentum approaches s a t u y a t i o n , t h e f l i g h t program f i r e s a s i n g l e t h r u s t e r t o r e d u c e t h e momentm i n t h e a x i s most a f f e c t e d . Should t h e a t t i t u d e e r r o r excecd 20 d e ~ , r e e s i n any a x i s , t h e f l i g h t program would s w i t c h c o n t r o l t o t h e t h r u s t e r c o n t r o l system, which would t h e n r e d u c e t h e a t t i t u d e e r r o r s t o z e r o . I n t h r u s t e r - c n l y c o n t r o l , t h e a t t i t u d e and r a t e e r r o r s a r e combined, p a s s e d t h r o u g h d i g i t a l bendi n g mode f i l t e r s , and u s e l t o d r i v e t h e t ! r u s t e r c o n t r o l system. The c o n t r o l law l o g i c c i r c u i t r y p r o v i d e s t h r u s t e r f i r i n g ccmrnands t o r e d u c e r a t e and a t t i t u d e e r r o r s t o z e r o when t h e c o n t r o l deadbands a r e exceeded. T h r u s t e r p u l s e and f u l l - o n f i r i n g s a r e g e n e r a t e d by a weighted sum o f p o s i t i o n and r a t e e r r o r s . I f t h i s sum exceeds c o n t r o l law l e d g e l i m i t s , f u l l - o n f i r i n g s a r e commanded. The commanded S a t u r n Wurkshop a n g u l a r v e l o c i t y i s l i m i t e d by l i m i t i n g t h e a t t i t u d e e r r o r used i n t h e c o n t r o l e q u a t i o n s . F i g u r e 6-10 d e f i n e s t h e phase p l a n e of t h e t h r u s t e r - o n l y c o n t r o l law.

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F i g u r e 6-10.-

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Two t y p e s o f m a n c u v r r s c o u l d be : e r f o r n e d , c f f s e t p o i n t i n g and !.:aneuvers g e n e r a l p u r p o s e . O f f s e t p o i n r i n g p a n e u v e r s c a n o n l y be p e r f o r n e d i n t h e s o l a r i n e r t i a l DOC!€, a r e l i m i t e d t o f4 d e g r e e s a b o u t t;.e X and Y a x e s , and a r e p e r formed by b i a s i n g t n e Sun ser.sor e r r o r s i g n a l k p u i t o t h e c o n p u t e r by t h e d e s i r e d an3unc t c produce an a t t i t u d e e r r o r . The s y s t e m t h e n r e d u c e s t h e a t t i t u d e s r r o r t o z e r o , which p r o d u c e s t h e d e s i r e d u f f s e ~ . These maneuvers c a n b e conmanded e i t h e r by t h e crew a t t h e c m t r o l ar,d d i s p l a y c o n s o l e , o r by g r ~ ~ d ; : c o n t r o l 5 means of t h e d t g i t a l command s y s t e m . G e n e r a l p u r p o s e maneuvers ir.v o l v e m a n e m e r i n g co a r b i t r c r y time v a r i a n t o r i n e r t i a i a t t i t u d e s , and i n c l u d e E a r t h o b s e r v a t i o n maneuvers, a t t i t u d e h o l d maneuvers, and c o n t r o l moment g y r o s y s t e m nomentun d e s a t u r a t i o n maneuvers. These maneuvers u s e a c o n s t a n t maneuver r a t e which is dependent on t h e d e s i r e d maneuver a n g l e and iko p r e d i c t e d t i m e t o c o m p l e t e t h e maneuver. The s c n t r c l noment gyro c c n t r o l l a w l o g i c i s u s e d i n a r a t e - o n l y rncde t o f o r c e t h e S a t u r n iiorkshop a n g u l a r r o t a t i o n a x i s t o c o i n c j d e v i ~h t h e d e s i r e d maneuver r o t a t i o n a x i s . The m a n e u v e r i n s scheme s p e c i f i e s t h e desired a t t i t a d e reference coordinate system p o s i t i o n with respect t o t h e s o l a r i n e r t i a l a t : i t u d e , b a s e d on t h e maneuver corrmands. T h i s p o s i t i o n i s constant::campared t a t h e S a t u r n iiorkskop a t t i t u d e t o g e n e r a t e an i n s t a n t a n e o u s a t t i t c d e e r r o r between t h e p o s i t i o n and tile d e s i r e d p o s i t i o n . A maneuver t i m e i s s p e c i f i e d and decremented a s t h e manecver p r o g r e s s e s . R a t e commands a r e c o m p ~ ~ t eby d i v i d d Fng t h e a t t i t u d e e r r o r s by t h e r e m a i n i n g maneuver t i m e . When t h e r e m a i n i n g maneuv e r time r e a c h e s 50 s e c o n d s , t i m e i n t h - c o m p u t a t i o n i z f r o z e n a t 6 C s e c o n d s , which c a u s e s t h e r a t e con~mands t o d e c r e a s e g r a d u a l l y t o z e r o . When t h e maneuver time r u n s o u t , t h e c o c t r o l law l o g i c i s s w i t c h e d b a c k t o u s i n g r a t e e r r o r p l u s a t t i t u d e e r r Q r , alld any r e m a i n i n g p o s i t i o n e r r o r s a r e r e d u c e d t o z e r o . F o r E a r t h o b s e r v a t i o n maneuvers, t h e a t t i t u d e r e f e r e n c e c o o r d i n a t e s y s t e m i s f o r c e d to rot a t e a b o u t t h e Y a x i s a t o r b i t a l r a t e . A f t e r t h e E a r t h observation a t t i t u d e is a t t a i n e d , t h e a t t i t u d e r e f e r e n c e c o o r d i n a t e s y s t e m is t r a c k e d t o m a i n t a i n a t t i t u d e . C o n t r o l inoment g y r o d e s a t u r a t i o n maneuvers a r e commanded by t h e momentum mqagement st-ibroutlne i n t h e f l i g h t program. The b a s i s f o r momen turn exclianze i s t h e c o n s e r v a t i o n of momentum. The to:al s y s t e m momentum i s made up c f S a t u r n jlorkshop monentum p l u s c o n t r o l moment g y r o momentum and i s c o n s t r a i n e d s o t h a t t h e

.-

change i n S a t u r n Worishop momentum i s z e r o . Any change I I i S a t u r n Workshop momentum caused by e x t e r n a l t o r q u e s , such a s g r a v i t y g r a d i e n t and v e n t i n g s , is compens a t e d f a r by an equal and o p p o s i t e change i n c o n t r o l moment gyro momentum. Gravlty g r a d i e n t and aerodynamic t o r q u e s a r e c y c l i c a i , however, and t h e r e f o r e s t o r e up and r e l e a s e momentum, s o t h e i r e f f e c t s on t h e c o n t r o l moment gyros is s l i g h t . Any noncyc1.i~ e x t e r n a l t o r q u e s a c t i n g on t h e S a t u r n Workshop w i l l cause a n e t c o n t r o l moment gyro nomentum b u i l d u p . Because of t h e l i m i t e d momentum scorage c a p a c i t y o i t h e contra: moment gyros, t h i s momentun! buildup w i l l eventuall;! cause c o n t r o l inoment gyro s a t u r a t i o n and l o s s o f a t t i t u d e c o n t r o l about t h e a x i s of saturation. S e v e r a l techniques a r e used t o avoid momentun s a t u r a t i o n and reduce momentum a c c u n u l a t i o n . The n o n c y c l i c g r a v i t y g r a d i e n t t o r q u e s a r e minimized by maintaini n g t!le axis of minimum moment of i n e r t i a ( t h e X ~ x i s )i n o r n e a r t h r o r b i t a l plane. The s a t u r a t i o n e f f e c t s of t h e remaining n o n c y c l i c d i s t u r b a n c e t o r q u e s a r e m L l i f i e d by maneuvering t o produce c o n t r c l l e d g r a v i t y g r a d i e n t b i a s t o r q u e s d u r i n g t h e n i g h t p o r t i o n of each o r b i t t h a t tend t o d e s a t u r a t e t h e c o n t r o l moment gyro systern. The f l i g h t prggram o b t a i n s i n f o r m a t i o n about gyro momentilm accumul a t i o n by sampling t h e normalized components of t h e nomenturn f o u r times d u r i n g t h e day p o r t i o n of each o r b i t . This i n f o r n a t i o n I used t o e s t a b l i s h a momentum . , b i a s , a momentum d r i f t , a i ~ da change i n momentum d r i f t . A weighted sumnstion is then used t o t o m body a x i s momentum commands. Thest momentum commands a r e used t o develop t h r e e s u c c e s s i v e t h r e e - a x i s maneuvers wh2.c;! a r e performed d u r i n g t h e n i g h t p o r t i o n of each o r b i t . These maneuvers produce c o n t r o l l e d g r a v i t y g r a d i e n t b i a s t o r q u e s which tend t o reduce t h e c o n r r o l momen; gyro momentum. 'The t h i r d maneuver a l s o i n c l u d e s a Z-axis r o t a t i o n which o p t i m i z e s t h e p o s i t i o n o f t h e X a x i s r e l a t i v e t c t h e o r b i t a l p l a n e f o r t h e next o r b l t . I n a d d i t i o n , a s i n g l e t h i - u s t s r is f i r e d around t h e a p p r o ? r i a t e a x i s i f monentun! approaches s a t u r a t i o a . I f the gyros become s a t u r a t e d , they can be caged t o t h e normal momentum configur a t i a n f o r t h e o r b i t a l p o s i t i o n , and the t h r ~ s t e r sf i r e d t o reduce t h e r e s u l t i n g v e h i c l e r a t e s t o zero. Redundant Components Management.F a i l u r e s which could cause l o s s o f t h r u s t e r p r o ~ e l l a n t , l o s s of a t t i t u d e r e f e r e n c e , o r l o s s of c o a t r o l a r e d e t e c t e d &?d e l i m i n a t e d a u t o m a t i c a l l y by redundant c o G p x e n t management i n t h e computer. The components monitored i n c l u d e t h e c o n t r o l moment g y r o s , t h e r a t e gyros, t h e Sun s e n s o r s , and t h e d i g i t a l conpvter. T e s t s a r e perforned t o v e r i f y t h a t each component is f u n c t i o n i n g p r o p e r l y . When f a i l u r e s a r e d e t e c t e d , t h e f a i l e d cornponent is removed from t h e system. This a u t o m a t i c capability i s backed up by a manual component s w i t ~ h i n gc a p a b i l i t y a t t h e c o n t r o l and d i s p l a y p a n e l . I n a d d i t i o n , component s w i t c h i n g can be cow.anded from t h e ground by means of t h e d i g i t a l comiiand system. 6.1.4 Mission Performance

A t 19 :a7 GIXL on Day 1, n e a r the end of t h e f i r s t F i r s t Unmanned Period o r b i t , spinup 3 f t h e c o n t r o l moment gyros was begun and t h e d i g i t a l computer ent e r e d t h e standby mode u n t i l c o n t r o l could be switched from t h e i n s t r u m e n t u n i t ' s f l i g h t c o n t r o l computer. Thc temperature of r a t e gyro Z 1 was i n c r e a s i n g , irld a t 20:i3 Gmt i t went o f f s c a l e high. A t about t h e same time, t h e Y-axis r a t e gyro o u t p u t began d r i f t i n g a t rates c o n s i d e r a b l y g r e a t e r thaii p r e d i c t e d . A t t i t u d e c o n t r o l t r a n s f e r r e d from t h e instrument u n i t t o t h e s o l a r o b s e r v a t o r y system at about 22:20 G m t . A t t h i s same time, c o n t r o l was switched t o t h e c o n t r o l moment gyro system. Three minutes l a t e r , t h e 22 r a t e gyro temperature went o f f s c a i e

.-

high. high.

1.d r a t e gyro (Y2) temperature went o f f s c a l e A t 5:17 Gnlt on Day 2 , t h e E v e n t u a l l y , t h r e e more g y r ~ making a t o t a l of s i x , became h o t .

The r a t e gyro o u t p u t s continued t o d r i f t a t g r e a t e r r a t e s than p r e d i c t e d . During t h e f i r s t 24 hours o f a t t i t u d e c o n t r o l system o p e r a t i o n , e x c e s s i v e d r i f t w a s noted i n a l l t h r e e X-axis r a t e gyros, two of t h e t h r e e Y-axis r a t e gyros, and t x o of t h e t h r e e Z-axis r a t e gyros. The h i g h d r i f t r a t e s were compensated i n t h e d i g i t a l computer program by changes uplinked f r o u t h e g r o ~ n d ;however, t h e d r i f t r a t e s o f t e n changed suddenly. T h i s caused d i f f i c u l t y u n t i l t h e nev d r i f t r a t e s could ue measured and compensated. A f t e r t h e l o s s o f t h e meteoroid s h i e l d d u r i n g launch, t h e r e was c o n s i d e r a b l e e x p e r i m e n t a t i o n t o f i n d a n a t t i t u d e t h a t would keep t e m p e r a t u r e s w i t h i n t h e workshop as low a s p o s s i b l e , y e t p r o v i d e enough power t o keep t h e S a t u r n Workshop o p e r a t i u n a l . F i n a l l y , t h e docking a d a p t e r end of t h e S a t u r n Workshop w a s p i t c h e d 45 degrees toward t h e Sun. T h i s reduced t h e workshop h e s t i n g and maintained an adequats power c u t p u t from t h e s o l a r p a n e l s . The X a x i s w a s kept i n t h e o r b i r a l p l a n e t o minimize c o n t r o l moment gyro momentm a c c u n u l a t i o n . T h i s a t t i t u d e was c a l l e d t h e thermal a t t i t u d e . I n t h e thermal a t t i t u d e , t h e r e was no way t o upd a t e t h e d i g i t a l computer a t t i t u d e r e f e r e n c e . As a r e s u l t t h e r a t e gyro d r i f t f r e q u e n t l y caused t h e S a t u r n Workshop t o d r i f t o u t of t h e thermal a t t i t u d e . Ground c o c t r o l monitored s o 2 a r p a n e l o u t p u t and c o n t r o l moment gyro somentum t o maintain knowledge of t h e S a t u r n Workshop's a t t i t u d e , and s e n t commands when n e c e s s a r y t o maneuver i t back t o t h e thermzl a t t i t u d e . h During t h e thermal a t t i ~ u d e o l d p e r i o d , t h e many a t t i t u d e c o n t r o l m a n e w z r s caused a heavy e x p e n d i t u r e of t h r u s t e r p r o p e l l a n t . Each maneuver had t o be planned c a r e f u l l y t o minimize J s e o f t h e t h r u s t e r s . The momentum management scheme, s i n c e i t was designed t o o p e r a t e o n l y i n t h e s o l a r i n e r t i a l a t t i t u d e , could n o t be used. Momentum management worked n o m a l l y on one o c c a s i o n d u r i n g a temporary r e t u r n t o t h e s o l a r i n e r t i a l o r i e n t a t i o n on Day 2. The o n l y means used t o d e s a t u r a t e t h e c o n t r o l moment gyros i n t h i s p e r i o d was the r e s e t r o u t i n e . Because t h e r e s e t r o u t i n e caged t h e gyros t o t h e s p e c i f i e d momentum v a l u e f o r s o l a r i n e r t i a l a t t i t u d e , r e s e t s could o n l y be commanded a t o r b i t a l p o i n t s where s o l a r i n e r t i a l and thermal a t t i t u d e normal momentum curves i n t e r s e c t e d . I n a d d i t i o n , adequate ground s t a t i o n coverage w a s r e q u i r e d f o r t h e s e p o i n t s . Rate gyro d r i f t caused movement of t h e X a x i s o u t of t h e o r b i t p l a n e , and t h e r e s u l t i n g momentum b i a s caused f r e q u e n t c o n t r o l moment g.;ro s a t u r a t i o n s and Frequent r e s e t s , w i t h t h e consequent h i g h u s e o f t h r u s t e r propell-ant. F i r s t Manned Period.For rendezvous, t h e S a t u r n Workshop d i d n o t maneuver as planned t o t h e rendezvous a t t i t u d e , b u t remained i n t h e r e q u i r e d thermal a t t i tude. High t h r u s t e r gas usage continued a s f r e q u e n t c o n r r o l moment gyro r e s e t s occurred. A d d i t i o n a l high gas usage was r e q u i r e d when t h e crew i n t h e d r i f c i n g command module attempted t o f r e e t h e p a r t i a l l y deployed s o l a r a r r a y w h i l e t h e a t t i t u d e c o n t r o l system was i n t h e t h r u s t e r - o n l y c o n t r o l mode. S e v e r a l unsucc e s s f u l docking a t tempts b e f o r e hard dock was achieved a l s o caused t h r u s t e r f i r i n g s . A f t e r t h e p a r a s o l thermal s h i e l d was deployed, t h e S a t u r n Workshop maneuvered t o t h e s o l a r i n e r t i a l a t t i t u d e and normal a t t i t u d e c o n t r o l began. T h e r e a f t e r , t h r u s t e r u s e was low arrd u s u a l l y r e s u l t e d from maneuvers t o o t h e r a t t i t u d e s o r s i g n i f i c a n t venting. Because of t h e e a r l y mission problems and t h e thermal extremes experienced bv t h e v e h i c l e , a manual switchover t o t h e secondary computer system wes performed on Day 27. This was a test t o v e r i f y t h a t t h e redundant c a p a b i l i t y o f

t h e computer subsystem was f u n c t i o n a l . The crew s e l e c t e d t h e secondary computer and enabled automatic switchovcr. The secondary computer system turned ou and began o p e r a t i n g properly. During the next 2 days, t h e prograu w a s updztted t o t h e l e v e l of t h e primary comFuter by u p l i n k i n g t h r e e program patches necessary t o compensate f o r t h e c o n t i n u a l r a t e gyro anomalies and t h e v e h i c l e mass change caused by l o s s of sol-ar a r r a y wing 2 ar.d t h e meteoroid s h i e l d .
On s e v e r a l occasions during t h e f i r s t manned period t h e s t a r t r a c k e r erroneously locked onto o b j e c t s o t h e r t b n t h e required s t a r . A procedure w a s formulated which avoided these s i t u a t i o n s , and t h u s a l l e v i a t e d t h e problem.

During t h e second unmanned period, t h e time of Second Unmanned Period.t h e d e s a t u r a t i o n maneuver w a s decreased by about 20 percent t o prevent extending t h e s e maneuvers i n t o t h e d a y l i g h i p o r t i o n o f t h e o r b i t . This precaution w a s necessary t o p r o t e c t an experiment whose a p e r t u r e door was f a i l i n g t o o p e r a t e automatically. Before t h e second manned period t h e d e s a t u r a t i o n time was increased t o normal and remained so f o r t h e rest of t h e mission. The Y 3 and 21 r a t e gyros produced extremely noisy o u t p u t s because cf high temperature and were turned o f f on Day 59. Others continued t o d r i f t with r a t e s as high a s 18 d e g l h r , two o r d e r s of magnitude g r e a t e r than s p e c i f i e d . The iriit i a l l y observed d r i f t s were s u c c e s s f u l l y compensated with b i a s e s uplinked t o t h e d i g i t a l computer. As t i m e passed i n t h e mission, t h e magnitudes of r e q u i r e d b i a s c o r r e c t i o n s lessened. During t h i s periqd i n v e s t i g a t i o n s t o determine t h e cause of high d r i f t s were completed. A crash program began t o prepare a package of supplementary r a t e gyros t h a t could be used should a d d i t i o n a l f a i l u . r e s t h r e a t e n t o caose d s s i o n t e r n i n a t i o n . N t h r u s t e r s w e r e used during t h e second unmanned period s i n c e t h e a t t i o tude c o n t r o l system performed normally with t h e v e b i c l e i n t h e s o l a r i n e r t i a l attitude. Second Manned Period.O Day 7 6 t h e second crew rendezvoused with t h e n Saturn WorLshop and began a flyaround i n s p e c t i o n . Because of r e a c t i o n c o n t r o l jet impingement on t h e p a r a s o l thermal s h i e l d , t h e flyaround was ended earlier than planned. Tine impingement f o r c e s a l s o caused increased use of t h e Saturn Workshop's t h r u s t e r s . The command and s e r v i c e module docked t o t h e Saturn Workshop with t h e a t t i t u d e c o n t r o l system i n t h e a t t i t u d e - h o l d , thruszers-only m d e .
On Day 79 t h e s t a r t r a c k e r s h u t t e r f a i l e d t o c l o s e when d e s a t u r a t i o n maueuv e r s began. T ~ P crew a l s o t r i e d unsuccessfully t o c l o s e the s h u t t e r u s i n g manual c o n t r o l . The same s h u t t e r problem recurred l a t e r . I n a l l cases, t h e s h u t t e r would c l o s e c o r r e c t l y a f t e r s e v e r a l hours. A p r o t e c t i v e procedure w a s developed t o prevent permanent damage t o t h e star t r a c k e r photomultiplier by exposme t o r e f l e c t e d l i g h t from t h e Earth o r t h e Sun while t h e s h u t t e r was open. This procedure included parking t h e t r a c k e r s o t h a t i t looked a t t h e dark, r e a r s u r f a c e of t h e s o l a r a r r a y s .

During a normal d e s a t u r a t i o n maneuver on Day 91 c e r t a i n events occurred t h a t r e s u l t e d i n l o s s of a t t i t u d e c o n t r o l and considerable t h r u s t e r gas usage. A f t e r an automatic Z-axis redmdancy management test f a i l e d , a d d i t i o n a l momentum w a s comanded t o b r i n g t h e c o n t r o l l i n g r a t e gyro so t h e required r a t e . The a d d i t i o n a l momentum requirement forced t h e control momem gyro i n t o s a t u r a t i o n and siphoned momentum from t h e X a x i s a t t h e same t i m e . The X-axis momentum change produced

a n uncontrolled r a t e and r e s u l t e d i n a 20-degree a t t i t u d e e r r o r buildup i n t h e X a x i s which caused a high r a t e alarm and a n automatic switch t o thruster-only control. During t h i s period, t h e crew noted that panel meters i n d i c a t e d t h a t c o n t r o l moment gyros 1 and 3 were on a s t o p . The gimbals v e r e a c t u a l l y caged. During 2 l a t e r test, t h e f a l s e reading problem was observed only on t h e c o n t r o l moment &yro 1 measurement. Because o f t h e continuing r a t e gyro problems, one of t h e foremost concerns was t h e i n s t a l l a t i o n of t h e six supplementary rate gyros t h a t wzre provided fo-: contingency. The crew mounted t h e "six pack" in t h e Cocking adaptez, and on Day 103 performed an e x t r a v e h i c u l a r a c t i v i t y t o complete t h e i n s t a l l a t i o i l by making t h e c a b l e connections t o t h e s o l a r observatory. Since t h e r a t e gyros a r e essential t o t h e a t t i t u d e c o n t r o l system, no a t t i t u d e c a n t r o l w a s p o s s i b l e during t h e c a b l e switching period. The command and s e r v i c e d u l e was n o t used f o r c o n t r o l because of problems in i t s r e a c t i o n c o n t r o l system. The following procedure was developed t o allow t h e v e h i c l e t o d r i f t d u r i n g t h e switching of t h e gyros:

a. I n thruster-only mode, d r i v e the gyros t o normal nunuenturr: cage. b. Change t o gyro c o n t r o l t o allow a t t i t u d e e r r o r s in t h e t h r u s t e r deadband t o be brought t o zero. c. Chaqge t o standSy mode f o r f r e e d r i f t , but r e t u r n t h e gyros t o normal momentum cage, h i c h provides approximate compensation f o r g r a v i t y g r a d i e n t torques. d. Perform wiring changes. e. Return t o gyro c o n t r o l and r e a c q u i r e s o l a r i n e r t i d a t t i t u d e .
The supplementary rate gyros were i n s t a l l e d i n t h e system and operated s a t i s factorily. On Day 106 c a l i b r a t i o n n s z a v e r s were made t o e s t a b l i s h supplementary gyro alignment t o v e h i c l e axes. Mane~vzrsof approximately 5 degrees were made about each a x i s while t h e c o n t r o l system d a t a were c o l l e c t e d by ground support. Analysis of t h e d a t a by t h e mission support team showed t h e misalignm2nt w a s very small and no compensation i n t h e f l i g h t program was required. On Day 119 a veh i c l e s t a b i l i t y t e s t using s o l a r observatory d a t a v e r i f i e d t h a t s t a b i l i t y was w i t h i n bounds acceptable f o r f u t u r e viewing of t h e Comet Kohoutek.

On Day 130 a maneuver w a s made t o p o i a t the s o l a r observatory a t a s t a r f o r X-ray photography. The maneuver was s x c e s s f u l and used minimum t h r u s t e r gas. The maneuver technique was l a t e r used e x t e n s i ~ e l y t h e Comet Kohoutek s t u d i e s . in
Third Unmanned Period.- Between t h e second and t h i r d manned periods t h e a t t i t u d e c o n t r o l system performed very w e l l , with no t h r u s t e r f i r i n g s . Ttiird Manned Period.- On Day 190, t h e crew modified t h e lower body negat i v e p r e s s u r e vent s o t h a t i t vented i n t o t h e waste tank i n s t e a d of d i r e c t l y overboard. This decreased t h e d i s t u r b a n c e torque which t h e venting caused. Control moment gyro 1 f a i l e d between t r a c k i n g s t a t i o n s on Day 194 a t approximately 8:15 Gmt. A t t h e preceding t r a c k i n g s t a t i o n (Honeysuckle), c o n t r o l moment gyro 1 phase A c u r r e n t was observed t o i n c r e a s e by 65 m i l l i a n p e r c s , b e a r i n g 1 temperature increased S°C, and wheel speed decreased 120 rpm. A t a c q t l i s i t i o n of s i g n a l a t Bermudh (8:42 Gmt), t h e phase A c u r r e n t was 2.06 amperes, bearing 1

temperature w a s 82OC, and wheel speed was i n d i c a t i n g 0 rpm. A speed of approxllnately 3800 rpm was i n f e r r e d from t h e wheel c u r r e n t s . Beginning a t 8:50 G m t , t h e c o n t r o l moment gyro 1 brake was applied f o r 7 minutes and c o n t r o l switched t o t h e two-control-moment-gyro mode.
The f a i l u r e of c o n t r o l noment gyro 1 caused an i n c r e a s e i n t h r u s t e r propell a n t use and a curtailment of maneuvering u n t i l a program could be evolved using t h e computer two-gyro c o n t r o l law program. Subsequent procedures enabled f u l l o p e r a t i o n of mission o b j e c t i v e s and minimized t h r u s t e r use.

Additional maneuvers were made t o support t h e e x t e n s i v e study of Comet Kohoutek during t h i s period. The a t t i t u d e c o n t r o l system maneuvered Skylab t o a i m t h e s o l a r observatory a t Mercury t o v e r i f y instrument c a p a b i l i t y and rnaneuv e r accuracy. Two e x t r a v e h i c u l a r a c t i v i t i e s were performed f o r photography o f Comet Kohoutek. The s t a r t r a c k e r f a i l e d on Day 228. Telemetry d a t a were analyzed and labo r a t o r y tests made t o d u p l i c a t e t h e f a i l u r e . OpzraLion of t h e s t a r t r a c k e r w a s stopped, s o t h e Z-axis update c a p a b i l i t y was l o s t . A l t e r n a t e techniques t o c a l c u l a t e t h e v e h i c l e r o l l r e f e r e n c e were begun on t h e ground. Tesi; and O r b i t a l Stor2ge.- A f t e r t h e t h i r d crew departed, t h e following engineering tests were performed on t h e a t t i t u d e c o n t r o l subsystems t h a t had experienced problems and on redundant hardware o r c a p a b i l i t i e s t h a t had not been used during the mission: a. Control moment gyro 1 attempted spinup Power was a p p l i e d t o t h e wheel o motor f o r 8.5 hours. N wheel s p i n was d e t e c t e d .
A l l r a t e gyros were turned on and those which b. Rate gyro power up had e x h i b i t e d erratic o u t p u t s o r o f f s c a l e tetrperatures were observed. Operation was not s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t from t h a t observed previously.

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The computer was s u c c e s s f u l l y reprogramed c. D i g i t a l computer reprogram twice, once using t h e d i g i t a l command system and once using t h e memory load u n i t . The procedures f o r t h e memory load t e s t included a m i t c h o v e r t o t h e primary computer and loading a s e l e c r e d program from t h e onboard r e c o r d e r while over t h e Goldstone ground s t a t i o n . The proper commands were s e n t , and telemetry v e r i f i e d t h a t the d e s i r e d program had been loaded i n t o t h e ccmputer. The test of using t h e d i g i t a l command system f o r memory loading was more complex, r e q u i r i n g two passes over Hawaii t o complete t h e process. O the f i r s t n a command t o execuce t h e load was s e n t t o t h e computer a t 16:08 Gmt. A s pass, t h e Saturn Workshop passed over Vanguard, telemetry v e r i f i e d proper response t o t h e d a v a i i command. A t t h e next a c q u i s i t i o n of s i g n a l by Hawaii, a t approximately 17:OO G m t , the ground tape recording of t h e computer program was s t a r t e d , t r a n s m i t t i n g the d a t a t o t h e computer. Telemetry v e r i f i e d t h a t t h e 16,384-word load was s u c c e s s f u l l y completed 1 seconds l a t e r . This marked the f i r s t time t h a t an 1 i n f l i g h t conlptter had been loaded using a radiofrequency uplink. O Day 272 Skylab was manemered t o a s t a b l e g r a v i t y g r a d i e n t a t t i t u d e with n t h e docking a d a p t e r p o h t e d away from the Earth. The a t t i t u d e c o n t r o l system was turned o f f a t 20:OO Gmt on Day 272.

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6.1.5

System Perfoxmance

Dynamic S t a b i l i t y . - The dynamic behavior of t h e a t t i t u d e e r r o r a s t h e s o l a r i n e r t i a l a t t i t c d e was acquired f o r t h e f i r s t time using c o n t r o l moment gyros (on Day 2 a t 11:48 &it) is shown i n f i g u r e 6-11. During an unmanned, period on Day 2, observed p o i n t i n g accuracies in a l l axes were 0.4 arc-min with an unc e r t a i n t y of 0.4 arc-min. S t a b i l i t y f o r 15-minute i n t e r v a l s was a l s o 0.4 f0.4 arc-min. J i t t e r was observed t o be about 0.4 arc-min/sec. During a manned, quiescent period on Day 1 4 , t h e p o i n t i n g accuracies observed were a s good as they w e r e i n t h e msanned period, but t h e s t a b i l i t y and j i t t e r e r r o r s incraased s l i g h t l y . Worst s t a b i l i t y w a s 1.4 arc-min, and worst j i t t e r was 1.2 arc-rninlsec. This performance observed e a r l y i n t h e mission w a s w e l l within system performance requirements.

0

20

40

60

80 100 Tilie i n seconds'

120

140

160

180

200

Figure 6-11.-

A t t i t u d e e r r o r during i n i t i a l s o l a r i n e r t i a l a t t i t u d e a c q u i s i t i o n with c o n t r o l moment gyros.

S p e c i a l Maneuvers.- The f i r s t week of almost constant maneuvering In the thermal a t t i t u d e gave confidence i n t h e v e h i c l e maneuvering c a p a b i l i t y . A f t e r t h e i n s t a l l a t i o n of t h e thermal s h i e l d and t h e r e a c q u i s i t i o n of s o l a r i n e r t i a l a t t i t u d e , a wide v a r i e t y of a t t i t u d e hold maneuvers were performed. These maneuv e r s were f o r r a t e gyro c a l i b r a t i o n , Comet Kohoutek observation, and X-ray s t e l l a r photography. The f i r s t r a t e gyro c a l i b r a t i o n maneuvers were performed t o check t h e s c a l e f a c t o r of t h e r a t e gyros with r e s p e c t t o each o t h e r and with r e s p e c t t o t h e a c q u i s i t i o n Sun sensor. Afte? t h e i n s t a l l a t i o n of the s i x supplementary gyros, a second s e t of maneuvers was performed t o cheek th,?ir aldgnments t o v e h i c l e axes. The maneuvers showed t h i s alignment t o be a c c u r a t e enough t h a t no addit i o n a l computer compensation was required.

The study of t h e Comet Kohoutek was an unplanned opportunity r e q u i r i n g t h e development of ground software and f l i g h t procedures. I n o r d e r t o v e r i f y i n s t r u ment c a p a b i l i t y and t h e accuracy of manetlvering t o a b r i g h t t a r g e t , a maneuver t o p o i n t t h e s o l a r telescopes a t t h e p l a n e t Mercury was performed. The success of t h e maneuver l e d t o t h e planning of a v a r i e t y of maneuvers t o i n v e s t i g a t e the Comet Kohoutek. Three types of maneuvers were required f o r Comet Kohoutek experiments. The f i r s t , c o n s i s t i n g of a r o l l about t h e X p r i n c i p a l a x i s , was f o r the purpose of observing Comet Kohoutek with experiment instruments viewing through an a r t i c u l a t e d mirror system l o c a t e d i n t h e s c i e n t i f i c a i r l o c k . A s these maneuvers were about t h e X a x i s , t h e r e were u s u a l l y no problems with t h r u s t e r usage o r gimbal s t o p problems. The only problems occurred with gimbal s t o p s during two-gyro c o ~ t r o l o - some of t h e l a r g e s t maneuvers. The second f type of maneuver pointed t h e s o l a r t e l e s c o p e s a t t h e Comet Kohoutek and maintained t h e X a x i s i n t h e c r b i t p l a n t . A s t h e s e maneuvers required v e h i c l e r a t e s about both Y and Z axes a s w e l l a s t h e X a x i s , they g e n e r a l l y required e x t e n s i v e optimization i n terms of maneuver r a t e s , maneuver s t a r t and srop times, and momentum b i a s e s during two-gyro c o n t r o l t o minimize t h r u s t e r use. The t h i r d r type of maneuver, used only during er-+ a v e h i c u l a r a c t i v i t y , involved a r o t a t i o n about t h e X a x i s t o have t h e s o l a r pane;- shade a camera held by a crewman. Maneuvers f o r X-ray s t e l l a r photography, from t h e a t t i t u d e system p o i n t of view, were s i m i l a r t o Comet Kohoutek maneuvers i n t h a t the s o l a r observatory was pointed a t a c e l e s t i a l r e f e r e n c e and t h e X a x i s was maintained i n t h e o r b i t a l plane. As t h e X-ray equipuient had no independent sensor t o help determine whether t h e t a r g e t was within t h e f i e l d of view, which was only 6 arc-min, s e v e r a l maneuvers produced no data. This was t h e only case of i n s u f f i c i e n t maneuver accuracy. Target a c q u i s i t i o n would have been p o s s i b l e with t h e Saturn Workshop's maneuvering c a p a b i l i t y i f t h e crew had been provided with t a r g e t detection capability.
I n t h e mode used f o r Earth observation an Earth Observation Maiieuvers.o r b i t a l rate of o p p r o x i ~ a t e l y0.064 deglsec is p r e s e n t on t h e v e h i c l e Y a x i s . a Maneuver b i a s c a p a b i l i t y allows t h e maintenance of an a r b i t r a r y v ~ h i c l e x i s perpendicular t o t h e l o c a l v e r t i c a l . This c a p a b i l i t y was designed p r i m a r i l y f o r rendezvous, br-t w a s n o t used a f t e r rendezvous when t h e s o l a r i n e r t i a l mode proved f e a s i b l e . It was used f o r Earth observation o f f s e t b i a s i n g with two c o n t r o l moment gyros and f o r i n s e r t i o n i n t o t h e g r a v i t y g r a d i e n t a t t i t u d e a t t h e end of the mission. Earth observation experiments were l i m i t e d t o s o l a r elevat i o n s i n t h e 0 t o 60 degrees range t o conserve t h r u s t e r p r o p e l l a n t s and elect r i c a l power.

During t h e mission, i t became apparent t h a t Earth observation experiment p e r f o m n c e c o n s t r a i n t s could be met by a v a r i e t y of mcneuvo-rs and provide minimum t h r u s t e r use with no t h r u s t e r use o r r e s e t s during data-gathering t i m e . The parameters t h a t could be v a r i e d included time and r a t e t o maneuver i n and out of t h e Earth observatioa a t t i t u d e and c o n t r o l moment gyro momentum b i a s . Earth observation passes were performed ( i f t h e s o l a r e l e v a t i o n angle was l e s s than 60 degrees) f o r data-gatherinq during t h e d a y l i g h t p o r t i o n of t h e o r b i t . After t h e l o s s of c o n t r o l moment gyro i , t h e f i r s t Earth observations under two-gyro c o n t r o l required h i s h t h r u s t e r usage. This l e d t o t h e technique of ncon-to-noon Earth observations, p o s s i b l e wkm c o l l e c t i n g r'ata through o r b i t a l noon was not required. The advantage of noon-to-noon passe.3 is t h a t l a r g e maneuv e r s about the v e h i c l e Y a x i s ( l a r g e i n e r t i a a x i s ) a r e not required during the maneuver t o 2 l o c a l v e r t i c a l when t h e e n t r y was a t o r b i t a l man.

The maneuver about t h e X a x i s t o p l a c e t h e 2 a x i s i n t h e o r b i t a l plane i s much l e s s demanding from t h e momentum s a t u r a t i o n a s p e c t , because t h e X-axis i n e r t i a i s much l e s s t h a n t h e Y- o r Z-axis i n e r t i a s . However, because o f t h e misalignment of t h e p r i n c i p a l X a x i s from t h e v e h i c l e X a x i s , L Y-axis momentum b i a s was generated. T h i s l e d t o t h e t e c h n i q u e of u s i n g t h e b i a s e d Z l o c a l v e r t i c a l maneuver t o m a i n t a i n t h e X axi; p e r p e n d i c u l a r t o t h e v e r t i c a l f o r t h e p o r t i o n o f t h e noon-to-noon E a r t h o b s e r v a t i c n s when d a t a were n o t taken and maneuvering t h e Z axis t o t h e v e r t i c a ; f o r c o l l e c t i n g d a t a . This tended t o minimize momentum accumulation. The prelaunch requirements had n o t allowed noon-to-noon E a r t h o b s e r v a t i o n s . However, power management procedures were developed t o minimize t h e workshop power requirements. Thus, d e s p i t e t h e l o s s of t h e s o l a r a r r a y wing, power proved adequate f o r noon-to-noon E a r t h o b s e r v a t i o n s .
A l l E a r t h o b s e r v a t i o n p a s s e s d u r i n g t h e f i r s t two manned p e r i o d s were made u s i n g three-gyro c o n t r o l , w h i l e a l l t h o s e d u r i n g t h e t h i r d manned p e r i o d were under two-gyro c o n t r o l . Excluding t h r e e E a r t h o b s e r v a t i o n p a s s e s in which proced u r a l problems o c c u r r e d , t h e f o l l o w i n g comparison can be made. Forty-eight E a r t h o b s e r v a t i o n p a s s e s were made under three-gyro c o n t r o l u s i n g a t o t a l o f 1549 N-sec of impulse. T h i r i y - s i x were made under two-gyro c o n t r o l u s i n g 12,300 N-sec. Therefore, E a r t h o b s e r v a t i o n p a s s e s performed under three-gyro c o n t r o l used an average o f a p p r o x i n a t e l y 31 N-sec impulse, w h i l e t h o s e performed under two-gyro c o n t r o l used a n average of 338 N-sec. Had t h e noon-to-noon maneuver n o t been used, t h r u s t e r USF! under two-gyro c o n t r o l wouid have been much h i g h e r . There were 102 E a r t h o b s e r v a t i o n p a s s e s scheduled d u r i n g t h e Skylab m i s s i o n , o f which 93 were flcwn.

D e s a t u r a t i o n Maneuvers.-- The S a t u r n Workshop w a s t h e f i r s t space v e h i c l e t o u s e maneuvers f o r momentum d e s a t u r a t i o n , and t h e s e worked extremely w e l l . The d e s a t u r a t i o n scheme allowed two unmanned p e r i o d s w i t h o u t any t h r u s t e r u s e and saved a c o n s i d e r a b l e amount of t h r u s t e r g a s d u r i n g t h e manned p e r i o d s . One 2roblem a r o s e from t h e i n t e r f a c e of t h e d e s a t u r a t i o n scheme and t h e s t a r t r a c k e r , which pave a d i r e c t i n d i c a t i o n of t h e a n g l e of t h e X a x i s t o t h e o r b i t plane. When t h e t r a c k e r performed normally, t h i s a n g l e provided u s e f u l informat i o n f o r t h e momentum management scheme. However, t h e e t ? r t r a c k e r e r r o n e o u s l y locked onto o b j e c t s o t h e r t h a n t h e r e q u i r e d s t a r on s e v e r a l o c c a s i o n s d u r i n g t h e First manned p e r i o d . T h i s caused t h e o u t e r gimbal a n g l e i n p u t t o be i n a c c u r a t e . On one occasion t h e erroireous i n p u t s were r e c e i v e d j u s t b e f o r e calcu1a:ion of t h e momentum d e s a t u r a t i o n maneuvers. T h i s caused t h e momentum management scheme t o produce less-than-optimum momentum s t a t e s . To avoid t h e s e s i t u a t i o n s , s t a r t r a c k e r c o n t r o l and o u t e r gimbal use were i n h i b i t e d , t h e d e s i r e d s t a r t r a c k e r gimbal a n g l e s were c a l c u l a t e d by ground s u p p o r t s o f t w a r e , t h e s t a r t r a c k e r was manually p o s i t i o n e d on t h e s t a r by t h e crew a t t h e c o n t r o l and d i s p l a y c o n s o l e , and computer s t a r t r a c k e r c o n t r o l and o u t e r gimbal use were resumed. This allowed a v a l i d o u t e r gimbal r e a d i n g t o be o b t a i n e d , a f t e r which s t a r t r a c k e r cont r o l and o u t e r gimbal u s e were i n h i b i t e d a g a i n . This procedure a l l e v i a t e d t h e problem w i t h t h e s t a r t r a c k e r r e a d i n g s . T h i s time-cons: ,ling procedure t o work around s t a r t r a c k e r f a l s e lock-on could have been avoided by having t h e a t t i t u d e about t h e s u n l i n e 2etermined f tom momentum samples. While t h i s i n f o r m a t i o n i s n o t a s accu::ate a s t h a t o b t a i n e d from t h e s t a r t r a c k e r , i t i s s u f f i c i e n t l y a c c u r a t e i o r momentum management and i s independent of s t a r a v a i l a b i l i t y o r crew presence.

During t h e second unmanned p e r i o d , t h e d e s a t u r a t i o n maneuver time was decreased t o e n s u r e t h a t t h e d e s a t u r a t i o n maneuvers would be completed at n i g h t . This was done t o p r o t e c t an experiment w i t h a f a i l e d door. Momentum management f u n c t i o n e d w e l l even though t h i s s m a l l e r i n t e r v a l caused l a r g e r maneuver a n g l e s . The d e s a t u r a t i o n m n e u v e r time was i n c r e a s e d t o normal a t t h e start of t h e second manned period and remained s o f o r t h e rest of t h e mission. On two o c c a s i o n s , c e r t a i n e v e n t s t h a t o c c u r r e d d u r i n g o r j u s t b e f o r e i n i t i a t i o n of g r a v i t y g r a d i e n t d e s a t u r a t i o n r e s u l t e d i n l o s s o f a t t i t u d e c o n t r o l . Since t h e l o s s e s of c o n t r o l occurred d u r i n g t h e a c t i v e p , x t i o n of t h e g r a v i t y g r a d i e n t maneuvers, they were r e f e r r e d t o as g r a v i t y g r a d i e n t d e s a t u r a t i o n problems. The f i r s t l o s s of c o n t r o l occurred a f t e r a Z-axis r a t e gyro discompare w a s - d e t e c t e d d u r i n g t h e d e s a t u r a t i o n maneuver. The second l o s s of c o n t r o l r e s u l t e d from a c t i o n taken because of unexpected v e n t i n g t o r q u e s d u r i n g an e x t r a v e h i c u l a r a c t i v i t y . A s i g n i f i c a n t condition e x i s t e d d u r i n g b o t h i n s t a n c e s of c o n t r o l moment gyro s a t u r a t i o n . Once t\e systen; becomes s a t u r a t e d , t h e c o n t r o l l a w a t t e m p t s t o a l i g n t h e t o t a l momentum v e c t o r along t h e t o r q u e command v e c t o r . Also, because of proport i o n a l s c a l i n g , any a d d i t i o n a l t o r q u e requirement i n t h e a x i s of t h e l a r g e s t command w i l l reduce t h e comrnand i n t h e o t h e r a x e s , a l t e r i n g t h e d i r e c t i o n of t h e torque command v e c t o r . Momentum w i l l , t h e r e f o r e , change i n a l l a x e s because of t h e momenttun v e c t c r 's swinging t o r e a l i g n w i t h t h e t o r q u e command v e c t o r . The X a x i s is t h e most s e n s i t i v e a x i s i o t h i s phenomenon because of t h e lower c o c t r o l g a i n s , s m a l l e r moment of i n e r t i a , and less momentum a t r a t e l i m i t d e s p i t e t h e l a r g e r r a t e caused by t h e d e s i r e t o p r e v e n t r a t e gyro s c a l e switching. This c o n d i t i o n I s r e f e r r e d t o a s t h e X-axis momentum siphon e f f e c t . The r e l a t i v e d i f f e r ~ n c ei n rhe momentum change among t h e t h r e e a x e s is small, but because of tb.e small amount of i n e r t i a i n t h e X a x i s , t h e v e h i c l e r a t e about X i s an o r d e r of magnitude g r e a t e r t h a n about t h e Y and 2 axes. Skylab proved t h e f e a s i b i l i t y and d e s i r a b i l i t y of using momentum c o n t r o l gyros. Control conce?ts worked a s designed both f o r s t l b i l i z a t i o n and maneuvering. The absence of o u t e r gimbal s t o p s would have s i m p l i f i e d t h e s o f t w a r e and prevented p e r i o d s of a t t i t u d e excursion. G r e a t e r gyro momentum, e s p e c i a l l y duri n g two-gyro c o n t r o l , would have allowed l e s s t h r u s t e r p r o p e l l a n t consumption. The o u t e r gimbal d r i v e and modified o u t e r gimbal d r i v e were designed t o prevent a gyro from d r i v i n g i n t o an o u t e r gimbal s t o p d u r i n g maneuvers. They were p r i m a r i l y used i n two-gyro o p e r a t i o n and f u n c t i o n e d w e l l . S e v e r a l times i n t h e mission t h e a d d i t i o n a l a v a i l a b i l i t y o f a n o u t e r gimbal d r i v e l o g i c a t t h e end of a maneuver i n t h e presence of l a r g e a t t i t u d e e r r o r s wouid a l s o have been d e s i r a b l e t o p r e v e n t a s w i t c h t o t h e t h r u s t e r s - o n l y mode. The gimbal a n g l e r e s e t r o u t i n e was developed s p e c i f i c a l l y f o r t h e purpose of recovering from yimbal-on-stop s i t u a t i o n s and w a s a u t o m a t i c a l l y j ~ i t i a t e di n t h e f l i g h t program when t h i s proLlem occurred. During t h e mission, t h i s recovery c a p a b i l i t y was proved workable and e s s e n t i a l t o t h e c o n t r o l . I t was automatic a l l y i n i t i a t e d s e v e r a l times d u r i n g t h e d s s i o n . The w e of t h r u s t e r s f o r momentum d e s a t u r a t i o n worked a s designed, as d i d t h e r e s e t r o u t i n e . However, t h e r e l a t i v e l y l a r g e r a t e deadband of 0.02 d e g / s e c i n t h e X and Z axes and 0.01 d e g l s e c i n t h e Y a x i s f o r t h e r e i i c 3 s e t o gyro cont r o l a f t e r a r z s e t r e p r e s e n t e d a momentui S i a s p e r a x i s of up t o 1000 N-m-sec. The removal of t h e s e r a t e s could a g a i n produce an u n d e s i r a b l e nomentum s t a t e .

Redundancy Management.The automatic redundancy management scheme i n t h e d i g i t a l computer worked s a t i s f a c t o r i l y throughout t h e mission. Excessive r a t e gyro d r i f t and s c a l e f a c t o r e r r o r s o c c u r r e d d u r i n g t h e f i r s t 1 0 3 days. These were d e t e c t e d and c o r r e c t e d by r e c o n f i g u r a t i o n of t h e r a t e gyro combinations used f o r c o n t r o l . N o t h e r s i g n i f i c a n t f a i l u r e s o c c u r r e d e x c e p t t h e c o n t r o l moment o gyro 1. f a i l u r e , which was noc d e t e c t e d by t h e redundancy management scheme because t h e t e s t l i m i t s were not exceeded.
A l l t h e c r i t i c a l hardware components s e r v e d by t h e computer and i n t e r f a c e u n i t e r r o r d e t e c t i o n program performed a c c e p t a b l y d u r i n g t h e m i s s i o n , s o t h e computer a u t o m a t i c switchover c a p a b i l i t y was n o t used. The manual switchover c a p a b i l i t y was e x e r c i s e d t w i c e d u r i n g t h e m i s s i o n , once on Day 27 t o demonstrate t h e f u n c t i o n a l i n t e g r i t y of t h e backup computer system and a g a i n on t h e last day of t h e mission a s p a r t o f a t e s t which loaded t h e compurer program by mea~lsof t h e memory l o a d i n g u n i t .

Manual redundancy management w a s used e x t e n s i v e l y throughout t n e mission. The r a t e gyros were r e c o n f i g u r e d many times because of h i g h d r i f t r a t e s . The c o n t r o l moment gyro 1 wheel was t u r n e d o f f because of a b e a r i n g f a i l u r e . A switch t a t h e secondary computer was performed t o v e r i f y t h a t two computers were o p e r a t i o n a l . The primary a c q u i s i t i o n Sun s e u s o r w a s turned o f f i n s u p p o r t of a Comet Kohoutek experiment. N problems were encountered i n manual redundancy o switching. T h r u s t e r A t t i t u d e Control.The t h r u s t e r a t t i t u d e c o n t r o l system was press u r i z e d f o r F l i g h t t o 20.8 ~ / m m 2 weeks b e f o r e launch. Approximately 647 k i l o 2 grams G £ ambient temperattire n i t r o g e n g a s was loaded. The system was a c t i v a t e d 9 minutes a f t e r l i f t o f f of t h e S a t u r n Workshop launch v e h i c l e , a t which time f i r i n g commands were r e c e i v e d from t h e i n s t r u m e n t u c i t . T h r u s t e r c o n t r o l w a s t r a n s f e r r e d t o t h e d i g i t a l computer 2 h o u r s and :I) minutes l a t e r . The t h r u s t e r system was used a s a backup f o r t h e a t t i t u d e c o n t r o l momect gyro system f o r t h e d u r a t i o n of t h e mission. Large gas consumption on Days 1 and 2 r e s u l t e d . from removal o f o r b i t i n s e r t i o n t r a n s i e n t s and o p e r a t i o n i n a t h r u s t e r - s y s t e m - o n l y mode u n t i l c o n t r o l was t r a n s f e r r e d t o t h e c o n t r o l moment gyros. The t o t a l impulse usage r a t e remained h i g h because t h e system was r e q u i r e d t o perform f r e q u e n t c o n t r o l moment gyro res e t s w h i l e h o l d i n g t h e thermal a t t i t u d e . As t h r u s t d e c r e a s e d , t h e d i g i t a l comp u t e r command p u l s e width was i n c r e a s e d t o compemate s o t h a t t h e minimum impulse would remain f a i r l y c o n s t a n t a t approximately 22 N-sec. T h i s minimum impulse v a l u e was maintained throughout t h e m i s s i o n e x c e p t a t f i r s t on Day 1 when system p r e s s u r e was h i g h and f o r a b r i e f p e r i o d on Day 3 when t h e p u l s e width w a s changed from 50 t o 80 m i l l i s e c o n d s , which changed t h e impulse from 27 t o 37 N-sec. This made system g a i n b i g h e r t h a n d e s i r e d , s o t h e p u l s e w i d t h was r e t u r n e d t o 50 m i l l i s e c o n d s f o r s e v e r a l days.
A t launch, t h e S a t u r n Workshop w a s loaded w i t h 374,000 N-sec of impulse c a p a b i l i t y , and t h e p r e d i c t e d normal usage was 162,000 N-sec. The a c t u a l usage was 338,000 N-sec. F i g u r e 6-12 shows t h e usage h i s t o r y . M a i n t a i n i n g t h e thermal a t t i t u d e r e q u i r e d h i g h t h r u s t e r g a s usage. A l a r g e p o r t i o n of t h e t h r u s t e r f u e l was used d u r i n g such abnormal s i t u a t i o n s . Usage was a l s o h i g h e r than expected d u r i n g e x t r a v e h i c u l a r a c t i v i t y because s u i t v e n t i n g s caused more t o r q u e on t h e v e h i c l e t h a n p r e d i c t e d . The d e f l e c t o r was removed from t h e p r e s s u r e c o n t r o l u n i t on subsequent e x t r a v e h i c u l a r a c t i v i t i e s t o minimize t h e v e n t i n g t o r q u e s . Normal usage was c o n s i s t e n t w i t 1 1 p r e f l i g h t p r e d i c t i o n s .

S a t u r n Workshop m l s s i o n day

Figure 6-12.-

T h r u s t e r usage h i s t o r y .

During t h e t h i r d manned p e r i o d , t h r u s t e r u s e r o s e ~ f t e r h e f a i l u r e of cont t r o l moment gyro 1. Cecreased momentum s t o r a g e c a p a b i l i t y , coupled w i t h i n c r e a s e d maneuver requirements, e s p e c i a l l y f o r Comet Kohoutek o b s e r v a t i o n , placed an added burden on t h e t h r u s t e r budget. Mission p l a n n e r s had L V minimize t h e u s e o f t h r u s ters while m a i n t a i n i n g f u l l experimect o p e r a t i o n . The most s i g n j f i c a n t conservat i o n technique proved t o he t h e noon-to-noon E a r t h o b s e r v a t i o n maneuver. S e v e r a l computer s i m u l a t i o n s were used r o p r e d i c t t h r u s t e r u s e requirements t o a i d mission planning. The s i m u l a t i o n i d e n t i f i e d s i t u a t i o n s t h a t would cause e x c e s s i v e f i r i n s s and then v e r i f i e d p r o p e l l a n t - s a v i n g a l t e r n a t i v e s . By p r o v i d i n g a c c u r a t e and r e a l i s t i c p r e d i c t i o n s , t h e s i m u l a t i o n s were i n v a l u a b l e f o r p l a n n i n g s o t h a t mission objectives could be met and even exceeded.

6.2

SOLAR OBSERVATORY FINE POINTING

The experimants mounted i n t h e s o l a r o b s e r v a t o r y r e q u i r e extremely a c c u r a t e and s t a b l e p o i n t i n g c o n t r o l . I n a d d i t i o n , t h e o b s e r v a t ~ r ymust be r o l l e d about t h e s u n l i n e s o t h a t t h e v a r i o u s experiment o p t i c a l s l i t s w i l l be i n p r o p e r posicion. i'ke requirements a r e o f f s e t p o i n t i n g from t h e s u n l i n e of 224 arc-min w i t h an accuracy of -1.2.5 a r c - s e c , a s t a b i l i t y of f2.5 a r c - s e c f o r a 15-minute p e r i o d , and a j i t t e r of L a r c - s e c / s e c , and r o l l about t h e s u n l i n e of f120 d e g r e e s with a n accuracy of f10 arc-min, a stability of 27.5 arc-min f o r a 15-minute p e r i o d , and a j i t t e r of 3 arc-min f o r a 1-second p e r i o d . 6.2.1 System D e s c r i p t i m

The s o l a r exper:lmants a r e mounted on a c r u c i f o r m s p a r , e n c l o s e d by a t u b u l a r c a n i s t e r , and l o c a t e d w i t h i n t h e b a s i c s t r u c t u r e of t h e s o l a r o b s e r v a t o r y . The c a n i s t e r i s a t t a c h e d t o t h e s t r u c t u r e by a three-degree-of-freedom gimbal mechanism-actuator assembly ( f i g . 6-13). The o u t e r r i n g of t h i s assembly i s a t t a c h e d

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S o l a r o b s e r v a t o r y f i n e p o i n t i n g c c n t r o l mechanism.

LO t h e s o l a r o b s e r v a t o r y s t r u c t u r e by f o u r r o l l e r b e a r i n g s , and i s d r i v e n by an e l e c t r i c motor t o r o l l t h e c a n i s t e r . The i n n e r r i n g i s a t t a c h e d t o t h e o u t e r r i n g by two f r i c t i o c l e s s f l e x - p i v o t b e a r i n g s w i t h f2 d e g r e e s freedom and i s d r i v e n about t h e up-down a x i s by redundant a c t u a t o r s . The c a n i s t e r i s a t t a c h e d t o t h e i n n e r r i n g by two f r i c t i o n l e s s f l z x - p i v o t b e a r i n g s w i t h 5 2 d e g r e e s freedom and i s d r i v e n about t h e l e f t - r i g h t a x i s by redundant a c t u a t o r s . O r h i t a l l o c k s c o n s t r a i n t t h e r i n g s a ~ dh e c a n i s t e r w h i l e t h e s o l a r o b s e r v a t o r y i s n o t b e i n g used. A r o l l s t o p l i m i t s t h e r o l l t o +I20 d e g r e e s , t o avoid damage t o e l e c t r i c a l c a b l e s . Launch l o c k s p r o t e c t t h e assemb1.y from damage d u r i n g launch. A r o l l r e s o l v e r p r o v i d e s experiment r o l l p o s i t i o n i n f o r m a t i o n t o t h e a i g i t a l computer.

Figure 6-14 is a diagram of t h e s o i a r o b s e r v a t o r y f i n e p o i n t i n g c o n t r o l system. Redundant f i n e Sun s e n s o r s a r e mounted on t h e s p a r t o provide up-down and l e f t - r i g h t e r r o r s i g n a l s p r o p o r t i o n a l t o t h e a n g u l a r displacement from t h e

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s u n l i n e , f g r p o i n t i n g t h e s p a r a t the c e n t e r of t h e s o l a r d i s k ( f i g . 6-15). Rotucable q t i c a l wedges a r e i n s t a l l e d on t h e f r o n t of each f i n e Sun s e n s o r o p t i c a l channel t o p r o v i d e an o f f s e t p o i n t i n g c a p a b i l i t y . Wedge p o s i t i o n is t r a n s m i t t e d t o t h e c o n t r o l and d i s p l a y p a n e l and t h e d i g i t a l . compi~tert o p r o v i d e rmation i s t r a n s m i t experiment o f f s e t p o i n t i n g i n f o r m a t i o n . Maneuver e r r o r i n f ~ t e d from t h e f i n e Sun sensor t o t h e experiment p o i n t i n g e l e c t r o n i c s . Redundant r a t e gyros ~ o u n r e don t h e up-down and l e f t - r i g h t axes of t h e s p a r provide angul a r r a t e information. The experiment p o i n t i n g e l e c t r o n i c s assembly i s an a n a l o g d e v i c e w i t + s i x It provides c o n t r o l primary channels and s i x r e d u n d a ~ tc h a a n e l s ( f i g . 6-16). commands t o r t h e up-down, l e f t - r i g h t , and r o l l Sun s e n s o r wedges and o r b i t a l l o c k s . I t i n t e r f a c e s wit!^ t h e s o l a r o b s e r v a t o r y c o n t r o l and d i s p l a y p a n e l , t h e d i g i t a l conpuLer f o r commands, and t h e t e l e n e t r y d a t a system. The d i g i t a l computer prov i d e s commands t o a c t i v a t e t h e s o l a r o h s e n l a t o r y f i n e podnting con:rol system a t s u n r i s e of each o r b i t , and t o d e a c t i v a t e i t a t c u n s e t . I t commands t h e f i n e Sun s e n s o r wedges f o r o f f s e t p o i n t i n g of t h e experiments and m a i n t a i n s t h e wedge posit i o n s and t h e s p a r r o l l p o s i t i o n f o r experiment d a t a c o r r e l a t i o n . The computer a l s o keeps t h e e x p e r i ~ e n tt e l e s c o p e s p o i n t e d a t a s p e c i f i c p o i n t on t h e s o l a r d i s k w h i l e t h e c a n i s t t r i s b e i n g d r i v e n i n roll. This i s done by commanding t h e f i n e Sun s e n s o r wedges.

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Thc s o l a r o b s e r v a t o r y console provides means f o r manual c o n t r o l i n a d d i t i o n c t o t h e automatic and ground c o n t r o l . The ,onsole a l s ~ o n t a i n s s w i t c h e s and s t a t u s i n d i c a t o r s wh2ch a l l o w t h e selection o f any combination c f primary and secondary f i n e Sun s e n s o r s , r a t e g y r o s , expericlsnt p o i n t i n g channels, and o r SLral l o c k s .

6.2.2

System Operation

Use of t h e s o l a r o b s e r v a t o r y f i i p o i n t i n g c o n t r c l system was l i m i t e d t o t h e d a y l i g h t p o r t i o n of each o r b i t . The S a t u r n Workshop had t o be i n t h e s o l a r i n e r t i a l a t t i t u d e with t h e computer i n t h e s o l a r o b s e r v a t i o n made. During t h e n i g h t p o r t i o n o f each o r b i t t h e f i n e p o i n t i n g c o n t r o l system was powered b u t i n a c t i v e . A t t r u e s u n r i s e , t h e computer opened t h e f i n e Sun s e n s o r p r o t e c t i v e door. A t e f f e c t i v e s u n r i s e (when t h e Sun was abcve t h e a t m c s p l ~ e r e ) , t h e conp u t e r r e l e a s e d t h e f i n e Sun s e n s o r o f f s e t p o i n t i n g wedges, and commanded t h e c o n t r o l l e r . The c o a t r o l l e r t h e c uncaged t h e c a n i s t e r by d i s e n g a g i n g t h e o r b i t a l l o c k s , a d began c~mmandingt h e up-down and l e f t - r i g n t a c t u a t o r s . A t t h i n p o i n t , t h e system was ready f o r u s e by t h e crew. A t e f f e c t i v e o r b i t a l s u n s e t , t h e comp u t e r i n h i b i t e d c c n t r o l c f t h e f i n e Sun s e n s o r wedges and commanded t h e e x p e r i ment p o i n t i n g c o n t r o l l e r . A t t r u e o r b i t a l s u n s e t , t h e computer c l o s e d t h e f i n e Sun s e n s o r door. During s o l a r o b s e r v d t i o n o p e r a t i o n s , t h e crewmen Yere a b l e t o ntove about and s perform o t h e r d l i t i ~ ? ~ i,n c e d i s t u r b a n c e s were i s o l a t e d by t h e f i n e p o i n t i n g cont r o l system. A f t e r t h e f i r s t mannzd p e r i o d i t w?s p o s s l b l e t o perform s o s e experiments by ground c o n t r o l . During t h e mannai p e r i o d s c a l i b r a t i o a s were made t o determine t h e f i n e Sun s e n s o r wedge a n g l e s n e c e s s a r y t o p o i n t each of f o u r of t h e s o l a r experiment t e l e s c o o e s a t t h e c e n t e r o f t h e Sun. The c a l i b r a t e d wedge a n g l e s were r e t a i n e d by t h e computer. me f i n e p o i n t i n g c o n t r o l was used e x c l u s i v e l y d u r i n g t h e manned p e r i o d s . P r e l i m i n a r y examination o f s o i a r d a t a h i d i c a t e d t h a t t h e system performed v e r y w e l l . The crew a l s o r e p o r t e d t h a t t h e system performed w e l l and t h a t manual p o i n t i n g t o w i t h i n 1 a r c - s e c was p o s s i b l e w i t h no p e r c e p t i b l e drift. Some problems were encounterod x i t h t h e system. The most s e r i o u s of t h e s e w a s a f a i l u r e o f t h e c a n i s t e r primary up-down r a t e gyro. T h i s f a i l u r e o c c u r r e d d u r i n g unmanned o p e r a t i o n s on Day 64 w h i l e t h e S a t u r n Workshop w a s o u t of c o n t a c t w i t h a ground s t a t i o n . The I---ister began t o a s c i l l a t e about t h e up-down a x i s , and o s c i l l a t e d u n t i l t h e a c t u a t o r s overheated and s e i z e d . S h o r t l y t h e r e a f t e r , t h e system was t u r n e d o f f . Three days l a t e r , a f t e r e x t e ~ l s i v ea n a l y s i s , t h e secondary up-down r a t e gyr3 was s e l e c t e d and t h e s y s t e r : was t u r n e d back on. No f u r t h e r problems were encountered w i t h t h e up-down a c t u a t o r . Because -I£ t h i s problem and t h e s e v e r a l a t t i t u d e c o n t r o l system r a t e gyro f a i l u r e s which had o c c u r r e d , a d e r i v e d r a t e c o n d i t i o n e r w a s developed and c a r r i e d i n t o o r b i t by t h e n e x t crew. The d e r i v e d r a t e c o n d i t i o n e r w a s designed t o u s e t h e f i n e Sun s e n s o r o u t p u t t o develop c a n i s t e r r a t e i n f o r m a t i o n f o r i he experiment p o i n t i n g c o n t r o l l e r , and was t o be i n s t a l l e d i n t h e e v e n t t h e second c a n i s t e r up-down r a t e gyro f a i l e d . I t was never used. E a r l y i n t h e f i r s t manned p e r i o d t h e crew r e p o r t e d problems w i t h t h e f i n e Sun s e n s o r wedge p o s i t i o n i n d i c a t o r s . These problems were caused by a t i m i n g e r r o r i n t h e computer which caused tt t o open t h e f i n e Sun s e n a o r p r o t e c t i v e d o o r s b e f o r e o r b i t a l s u n r i s e . The problem was c o r r e c t e d by u p d a t i n g t h e n a v i g a t i o n parameters i n t h e computer, and by t h e crew z e r o i n g t h e f i n e Sun s e n s o r wedge

p o s i + i o n a t t h e s t a r t o f each o r b i t a l day. I t was a l s o n o t i c e d d u r i n g t h i s p e r i o d t h a t r o l l i n g t h e c a n i s t e r a t t h e maximum r a t e ( 7 d e g l s e c ) d i s t u r b e d t h e e n t i r e v e h i c l e . Maximum r o l l rate was n o t used t h e r e a f t e r .

On Day 185, d u r i n g unmanned p o i n t i n g o p e r a t i o n s , t h e up-down o r b i t a l l o c k f a i l e d t o disengage a t o r b i t a l s u n r i s e , and t h e system w a s commanded o f f . A f t e r a n a l y s i s , t h e secondary c o n t r o l l e r was t u r n e d on and t h e s o l a r o b s e r v a t i o n mode was commanded. The o r b i t a l l o c k s disengaged normally. T h i s p r o b l e n o c c u r r e d a second time on Day 201, w i t h t h e same r e s u l t s . A d e t a i l e d a n a l y s i s showed t h a t t h e problem w a s probably caused by i n t e r m i t t e n t mechanical b i n d i n g cjf t h e primary o r b i t a l l o c k mechanism because of contamination. The problem d i d n o t recur.

6.3
6.3.1

ANOMALIES Rate Gyros

Two t y p e s o f problems were experienced w i t h t h e rate gyros d u r i n g t h e miss i o n : e x c e s s i v e d r i f t and o v e r h e a t i n g . A n a l y s i s indicated t h a t t h e h i g h d r i f t r a t e s were caused by gas b ~ b b l e st h a t formed i n t h e gyro f l o t a t i o n f l u i d when t h e f l o a t chamber bellows was exposed t o hard vacuom. T h i s problem had been seen d u r i n g thermal vacuum t e s t i n g and was judged an a c c e p t a b l e r i s k because t h e high d r i f t rates could be compensated i n t h e s o f t w a r e . The s i x supplement a r y r a t e gyros were modified t o p r o t e c t t h e f l o a t chamber bellows from t h e vacuum of space.
A t 20:34 Gnc on Day 1 t h e f i r s t r a t e gyro temperature went o f f s c a l e high. Eventually, a t o t a l o f s i x r a t e gyros, X2, Y2, F3, Z1, 22, and t h e c a n i s t e r p r i mary up-down, showed o f f s c a l e h i g h temperatures. A l l o f t h e h o t r a t e g y r o s produced very n c i s y s i g n a i s , and e v e n t u a l l y t h e Y 3 and 2 1 r a t e gyros began o s c i l l a t i n g and sere s h u t d a m . The primary up-down rate gyro cn t h e experiment s p a r had similar symptom and then f a i l e d on Day 64.

There was concern t h a t a s t h e r a t e gyros grew h o t t e r and t h e f l o a t f l u i d v i s c o s i t y d e c r e a s e d , t h e y would become u n s t a b l e . T h i s a p p a r e n t l y o c c u r r e d w i t h t h e 2 1 and Y? r a t e gyros. The h o t r a t e g y r o s showed a change i n s c a l e f a c t o r . I t was concluded t h a t a t r a n s i s t o r i n t h e r a t e gyro h e a t e r c i r c u i t w a s f a i l i n g i n t h e on s t a t e . The f a b r i c a t i o n and i n s t a l l a t i o n of t h e s i x supplementary r a t e gyros g r e a t l y reduced t h e chance t h a t t h e mission would be t e r m i n a t e d because o f t h r e e r a t e gyro f a i l u r e s i n one axis, The o r i g i n a i plan was t o u s e t h e t d o supplementary r a t e gyros i n each a x i s f o r c o n t r o l w i t h t h e s e l e c t e d o r i g i n 3 1 r a t e gyro as a s p a r e , but because of a s i n g l e f a i l u r e p o i n t which e x i s t e d i n che supplementary gyro power s o u r c e , t h z remainder of t h e m i s s i o n was flown with one supplementary gyro and t h e s e l e c t e d o r i g i n a l gyro f o r each a x i s i n control. A f t e r sup?lkmentary gyro i c s t a l l a t i o n , r a t e g y r o s were no l o n g e r a problem, b u t t h e system d i d n o t have c o n n e c t i o n s f o r 12 samples p e r second t e l e m e t r y o f t h e supplementary gyro o u t p u t s . The o u t p u t s were a v a i l a b l e on t e l e m e t r y a t one sample every 2 . 5 seconds. A second d i f f i c u l t y w i t h t h e system was t h a t supplementary r a t e gyro temperature measureinents were nor a v a i l a b l e on t e l e m e t r y . A s a r e s u l t , t h e crew was r e q u i r e d t o monitor t h e s e t e m p e r a t u r e s p e r i o d i c a l l y .

6.3.2

Control Moment Gyros

The f a i l u r e of c o n t r o l moment gyro 1 on Day 194 w a s c h a r a c t e r i z e d by a rise i n t h e wheel s p i n b e a r i n g temperature from a normal 21°C t o a p o i n t j u s t under t h e automatic shutdown temperature of 90°C, a decrease in wheel speed accompanied by an i n c r e a s e i n wheel s p i n motor c u r r e n t , and f a i l u r e o f t h e wheel speed pickoff. The f a i l u r e occurred while Skylab was between t r a c k i n g s t a t i o n s and w a s f i r s t observed by t h e Bermuda t r a c k i n g s t a t i o n . The bearing temperature a t t h a t time was 83.2OC and decreasing. The wheel speed w a s estimated from s p i n motor c u r r e n t t o be about 3800 rpm, down from 9060 rpm before t h e f a i l u r e . The f a i l u r e w a s n o t d e t e c t e d by t h e redundancy management scheme, s i n c e t h e b e a r i n g temperature d i d not exceed t h e automatic shutdown temperature of 90°C. The s p i n bearing temperature d i d exceed t h e caution l e v e l o f 74OC, and t h e caurion was set. The c a v t i o n i n d i c a t i o n w a s not seen by t h e crew, who were asleep. S h o r t l y a f t e r detecidng t h e f a i l u r e while t h e v e h i c l e w a s over Bermuda, grouild c o n t r o l removed yover f r m t h e wheel s p i n motor and a p p l i e d t h e brake f o r 7 minutes. T h i s y r o b a b l y d i d n o t slow t h e wheel appreciably. The comp u t e r switched t o two-gyro c o n t r o l . Preliminary analyses i n d i c a t e t h e f a i l w e was caused by i n s u f f i c i e n t l u b r i c a t i o n . The f a i l u r e appeared t o be progressive, with i n d i c a t i o n s of bearing d i s t r e s s as e a r l y as Day 174. A t t h e t i m e , t h e s e i n d i c a t i o n s w e r e n o t considered s ~ g n i f i c a n t . Control moment gyro 2 a l s o had s i m i l a r i n d i c a t i o n s later, but d i d not f a i l . Unfortunately, tile telemetered d a t a were not s u f f i c i e n t t o show a l l symptoms of bearing d i s t r e s s . S p e c i a l temperature c o n t r o l and 1021 r e d u c t i o n aided gyro 2 i n completing t h e mission.

6.3.3

S t a r Tracker

Four major problems were encountered w i t h t h e s t a r t r a c k e r : t r a c k i n g of contaminants, t h e s h u t t e r ' s s t i c k i n g , p h o t o m u l t i p l i e r tube d e g r a d a t i m , and o u t e r gimbal encoder f a i l u r e . Workarounds were developed f o r t h e f i r s t t h r e e problems, but t h e encoder f a i l u r e e ~ d e d use of t h e s t a r t r a c k e r . The s t a r t r a c k e r was a c t i v a t e d a t t h e s t a r t of the f i r s t manned period. I t operated s a t i s f a c t o r i l y except f o r frequent d i s t u r b a n c e s when star a c q u i s i t i o n was l o s t because of contaminants e n t e r i n g t h e f i e l d of view. I f a p a r t i c l e ref l e c t i n g l i g h t with an i n t e n s i t y above t h e p h o t o m u l t i p l i e r t u b e ' s threshold enters the f i e l d of view, t h e p a r t i c l e w i l l be t r a c k e d a s a t a r g e t star. This d i s turbance was noted 35 times during t h e f i r s t manned period and 4 t i m e s during t h e second manned period. Typical p a r t i c l e s were generated by sloughing of pa5nt and d u s t , outgassing, and venting from t h e v e h i c l e (11.4.6). Five t i m e s during t h e f i r s t manned period t h e s t a r t r a c k e r s h u t t e r s t u c k open. The crew t r i e d t o c l o s e t h e s h u t t e r u s i n g c o n t r o l panel comands, but t h e r e was no response. The t r a c k e r was then positioned t o p o i n t a t t h e backside of a s o l a r a r r a y t o prevent damage t o t h e p h o t o m u l t i p l i e r tube. About 1 . 5 hours l a t e r , t h e s h u t t e r was observed closed when telemetry was acquired a t a ground s t a t i o n . When t h e u n i t was turned o f f on Day 79, t h e s h u t t e r operated normally. P o s s i b l e explanations were e x w i n e d , and i n t e r m i t t e n t binding a t some p o i n t i n t h e s h u t t e r mechanism was found t o be t h e most l i k e l y cause. The s h u t t e r p r o t l e m caused temporary degradation of c a n i s t e r r o l l p o s i t i o n information, but sir E t h e s h u t t e r problems c l e a r e d themselves a f t e r a few hours, t h e d a t a l o s s xas minimal. Workarounds required somewhat l o n g e r o p e r a t i n g time by t h e crew.

\

On Day 101, t h e star t r a c ~ e rf a i l e d t o acquire t h e t a r g e t s t a r , Alpl~aCrw:. It was f e l t t h a L b r i g h t l i g h t , presumably from t h e E a r t h ' s albedo, degraded t h e photomultiplier tube during a s h u t t e r anomaly. Exposure f o r as long as 20 rninutes t o l i g h t as b r i g h t as t h e Earth's albedo would permanently degrade t h e s t a r t r a c k e r s e n s i t i v i t y by S percent. To determine i f p h o t o i ~ u l t i p l i e rtube degradation had O occurred, and by how much, a number of s t a r s of d i f f e r e n t magnitude were s e l e c t e d and a t t m t s t o a c q u i r e each were made. S t a r s of 0.56 magnitude and b r i g h t e r could be acquired and tracked. Comparison with ground t e s t s i n d i c a t e d a sensit i v i t y degradation of 30 t o 20 percent. The photomultiplier tube degradation caused t h e l o s e of Alpha Crux a s a t a r g e t star. Since t h e r e were periods vhen tot11 ~ c h e r n a rand Canopus, t h e primary t a r g e t stars, were o c c u l t e d , another s t a r of s u f f i c i e n t magnitude, Rigel Kent, w a s found.
A f a i l u r e was noted on Day 228 when t h e o u t e r gimbal positi.cn i n d i c a t i o n went t o zero and t h e o u t e r gfmbal r a t e s i g n a l recorded a constant outpu:. Telemetry d a t a were analyzed, and a l a b o r a t o r y test simulation d u p l i c a t e d t h e f a i l u r e symptoms by i n t e r r u p t i n g t h e o u t e r gimbal encoder output o r t h e encoder lamp power. I t was concluded t h a t t h e o u t e r gimbal encoder had f a i l e d and probably would n o t recover. This f a i l u r e rendered t h e star t r a c k e r u s e l e s s and i t w a s turned o f f . The. Z-axis r e f e r e n c e provided by t h e star t r a c k e r v a s l o s t for t h e remainder of the mission. After Day 228 o u t e r gimbal a n g l e s were computed by ground personnel using v e h i c l e inertias and s o l a r e l e v a t i o n . The crew l a t e r v e r i f i e d t h i s method, using a s e x t a n t t o measure star p o s i t i o n s .

SICTION 7 ELECTRICAL POWER

The Saturn Workshop's e l e c t r i c a l power i s supplied by two s o l a r c e l l array systems. Each system is capable of providing approximately 4 k i l o w a t t s of continuous, regulated power. The l a b o r a t o r y system's components a r e l o c a t e d throughout t h e Saturn Workshop, e s p e c i a l l y i n t h e a i r l o c k s e c t i o n . Its two s o l a r a r r a y wings a r e folded a g a i n s t t h e s i d e s of t h e workshop d u r i n g launch and a r e deployed a f t e r o r b i t a l i n s e r t i o n . The s o l a r observatory system's equipment is l o c a t e d on its e x t e r i o r , except f o r the c o n t r o l s , which are in t h e docki n g adapter. Its f o u r s o l a r a r r a y wings are folded and r e s t r a i n e d f o r launch and extended t o t h e i r o p e r a t i n g p o s i t i o n a f t e r t h e s o l a r observatory is deployed and locked. The s o l a r c e l l a r r a y s i n t e r c e p t , c o l l e c t , aad convert s u n l i g h t i n t o elect r i c a l power. I n d i v i d u a l power c o n d i t i o n e r s c o n s i s t i n g of a charger, b a t t e r y , and r e g u l a t o r are a s s o c i a t e d with s p e c i f i c groups o r panels of t h e s o l a r a r r a y s . During o r b i t a l p e r i o d s when t h e Saturn Workshop is shaded by t h e Earth, energy s t o r e d i n t h e b a t t e r i e s s u p p l i e s power. The energy removed from t h e b a t t e r i e s Curing t h e dark periods is replaced during t h e following s u n l i g h t period and t h e remainder of t h e s o l a r a r r a y energy is d i s t r i b u t e d t o buses and networks t o supply e l e c t r i c a l load requirements. The power d i s t r i b u t i o n system is p r o t e c t e d by conventional s a f e t y devices, and paral1elii:g of t h e two systems i s p o s s i b l e . I n a d d i t i o n , a power c a b l e i s p u l l e d through t h e docking p o r t i n t o t h e command and s e r v i c e module by a crcwnan t o supply t h e command module's systems a f t e r its f u e l c e l l source i s h u t down. More d e t a i l e d i:lormation can be found in s r e f e r e n c e 4. Figure 7-1 is a s i m p l i f i e d schematic of t h e o v e r a l l power system.

Figure 7-1.-

Saturn Workshop e l e c t r i c , s l power systems.

7.1

MISSION PERFORMANCE

The l a b o r a t o r y telemetry and command systems were operated on ground power u n t i l approximately 3 minutes before l i f t o f f , when they were switched t o t h e labo o r a t o r y b a t t e r i e s . N s o l a r observatory systems were powered during launch. The s o l a r observatory sol-ar a r r a y was deployed approximately 28 minutes a f t e r l i f t o f f . Deployment of t h e workshop s o l a r a r r a y was commanded by automatic sequence a t l i f t o f f p l u s 52 minutes, but t h e a r r a y f a i l e d t o deploy. Backup deployment commands rere s e n t up with no success.

Two hours a f t e r launch, a command was s e n t t h a t p a r a l l e l e d t h e two e l e c t r i c a l systems and provided s o l a r observatory power t o t h e l a b o r a t o r y system buses. Power management procedures were i n i t i a t e d t o ensure t h a t t k e S a t l ~ r nWorkshop load demands would n o t exceed t h e c a p a b i l i t y of t h e s o l a r observatory e l e c t r i c a l power system. The g o a l of t h e power management o p e r a t i o n u a s t o l i m i t t h e l e v e l of t h e s o l a r observatory b a t t e r y discharge. Spinup of t h e c o n t r o l gyros and a c t i v a t i o n of t h e workshop r a d i a n t h e a t e r s were delayed, and t h e docking a d a p t e r w a l l h e a t e r s were l e f t on t h e i r low temperature thermostat c o n t r o l s u n t i l a f u l l assessment could be made.
The Saturn Workshop was maneuvered o u t of t h e normal s o l a r i n e r t i a l a t t i tude o a Day 2 t o prevent p o t e n t i a l l y d e s t r u c t i v e i n t e r n a l temperatures. This caused a reduction i n t h e s o l a r observatory power system c a p a b i l i t y and t h e requirement t o manage power f o r t h e e s s e n t i a l e l e c t r i c a l l o a d s became c r i t i c a l . Power management involved t h e use of ground computer programing t o match f l i g h t plans t o load requirements and t o d e t e r s i n e t h e power c a p a b i l i t y of the systems a t v a r i o u s a t t i t u d e s . The power c a p a b i l i t y is defined a s t h e a r i t h m e t i c average power a v a i l a b l e a t t h e major buses during one o r b i t a l period. The b a t t e r y l i f e i s i n v e r s e l y r e l a t e d t o t h e depch of discharge, c e l l temp e r a t u r e , and number of discharge-charge cycles. A 30 percent depth of discharge maximum was s e l e c t e d t o ensure b a t t e r y l i f e through t h e 4000 o r more dischargecharge cycles of t h e mission. The p o r t i o n of t h e o r b i t in t h e E a r t h ' s shadow when t h e b a t t e r i e s a r e used is determined by t h e a b s o l u t e v a l u e of t h e b e t a angle, which 2s t h e minimum angle between t h e o r b i t a l p l a n e and t h e Sun vector. During t h e mission t h e b e t a angle v a r i e d between 0 and 273.5 degrees, the o r b i t a l plane being i n c l i n e d t o t h e e q u a t o r i a l plane by 50 degrees, and t h e e q u a t o r i a l plane being i n c l i n e d t o t h e e c l l p t i c plane by 23.5 degrees. Orbit precession and pert u r b a t i o n caused dark periods f o r a s long a s 36 minutes. Figure 7-2 shows t h e b e t a angle and s u n l i g h t Z i m e f o r t h e Skylab mission. The s o l a r cells have t h e i r maximum output when t h e i r plane s u r f a c e s a r e perpendicular t o the s u n l i n e , t h a t is, when t h e a n g l e of s o l a r incidence is zero. This o r i e n t a t i o n e x i s t s i n t h e s o l a r i n e r t i a l a t t i t u d e . Neglecting o t h e r v a r i a b l e s , t h e power c a p a b i l i t y i s a cosine function of t h e angle of s o l a r i n c i dence. For thermal balance, an a t t i t u d e with t h e docking a d a p t e r pitched 45 210 degrees from t h e s c l a r i n e r t i a l a t t i t u d e toward t h e Sun was chosen. To maintain s u f f i c i e n t power, t h e mission r u l e t o l i m i t t h e 30 percent discharge l e v e l o f t h e b a t t e r i e s was waived. The s o l a r a r r a y s were l a r g e enough t o provide suffic i e n t energy during t h e sun1igt.t period LO power t h e Paturn Workshop and t o rep l a c e t h e power supplied by t h e b a t t e r i e s d u r i n g 36 minutes of darkness. The b a t t e r i e s were operated a t energy balance each o r b i t ; t h a t i s , t h e only c o n s t r a i n t on b a t t e r y operation was t h a t t h e b a t t e r i e s be recharged before e n t e r i n g each

50

100 150 Saturn Workshop mission day

200

250

280

Figure 7-2.-

Beta angle and the in s u n l i g h t p e r o r b i t .

o r b i t a l n i g h t . Figure 7-3 shows t h e power gained during the f i r s t unmanned period by using t h e energy balance c o n s t r a i n t i n s t e a d of t h e 30 percent b a t t e r y discharge l i m i t imposed o r i g i n a l l y .

0

1000

20?9

3000 Power capability, w a t t s

4000

5000

6000

Figure 7-3.-

S o l a r observatory power c a p a b i l i t y .

.+

T

I

,

Power c a p a b i l i t y a t t h e thermal a t t i t u d e v a r i e d berween 2700 and 3200 w a t t s . A list of e q u i ~ n e n tt h a t might be turned o f f ( t a b l e 7-1) was prepared t o be Used a s necessary t o reduce t h e t o t a l load requirement t o f i t t h e c a p a b i l i t i e s of t h e power system. Not enough equipment could be turned o f f t o reduce t h e t o t a l load t o w i t h i n t h i s value, s o t h e c o n s t r a i n t t o o p e r a t e t h e system w i t h i n energy balance was v i o l a t e d . Continued o p e r a t i o n a t t h i s a t t i t u d e r e s u l t e d i n a d e p l e t i o n of t h e battery-stored energy, and 8 b a t t e r i e s were automatically disconnected h from t h e load buses, l e a v i n g t h e 10 remaining power c o n d i t i o n e r s t o supp1.:- : e e n t i r e load. The s u n l i g h t incidence angle was then decreased, and 7 of the power c o n d i t t a n e r s were reconnected t o t h e buses during o r b i t a l d;l:r.light. Power cond i t i o n e r 15 f a i l e d t o respond t o t h e attempts t o reconnect i t t o t h e load buses.

Table 7-1.L i s t of Equipment To Be Turned Off A s Needed During F i r s t Unmanned Period

-Airlock -rs

Equipnent

I Load, watts

1 heaters ( 1 5) Coolant punps (1 of 6) Telemetry transmitters, 10-watt (3)

Analysis of t h i s anomaly determined t h a t t h e power c o n d i t i o n e r 1 5 s o l a r a r r a y cont a c t o r had f a i l e d i n t h e open p o s i t i o n . Attempts t o c l o s e t h e c o n t a c t o r by ground and manual commands were unsuccessful. This reduced t h e a v a i l a b l e power by 5.5 percent.

During t h e f i r s t unmanned period the t o t a l load v a r i e d from 4400 w a t t s average per o r b i t in t h e s o l a r i n e r t i a l mode t o 2400 w a t t s a t t h e 60-degree p i t c h a t t i tude. The s o l a r observatory average load f o r t h i s period was approximately 1600 - w a t t s . Since t h e s o l a r observatory power system w a s providing a l l t h e power, t h e remaining 800 t o 2800 w a t t s was t r a n s f e r r e d t o t h e l a b o r a t o r y t r a n s f e r buses.
(8) Docking port heater Spare docking port heater Tunnel heaters (2) Solar Observator -&ansmitters i2) Valve control assembly Pump i w e r t e r assembly

Figure 7-4 shows t h e average power c a p a b i l i t y from Saturn Workshop launch through t h e f i r s t manned period. It shows t h e e f f e c t s of t h e thermal a t t i t u d e s flown, t h e power i n c r e a s e s a f t e r t h e p a r a s o l thermal s h i e l d deployment, t h e ret u r n t o s o l a r i n e r t i a l a t t i t u d e , and t h e a c t i v a t i o n o f t h e l a b o r a t o r y power system a f t e r t h e l a b o r a t o r y s o l a r a r r a y wing 1 was r e l e a s e d and extended. Figu r e 7-5 shows t h e l o a d s on Day 7. Although r i g o r o u s power management techniques were required f o r t h i s time period, t h e power c a p a b i l i t y wa.s s u f f i c i e n t t o supply t h e minimum load requirements a t t h e v a r i o u s a t t i t u d e s and t o p r o t e c t t h e integr i t y of each e l e c t r i c a l system. The v o l t a g e k v e l s f o r t h i s t i m e period were s u b s t a n t i a l l y above t h e impqsed minimum bus v o l t a g e needed by t h e components, ranging from 27.6 t o 29 vdc. A f t e r t h e crew deployed t h e p a r a s o l thermal s h i e l d , t h e Saturn Workshop w a s returned t o t h e s o l a r i n e r t i a l a t t i t u d e . I t remained i n t h i s a t t i t u d e f o r t h e remainder of t h e f i r s t manned period except f o r o c c a s i o n a l excursions t o t h e Z l o c a l v e r t i c a l a t t i t u d e f o r Earth observations experiments.

15 o f f 10

15

20

25

30

35

40

Satur~ Workshop mission day

Figure 7-4.-

S a t u r n Workshop power c a p a b i l i t y .

A f u r t h e r reduction i n t h e power c a p a b i l i t y occcrred on Day 17 when t h e powx c o n d i t i o n e r 3 o u t p u t f a i l e d , l e a v i n g 16 power c o n d i t i o n e r s i n operation. Additional degradation occurred on Day 24 when power c o n d i t i o n e r 17 e x h i b i t e d a reduced power output during s p e c i f i c o r b i t a l periods. The estimated l o s s of c a p a b i l i t y was 80 percent of rhe poxer c o n d i t i o n e r 17 c a p a b i l i t y , o r apyroximately 150 watts l o s s i n t h e average s o l a r observatory power. Subsequent

Figure 7-5.-

Time, hours

S a t u r n Worhshop e l e c t r i c a l power l o a d s on Day 7.

review of d a t a i n d i c a t e d t h a t t h i s l o s s )lad i n i t i a l l y occurred on Day 1 . Addi1 t i o n a l power managen2nt was r e q u i r e d t o l i m i t t h e t o t s 1 load requirem'ents t o coinpensate f o r r e d u c t i o n i n power c a p a b i i i t y.
The s o l a r observatory continued t o supply t h e t o t a l e l e c t r i c a l power requirement u n t ; l midway through t h e f i r s t manned p e r i o d , cn Day 25. The cornmand module's power was being s u p p l i e d by i t s f u e l c e l l s , and i t d i d n o t r e q u i r e any power from t h e s o k ; o b s e r v a t o r y power system d u r i n g t h i s w r i o d . Load managed ment was continued dvlring t h i s p e r i o d t o e n s u r e t h a t t h e - - ~ d i d n o t exceed t h e c a p a b i l i t y of t h e system. The docking a d a p t e r h e a t e r s were l e f t on low temperat u r e c o n t r o l and cycled from t h e ground when h e a t w a s r e q u i r e d . L i g h t s were turned on by t h e crew when i n a p a r t i c u l a r work a r e a and turned o f f when l e a v i n g t h e a r e a . Use of food t r a y h e a t e r s was kept t o a minimum. Recorders were ope r a t e d o n l y when e s s e n t i a l d a t a b s r e needed. Other equipment which could o p e r a t e a u t o m a t i c a l l y was kept i n t h e manual c o n t r o l mode.

Skylab i s placed i n t h e Z l o c a l v e r t i c a l a t t i t u d e f o r performance of E a r t h o b s e r v a t i o n experiments. This a t t i t u d e p o s i t i o n s t h e s p a c e c r a f t w i t h t h e -2 a x i s pointed a t t h e c e n t e r o f t h e E a r t h and t h e +X a x i s i n t h e d i r e c t i o n of t h e T h i s a t t i t d d e mode reduces t h e v e l o c i t y v e c t o r . This i s shown i n f i g u r e 7-6. e l e c t r i c a l power c a p a b i l i t y except a t one p o i n t . A t o r b i t a l noon, t h e a t t i t u d e s i n s o l a r i n e r t i a l and Z l o c a l v e r t i c a l a r e t h e same when t h e b e t a a n g l e i s zero. For t h i s b e t a a n g l e , when t h e E a r t h o b s e r v a t i o n s occur n e a r o r b i t a l noon, o n l y a small change i n t h e i n c i d e n c e c o s i n e i s involved, r e s u l t i n g i n a minimum l o s s of power c a p a b i l i t y . For E a r t h o b s e r v a t i o n s a t o t h e r b e t a a n g l e s , t h e v e h i c l e must be r o t a t e d about i t s l o n g i t u d i n a l a x i s an amount e q u i v a l e n t t o t h e b e t a a n g l e , and t h e o u t p u t power i s decreased. However, a t h i g h b e t a a n g l e s t h e d a r k p o r t i o n of t h e o r b i t d i m i n i s h e s , and t h e b a t t e r y d i s c h a r g e d u r i n g t h e n i g h t preceding t h e E a r t h o b s e r v a t i o n p a s s i s correspondingly reduced o r e l i m i n a t e d . Thus t h e b a t t e r y has a h i g h e r c a p a c i t y a t t h e s t a r t of t h e maneuver, which p a r t i a l l y o f f s e t s t h e power l o s s caused by t h e n o n - s o l a r - i n e r t i a l a t t i t u d e . Time s p e n t i n t h e Z l o c a l v e r t i c a l a t t i t u d e i s a l a r g e f a c t o r t o c o n s i d e r in m a i n t a i n i c g t h e b a t t e r y

Solar vector

..(PC
Earth observation

Man sol Sunset tenni nator Update o f a t t i t u d e reference when Sun comes i n t o view

Solar i a w t i a l

/ ,'Sionlearrt i a l

O r b i t a l midnight

F i g u r e 7-6.-

Z loc.al v e r t i c a l maneuver.

p e r c e n t of d i s c h a r g e w i t h i n a c c e p t a b l e l i m i t s . Power c a p a b i l i t y f o r E a r t h observ a t i o n p a s s e s i s p r z d i c t e d by computing t h e w e r a g e o f t h e power a v a i l a b l e from s o l a r a r r a y s and b a t t e r i e s from t h e s t a r t o f t h e maneuver t o Z l o c a l v e r t i c a l a t t i t u d e through t h e f i r s t n i g h t p e r i o d a f t e r r e t u r n t o t h e s o l a r i n e r t i a l a t t i tude. There were f i v e E a r t h o b s e r v a t i o n p a s s e s d u r i n g t h e f i r s t ha!£ o f t h e f i r s t manned p e r i o d . During t h e f i r s t one, a n Day 17, l o a d s were n o t reduced enough t o compensate f o r the reduced power c a p a b i l i t y i n t h e Z l o c a l v e r t i c a l p o i n t i n g mode. A s a r e s u l t , s o l a r o b s e r v a t o r y b a t t e r i e s 6 , 7 , 8, and 1e d i s c h a r g e d t o approximately z e r o p e r c e n t s t a t e of u s a b l e c h a r g e , and t h e i r power conditioners were a u t o m a t i c a l l y t u r n e d o f f by t h e b a t t e r y low v o l t a g e l o g i c . A f t e r r e t u r n t o t h e s o l a r i n e r t i a l a t t i t u d e and a c q u i s i t i o n of s u n l i g h t t h e s e power c o n d i t i o n e r s were reconnected t o t h e l o a d buses. Soon a f t e r s u n r i s e , power c o n d i t i o n e r 3 a u t o m a t i c a l l y disconnected from t h e l o a d buses. It d i d n o t respond t o t h e commands t o r e c o n n e c t i t t o t h e buses, and subsequent a n a l y s e s r e v e a l e d t h a t i t s r e g u l a t o r had f a i l e d . Power c o n d i t i o n e r 3 was l o s t f o r t h e remainder of t h e mission. The number oC power c o n d i t i o n e r s o p e r a t i n g was reduced t o 1 6 . S o l a r o b s e r v a t o r y power of about 3200 w a t t s was s u p p l i e d r o t h e l a b o r a t o r y l o a d s by t h e t r a n s f e r buses d u r i n g t h i s f i r s t E a r t h o b s e r v a t i o n pass. Although 3200 w a t t s is above t h e 2500 w a t t s t h i s t r a n s f e r bus was designed t o c a r r y , a l l systems performed s a t i s f a c t o r i l y . The v o l t a g e a t each bus was s a t i s f a c t o r y and t h e t r a n s f e r c i r c u i t c a p a b i l i t y ( f u s e and w i r e r a t i n g s ) was n o t jeopardized. For t h e remaining f o u r E a r t h o b s e r v a t i o n p a s s e s d u r i n g t h i s time p e r i o d , d a t a t a k i n g

p e r i o d s were l i m i t e d t o s h o r t d u r a t i o n s and l o a d s were reduced, s o no b a t t e r i e s were a u t o m a t i c a l l y disconnected. During t h e s e p a s c e s , s o l a r o b s e r v a t o r y batt e r i e s .5 and 6 d i s c h a r g e d t o a g r e a t e r d e p t h than L. e o t h e r s because t h e i r s o l a r a r r a y s were shadowed by t h e s o l a r o b s e r v a t o r y s o l a r s h i e l d . These p a s s e s a l s o r e q u i r e d l e s s power t r a n s f e r because l o a d s on t h e l a b o r a t o r y buses were reduced. The power h i s t o r y f o r t h e f i v e E a r t h o b s e r v a t i o n p a s s e s f o r t h i s t h e p e r i o d i s shown i n t a b l e 7-11, Table 7-11.Power H i s t o r y f o r t h e F i r s t F i v e E a r t h Observation P a s s e s
Time t o maneuver t o solar inertial mode, minutes 18 5 5 5 5 Maximum depth of discharge of batteries. percent

t o Z local vertical,

Time i n Z local vertical orientation, mi nu tes 33 10 11 12 1i

Predicted power capability, watts 4085 4534 3859 3940 3930

Average orbital load, watts 3300 4000 4030 3600 3970

Load reduction used, percent None
I

---50
37

5
22 23

4

8 8

13 14 13

40 38 39

The crew deployed t h e l a b o r a t o r y s o l a r a r r a y wing 1 d u r i n g an e x t r a v e h i c u l a r a c t i v i t y on Day 25. This provided an i n c r e a s e of approximately 2000 w a t t s t o t h e Saturn Workshop c a p a b i l i t y and onded t h e need f o r r i g o r o u s power management techniques. However, each daily f l i g h t p l a n t h e r e a f t e r was reviewed and each a c t i v i t y and time f u n c t i o n f o r each o f t h e t h r e e crewmen was e n t e r e d i n t o a computer program. The r e s u l t i n g v e h i c l e power consumption o b t a i n e d was compared with t h e p r e d i c t e d power c a p a b i l i t y . A l l o p e r a ~ i o n sr e q u i r i n g a d e p a r t u r e from t h e s o l a r i n e r t i a l a t L i t u d e were processed through t h e computer t o d e t e r mine t h e amount of power l o s s . -Where l o a d s approached power c a p a b i l i t y , none s s e n t i a l e l e c t r i c a l 1 - a u s were t u r n e d o f f t o p r o v i d e an adequate power margin. For t h e remaining 1 4 days of t h e f i r s t manned p e r i o d a l l s o l a r i n e r t i a l mL-de o r b i t s had a p o s i t i v e power margin of 800 w a t t s minimum. The 88 E a r t h observ a t i o n p a s s e s completed a f t e r t h e workshop s o l a r a r r a y wing was deployed s t i l l r e q u i r e d load r e d u c t i o n because of t h e i n c r e a s e d l e n g t h of t h e maneuvers and t h e d a t a t a k e . Table 7-111 summarizes t h e number and t y p e s of E a r t h observat i o n p a s s e s performed d u r i n g t h e mission and t h e depth of b a t t e r y d i s c h a r g e f o r each type. Table 7-111

.-

Summary o f Skylab Mission E a r t h Observations
Number o f o b s e r v a t i c n s

-

Earth observdtion attitude, degrees

Duration, minutes 0 13 19.5 25.8 32 39.5 57 91 103 to tc to to to

--/

First I SecondT-~l~,TI---manned manned manned M i s ! i o n total pel i o d period period

--I-----

I/

Ft ;'
-I

battery d i s c h a r g e , average

--

Laboratory

Solar obsrrvatory

0 t o 50 50 t o 75 75 t o 100 106 t o 125 125 t o 150 150 t o 175 200 t o 250 350 t o 400 400 t o 450 Subtotals

Lo
to to to

13 19.5 25.8 32 39.5 45.2 64.5 103 116

The cornnand and s e r v i c e module f u e l c e l l s were d e a c t i v a t e d cn Day 32, and t h e S a t u r n Workshop e l e c t r i c a l power system began t o p r o v i d e i t s power r e quirement. Its average load was approximately 1200 w a t t s w"th a peak l o a d of 2200 w a t t s average f o r a 2-hour p e r i o d d u r i n g t h e e n t r y s i m u l a t i o n s . During a n e x t r a v e h i c u l a r a c t i v i t y t o r e t r i e v e f i l m from t h e s o l a r o b s e r v a t o r y cameras on Day 37, a crewmen a p p l i e d a mechanical shock t o i p r e s c r i b e d h c a t i o n Qn t h e i case of s o l a r o b s e r v a t o r y power c o n d i t i o n e r 15 and i t resumed normal o p e r a t i o n upon command. During t h e second unmanned p e r i o d , t h e average Skylab e l e c t r i c a l l o a d r e quirement was 3100 w a t t s p e r o r b i t . S i n c e t h e average power system c a p a b i l i t y exceeded 5000 w a t t s f o r t h e e n t i r e p e r i o d , a p o s i t i v e power margin of over 2000 watts e x i s t e d f o r t h e e n t i r e unmanned p e r i o d . The power system o p e r a t e d normally d u r i n g t h i s p e r i o d w i t h o u t f a i l u r e of a d d i t i o n a l subsystems o r off-normal operations.
To p r e p a r e f o r t h e second crew's a r r i v a l , t h e t h e r m o s t a t s e t t i n g f o r t h e docking a d a p t e r w a l l h e a t e r s was i n c r e a s e d t o t h e 21°C p o i n t by ground cormand on Pay 75, r e s u l t i n g i n an i n c r e a s e d load of approximately 500 w a t t s . A t t h i s p o i n t t h e average l o a d was 3600 w a t t s . AdditTonal l o a d s were added a s t h e docki n g l i g h t s , t r a n s p o n d e r , and t r a c k i n g l i g h t s were sequenced t o s u p p o r t t h e ;endezvous and docking maneuve7-s. The average l o a d s of t h i s p e r i o d d i d n o t exceed 3900 watts, and s i n c e t h e average power c a p a b i l i t y was 5500 w a t t s , a n q s i t i v e power margin of over 1600 w a t t s was maintained. A f t e r f u l l o p e r a t i o n : began, t h e t o t a l average l a a d requirement was 4800 w a t t s u n t i l Day 95, when m e command module's f u e l c e l l s were d e a c t i v a t e d , i n c r e a s i n g t n e average load r e q u i r e l ~ i e n t t o 5850 w a t t s . The l a b o r a t o r y power system's r e g u l a t e d v o l t a g e was changed; at t h e high b e t a a n g l e a t t h i s time and w i t h t h e change i n v o l t a g e , t h e t o t a l c a p a b i l i t y was 7060 w a t t s , p r o v i d i n g t h e n e c e s s a r y power m a r g i c . A s t h e m i s s i o n p r o g r e s s e d , i t was n e c e s s a r y t o a d j u s t t h e power s h a r i n g p e r i o ~ l c a l l yt o e n s u r e t h a t t h e power margin was maintained and t h a t t h t b a t t e r y d i s c h a r g e c o n s t r a i n t s were. n o t violated.

Ih~re were 41 E a r t h o b s e r v h t i o n p a s s e s made d u r i n g t h e second manned p e r i o d . Reevaluation o f t h e e l e c t r i c a l systems determined t h a t 50 p e r c m t d i s c h a r g e f o r t h e l a b o r a t o r y b a t t e r i e s and 45 p e r c e n t d i s c h a r g e f o r t h e s o l a r o b s e r v a t o r y b a t d t e r i e s were ~ l r m i s s i b l e u r i n g t h e s e maneuvers. T h i s c r i t e r i o n was implemented f o r t h e Earth o b s e r v a t i o n p a s s on Day 1 1 and f o r a l l subsequent E a r t h observa1 , t i c n p a s s e s u n t i l Day 229. The E a r t h o b s e r v a t i o n maneuver p l a n s were programed through t h e ground computers, and t h e b a t t e r i e s ' d e p t h s of d i s c h a r g e were pred i c t e d . F u r t h e r power management t e c h n i q u e s were implemented o x l y i f t h e pred i c t e d depth of d i s c h a r g e exceeded t h e a l l o w a b l e v a l u e .
A f a i l u r e of t h e c h a r g e r i n t h e s o l a r o b s e r v a t o r y ' s power c o n d i t i o n e r 5 03 Day 1 2 3 a g a i n reduced power system c a p a b i l i t y , b u t o u l y by approximately 100 w a t t s . With t h e e x c e p t i o n of t h e c h a r g e r f a i l u r e , t h e f i r s t manned p e r i o d f a i l u r e of s o l a r o b s e r v a t o r y r e g u l a t o r 3 , and t h e off-normal performance of power cond1.tioner 1 7 , a l l subsystems c o r t i n u e d t o o p e r a t e normally d u r i n g t h e second manned p e r i o d .

Concern a r o s e d u r i n g the second manned period when t h e primary a i r l o c k coola n t loop was s h u t down because o f a s u s p e c t e d l o s s of c o o l a n t f l u i d . With o n l y t one a i r l o c k c o o l a n t loop i n o p e r a t i o n d u r ~ l g h e th!-rd unmanned p e r i o 4 , t h e r e would be no backup system a v a i l a b l e , s o a f a i l u r e o f t h i s c o o l a n t loop would '.cave

t h e l a b o r a t o r y power c o u d i t i o n e r s w i t h o u t c o o l a n t flow. The b a t t e r i e s and e l e c t r o n i c components i n t h e power c o n d i t i o n e r s must be c o o l e d when o p e r a t i n g . Should t h e power c o n d i t i o n e r s l o s e t h e i r c o o l a n t flow, t h e y would be s k u t down t o e n s c r e t h e i r a v a i l a b i l i t y d u r i n g tile t h i r d maimed p e r i o d . The r.ormal proc e d u r e would be t o open t i e b a t t e r y and r e g u l a t o r o u t p u t s by g r ~ n d command and a l l o w t h e s u i a r c b s e r v a t o r y t o s u p p l y t h e t o t a l power u n t i l t h e t h i r d crew could r e n d e z v o u s , dock, and r e s u p p l y t h e c o o l a n t f l u i d . T h i s o p e r a t l o n , howe v e r , would remove power from :he workshop c o n t r o l b h s , removing command capab i l i t y f r o n t h e s y s t e m . D i s c o n n e c t i n g t h e b a t ~ e r i e sfrom t h e r e g u l a t o r .c~ould s t i l l l e a v e t h e s y s t e m o p e r a t i o n a l d u r i n g t h e d a y l i g h t c y c l e s . L t was t h e n dec i d e d t h a t t h e p r o p e r way t o power down i n t h e e v e n t of a c o o l a n t f l o w l o s s was t o l e a v e t h e r e g u l a t o r o u t p u t r e l a y c l o s e d , and r e d u c e che r e g u l a t o r v o l t a g e , s o t \ a t t h e s o l a r o b s e r v a t o r y would p r c v i d e c:' of t h e power t o t h e v e h i c l e , e f f e c t i v e l y r e d u c i n g t h e l a b o r a t o r y power o u t p u t t o z e r o . T h i s would a l l o w power TU f l o w t o t h e c o n t r o l b u s t h r o u g h tlle r e g u l a t o r from t h e s o l a r o b s e r v a t o r y . F i g u r e ?-7 shows t h e p a t h f o r t h i s power flow. Because t h e r e g u l a t o r v o l t a g e c a n o n l y be a d j u s t e d mc?nually, i t w h s r e q u i r e d t h a t t h i s be dcne i n m e d i a t e l y b e f o r e t h e c r e w ' s d e p a r t u r e . T h i s would have p l a c e d t h e e n t i r e e l e c t r i c a l l o a d o n t h e sol.ar o b s e r v a t o r v f o r t h e e n t i r e unmanned p e r i o d t o f o l l o w , which was u n d e s i r a b l e . T h e r e f o r e , t h e S a t u r n Workshop was changed from t h e n o r l l a l c o n £ - g u r a t i o n b e f o r e r e d u c t i o n of t h e l a b o r a t o r v v o l t a g e by c p e n i n g t h e t r a n s f e r r e l a y s . The r e s u l t a n t 27 v o l t s was s u f f i c i e n i t o power t h e l o a d s , and t h e t r a n s f e r r e l a y s w e r e l e f t i n t h e open p o s i t i o n , w i t h e a c h systeir, o p e r a t i n g i n d e p e n d e n t l y . Shoclld thc? coola n t l o o p f a i l , t h e t r a n s f e r r e l a y s would be c l o s e d and t h e s y s t e m would be i n t h e contingency o p e r a t i n g c o n f i g u r a t i o n . Fortunately, t h e coolant system operated s a t i s f a c t o r i l y d u r i n g t h e t h i r d unmanned p e r i o d , and t h e LransEer r e l a y was l e f t open uncil a f t e r ,,~e a ~ L ;a1 o f t h e t h i r d crew. L
Solar panel ( 1 of 18) Eus Regulator Trans Fet- bus
BUS i or ?

Solar group

cl
Battery Solar observatory power conditioning group (1 of 18)

Tr ;q,fer

re1 ays

power from tvansfer b u s System control
bus

/

1
I
Labo-atory power conditioning group 1 o t 8

F i g u r e 7-7.-

S o l a r obse: a t o r y power s u p p l i e d t o l a b o r a t o r y c o n t r o l bus.

The l a b o r a t o r y e l e c t r i c a l power s y s t e m o p e r a t e d n o r m a l l y d u r i n - t h e e n t i r e g t h i r d unmanned p e r i o d . The a v e r a g e l a b o r a t o r y e l e c t r i c a l l o a d d u r i n g t h i s p e r i o d was 1100 w a t t s and t h e c a p a b i 1 i ; y of t h e system v a r i e d from a minimum o f 2900 w a t t s t o a maximum 3600 w a t t s . The r e s u l t f n g l a b o r a t o r y b a t t e r y d i s c h a r g e f o r t h e 1100-watt l o a d o v e r t h e range o f b e t a a n g l e s e n c o u n t e r e d d u r i n g t h e unmanned p e r i o d v a r i e d from 6 t c 8 p e r c e n t . The s o l a r o b s e r v a t o r y e l e c t r i c a l power s y s t e m o p e r a t e d n a r m a l l v , w i t h t h e e x c e p t i o n o f p o h e r c o n d i t i o n e r 1 7 . Because o f t h k off-normal o p e r In o f t h i s subsystem, i t s c o n t r i b u t i o n t o t h e t o t a l o u t p u t was 80 p e r c e n t l e s s i n t h a t of t h ~e m a i n i n g 15 power c o n d i t i o n e r s . On Day 1 5 1 r

power c o n d i t i o n e r 17 was rem -d from t h e load bus f o r a p e r i o d of 20 hours. A f t e r i t was r e t u r n e d t o t h e load bus i t began t o f u n c t i c n p r o p e r l y , and f o r t h e r c ~ a i n d e rof t h i s p e r i o d i t s c o n t r i b u t i m t o t h e t o t a l power c a p a b i l i t y was e q u a l t o t h a t of the o t h e r 1 5 a c t i v e power c o n d i t i o n e r s . The average l o a d requirem. a t was 2000 w a t t s , and t h e average system c a p a b i l t t y v a r i e d from a minimum of 3800 w a t t s t o a maximum of 4900 w a t t s . The r e s u l t i n g b a t t e r y d i s charge f c r t h e 2000-watt load over t h e rang? of b e t a a n g l e s encountere,1 d u r i n g t h e unmanned period v a r i e d from 12 t o 14 p e r c e n t .
Oce Liay p r i o r t o t h e launch of t h e t h i r d crew, t h e t h e r m o s t a t s e t 2 i n g f o r t h e docking a d a p t e r w a l l h e a t e r s was once more i n c r e a s e d t o t h e 21°C s e t t i n g , w?~ichr e s u l t e d i q an i n c r e a s e d load on t h e l a b o r a t o r y system of 500 w a t t s t o a t o t a l load av-rage a f 1600 u a t t s . A d d i t i o n a l l o a d s were t h e t r a c k i n g l i g h t s , transponder, and dock in^ l i g h t s t o s u p p o r t t h e rendezvous and docking o p e r a t i o n s . The average of th= peak l o a d s on t h e l a b o r a t o r y system f o r t h i s p e r i o d was 1900 w a t t s ; the average l o a a on t h e s a l a r o h s c r v a t o r y system remained 3 t 2000 watcs. becr?use of t h e high b e t a a n g l e , t h e power c a p a b i l i t y f o r Loth systems was t h e h i g h e s t f o r t h e e n t i r e unmanned period a t t h i s time. A l a r g e p o s i t i v e power margin was s t i l l maintained f o r each system.

When t h e S a t u r n Workshop a t t i v a t i o c ' ~ e g a n , one of che f i r s t t a s k s accomp l i s h e d was t o p a r a l l e l t h e e l e c t r i c a l power systems and a d j u s t t h e l a b o r a t o r y open c i r c u i t v o l t d g e t o 29.1 v o l t s f o r t k €first a c t i v a t i o n day. r t was inv e a s e d t o 29.3 v o l t s f o r t h e remainder of t h e a c t i v a t i o n p e r i o d . The power c a p a b i l i t y of t h e two systems o p e r a t i n g i n p a r a l l e l a t t h e 29.1-volt s e t t i n g was 80GO v a t t s . The adjustment ta 1 9 . 3 v o i t s c-lused t h e combined c a p a b i l i t y t o dec r e a s e t o 7906 w a t t s . ~ I E t e rf u l l a c t j - - . l t i o n t h e average l o a d was 480C w a t t s when t h z crew was awake a d 4200 w a t t s when t h e crew was a s l e e p . With t h e 7900-watt c a p a t . ' i t ; - f o r t h i s p e r i o d , a power margin of 3109 watts e x i s t e d . The commcnd nodule f u e l c e l l s w r e d e ; l c t i v a t e d on Day 206, and t h e load was s x i t c l i e d t o the Saturn iorkshop power system. The t c t a l Skylab lodd i n c r e a s e d t o 5300 w a t t s average when the crew was awake and 5200 w a t t s a v f r a g e when t h e crew was a s l e e p . The tj2G0-watt power system c a p a b i l i t y on Day 206 provided a minimum power t a r g i n of 400 v a t t s . Duricg t h e Earth o b s e r v a t i o n o r i e n t a t i o n the d i s c h a r g e limit O I L che laborat o r y a d s o l a r o b s e r v a t o r y p9der systems was r e l a x e d , t o permic deep d i s ~ h a r g e s f o r t h i s l i m i t e d number of c y c l e s . For t h e f i r s t 43 days oE t h e t h i r d manrLed period t h e c o n s t r a i n t on t h e s o l a r o b s e r v a t o r y b a t t e r i e s p s r m i t t e d a naximm of 9 amp-t.r (45 p e r c e n t ) t o be removed; s i m i ? :r:- , t h e l a b o r a t o r y b a t t e r y d i s c h a r g e constrai~t was 16 amp-hr maximum ( 4 8 . 5 p r r c r n t )

.

On Day 229 a b a t t e r y c a p a c i t y t e s t was conducted on s o l a r o b s e r v a t o r y batt e r i e s 10 and 18. Since ti.e measured c a p a c i t y d u r i n g thi: t e s t was l e s s than t h e p r e d i c t e d v a l u e , t h e s o l a r o b s e r v a t o r y c c n s t r a i n t was changed t o 8 amp-hr (40 Since t h i s d e c r e a s e i n s t o r e d energy a v a i l a b l e irorr, t h e system reperce.,t). s t r i c t e d t o a c:egrer t h e types o f E a r t h o b s e r v a t i o n p a s s e s p e r m i s s i b l e , on Cay 243 the l a b o r a t o r y c r i t e r i o l was r e l a x e d t o permit a maxirrtum of 1 0 amp-hr (60.6 p o r c ~ n t ) t c be removed from t h e l a b o r a t o r y L a t t e r i e s .

An Eart!i obsc-.:vation pass was performed on each of cxo s u c c e s s i v e o r b i t s on Day 246, which r e s u l t e d i n a vio3.ation of the 8 amp-hr c o n s t r a i r ~ ton s o l a r observSince t h e e x c u r s i o n d a t o r y b a t t e r y 11. The a c t ~ a ? i s c h a r g e was 8.23 amp-hr.

above 8 amp-hr was s m a l l and a t a r e l a t i v e l y low d i s c h a r g e r a t e , power condi1 t i o n e r 1 d i d n a t a u t o m a t i c a l l y d i s c o n n e c t Zrom t h e system. Following t h e r e t u r n t o t h e s o l a r i n e r t i a l a t t i t u d e , enough energy was a v a i l a b l e t o completely recharge t h e b a t t e r y d u r i n g t h e f o l l o w i n g o r b i t . T h e r e f o r e , t h e v i o l a t i o n o f t h e c o n s t r a i n t d i d n o t a d v e r s e l y a f f e c t t h e power system performance and was n o t considered off-normal o p e r a t i o n . During t h e t h i r d manned p e r i o d , one o f t h e major experiment o b j e c t i v e s was t c o b t a i n d a t a on Comet Kohoutek. To o b t a i n t h e p r o p e r a n g l e f o r comet observat i o n , i t was n e c e s s a r y t o maneuver away from t h e s o l a r i n e r t i a l a t t i t u d e . The p e r c e n t of d i s c h a r g e f o r a l l t h e b a t t e r i e s was computed f o r each p a s s t o e n s u r e t h a t t h e power system's i n t e g r i t y was p r o t e c t e d . Hovever, most of t h e p a s s e s c e n t e r e d around o r b i t a l midnight, s o t h e r e s u l t i n g d i s c h a r g e l e v d s approximated t h a t of a normal s o l a r i n e r t i a l n i g h t p e r i o d . Two comet o b s e r v a t i o n p a s s e s and one E a r t h o b s e r v a t i o n p a s s r e q u i r e d a d d i t i o n a l c a p a b i l i t y t o e n s u r e t h a t t h e 8 amp-hr maximum d i s c h a r g e c r J t e r i o n was n o t v i o l a t e d . Power c o n d i t i o n e r 5, which ;round c o n t r o l ts p r o v i d e t h e a d d i t i o n a l had a c h a r g e r problem, u a s managed t c a p a b i l i t y needed. &my of t h e changes i n b a t t e r y d i s c h a r g e l e v e l s d a r i n g t h e mission were rel a t e d t o t h e adjustment of t h e r e g u l a t o r bus open c i r c u i t v o l t a g e , b u t i n addiZion t h e d i s c h a r g e a l s o changed w i t h t h e b e t a a n g l e except when i t was g r e a t e r thail 69.5 d e g r e e s and t h e r e was c o n t h u o u s s u n l i g h t . Figure 7-8 shows t h e average p e r c e n t of d i s c h a r g e a t t h e s o l a r i n e r t i a l a t t i t u d e f o r b o t h t h e systems and t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p of d i s c h a r g e l e v e l t o t h e b e t a a n g l e f o r t h e mission. Figure 7-9 shows t h e performance h i s t c . r y o f t h e S a t ~ r n Workshop e l e c t r i c a l power systsn. f o r the m i s s i o n p e r i o d , i n z l l ~ d i n gb o t h t h e a v e r a g e power l o a d s and i h e system c a p a b i l i t y . The r e d u c t i o n i n l o a d s d u r i n g t h e unmanned p e r i o d s w a s due t o t h e absence of t h e crew and t h e i.?duced o p e r a t i o n of t h e i n t e g r a t e d -.xperiments. The t o t a l experiment l o a d s could r e a c h as h i g h as 1500 w a t t s d u r i n g manned o p e r a t i o n ; however, planned o p e n ti011 r e q u i r e d approximately 500 w a t t s of power. During rht: unmanned p e r i o d , some experiments v e r e o p e r a t i o n a i and o t h e r s r e q u i r e d thermal p r o t e c t i o n . Approximately 200 w a t t s of power was used f o r t h i s purpose. 7.2 LABORATORY POWER SYSTEM

The l a b o r a t o r y e l e c t r i c a l power system was t o have d e r i v e d power from two s o l a r a r r a y wings. A wing i s made up of c h r e e s e c t i o n s a r r a n g e d t o p r o v i d e e i g h t i s o l a t e d power groups. The e i g h t powez groups on each wing a r e normally p a i r e d i n p a r a l l e l and connected t o e i g h t power c o n d i t i o n e r s . The power c o n d i t i o n e r s supply t h e twu main buses t h a t supply power t o t h e e l e c t r i c a l equipment i n t h e l a b o r a t o r y . The l a b o r a t o r y e l e c t r i c a l p o w x system normally o p e r a t e s i a p a r a l l e l w i t h t h e s o l a r o b s e r v a t o r y e l e c t r i c a l system; however, independent o p e r a t i o n i s p o s s i b l e by opening t r a n s f e r bus c i r - u i t b r e a k e r s . The amount o f power s u p p l i e d by each of t h e two e l e c t r i c a l systems i s c o n t r o l l e d by a d j u s t i n g r e g u l a t o r s t h a t c o n t r o l v o i t a g e s - f t h e two l a b o r a t o r y r e g u l a t e d buses. The v o l t a g e is a d j u s t e d t o some v a l u e r e l a t i v e t o t h e v o l t a g e of t h e s o l a r o b s e r v a t o r y power s o t h a t t h e r a t i o of load demand t o system c a p a b i l i t y is n e a r l y e q u a l f o r t h e two e l e c t r i c a l power systems.

S r t c n Yorksho> qission day

Saturn Yorkshop mission day

Figure 7-8.-

Average battery discharge history a t solar i n e r t i a l attitude.

Figure 7-9.-

Electrical power capability and average load history.

Because of t h e l o s s of one s o l a r a r r a y wing and t h e f a i l u r e of t h e o t h e r t o deploy full.y, t h e power c o n d i t i o n e r s were disconnected from t h e load buses approximately 2 hours a f t e r t h e Saturn Workshop iaunch, t o prevent complete d i s charge of t h e b a t t e r i e s . The l a b o r a t o r y s o l a r a r r a y wing was approximately 10 percent deployed and provided 100 t o 180 w a t t s , dzpending upon a t t i t u d e . This l i m i t e d power was used t o recharge four of t h e e i g h t b a t t e r i e s a t a low charging The l a b o r a t o r y e l e c t r i c a l power d i s t r i b u ~ i o n networks and c o n t r o l s were rate usad d u r i c g t h i s period t o achieve n e a r - n o n a l o p e r a t i o n with t h e s o l a r observat o r y system supplying t h e e l e c t r i c a l power.

.

The crew r e l e a s e d t h e p a r t i a l l y deployed a r r a y on Day 25. The l a b o r a t o r y e l e c t r i c a l power system performed according t o p r e d i c t i o n s throughout t h e remainder of t h e mission. N contingency o p e r a t i o n s were performed, and no uno planned switching o p e r a t i o n s were required. The r e g u l a t o r bus v o l t a g e c o n t r o l potenticmeters were a d j u s t e d s e v e r a l times t o optimize l o a d s h a r i n g between t h e two poker systems according t o t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e power c a p a b i l i t i e s and load requirements. Load s h a r i n g among t h e e i g h t power c o n d i t i o n e r s v a s s t a b l e and was perfomled as predicted. Actual power use during s o l a r i n e r t i a l a t t i t u d e s v a r i e d from 1600 t o 3500 w a t t s i d t h average b a t t e r y discharges of 0 t o 17 percent of f u l l c a p a c i t y p e r o r b i t . The maximum depth of discharge of 57 percent occurred a f t e r a n E a r t h observation experiment o r b i t on Day 256. The system performed w e l l throughout t h e mission, and no f a i l u r e s of equipment riere noted. A l l required o p e r a t i o n s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h a c t i v a t i o n , deactivat i o n , p a r a l l e l i n g , and Earth observations were s u c c e s s f u l l y completed. Several v o l t a g e r e g u l a t o r f i n e adjustments were made t o optimize powe~ c a p a b i l i t y . A l l svstem Darameter m n i tors f ~ i n r t i n n e d properlv. 7.2.1 Solar Array

The workshop s o l a r a r r a y wing c o n s i s t s of an open box type beam and t h r e e -wing s e c t i o n s . Each wing s e c t i o n c o n s i s t s of 10 i d e n t i c a l s o l a r c e l l panels f a r a t o t a l of 30 p a n e l s f o r t h e wing. Two a d d i t i o n a l F - 4 s are included i n each wing s e c t i o n t o provide spacing between t h e a c t i v e I.= and t h e beam f a i r i n g ; one is a t r u s s panel and t h e o t h e r irn i n a c t i v e k - -1. Figure 7-10 si1av3 t h e p h y s i c a l arrangement of t h e s o l a r wing componcrits ~ c t h e i r p h y s i c a l 2 charecterirtics. Each a c t i v e panel c o n s i s t s of 4 s e p s r a t e and i s o l a t e d s o l a r c e l l modules f o r a t o t a l o r 120 modules f o r t h e wing. These modules are bused t o g e t h e r i n t o 8 groups of 1 5 modules each. These groups t o g e t h e r w i t h power c o n d i t i o n e r s form e i g h t i n d i v i d u a l power sourzes. Since t h e e i g h t s o l a r a r r a y groups i n each wing a r e p a r a l l e l e d , the l o s s of s o l a r a r r a y wing 2 r e s u l t e d in a 50 percent reduct i o n i n c u r r e n t a t no change i n v o l t a g e , saus-ing only a reduced load c a p a b i l i t y . The wing which was l o s t had t h e same artangemlent shown f o r wing 1, s o t h e modu l e s ' power c o n d i t i o n e r s 1, 2, 3, and 4 wnre outboard from t h e Saturn Workshop, opposite t o t h e inboard a r r a n g e s e a t of wing 1, This e l i m i n a t e d t h e p o s s i b i l i t y of t h e Saturn Workshop's shadowing both halves of a power group during non-solari n e r t i a l a t t i t u d e s . Without t h i s wing, power groups 1 and 3, because of shadowi n g , had t h e lowest power o u t p u t s of t h e groups d u r i n g Earth observations.

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Figure 7-10.-

Workshop s o l a r a r r a y wing c o n f i ~ ~ r a t i o n .

The o p e r a t i n g temperature of t h e s o l a r cells is Thermal C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . determined from t h e o u t p u t s of 1 0 temperature t r a n s d u c e r s mounted on t h e s o l a r a r r a y wing. The temperature transducers' o u t p u t s vary in a c y c l e with each o r b i t . Figure 7-11 shows s o l a r a r r a y temperature p r o f i l e s f o r o r b i t s a t b e t a a n g l e s of 0 , 30, and 60 degrees.

-80

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1

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2

3

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4

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5

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6

7

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8

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Time. hours

Figure 7-11.-

Temperature p r o f i l e f o r workshop s a l a r a r r a y wing a t various b e t a angles.

Actual temperature p r o f i l e s wera s i m i l a r t o premission p r e d i c t i o n s , bv* l o s s of t h e meteoroid s h i e l d produced some d i f f e r e n c e s . The meteoroid s h i e l d I n t h e v i c i n i t y of s o l a r a r r a y wing 1 w a s painted biack and had a low r e f l e c t i v i t y . The exposure of t h e highly r e f l e c t i v e goid s u r f a c e of t h e workshop r e s u l t e d i n increased r e f l e c t i o n of t h e d i r e c t s o l a r r a d i a t i o n and t h e r e f l e c t e d l i g h t and

d i r e c t thermal r a d i a t i o n from t h e Earth. This a d d i t i o n a l r e f l e c t e d energy raised tempe:atures on t h e wing s e c t i o z c l o s e s t t o t h e workshop, but had l i t t l e effeci: ; t h e outer wing e c t i o n . r ' The lower predicted temperature a t o r b i t a l noon was based on the s o l a r a r r a y ' s operating a t peak power while i n sunlight. Peak pover operation act'ua l l y ends when t h e b a t t e r i e s approach f u l l charge, generally in t h e f i r s t 20 minutes of sunlight. When t h e a r r a y operates below peak power, e f f i c i e n c y drops and t h e a r r a y ' s temperature rises. P w e r W t p g . - The o r i g i n a l two-wing s o l a r a r r a y subsystem was t o d e l i v e r an average a v a i l a b l e power of 10.5 kilowatts, within a voltagh r a g e of 51 t o 125 vdc, integrated over t h e s u n l i t portion of t h e o r b i t . Based on a rrelaunch prediction of 8.3 percent performance degradation f o r t h e mission, a minimum power c a p a b i l i t y of 11.5 kilowatts was required at the beginning of t h e mission t o provide t h i s required power a t t h e end of t h e mission. With t h e l o s s of wing 2, t h i s power c a p a b i l i t y was reduced t o one-half of t h e predicted values. Figure 7-12 shows t h e performance of s o l a r a r r a y wing 1 compared t o tnese req u i r m e n t s . The v o l t q e and currene outputs of t h e e i g h t s o l a r a r r a y groups
I

.

the e n t i r e mission.

Actual p e r f o m n c e a t 6 3 k average array temperature I

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25 75 125 175 Saturn Workshop mission day 225

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Figure 7-12.-

Performance of s o l a r array wing.

a r e s i m i l a r except where modules a r e shadowed by t h e s o l a r observatory s o l a r array. Solar array groups 5 and 6 each have one module shadowed; group 6 has two modules irt the hado ow. Figure 7-13 shows t h e voltage and current outputs of these groups during a t y p i c a l o r b i t .

Time from sunset. minutes

Figure 7-13.-

Typical workshop s o l a r a r r a y group output f o r one o r b i t .

As t h e s o l a r a r r a y v e n t i n t o shadow, t h e c u r r e n t dropped t o zero, and t h e v o l t a g e dropped t o t h e ptwer c o n d i t i o n e r b a t t e r y voltage. When t h e a r r a y came i n t o t h e s u n l i g h t it was =old, and t h e v o l t a g e s were a t t h e i r peak values; t h e v o l t a g e s decreased as t h e a;ray warmed up. The c u r r e n t w a s high because of t h e increased loads of t h e b a t t e r i e s recharging. When t h r b a t t e r i e s approached f u l l charge t h e charge rate decreased, r e s u i t i n g i n a a t o p in t h e c u r r e n t and a rise i n voltage. A f t e r t h e b a t t e r i e s were f u l l y charged t h e c v r r e n t remained n e a r l y constant a t t h e lower v a l u e s shown, and t h e v o l t a g e con1:inued t o vary according t o t h e temperature. The s l i g h t rise in v o l t a g e before t h e end of ~nt: :-light partlon of the c i b f t corresponded t o t h e s m a l l decrease i n temperat u r e t h a t occurred -+en t h e fncidence angle of t h e t a c k of the s o l a r a r r a y surf a c e t o t h e E a r t h ' s stir f a c e increased.

One abnormal c o n d i t i o n was noted f o r s o l a r a r r a y group 4. Onboard and ground equipment d i s p l a y s c o n s i s t e n t l y i n d i c a t e d a lesser c u r r e n t output from group 4 than from t h e o t h e r groups. Evaluation of t h e o t h e r power c o n d i t i o n e r 4 measurements v e r i f i e d t h a t t h i s group w a s prating with t h e same c a p a b i l i t i e s as t h e o t h e r s . The l o s s of s o l a r a r r a y hdng 2 probably allowed a s o l a r a r r a y group 4 r e t u r n wire t o make c o n t a c t with t h e v e h i c l e s u r f a c e , causing a c u r r e n t path around t h e c u r r e n t monitoring shunt devices. Reg-llator bus 1 c u r r e n t ind i c a t o r s , wwch are a summation of t h e c u r r e n t of t h e power groups feeding t h e bus, were a l s o low by t h e same amount a s s o l a r a r r a y group 4. Data from t h e s e two items were c o r r e c t e d by adding a v a l u e equal t o t h e d i f f e r e n c e between them and t h e average c u r r e n t readings o f t h e o t h e r groups. Low readings continued, but t h e workaround procedure was s a t i s f a c t o r y f o r e v a l u a t i o n purposes.

The average p w e r o u t p u t f o r solar a r r a y wing 1 a t t h e end of t h e mission was 6970 watts. This apparent high pawer was due i n p a r t t o t h e occurrence of t h e maximum s o l a r f l u x i n t e n s i t y because t h e Earth was then a t p e r i h e l i o n . Alsc, t h e following circumstances c o n t r i b u t e d t o t h e higher than p r e d i c t e d output : a. The average s o l a r c e l l output was higher than expected. amperes versus 248 milliamperes).
(256 m i i l i -

b. Wiring s i z e s were chosen assuming worst-case temperatures, vhlch res u l t e d in less v o l t a g e drop than p r e d i c t e d . c. The assumption of an 8-degree o r i e n t a t i o n e r r o r e x i s t i n g continuously between t h e Sun and t h e a r r a y s was o v e r l y conservative. d. Shadow p a t t e r n a n a l y s i s had assumed t h a t 17 our of 240 modules would be shadowed f o r periods up t o f u l l o r b i t under t h r u s t e r a t t i t u d e c o n t r o l with a 5-desree deadband. The deadband w a s changed t o 3 degrees p r i o r t o launch. Moreover, use of t h r u s t e r c o n t r o l was minimal.

e. Power c a l c u l a t i o n s were based on worst-case v a l u e s of h e a t f l u x f o r e n t i r e o r b i t s . This was done because t h e random behavior of i n f r a r e d r a d i a t i o n and albedo of t h e Earth a r e n o t w e l l known.

7.2.2

Power Conditioners

Major components of cach power c o n d i t i o n e r a r e a charger, b a t t e r y , and voltaee regulator.

The b a t t e r y charger r e c e i v e s power from t h e s o l a r a r r a y and Chargers.s u p p l i e s i t t o t h e bus r e g u l a t o r t o s a t i s f y load demands and t o charge t h e batt e r y . A f t e r load demandn a r e met, t h e remaining power i s d e l i v e r e d t o t h e batt e r y . A peak power t r a c k e r u n i t r e s t r i c t s t h e charger output s o t h a t t h e s o l a r a r r a y power requirement dses not exceed t h e maximum power p o i n t , thereby preventing overloading of t h e a r r a v s . An ampere-hour meter c o n t r o l s b a t t e r y charging by measuring t h e amomit of c u r r e n t supplied by tile b a t t e r y and ensures t h a t a l i k e amount is replaced. The b a t t e r y chargers performed s a t i s f a c t o r i l y both b e f o r e and af rer t h e deployment of s o l a r a r r a y wing 1. The b a t t e r y chargers in power c o n d i t i o n e r s 5, 6, and 7 operated with d u a l low power s o l a r a r r a y i n p u t s t o charge t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e b a t t e r i e s t o 100 percent charge. S o l a r a r r a y c u r r e n t s during t h e charging of t h e s e b a t t e r i e s w e r e between 0.4 and 1.2 amperes f o r power condit i o n e r s 5 through 8. These c u r r e n t l e v e l s a r e w e l l below t h e d e s i r e d range of operation f o r t h e b a t t e r y chargers. The o t h e r fo:lr b a t t e r i e s could not be charged because t h e a r r a y power a v a i l a b l e , even from d u a l s o l a r a r r a y group combinations, was i n s u f f i c i e n t t o o p e r a t e t h e b a t t e r y chargers. Another r e s u l t of t h e low s o l a r a r r a y power was t h a t b a t t e r y chargers 1, 3, 4, and 8 , m d p o s s i b l y t h e o t h e r b a t t e r y chargers, experienced an o s c i l l a t i n g i n p u t caused by t h e r e p e t i t i v e c o l l a p s e and re-overy of t h e s o l a r a r r a y output c h a r a c t e r i s t i c . The a r r a y v o l t a g e would r i s e t o t h e p o i n t at which t h e b a t t e r y charger b i a s c i r c u i t s would t u n on. The c u r r e n t drawn by t h e b i a s c i r c u i t s , however, would p u l l down t h e s o l a r a r r a y v o l t a g e t o such a l e v e l t h a t , because of t h e low s o l a r a r r a y power, t h e c i r c u i t s would t u r n o f f again. A t t h i s p o i n t t h e a r r a y v o l t a g e wou1.d recover t o i t s o r i g i n a l l e v e l , and t h e c y c l e would r e p e a t . Analysis of t h e b a t t e r y charger c i r c u i t s i n d i c a t e d t h a t t h i s c o n d i t i o n should a o t cause any problems. As a s a f e t y fact o r , however, t h e charger switch was placed i n t h e bypass p o s i t i o n , s o t h a t t h e s o l a r a r r a y output was removed from t h e b a t t e r y charger i n p u t . Each b a t t e r y charger conditioned its a s s o c i a t e d s o l a r a r r a y group i n p u t s o t h a t peak power was e x t r a c t e d upon demand d u r i n g i n i t i a l b a t t e r y charging, batt e r y v o l t a g e was l i m i t z d a s determined by b a t t e r y temperature during t h e v o l t a g e limit charge mode, and b a t t e r y c u r r e n t w a s r e g u l a t e d when t h e battery-chargerc o n t r o l l i n g ampere-hour meter i n d i c a t e d a 100 percent b a t t e r y state of charge. Figure 7-14 i l l u s t r a t e s t h e t y p i c a l o p e r a t i o n of a power c o n d i t i o n e r f o r one discharge-charge c y c l e a f t e r t h e l a b o r a t o r y s o l a r a r r a y wing deployment.

Peak Power Tracking.- Peak power t r a c k i n g i s experienced from t h e beginning of each s u n l i g h t period u n t i l t h e b a t t e r y is f u l l y charged. Available s o l a r a r r a y power is maximum a t s u n r i s e , and g r a d u a l l y d e c r e a s e s a s t h e s o l a r a r r a y group temperature i n c r e a s e s . The peak power t r a c k i n g p o r t i o n of t h e charger i n p u t power curve is shown i n f i g u r e 7-14. The charger peak power t r a c k e r ext r a c t e d maximum power from t h e s o l a r a r r a y group immediately upon s u n r i s e and then decreased i t s demand as t h e a v a i l a b l e s o l a r a r r a y group power decreased. As shown i n t h e f i g u r e , t h e peak power t r a c k e r c l o s e l y followed t h e characteri s t i c s o l a r a r r a y p r o f i l e u n t i l t h e b a t t e r y charge v o l t a g e l i m i t mode was reached. A t t h i s t b e , t h e charger i n p u t power decreased w i t h t h e reduction of b a t t e r y charge c u r r e n t demand. This d e v i c e performed s a t i s f a c t o r i l y througho u t t h e e n t i r e mission.

H loo --m
C

-I-

u

90,

----

C _

-- -a-

L 0

ae

8070C

Sunset

Sunrise Time, minutes

Figure 7-14.-

Typical dlscharge-charge c y c l e pera at ion f o r a power conditioner.

B a t t e g Voltage and Current Regulation.- B a t t e r y charging i s designed so t h a t t h e b a t t e r y v o l t a g e w i l l not exceed a l i m i t i n g v a l u e imposed by b a t t e r y temperature. Data showed t h a t t h e b a t t e r y charger l i m i t e d t h e b a t t e r y under charge t o t h e c o r r e c t v a l u e f o r t h e corresponding b a t t e r y top-of-cell temperat u r e s . Battery temperatures throughout the mission v a r i e d from -1.0 t o + 4 . ! j ° C , w e l l w i t h i n t h e p r e d i c i e d ranges. When t h e c o n t r o l l i n g arnpere-hour meter i n d i c a t e d t h a t t h e b a t t e r y had returned t o 100 percent of charge, t h e b a t t e r y c u r r e n t was regulated t o 0.75 20.5 ampere. The b a t t e r y c u r r e n t curve i n f i g u r e 7-14 shows t h e drop t o t h e t r i c k l e charge l e v e l at t h e time t h a t t h e c o n t r o l l i n g ampere-hour meter reached 100

percent charge. The c u r r e n t then remained s t a b l e a t 0.9 ampere throughout t h e t r i c k l e charge region. This o p e r a t i o n was t y p i c a l f o r a l l e i g h t power condit i o n e r s throughout t h e e n t i r e mission. Ampere-Hour Meter Contrc1.- The ampere-hour meter t r a c k s t h e b a t t e r y discharge-charge p r o f i l e i n 1 p e r c e n t s t e p s . Accuracy of t h e readings i s improved by i n c l u d i n g in t h e i n t e g r a t i o n of b a t t e r y charge c u r r e n t a temperature compensation f a c t o r , which corresponds t o t h e b a t t e r y temperature. Figure 7-14 shows t h e t y p i c a l r e l a t i o n s h i p between t h e ampere-hour meter charge i n d i c a t i o n and t h e b a t t e r y c u r r e n t . The meter a c c u r a t e l y r e g i s t e r e d b a t t e r y discharge and charge. Upon reaching 100 p e r c e n t , t h e b a t t e r y charger c o n t r o l c i r c u i t r y was switched t o t r i c k l e charge. The meter output remained a t 100 percent u n t i l b a t t e r y discharge began at t h e next sunset. The calciilated percent of charge using b a t t e r y c u r r e n t and temperature d a t a compared c l o s e l y w i t h v a l u e s obtained by t h e ampere-hour metei readouts. A downward d r i f t trend w a s noted on s e v e r a l of t h e primary ( c o n t r o l l i n g ) ampere-hour meter i n d i c a t i o n s b e f o r e 2nd during t h e second manned period. I n some of t h e s e i n s t a n c e s t h e secondary ampere-hour meter i n d i c a t i o n s showed a more pronounced downward d r i f t than t h e i r a s s o c i a t e d primary ampere-hour i n d i c a t i o n s . Real-time a n a l y s i s of o t h e r b a t t e r y parameters--voltage, c u r r e n t , and temperature--indicated t h a t t h e b a t t e r i e s i c q u e s t i o a were being f u l l y charged and t h a t t h e d r i f t w a s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h z q e r e - h o u r meter o p e r a t i o n only. Further a n a l y s i s of f l i g h t d a t a i n d i c a t e d th.;t f o r t h e minimum power ~llargins encountered during t h e s e periods, th,? t e t u r r , f a c t o r of t h e ampere-hwr meter was n o t being s a t i s f i e d even though t h e b a z t e r j was a c t u a l l y being f u l l y ~ h a r g e d . The erroneous ampere-hour meter i n d i c a t i o n s had no e f f e c t on system o p e r a t i o n . Following t h e minimum c a p a b i l i t y periods, t h e s t a t e of charge i n d i c a t i o n s recovered t o normal l e v e l s and displayed t h e a c t u a l b a t t e r y s t a t u s . B a t t e r i e s . - Each b a t t e r y has 30 series-connected, nickel-cadmium, sealed c e l l s . The b a t t e r i e s o p e r a t e between 30 and 48 vdc and have a 33 amp-hr r a t i n g . Thermistors i n t h e b a t t e r i e s provide temperature sensing f o r telemetry, amperehour meter compensation, charge c o n t r o l , and p r o t e c t i o n a g a i n s t excessive temperatures. Active cold p l a t e s r e g u l a t e o v e r a l l case temperature. The e i g h t l a b o r a t o r y e l e c t r i c a l power system b a t t e r i e s provided power during t h e launch phase. The b a t t e r i e s were then turned o f f a t approximately 2 hours a f t e r l i f t o f f when it vas determined t h a t s o l a r power was n o t a v a i l a b l e . B a t t e r i e s a t t h i s time ranged from 64 t o 68 percent of f u l l charge. The batteries were turned o f f t o r e t a i n t h e i r s t o r e d c a p a b i l i t y a s backup power sources f o r low power c a p a b i l i t y periods, such a s during Earth observation p a s s e s , and a l s o t o r e t a i n maximum f l e x i b i l i t y i n managing t h e b a t t e r i e s a s t h e mission progressed. The b a t t e r i e s were turned a n on Day 12 i n p r e p a r a t i o n f o r t h e a c t i v i t y t o deploy s o l a r e r r a y wing 1. They only provided t h e e l e c t r i c a l system c o n t r o l power because a l l of t h e r e g u l a t o r output power r e l a y s were i n t h e o f f p o s i t i o n . The deployment attempt w a s unsuccessful and a l l b a t t e r i e s were subsequently turned o f f a f t e r approximately 8 hours of o p e r a t i o n . The percent of charge f o r b a t t e r i e s 1 through 4 a t t h i s t i m e ranged from 48 t o 53 percent. B a t t e r i e s 1 through 4 remained o f f u n t i l Day 25, when they were turned on i n p r e p a r a t i o n f o r t h e second attempt t o achieve s o l a r a r r a y wing 1 deployment. B a t t e r i e s 5 through 8

were cycled cn and o f f at v a r i o u s times f o r trouble-shooting purposes and
attempted charging by t h e p a r t i a l l y oeployed wing. On Day 22, b a t t e r i e s 5, 6 , and 7 were recharged t o 100 percen5. Battery 8 could n o t be recharged because i t s a v a i l a b l e s o l a r a r r a y power was insufir'icient t o o p e r a t e t h e b a t t e r y charger. The i n i t i a l 24-day period, during most of which a l l e i g h t b a t t e r i e s were turned o f f i n a p a r t i a l l y discharged state, c o n s t i t u t e d an abnormal s t o r a g e period f o r t h e b a t t e r i e s . Recommended s t o r a g e i s e i t h e r discharged a t an 1 8 amperes r a t e t o a p o t e n t i a l of 30 v o l t s f o r long s t o r a g e p e r i o d s o r f u l l y charged with weekly boost charge p2riods. Although no s p e c i a l o p e r a t i o n s were used t o c o n d i t i o n t h e b a t t e r i e s , they respondes a s expected when s o l a r a r r a y power became a v a i l a b l e t o charge them. Table 7-N shows t h s i n d i c a t e d percent of charge of t h e b a t t e r i e s j u s t bef o r e and one o r b i t a f t e r s o l a r a r r a y beam deployment. The reading f o r b a t t e r y 8 i n t h e t a b l e is abnormally low. This was a r e s u l t of t h e zmpere-hour i n t e g r a t i o n being i n a d v e r t e n t l y reset t o zero on Day 1 4 , at which t i m e i t was reading 45 percent charged. The ampere-hour meters f o r b a t t e r y 8 were synchronized with t h e a c t u a l b a t t e r y percent of charge on Day 29 and operated normally t h e r e a f t e r . Table 7-1V.Laboratory ~ a t t e r i e s 'Percent of Charge
Ztate o f charqe, percent Gmt,
DayIhr:n;nI

Battery 1

iiatt2ry Battery 2 5

I

Sattery

1

Battery Battery Battery Bdttery 5 1 6 1 7 1 8 1

I

Battery c y c l i c performance from t h e time of s o l a r a r r a y deployment u n t i l t h e f i r s t connmand and s e r v i c e module undocked was good. I n t h e course of t h e f i r s t manned period, 219 b a t t e r y cycles: were accumulated. Figure 7-14 shows a r e p r e s e n t a t i v e c y c l e p r o f i l e of b a t t e r y parameters. The charge voltagr.. !imitat i o n mode o c c u r r i n g at t h i s t i m e r e s u l t e d i n some m a i l a b l e power not being used, but t h e charge voltage on t h e b a t t e r y was m a i n ~ q i n e da t t h e proper l e v e l . This condition continued u n t i l c y c l i c b a t t e r y i n e f f i c i e n c i e s were s a t i s f i e d by r e t u r n i n g more ampere-hours than were discharged (overcharge), a t which time t h e charge a u t o m i t i c a l l y r e v e r t e d t o a matntenance t r i c k l e charge. The t r i c k l e charge continued u n t i l t h e next discharge period. The depth of discharge most comonly experienced during t h e f i r s t manned period Wi:S 12 t o 1 4 percent. Up t o 30 percent discharge occurred during high a c t i v i t y periods o r a t v e h i c l e a t t i t u d e s o t h e r than s o l a r i n e r t i a l . A curve f o r a 1b- t o 18-ampere discharge r a t e was obtained during performance of a b a t t e r y c a p a c i t y test on Day 106. For t h i s t e s t , t h e r e g u l a t o r output v o l t a g e was adj u s t e d t o i n c r e a s e t h e load on b a t t e r y 8, and t h e s o l a r a r r a y input w a s disconnected from t h e power c o n d i t i o n e r t o maintain continuous b a t t e r y discharge during t h e test. Besides t h e t e s t on b a t t e r y 8, a c a p a c i t y t e s t was a l s o perfornied on b a t t e r y Capacity of t h e b a t t e r i e s had been determined i n ground t e s t s by measuring t h e ampere-hours e x t r a c t e d a t an 18-ampere discharge r a t e t o an end v o l t a g e of 30 v o l t s . The i n f l i g h t discharge procedure deviated from t h e ground

6 on Day 105.

p r a c t i c e i n t h a t t h e crew terminated t h e d i s c h a r g e when they d e t e c t e d a t e r m i n a l v o l t a g e of 33 v o l t s . The charger ampere-hour meter state-of-charge i n d i c a t i o n was used t o measure t h e o b t a i n e d c a p a c i t i e s d u r i n g t h e s e d i s c h a r g e s . l'hs d i e charge c h a r a c t e r i s t i c e x h i b i t e d a t acceptance t e s t i n g had i n b o t h of t h e s e t e s t s changed t o one i n which an i n i t i a l v o l t a g e p l a t e a u developed a t a lower l e v e l t h a n t h e s i n g l e p l a t e a u of t h e acceptance c h a r a c t e r i s t i c . The f i n a l few d a t a p o i n t s b e f o r e t h e t e r m i n a t i o n of t h e i n f l i g h t d i s c h a r g e s indica?:ed t h e development of a second lower p l a t e a u , which was compatible w i t h ground t e s t experience. Composite b a t t e r y d i s c h a r g e d a t a f o r t h e o p e r a t i n g p e r i o d Erom Day 76 through Day 135 were compared w i t h t h e d a t a from t h e f i r s t manned p e r i o d . This i n d i c a t e d a d e t e c t a b l e r e c e s s i o n of t h e i n i t i a l d i s c h a r g e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c p l a t e a u . T h i s c o r r e l a t e d w i t h t h e previous i n f l i g h t c a p a c i t y d i s c h a r g e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and w i t h ground test r e s u l t s . During t h i s p e r i p ~ d , some ampere-hour meters' r e a d o u t s d r i f t e d from t h e a c t u a l s t a t e of charge of t h e b a t t e r i e s . A compariscn was nade of a l l t h e b a t t e r y d i s c h a r g e t e r m i n a l v o l t a g e s f o r t h e same p o i n t s i time d u r i n g n t h e ampere-hour meter d r i f t p e r i o d . Aniiiysis showed comparable v o l t a g e l e v e l s f o r a l l t h e b a t t e r i e s . This c o n s i s t e n c y , w i t h t h e l a c k of a v o l t a g e d e g r a d a t i o n t r e n d , i n d i c a t e d t h a t a l l t h e b a t t e r i e s were b e i n g f u l l y charged, d e s p i t e t h e ampere-hour meter i n d i c a t i o n s .

The b a t t e r i e s had accumulated 1683 discharge-charge c y c l e s a t t h e time t h e second crew departed on Day 135. The depth of d i s c h a r g e range n o s t commonly experienced d u r i n g t h e second manned p e r i o d was 1 3 t o 16 p e r c e n t . Forty-one E a r t h o b s c r v a t i o n passes were performed d u r i n g t h i s p e r i o d . B a t t e r y d e p t h s of d i s c h a r g e were g e n e r a l l y g r e a t e r d v r i n g t h e s e t i m e s t h a n d u r i n g normal s o l a r i n e r t i a l opera t i o n . The maximum depth of d i s c h a r g e experienced occurred d u r i n g t h e f i n a l Earth o b s e r v a t i o n p a s s when individua: J.ischarge d e p t h s ranged from 36 t o 42.7 percent.
Laboratory b a t t e r i e s a r e a c t i v e l y cooled. P a r a l l e l c o o l a n t flow a t cont r o l l e d temperatures i s provided t o c o l d p l a t e s f o r b a t t e r i e s 3, 4, 7 , and 8. The c o o l a n t from t h e s e c o l d p l a t e s flows t o t h e c o l d p l a t e s f o r b a t t e r i e s 1, 2, 5, and 6, r e s p e c t i v e l y , i n such a manner t h a t f o r each p a i r , t h e h e a t picked up from t h e f i r s t b a t t e r y i n c r e a s e s t n c c o o l a n t i n l e t temperature a t t h e second b a t t e r y . On Day 104, a c o o l a n t loop system o p e r a t i o n a l change decreased t h e c o o l a n t mass flow by approximately 50 p e r c e n t . The e f f e c t s were d e t e c t a b l e by an approximately 1°C i n c r e a s e i n t h e o p e r a t i n g temperetures of b a t t e r i e s 1, 2, 5, and 6. Changes i n t h e temperatures of b a t t e r i e s 3, 4 , 7, and 8 werz t o o s m a l l t c -)e d e t e c t e d in t h e t e l e m e t r y s c a t t e r . Other t h a n t h i s d e t e c t e d i n c r e a s e , t h e i n d i c a t e d top-of-cell b a t t e r y temperatures were comparable t o t h o s e experienced d u r i n g t h e f i r s t rnamed period. Contingency planning c a l l e d f o r + i s c o n t i n u i n g power c o n d i t i o n i n g d u r i n g t h e t h i r d unmanned p e r i o d i n t h e e v e n t of c o o l a n t loop d e p l e t i o n . However, e x e c u t i o n of t h i s p l a n proved unnecessary, and t h e b a t t e r i e s cycled throughout t h e e n t i r e unmanned p e r i o d . At t h e beginning of t h e t h i r d manned peviod, t h e b a t t e r i e s had accumulated 2486 c y c l e s . The c y c l e d e p t h s , which averaged approximately 7 p e r c e n t d u r i n g t h i s p e r i o d , were l e s s than t h o s e of t h e second tinmanned p e r i o d because of t h e independent o p e r a t i o n of t h e two power systems and t h e load c o n f i g u r a t i o n used f o r t h e contfngency plan. The b a t t e r y discharge-charge c y c l e accumulation a t t h e time t h e t h i r d crew departed on Day 271 was 3790 c y c l e s . The d i s c h a r g e d e p t h s experienced d u r i n g t h e

s o l a r o r i e n t e d p e r i o d s ranged from 12 t o 19 p e r c e n t . Discharge d e p t h s n e a r 50 p e r c e n t were common f o r t h e n o n - s o l a r - i n e r t i a l experiment o r i e n t a t i o n s , with t h e maximum d e p t h r e a c h i n g 57 p e r c e n t . Non-solar-oriented a t t i t u d e s w?re e s t a b l i s h e d 1 l O . t i m e s i n t h e c o u r s e of t h e mission f o r E a r t h o b s e r v a t i o n s and Comet Kohoutek o b s e r v a t i o n s . F a i l u r e of a c o n t r o l gyro n Day 394 r e s u l t e d i n more non-solar-oriented a t t i t u d e time t h a n n o r i a l l y would have been r e q u i r e d t o accomplish t h e d e s i r e d o b s e r v a t i o n s . B a t t e r y p e r f o r m a c e w a s u r i f o r m and rel i a b l e d u r i n g tl: p e r i o d . The b a t t e r i e s ' a b i l i t y t o s u s t a i n t h e heavy d e p t h s of d i s c h a r g e dependably c o n t r i b u t e d t o t h e h i g h s u c c e s s l e v e l . Capacity d i s c h a r g e s were performed on b a t t e r y 6 a t t h e beginning, i n t h e middle, and a t t h e end o f t h e t h i r d manneo p e r i o d . The f i r s t two d i s c h a r g e s were performed ncccrding t o t h e procedure t h a t had been used i n t h e second manned p e r i o d , d h i l e t h e t h i r d d i s c h a r g e was c o n t i c u e d u n t i l t h e b a t t e r y t e r m i n a l v o l t age reached 30 v o l t s . A c o n s i s t e n t p a t t e r n of b a t t e r y o n t p u t v o l t a g e r e g u l a t i o n degradation with increasing cycle accum~dation was s e e n when t h e c z p a c i t y d i s charge i n f o r m a t i o n from t h e t h i r d manned p e r i o d was compared w i t h e a r l i e r d a t a .
A s p a r t o f t h e tF,ird crew's c l o s e o u t of t h e S a t u r n Workshop, t h e e l e c t r i c a l power system was configured f o r c a p a c i t y t e s t i n g of a l l b a t t e r i e s a f t e r t h e crew d e p a r t u r e . This c o n f i g u r a t i o n allowed ground s e l e c t i o n of m y one o f t h e e i g h t b a t t e r i e s f o r d i s c t a r g e , e s t a b l i s h e d d i s c h a r g e r a t e s n e a r t h e ground t e s t l e v e l , p e r m i t t e d continuous d i s c h a r g e of t h e s e l e c t e d b a t t e r y t o a 30-volt c o ~ q l e t i o n , and provided a s e l f - l i m i t a t i o n of b a t t e r y d i s c h a r g e a s t h e b a t t e r y t e r m i n a l v o l t a g e approached 29 v o l t s . The s e l f - l i m i t a t i o n f e a t u r e was d e s i r a b l e because ground s t a t i o n coverage could n o t b e ensured a t e v e r y c r i t i c a l d i s c h a r g e time. The f l e x i b i l i t y of t h e c o n t r o l c a p a b i l i t y a i d e d g r e a t l y i n accomplishing t h e t e s t objectives.

A l l e i g h t b a t t e r i e s were d i s c h a r g e d t o 30 v o l t s d u r i n g t h e end-of-mission t e s t p e r i o d . I n a d d i t i o n , b a t t e r i e s 6 and 8 r e c e i v e d a second f u l l c a p a c i t y d i s c h a r g e d u r i n g t h i s p e r i o d . Three d i s t i n c t d i s c h a r g e p r o f i l e s were found t o e x i s t . Figure 7-15 d e p i c t s t h e d i s c h a r g e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of a l l t h e b a t t e r i e s

Figure 7-15.-

Discharge p r o f i l e s a t ck- 380C c y c l e .

except b a t t e r y 6 . The d i s c h a r g e c h a r a c t e r i s t i - ; of b a t t e r y 6 , which was d i s charged t o 30 v o l t s s h o r t l y b e f o r e t h e crew d e p a r t e d , a r e shown i n f i g u r e 7-16. These f i g u r e s a r e c o n s i s t e n t w i t h ~ r e v i o u sground test e x p e r i e n c e on u n i t s w i t h

Ampere-hours removed

Figure 7-16.-

Battery 6 i n f l ight c4pacity discharges.

s i m i l a r h i s t o r y , except f o r t h e d u r a t i o n of t h e second v o l t a g e p l e t e a u , which One p o s s i b l d f a c t o r c o n t r i b u t i n g t o t h i s d i f f e r e n c e begins a t about 16 amp-hr. i s t h e l e n g t h of time t h e v a r i o u s b a t t e r i e s were i n t h e v e h i c l e b e f o r e launch. B a t t e r i e s 1 and ,' were i n t h e v e h i c l e 22 days b e f o r e launch, w h i l e t h e r e s t were i n s t a l l e d VJJ days b e f o r e launch. Th3 second v o l t a g e p l a t e a u f o r b a t t e r i e s 1 and 4 was l o n g e r , and r e s u l t e d i n g r e a t e r arrpere-hour c a p a c i t y . A comparison of t h e p r o f i l e s i n f i g u r e s 7-15 and 7-16 i n d i c a t e s t h a t b a t t e r y 6 had a s l i g h t l y b e t t e r performance c h a r a c t e r i s t i c t h a n o t h e r b a t t e L - i e s of s i m i l a r h i s t o r y . F v l l capaci t y d i s c h a r g e s on t h e subsequent d i s c h a r g e p r o f i l e s can be seen i n f i g u r e 7-1.6 by comparing t h e 3736 c y c l ? t o t h e 3797 c y c l e and f i c a l l y t o t h e 3803 c y c l e . T h i s same pbenorneno3 was p r e s e n t i n t h e end-of-mission capacf-ty d a t a f o r b a t t e r y 8. Bus Voltage Regulators.- The charger normally m p u t s power t o t h e r e , l a t o r ; however, a bypass switch allows t h e s o l a r a r r a y powzr t o f e e d d i r e c t l y t o t h e r e g u l a t o r i n t h e c a s e of a c h a r g e r m a l f u n c t i o n . A p o t e n t i c - n e t e r simu:taneously a d j u s t s t h e o u t p u t of a l l r e g u l d t o r s which a r e t i e d ,o t h e same bus. This bus v o l t a g e adjustment is made t o s h a r e bus l o a d s p r o p e r l y . F i n e adjustmen; ( t r i m ) p o t e n t i o m e t e r s provide l o a d s h a r i n g by t h e individua! r e g u l a t o r s . Before launch tke i n d i v i d u a l r e g u l a t o r p o t e n t i o m e t e r s were s e t t o a v a l u e t h a t caused the b a t t e r i e ; t o d i s c h a r g e a t a u n i f o r n r a t e . This was done t o comp e n s a t e For t h e v a r i a t i o n s i n b a t t e r y c e l l s , d i f f e r e n c e s i n t h e i n d i v i d u a l c i r c u i t and component r e s i s t a n c e s , and d i f f :ences i n r e g u l a t o r e f f i c i e n c i e s . The regu1.ators o p e r a t e d s a t i s f a c t o r i l y d u r i n g a l l p e r i o d s of o p e r a t i o n from launch through t h e end of t h e f i r s t manned p e r i o d . Regulated bus v o l t a g e s were maintained w i t h i n 0 t o 0.75 v o l t f o r a l l i n p u t v o l t a g e l e v e l s and l o a d s . The effect.'veness df t h e i n d i v i d u a l r e g u l a t o r s i n s h a r i n g t h e l o a d s e q u a l l y is shown i n t a b l e 7-V, which t a b u l a t e s t h e power p r o ~ i d e dby dach powzr c o n d i t i o n e r

-

Table 7-V.--

Battery-Regulator Ferfarmance f o r One O r b i t a l Night

- -.

h s r.u.-mer Yeyul a tur

C ~ t t e r y -..

5 t ~ r - to f a \'c:!;d .. , '

t ~ Correzt. ar:wrel

i n 9 3 f discharge c - -- ~.a . . a Voi t i p t rt u r r e n~-T i. t . .
a ~ p res e

.

- p t a't er of ~ r~ ~ t s ~ ~ T charge

, 1 1

2

3 ? .78 41.75

9 75

6
G.37 :.. 39 5.39 9.53

i
2
>
,

41.39 42.38

1 /

-

38.32
38.23

9.44

7
9

1

41.68 41 .YR 61 .IF

38.23 3E.23 3M.W 3c.23 37 83 37.93

9.37 9.38 P. 39

I

88.5

I
86.3

,

13.97 11.27

d u r i n g t h e da:k p o r t i o n of an o r b i t . As t h e b a t t e r y v o l t a g e decreased n e a r t h e end of d i s c h a r g e , t h e c o n s t a n t power demaiid of t h e r e g u l a t o r s caused t h e d i s charge c u r r e n t t o i n c r e a s e . B a t t e r i e s supplyi,lg t h e i n p u t power t o thes: regul a t o r : e x h i b i t e a a u n i f o m i t y of v o l t a g e - c u r r e n t performance which made a d j u s t ment of f i n e t r i m p o t e n t l o n e t e r s u n n e L s s a r y d u r i n g t h e f i -st mr.x.4 period. S e v e r a l adjuscmects of t h z f i n e trir p o t e n t i o n e t e r s were made d u r i n g t h e seccnd manned period fox t h e pur2ose oE r e e l a c i n g t h e h a d demand w i t h r e s p e c t t u t h e a v a i l a b l e ar av power. KO f i n e t r i m p o t e n t i o a e t e r a d j u s t 3 e n t s were made necess a r y , however, b;t power modl~lef a i l u r e , v o l t a g e r e g u l a t i o n d r i f t , o r i n s t a b i l i t y .

T t bus v o l t ~ g ep o t e n t l o m e t e r s were a d j u s t e d by t h e crew s e v e r a l t i m e s duri n g t h e n i s c i o n t o change t h e load s h a r i n g r a t i o s between t h e l a b o r a t o r y and s o l a r cbservzitory e l e c t r i c a l power systems. Open c i r c u i t v o l t a g e s e t t l n g s were c a l c a ~ l a t e df r o 3 ccmputer simulatior. d a t a f o r v a r i o u s Icad requirements. Ferformance eval - 2 t i o n s of a c t u a l load s h a r i n g v e r s u s -?gula:c- v o l t a g e s e t t i n g s v e r l f i e d t n e 1. ' i d i t y of t h e s e computations.
Tht. v o l t a g e r e g u l a t o r c b n t a i n s f i v e power modules, which a r e redundant t o s e t LIXhigh r e l i a b i l i t y requireinents. Each module o p e r a t e s s u c c e s s i v e l y a s rhe o u t p u t c u r r e ~ ~ i demand i s i n c r e a s e d by a 13-ampere increment. Duriag Day 37 and again on Day 125, t h e r e p l l a t o r bus load w a s g r e a t enough (approximately 15 amperes p e r grobo) t o r e q u i r e twc Dower modules i n each r e g u l a t o r t o o p e r a t e . These :wo pover modules o p e r a t e d s a t i s f a c t o r i l y . An apparevrt s h o r t or r1.e s o l a r observatory t e l e v i s i o n bus 2 on Day 83 r e s u l t e d ir) a i o a d o f .7re than 200 amp-.res on r e g u l a r ~ rbus 2. This l e a 2 t t h a t f o u r and p o s s i b l y f ~ , - o - of t h e modules i n each v o l t a g e r e g u l a t o r d i d o p e r a t e f o r approximately 3 seconds. Voltage regul a t o i temperatures, which ranged fr-m -130 t o - k L 0 C , i n d i c a t e d normal r e 2 u l a t o r 0~e:ati~a.

7.2.3

Power 2 i . t r i b ~ - i o n

D i s t r i b u t i o n Networks.- The l a b o r a t o r y power d i s t r i b u t i o n s y s t e u p r o v i d e s e l e c t r . :a; power t o t h e docking a d a p t e r and wc-kshop 1,ads and, when r r q u i r a d , t o t h e comnand and servi.:e module l o a d s . T r a n s f e r of power t o :he connnald and serv i c e module r e q u i r e s t h a t an -ambilical c a b l e be connected through t h e docking adapter-comand module hatch. T r a : ~ s f e r buses a l s o supply pover t o o r a c c e p t power f x c a t h e s o l a r o b s e r v a t o r y power system in p a r a l l e l o ? e r a t i o n . F i g u r e 7-17 ?.s a ciiagzam of t l i e l a b o r a t o r y e l e c t r i c a l power d i s t r i b u t i o n system. 5sboratory posler i s d.:stributec? by a t w - v i r e systcm and a s e r i e s o f i11Two redundant buses i n t h e t e r c o n n e c t i n g i ~ ~ s o , .switches: d i o d e s , and sc.\sors. s, coUu~atrd and s e r v i c e module d i s t r i ~ t power t o i t s components. A single-poir t e ground on t h e commnd and s e r - r i c e module s t r l i c t u r e is u;ed t o e l i m i n a t e ground

Sol~r array power source

I Transfer d i s t r i b u t c r I

I

main b u s A 5 B

I

1

?aer condi t i o n c r

Electrical R e l u l a t o r bus

--&--

1

6 1 LJ
Sequential Deployment

.-.I

1

I
I

Earth gervation

IZI

I I
I I
I I

,--.-A-- 1
(0

I

I 1

Airlock I electrical 1 1caCc I

I I

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aCaoter loads

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I

Sclar I observatory1 5 o i a r array I Laboratory 1 I c . ,;r array I ;ePletroroi.i I I snieJd

10 Tape I recorde-s 10 Earth oh;ervatior. sewon

I

'igure

7-17.-

Laboratory power d i s c r i b u t i o n .

h o p e f f e c t s . This is t h e o n l y g r o m d f o r t h e complete Skylab system when t h e command and s e r v i c e module and docking a d a p t e r power u m b i l i c a l i s connected. Sensing and c o n t r o l c i r c u i t s a r e used t o m3ni:or and p r o t e c t each system. The rcdundant command and s e r v i c e module d i r e c t r u r r e n t e l e c t r i c a l poker buses i n t e r f a c e with t h e t r a n s f e r buses and a r e powered by t h e s o l a r o b s e r v a t o r y and l a E x a t o r y e l e c t r i c a l ?over systems. Figure 7-18 shows t h e g e n e r a l i o c a t i o n and l a y o u t af e l e c t r i c a l p a n e l s i n t h e airlock-docking a d a p t e r a r e a . F i g u r e 5-19 is a view of t h e panel shrwing c o n t r o l s and d i s p l a y s used f o r t r a n s f 2 r and d i s t r i b u t i m oi l a b o r a t o r y e l e c t r i c a l power. z r i b u t i o n of e l e c t r i c a l power w i t h i n t h e S a t u r n Workshop was s a t L s f a c d accomplished. Voitage drop l e v i l s conparsd f a v o r a b l y w i t h d e ~ g n 3 t a ~orily and t e s t r e s u l t s . Power v a s s u p p l i e d throughout the l a b o r a t o r y a t l e v t l s s u f f i c i e n t t o nraintain t h e v o l ~ a g ebetween t h e r e q u i r e d l i m i t s o f 24 t o 30 ~ d c The observeJ r a a g e of v o l t a g e on workshop buses 1 and 2 was 29.3 vdc maximum t o 27.4 vdc minimum from lzunch through t h e end of t h e mission. D i s t r i b u t i o n Control.Control of l a b o r a t o r y pover d i s t r i b u t i o n i s accomp l i s h e d by ground command o r by manual o p e r a t i o n by t h e crew. S t a t u s of t h e c o n t r o l acld power c o n f i g u r a t l , m o f equipment a r e d i s p l a y e d t o t h e crew by m e t e r s and s t a t u s l i g h t s , o r by p o s i t i o n , while t e l e m e t r y systems monitor and p r o v i d e t h i s k.f ormat i o n t o t h e ground c o n t r o l l e r s . The positions o f t h e c i r c u i t b r e a k e r s and s w i t c h e s f o r d i s t r i b u t i o n c o n t r o l were not a l t e r e d by b r s s r v i b r a t i o n o r command aqd s e r v i c e moduie docking l o a d s . A l l power c i r c u i t r y was s u c c e s s i u l l y o p e r a t e d xA-hout m c u r r i n g any s h o r t c i r c u i t s o r L i s c o n t i n u i t i e s . A l l of t h e s e s w i t c h e s and c i r c u i t b r e a k e r s contained w i t h i n t h e l a b s r a t o r y p e r f o m e d p r o p e r l y , ~ i t h onc e x c e p t i o n , d u r i n g t h e mission.

-

-

Other c i r c u i t pr2:ective devices used a r e c i r c u i t breakers f o r t r a n s f e r c u r r e n t monitors and power d i s t r i b u t i o n c o n t r o l s , f u s e s f o r voltmeters and r e g u l a t o r bus adjustment c i r c u i t s , and r e s i s t o r s f o r telemetry of t h e workshop bus parameters. A l l p r o t e c t i v e devicec m e t t h e requirements f o r s a f e and adequate power d i s t r i b u t i o n . A few times c i r c u i t breakers t r i p p e d f o r no apparent reason; however, t h e s e were e a s i l y r e s e t by t h e crew with no adverse e f f e c t s on t h e mission.
7.2

S C W OBSERVATORY P W R SYSTEM O E

The s o l a r observatory 2 l e c t r i c a l power system c o n s i s t s of a &wing s o l a r a r r a y , 1 8 power conditioners, dis:ribution buses, and e l e c t r i c a l loads. Addit i o n a l s e n s o r s , c o n t r o l s , and d i s p l a y s provide f o r system management. Under i d e a l conditions and with rontinaous s u n l i g h t i n t h e s o l a r i n e r t i a l a t t i t u d e , t h e s o l a r a r r a y s a r e c a p a t l e 02 gelllerating more than 1 k i l o v a t t s of e l e c t r i c a l 1 power. The s o l a r a r r a y wings a r e d h i d e d i n t o 18 independent s o l a r panels which provide power t o t h e 18 power c o n d i t i o n e r s . These power c o n d i t i o n e r s accept t h e s o i a r panel power o u t p u t s an3 d i s t r i b u t e c u r r e n t t o t h e i r b a t t e r i e s and v o l t a g e r e g u l a t o r s . Each is comiected t o t h e two main power buses through i s o l a t i o n diodes. The system n o r u l l y o p e r a t e s i n p a r a l l e l with the l a b o r a t o r y s y s t e n by means of t r a r i s f e r r e l a y s . t h e power t r a n s f e r r e l a y s may, be opened f o r indepenaent e l e c t r i c a l system o p e r a t i o n i n a contingency mode. The r e t u r n buses f o r each system a r e permanently connected. The system demonstrated i t s c a p a b i l i t y t o provide power t o overcome t h e problems caused by t h e launch anomaly. System performance was s t a b l e and pred i c t a b l e , and power o u t p u t met t h e design specifications; however, t h r e e power c o n d i t i o n e r s and two s o l a r a r r a y panels experienced anomalies. 7.3.1 S o l a r Array

Each of t h e four wings i s o r i e n t e d a t a 45-degree angle t o t h e l o n g i t u d i n a l a x i s of t h e workshop and c o n s i s t s of four panels and one half panel. The h a l f panels a r e e l e c t r i c a l l y p a i r e d t o form 2 complete panels, which with t h e o t h e r 16 provide the 18 i n d i v i d v ? ~s o l a r p w e r sources f o r t h e 1 8 power c o n d i t i o n e r s of che system. F i g u ~ e 7-20 snows t h e n h y s i c a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of t h e s o l a r array. The major f a c t o r s a f f e c t i n g s o l a r a r r a y o u t p u t s a r e e s s e n t i a l l y t h e same as those f o r t h e l a b o r a t o r y a r r a y . Figure 7-21 shows t h e s o l a r i r r a d i a n c e f o r t h e misscon period. !.t t h e beginning of t h e mission, t h e Earth w s near i t s g r e a t e s t a d i s t a n c e from t h e Sun, s o t h e s o l a r i r r a d i a n c e was approximately 3 percent below t h e average value. However, a t t h e end of t h e t h i r d manned period, t h e Earth w a s near i t s s h o r t e s t d i s t a n c e from t h e Sun, r e s u l t i n g i n a 3 percent i n c r e a s e i n int e n s i t y . The r e s c l t i n g ittcrease i n power p a r t i a l l y o f f s e t t h e e f f e c t of s o l a r c e l l degradation occurring d u r i n g t h e mission. Degradation of power o u t p u t of t h e s o l a r c e l l s i s caused by p e n e t r a t i n g r a d i a t i o n ( e l e c t r o n and proton f l u x ) , thermal c y c l i n g e f f e c t s , micrometeoroid e r o s i o n , and s u r f a c e contamina:io,_ Thermal C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . - Data from 1 8 temperatwe t r a n s d u c e r s l o c a t e d a t various p l a c e s on t h s o l a r observatory s o l a r wings a r e used t o e s t i m a t e the ~ o p e r a t i n g tem?erature of each s o l a r panel. Figure 7-22 shows t y p i c a l panel temp e r a t u r e s measured f o r b e t a angles of 0, 60, and 73.5 degrees. The curve f o r a 73.5 degree b e t a angle, o r f u l l s u n l i g h t , is included t o show a t y p i c a l o r b i t a t a very high b e t a angle.

521 4r. I e q . 101.5 In. wide ( p r wing) * p ib. ( i n c l u d l q dCDlo)nn? s t ~ c t u r r '

L (half of m b 1 W - d prnl i s covwd with 20 !adiddual.
)l l* ns
d c h t o m 18

m-m amits

Each llborld p u l

has 10 h l n arrulgml as s ) a a ( h a l t gar source)

104.3 in. long. 104.5 In. wi& !46 Ib. (Including w e 1 f r m ) a ilnborrd -1s a n u i n I0 .o(*ln

4;ira

623 m a t h ( a t 55.C a t b q i m i y of m i s s l a ) 572 w a t h ( a t 55.C a t u of mission) d

20.0 ir long. 24.63 In. mi& 4.9 l b . 114
Pam!

Figuye 7-20.-

Solar observatory solar array system conffguration.

Saturn Workshop r i s s f o n day

Figure 7-21.-

Solar irradiance at Earth dlstance from the Sun relative to mission time.

Two temperature sensors on panels 7 and 12 were either loose O operating r intermittently. Temperature measuremem uncertainties continued to be a problem during the third manned period. During the last 14 days of this perioc-, two

1

2

3

4
Time, hours

6

7

8

F i g u r e 7-22.-

v p i c a l s o l a r observatmy s o l a r panel temperatures.

a d d i t i o n a l p a n e l t e m p e r a t u r e s e n s o r s became f a u l t y , n e c e s s i t a t i n g e s t i m a t i o n o f t r u e temperatures by use o f i n d i r e c t means. The f a u l t y s e n s o r s were on p a n e l s 2 and 13. Panel o p e r a t i n g t e m p e r a t u r e s g e n e r a l l y followed p r e d i c t e d p a t t e r n s , but were s i g n i f i c a n t l y c o o l e r because of t h e absence o f r e f l e c t e d h e a t from t h e l o s t s o l a r a r r a y wing. A s e a r l y as Day 3, i n c o n s i s t e n t temperature r e a d i n g s were observed. The s e n s o r s on p a n e l 7 i n d i c a t e d a g r a d i e n t o f up t o 40°C between t h e f r o n t and rear s u r f a c e s of t h e p a n e l i n c o n t r a s t t o g r a d i e n t s o f 7 t o 13OC f o r t h e mid-wing p a n e l s of wings 1, 3, and A . Also, temperature t i m e p r o f i l e s d u r i n g d i f f e r e n t o r b i t s and m i s s i o n t i m e s i n d i c a t e d t h a t t h e p a n e l bacl-side t e m p e r a t u r a s d i d n o t a g r e e w i t h p r e d i c t e d d a t a i.11 most c a s e s . The f r o n t and rear s u r f a c e temperature m e a s u r m e n t s on t h e s o l a r p a n e l s do n o t n e c e s s a r i l y r e f l e c t t h e s o l a r c e l l o p e r a t i n g temperatures. C a l c u l a t i o n s o f maximum power d e g r a d a t i o n a r e s e n s i t i v e t o temperature. I f m c o r r e c t e d temperat u r e s were used, d e g r a d a t i o n d a t a d i s p e r s i o n s o f 20 t o 30 perce0.t were common between f r o n t and back p a n e l measurements. T h e r e f o r e , i t was n e c e s s a r y t o d e t e r n i n e t h e a c t u a l ? a n e l o p e r a t i n g t e m p e r a t u r e s v e r y a c c u r a t e l y t o reduce e r r o r s and consequent d a t a d i s p e r s i o n . The S a t u r n Worbzhop was o p e r a t e d i n a v a r i e t y o f n o n - s o l a r - i n e r t i a l a t t i t u d e s f o r t h e iirst 13 days t o reduce s o l a r h e a t i n g . Knowledge o f t h e e x a c t p o i n t i n g a n g l e s and, c c n s e q u e n t l y , c o n s i s t e n t d a t a were u n a v a i l a b l e f o r t h i s p e r i c d . The p o i n t i n g system could n o t compute t h e Sun p o i n t i n g a n g l e s when t h e Sun s e n s o r w a s p a i n t e d more t h a n 25 d e g r e e s away from t h e Sun. Approximations of t h e Sun p o i n t i n g a n g l e s were computed u s i n g t h e s o l a r a r r a y power o u t p u t s!iadow p a t t e r n s and temperatures. T h i s unusual use o f t h e e l e c t r i c a l system parameters provided d a t a which allowed t h e a t t i t u d e of t h e v e l u c l e t o be d e t e r mined. Data i n d i c a t e d t h a t t h e a t t i t u d e s c a l c u l a t e d were w i t h i n a few degzeea of a c t u a l v e h i c l e a t t i t u d e . The s o l a r p a w l s were not designed t o w i t h s t a n d t e m p e r a t u r e s below -70°C. Below t h i s v a l u e , t h e s t r e s s e s 9n s o l a r c e l l i n t e r c o n n e c t s i n c r e a c e r a p i d l y w i t h s m a l l changes i n temperature. The o r b i t a l a t t i t u d e between Day 1 and Day 12

r e s u l t e d i n many of t h e s o l a r p a n e l s exceeding t h e -6S°C lower l i m i t of t h e q u a l i f i c a t i o n tests by 15OC o r more, The exact number of c y c l e s i n which t h e was exceeded i s not known. This severe exposure s i q l o v e r temperature 1t n i f i c a n t l y reduced t h e e l e c t r i c a l c i r c u i t r e l i a b i l i t y f o r t h e s o l z r c e l l s .
' . premission power requirement was 10.5 k i l o w a t t s a t t h e Power Output.beginning of t h e mission w i t h s p r e d i c t i o n of an 8.8 percent degradation from a l l causes by t h e end of t h e mission. S o l a r a r r a v performance f o r t h e 1 5 o p e r a t i n g panels c l o s e l y agreed with t h e p r e f l i g h t p r e c i c t i o n s , a s depicteci i n f i g u r e 7-23.

Saturn Workshop mission

dais

Figure 7-23.

-

S o l a r observatory s o l a r a r r a y performance.

During thc second manned p e r i o d , Days 76 t o 135, t h e s o l a r in tens it;^ increased frou. 135.8 t o 139.4 m ~ / c d , r e p r e s e n t i n g a maximun-power c a p a b i l i t ) ~ i n c r e a s e of 2.7 percent. On Day 232, during t h e t h i r d manned p e r i o d , t h e Earth t o Sun d i s t a n c e w a s a t a minimum and t h e s o l a r i n t e n s i t y increased t c 144.9 mUIcm2, r e p r e s e n t i n g a power c a p a b i l i t y i n c r e a s e of 6.7 percent from t h e s t a r t of t h e second manned period. Degradation.- O f t h e 1 3 panels, 1 5 operated coatinuously. Panel 3 ceased o p e r a t i n q on Day 17 when i t s r e g u l a t o r f a i l e d , and remained o f f . I n s u f f i c i e n t d a t a p o i n t s e x i s t e d t o e s t a b l i s h a degradation trend f o r t h i s panel. Panel 5 was not operated a f t e r Day i 2 3 , when i t s charger malfunctioned, except f o r Earth observation maneuvers l a t e r i n t h e mission. These panels were not included i n t h e determination of t h e average degradation r a t e . Panel 1 5 was inoperable f o r an extended period e a r l y i r l Lhe f i r s t manned period. However, s u f f i c i e n t d a t a were obtained t o e s t a b l i s h a degradation trend. Panel 8 s t a r t e d t h e mission with a power d e f i c i t of between 4 and 6 percent. The f i r s t r e l i a b l e d a t a were obtained during a s o l a r i n e r t i a l pass on Day 14. Panel 8 showed an a d d i t i o n a l l o s s of 6 percent. Solar panel 7, which i s a d j a c e n t t o panel 8, showed s i m i l a r behavior. I n i t i a l l y , i t s power c a p a b i l i t y was 4 t o 8 percent g r e a t e r than p r e d i c t e d by ground t e s t d a t a . On Day 14, panel 7 i n d i c a t e d a 10 percent power l o s s , o r 3.5 percent below p r e d i c t e d . Panel 1 3 provided 6 percent less power than predxcted a t launch and cnntinued t o d e g ~ a d ca t a r a t e of 2.8 percent per month.

I n t e r m i t t e n t power l o s s e s on panel 1 5 were f i r s t observed and recorded on Day 206. The s t e p v o l t a g e changes which occurred seemed t o be due t o t h e c y c l i c s u c c e s s i v e opening o f a s many as two modules on t h e panei. The f i r s t v o l t a g e s t e p , of 1.6 v o l t s , occurred a t 2 3 ' ~ . The second s t e p , of 5 v d t s , occurred a t 30°C. The cumulative e f f e c t of t h e two s t e p s was t h e e q u i v a l e n t of a l o s s of two s o l a r c e l l modules. This r e s u l t e d i n a power l o s s measured in t h e c o n s t a n t c u r r e n t range of o p e r a t i o n (13.4 amperes) of approximately 1 3 p e r c e n t f o r t h e panel (0.8 p e r c e n t f o r t h e a r r a y ) . The o r b i t - t o - o r b i t r e g u l a r i t y of t h e change s u g g e s t s a t h e r m a l - r e l a t e d making and breaking of a connection which i i l t e r m i t t e n t l y open-cfrcuited t h e module. The problem o c c u r r e d l a t e enough i n t h e o r b i t each time t o a l l o w normal b a t t e r y charging and n o t a f f e c t t h e mission d u r i n g s c i a r i n e r t i a l operations. The pa:.el 1 7 r e g u l a t o r o u t p u t currenL w a s h i g h l y e r r a t i c . The f a u l t , which reduced t h e r e g u l a t o r o u t p u t t o 20 p e r c e n t c a p a b i l i t y , was i s o l a t e d t o t h e s o l a r panel. The problem a p p a r e n t l y was t h e r e s u l t of a s o l a r p a n e l e l e c t r i c a l s h o r t t o t h e s t r u c t u r e . This problem disappeared on Day 151. The d e g r a d a t i o n shown by t h e panels can be expiained by expected f a i h r e mechanisms and by t h e extremely low temperatures r e a ~ h e dby t h e s o l a r p a n e l s between Day 1 and Day 1 2 , which o f t e n exceeded q u a l i f i c a t i o n t e s t l i m i t s and could have s i g n i f i c a n t l y a f f e c t e d t h e d e g r a d a t i o n r a t e f o r each panel, depending upon i t s l o c a t i o n and thermal c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . Some . d i s c o l o r a t i o n of t h e w h i t e thermal p a i n t on t h e u n d e r s i d e of t h e wings was observed by t h e f i r s t crew. They r e p o r t e d t h a t t h e wing u n d e r s i d e s were d a r k e s t near t h e s o l a r o b s e r v a t o r y , becoming l i g h t e r toward t h e wing t i p s . Darkening of t h e p a i n t caused a change in t h e thermal c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of t h e panels. However, t h e c i i s c o l o r a t i o n had no apparent e f f e c t s . During t h e f i r s t crew's docking, flyaround, and undocking maneuvers and t h e second crew's docking maneuver, t h e a r r a y wings were exposed t o t h r u s t o r exhaust. While t h e i n d i v i d u a l exposures were s h o r t , t h e t o t a l exposure d u r i n g t h e s e maneuvers was s u f f i c i e n t t o cause concern about accumulated contamination and f l e x i n g of t h e solar a r r a y wings due t o m s impingement. Films taken d u r i n g rendezvous, dockas i n g , a d f1yaroul.d maneuvers i n d i c a t e t h a t t h e wings f l e x e d as much as 1 f o o t a t t h e t i p s i n e i t h e r d i r e c t F o n a s a r e s u l t of impingement of exhaust from :he command module t h r u s t e r s . The mechanical s t r e s s e s induced by t h i s f l e x i n g on t h e s o l a r p a n e l s could n o t be determined with t h e i n s t r u m e n t a t i o n a v a i l a b l e . The power c a p a b i l i t y s t a t u s o f t h e s o l a r o b s e r v a t o r y a r r a - a s o f Dsy 269 was a s s e s s e d and compared w i t h p r e f l i g h t performance measurements. The r e s u l t s a r e given i n Table 7-VI. Based on t h e end-of-mission c t a t w , t h e a v e i a g e degrad a t i o n r a t e over t h e e n t i r e mission was 0.9 p e r c e n t p e r month. Table 7-V1.Item

S o l a r Observatory S o l a r Array Svstem S t a t u s A t End of Mission
-

Value Note: Three panels were not consideed i n the degradation calculation because o f ternperature transducer anomal i t s . Also, the solar array panels f o r power conditioners 3 and 5 were not on i i n e and thus were not considered.

Beta angle, degrees kevolution Panel current, amperes (fixed) Orbit po i t i o n , minutes a f t e r sunrise Df r e c t solar intsnsi t y , mii/crnZ Average panel temperatwe, O C Power output, 16 panels, watts Average degradation f o r 13 panels, p ;cent

13.4 f 0.3 744.1

9596 8.6

7.3.2

Power C o n d i t i o n e r s

The power c o n d i t i o n e r s a r e similar t o t h o s e i n t h e l a b o r a t o r y system and a r e c o n t r o l l e d by switch o p e r a t i o n o r d i g i t a l a d d r e s s commands. The maximum power o u t p u t of each module is approx+.mately 415 w a t t s . The redundancy a £forded by t h e 1 8 power c o n d i t i o n e r s was c a p a b l e of compensating f o r a l l e l e c t r o n i c problems; however, m u l t i p l e b a t t e r y d e g r a d a t i o n cause2 some concern. The batt e r y d e g r a d a t i o n w a s a d i r e c t r e s u l t of e x c e s s i v e d i s c h a r g e l e v e l s , i a p r o p e r charge regimes, and high b a t t e r y temperatures t h a t occurred when forced t~ operate at non-solar-inertial. a t t i t u d e s . Accelerated ground t e s t d a t a i n d i c a t e d t h a t t h e b a t t e r i e s would recover by t h e beginning of t h e second manned period. Twice d u r i n g t h e m i s s i o n , t h e power c a p a b i l i t y of t h e power system w a s exceeded, causing t h e d e p l e t i o n of b a t t e r y power i n e i g h t c o n d i t i o n e r s . This r e s u l t e d i n automatic b a t t e r y d i s c o n n e c t . The f i r s t time t h i s happened, an unexpected automatic r e g u l a t o r t r i p occurred upon e n t r y i n t o s ~ n l i g h t ,which caused t h e i n p u t power c o n t a c t o r t o discortnect t h e s o l a r a r r a y from c o n d i t i o n e r 15. The c o a t a c t o r f a i l e d i n t h i s p o s i t i o n , p r ~ b a b l ybecause of d e b r i s o r mec h a n i c a l f a i l u r e . Confidence i n t h e cont a c t o r was n o t a f f e c t e d , however, a s some t e s t u n i t s had been o p e r a t e d f o r more t h a n 250,000 c y c l e s . The c h a r g e r is a stepdown, single-ended r e g u l a t o r which condiChargers. t i o n s t h e i n p u t s from t h e s o l a r a r r a y source t o t h e l e v e l r e q u i r e d f o r charging t h e b a t t e r y while a c h i e v i n g maximuin u s e o f a r r a y power. The s o l a r a r r a y s f e e d power t o t h e c h a r g e r and bus r e g u l a t o r in p a r a l l e l . The r e g u l a t o r l o a d demands a r e s u p p l i e d f i r s t , and t h e remaining power charges t h e b a t t e r i e s . The c h a r g e r s e n s e s s o l a r artay v o l t a g e and c u r r e n t , b a t t e r y temperature, ch-srge c u r r e n t , e l e c t r o d e v o l t a g e , and o u t p u t v o l t a g e f o r charge c o n t r o l . A l l c h a r g e r s funct i o n e d normally u n t i l Day 123, when t h e b a t t e r y c h a r g e r o f power c o n d i t i o n e r 5 f a i l e d w h i l e c h a r g i n g , causinq t h e o v e r v o l t a g e s e n s o r t o d i s c o n n e c t t h e b a t t e r y a u t o m a t i c a l l y from t h e system. The f a i l u r e allowed t h e s o l a r a r r a y power t o f e e d d i r e c t l y t o t h e b a t t e r y without c o n d i t i o n i n g . Power c o n d i t i o n e r 5 was n o t used a g a i n u t i l n e a r t n e 2nd of t h e mission. A w r k a r o u n d was developed t o combhe t h e power c o n d i t i o n e r 5 r e g u l a t o r and t h e power c o n d i t i o n e r 3 c h a r g e r m d b a t t e r y by use of jumpers. This n o d i f i c a t i o n was c a r r i e d up by t h e c h i r d crew but was n o t implemented. Near t h e end of t h e t h i r d manned p e r i o d , i n a c r i t i c a l power s i t ~ a t i o n d u r i n g E a r t h o b s e r v a t i o n o p e r a t i o n s , power c o n d i t i o n e r 5 was turned on t o prov i d e added power, s i n c e che c h a r g e r f a i l u r e mode b a s i c a l l y allowed t h e charge v o l t a g e t o exceed t h e maxl.mum programed volcage by 1 v o l t . Automatic d i s c o n n e c t c i r c u i t s terminated t h e charge a t t h i s p o i n t . The power c o n d i t i o n e r f u n c t i o n e d under t h e s e c o n d i t i o n s and maintained t h e b a t t e r y o p e r a t i n g parameters w i t h i n their safe l i m i t s . Batteries.Each b a t t e r y c o n s i s t s of 24 nickel-cadmium, 4 - e l e c t r o d e , herm e t i c a l l y s e a l e d c e l l s connected i n s e r i e s . T o e l e c t r o d e s i n each c e l l p r o v i d e w s e n s i n g f o r charge c o n t r o l ; t h e t h i r d e l e c t r o d e recombines hydrogen and oxygen t o prevent e x c e s s i v e i n t e r n a l cell. p r e s s u r e and d i s c h a r g e s t h e f o u r t h e l e c t r o d e . Each h a s a r a t i n g of 20 amp-hr when f u l l y charged. The o p e r a t i n g v o l t a g e i s 24 t o 32.5 vdc when discharged i n t h e load range of 0 t o 1 3 aaperes. The l i f e requirement is 4000 discharge-charge c y c l e s a t an average maximum depth of

-

a d i s c h a r g e of 30 p e r c e n t . Automatic e l e c t r i c a l h e a t e r s and p a s s i v e c o ~ l l n g r e used t o c o n t r o l b a t t e r y temperatures. F l a g i n d i c a t o r s on t h e c o n t r o l and d i s p l ~ j c o n s o l e a l e r t t h e crew t o high o r low v o l t a g e , high o r low temperature, o r f a i l u r e t o recharge t h e b a t t e r y . The b a t t e r i e s were s i z e d t o a n t i c i p a t e d l o a d s of 540 w a t t s . of d i s c h a r g e . Maximum a l l o w a b l e A n t i c i p a t e d b a t t e r y temperatures provide a n average of 220 w a t t s each w i t h peak This l o a d is e q u i v a l e n t t o a 20 p e r c e n t depth d i s c h a r g e a t any time was l i m i t e d t o 50 p e r c e n t , f o r t h e mission were between 0 and 20°C.

To a c h i e v e optimum b a t t e r y performance, a charge was used which ensured t h e maximum a v a i l a b l e c a p a c l t y and c y c l i c e f f i c i e n c y w i t h minimum c h a r g i n g time and c y c l i c h e a t g e n e r a t i o n . C r i t i c a l c h a r g i n g parameters were t h e i n i t i a l h i g h - r a t e charge, t h e v o l t a g e l e v e l a t which t h e c h a r g e r s w i t c h e s t o low r a t e , and t h e third-electrode-generated charge termination. Charging was a l s o t e r m i n a t e d i f t h e t a n p e r a t u r e l i m i t \ a s exceeded. F i g u r e 7-24 shows t h e d e s i r e d l a t t e x y chargi n g method.
0, 40
0

3
Q

m

C,

35.

C, C)

w

2

-.. .---x-,I I

l -

I

I

--"'Y'-""'-9 Voltage tripback ( l o w charge r a t e )

---A

S t a r t o f n i g h t cyc e ( b a t t e r y discharging;
0

Time, minutes

Figure 7-24.

-

B a t t e r y charge method

.

A f t e r t h e power systems were p a r a l l e l e d on Day 1 and a l l l a b o r a t o r y o u t p u t power was disconnected from t h e buses, t h e s o l a r o b s e r v a t o r y power system provided a i l t h e power u n t i l Cap 25. During t h i ; time, t h e b a t t e r i e s were managed with energy b a l a n c e a s t h e g o a l ; however, t h e b a t t e r i e s were allowe,' !o go below . m g the f i r s t energy b a l a n c e d u r i n g many o r b i t s . The a t t i t u d e was colistrained unmanned p e r i o d s o t h a t t h e b a t t e r i e s were recharged b e f o r e r e s l ..., n & t h e preA f e r r e d thermal a t t i t i.

.

Deepest u i s c h a r g e s were observed on Day I7 fol1owir.g t h e f i r s t E a r t h observat i o n pass with b a t t e r y 1 d i s c h a ~ g i n g54 p e r c e n t . B a t t e r y 11 a l s o experienccd 1

t h e maximum b a t t e r y d i s c h a r g e rat:e t h a t occurred d u r i n g t h e mission (14.2 amp e r e s ) . The maxi.mum allowa.ble r a t e w a s 20 amperes. I n this p e r l o d 4 regulat o r s had been s h u t ~ F I , and t h e remaining 14 b a t t e r i e s provided a l l of t h e r e q u i r e d power. S p e c i f i c power c o n d i t i o n e r o u t p u t s were turned o f f d u r i n g charging t o a l l o w t h e b a t t e r i e a t o r e c h a r g e a t a t u g h e r r a t e . Power cond'ftioners 5 and 6 r e q u i r e d e x t e n s i v e management because of c a n i s t e r shadowing of t h e i r a r r a y p a n e l s when t h e v e h i c l e was o u t of t h e s o l a r i n e r t i a l a t t i t u d e . B a t t e r y c y c l i n g performance from t h e time of t h e workshop s o l a r a r r a y wing d e p l o p e n t u n t i l t h e undocking of t h e f i r s t crew was s a t i s f a c t o r y . Duri.ng t h e f i r s t unmanned p e r i o d 166 c y c l e s were accumulated, and 420 c y c l e s were wcumulated d u r i n g t h e f i r s t manned p e r i o d . The d i s c h a r g e and cnarge nloc.i:s of batt e r y o p e r a t i o n were as p r e d i c t e d f o r t h e lcwer d i s c h a r g e s a f t e r Day 25. The d e p t h of discharge experienced d u r i n g t h e f i r s t manned p e r i a d was 25 t o 32 perc e n t b e f c r e t h e wing deployment. Afterward, t h e d i s c h a r g e was between 0 and 23 p e r c e n t . Continuous s u n l i g h t was a v a i l a b l e t o power t h e v e h i c l e f o r t h e i n i t i a l 4 days of t h e second unmnned p e r i o d because of t h e high b e t a a n g l e s . The batteries were t r i c k l e charged f o r t h i s time. Charge and d i s c h a r g e c y c l e s s t a r t e d a g a i n on Day 4 4 , and t h e t o t a l accumulated c y c l e s reached 1137 by t h e end o f t h e period. The b a t t e r i e s had 2054 f l i g h t c y c l e s a t t h e t i m e t h e second crew Jep a r t e d on Day 135. The d i s c h a r g e d e p t h s d u r i n g t h e second manned p e r i o d were 1 4 t o 24 p e r c e n t , except d u r i n g E a r t h o b s e r v a t i o n p a s s e s when t h e y were a s high as 50 p e r c e n t . The c y c l e s .lad reached 2853 by t h e end of t h e t h i r d unmanned p e r i o d and 4108 when t h e t h i r d crew l e f t . Capacity tests d u r i n g t h e second manned period were run on f i v e d i f f e r e n t batteries t o determine an a c c e p t ~ b l el i m i t t o which t h e b a t t e r i e s could be d i s charged. Capacity was determined hy i n t e g r a t i n g t h e b a t t e r y c u r r e n t o v e r t h e t o t a l d i s c h a r g e p e r i o d . The t e s t s were run again on b a t t e r i e s 1 0 and ~d on Day 1 9 5 . However, t h e s e t e s t s were run a t a lower r a t e than t h e o t h e r t e s t s , which i n v a l i d a t e d t h e r e s u l t s . These t e s t s were s u c c e s s f u l l y r e r u n on Day 229. During t h e f i n a l week of t h e m i s s i o n , ground c o n t r o l per... ,r! c a p s c i t y - d i s c h a r g e . rlm t o t h t a l k ~ t e s t s on t h e 16 o p e r a t i n g L a t t e r i e s . Previous t e s c s h back l e v e l ( 2 7 . 5 v o l t s ) , and a orst st-case" v a l u e of J, - . - . r W ~ Sadded t o t h e i wion* J prec a p a c i t y obtained t o determine probable u s a b l e ~ a p a c i t : v e n t p o s s i b l e problems i n reconnectrng t h e power condit*. ... .-c ,;. ~ r . e y autoJ -rlec t m a t i c a l l y disconnect. These f i n a l t e s t s were run t o autotzn' Except f o r b a t t e r y 7 , t h e 1.1 a??-hr f a c t o r used on p r e v i d . J'IS more . %L. " than adequate. These r e s u l t s a r e shown i n t a b l e s 7-VIT sri:
1:.
'

.

~

This l o s s of c a p a c i t y c h a r a c t e r i s t i c was f i r s t observed on Day 17 when, d u r i n g an E a r t h o b s e r v a t i o n p a s s , s e v e r a l b a t t e r i e s were a u t m a t i c a l l y disconn e c t e d because of low v o l t a g e . The c a p a c i t y , whish was expected t o be a t l e a s t 1 5 amp-hr, was approximately 8 amp-hr. Subsequent average c a p a c i t y checks on Day 122 (11 amp-hr) and Day 229 (10 ampnr) i n d i c a t e d t h a t t h e a v a i l a b l e capaci t y i n c r e a s e d a f t e r Day 17 and remained cea:: t h a t p r e d i c t e d during t h e remainder o r he mission. The c a p a c i t y l o s s e s a r e shown i n f i g m e 7-25. Although t h e c a p a c i t y l o s s d i d not serious1.y a f f e c t t h e m i s s i o ~ ' , i t was unexpected and unexp &ained. The e v a l u a t i o n of t h e c a p a c i t y l o s s r e q u i r e s t h e d e f i n i t i o n of two f a c t o r s , memory and fading. Memory i s a ~ a p a c i t yl o s s which h a s been demonstrated t o be r e c o v e r a b l e . The msmory v a r i a b l e s a r s temperature and d i s c h a r g e . Fading i s

Table 7-VI1.-

B a t t e r y Capacity T e s t s

Battery

Missicm day

I

Capacity (estimated t o JU todisconncc t ) , mp-hr
k t p : A crewman ~ n o ntio r e d each t e s t and t e m i n a t c d b a t t e r y d i s ~ h a r q e when he obsiarved t h e b a t t e r y v n l t a g e f l a g which i n d i c a t e d b a t t e r y vo:tage o f 27.5 v o l t 5 . 1.1 amp-hr was added i t o tile rnedsured c o l ~ a c t y t o o b t a i n t o t a l c a p a c i t y w + i c h wculd r e s u l t i f t h e b a t t e r v war a 1 lowed t o d i s c h a r g e t o a u t o m a t i c d i s c o n n e c t a t 20.4 vol ts.

11.4

:1 h
!i

'

3 . 0 (TP<'< r .la t low 13.11 d l s c ' l , l r w rat^) , 9.:: i 111.66

i

Table 7-VII1.. .

---.

F\t\1-of-Mission
Capat: I t y

Battery Tests
.
--

--

,

1 .Y 1.4 1.8 1.0 1.4 1.7 4.7 1.7 2.1

it~~(!-lit. . . .-

-. .

--

--

Battpry 1
7

D ~ Y 767 255 268 270 269

At v o l t a l e ta1kbd.- . l e v e l ;27.5 v o l t s )

At auto~tlatic disconnect
I

Capacity d i f f r r e n r c s between t a l kback and automatic disconnect, amp-br

4 6 7

7.8 ;io d a t a 10.0 7.7 6.2 7.5 8.3 7.2 d.3 9.c' t40 d d t d No d a t a 10.1 6.9 No d a t a 7.8

j

I

9.7 10.9 11.4 9.5

1.5 1.8
3.7

d e f i n e d ns a permanent l c s s i n paci city and i s e s s e n t i a l l y a torm of a c c e l e r a t e d aging. Fading remains a s u b j e c t of i n v e s t i g a t i o n t o determine i n q u a n t i t a t i v e terms what t h ? r e l a t i o n s L p s t o mission c o n d i t i o n s a r e . This i n f o r m a t i o n w i l l be of c o n s i d e r r b l e importance i n f u t n r e l o n g term s p a c e missions. The o t h e r b ~ t t e r yparameters, such a s r e c h a r g e f r a c t i o n , e f f i c i e n c y , and t h i r d - e l e c t r o d e c c n t r o l s , remained r e l a t i v e l y c o n s t a n t throughout t h e m i s s i o n . L i f e t e s t d a t a c o n i irmed t h e s e o b s e r v a t i o n s . The r e c h a r g e f r a c t i o n remained approximately 110 p e r c e n t a t a 20 p e r c e n t d e r t h of d i s c h a r g e a t 10DC w i t h a correspondit,g e f f i c i t m c y of 80 p e r c e p t . A change i~ :he c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of b a t t e r y 3 o c c a r r e d d u r i n g t h e t n i r d manned p e r i o d whic.h r e s u l t e d i n t h e b a t t e r y n o t b e i n g recharged f o l l o w i n g each d a r k p e r i o d . This occurred o n l y a t b e t a a n g l e s g r e a t e r than 60 d e g r e e s , which corresponded t c 1 d a r k p e r i o d o f l e s s t h a n 20 mi-nu~es. These s h o r t discha.rge p e r i o d s d i d no:. d i s c h a r g e t h e b a t t e r y enough t o cause t h e t h i r d - e l e c t r o d e v o l t a g e t o drop below 200 m i l l i v r " s. This i n h i b i t e d t h e c h a r g e r through t h e next d a y l i g h t c y c l e . During t h e s . . q u e n t d a r k p e r i o d

400

800

1200

1600

?ZOO

2400

2800

3?00

3600

4030

4400

4800

Cycles, c h a r y - discharge

Figure 7-25.-

S o l a r observatory b a t t e r i e s ' c a p a c i t y d e g r a d a t i o n .

t h e b a t t e r y was discharged f v r t h e r , remcving t h e ilrO m i l l i v o l t s s i g n a l from t h e t h i r d e l e c t r o d e , a l l o w i n g norm?l. c h a r g e r o p e r a t i c n . I n e f f e c t , this :or'd i t i o n r e s u l t e d i n two b a t t e r y d i s c h a r g e s f o r one charge. Altnoug': the c y c l e s were noc normal, t h e b a t t e r y was n o t b e i n g nbclsed and could f u n c t i o n i n d e f i n i t e l y i n t h i s mode. Normal c y c l i c o p e r a t i o n resumed when t h e d i s c h a r g e time agai.1 became g r e a t e r t h a n LO minutes. Regulators.A wide range of i n p u t v o l t a g e s (25.5 t o $0 vdc) must be r e p l a c e d f o r use. Esch r e g u l a t o r i s a single-ended s w i t c h i r g c i r c u i t which i n c r e a s e s o i d e c r e a s e s t h e i n p u t v o l t a g e by employing dump-or-store r e g u l a t i o n t o q a i n t a i n t h e r e q u i r e d o u t p u t . I n p u t v o l t a g e s a r e s u p p l i e d by e i t h e r t h e s o l a r a r r a y o r t h e b a t t e r i e s . Output v o l t a g e s a r e maintained between 30.4 vdc a t no Joad and 27.1 vLc a t f u l l l o a d , which i s c u r r e n t - l i m i t e d t o 20 4mperes maximum even under o u t p u t s h o r t c i r , u i t c o n d i t i o n s . Sensing i s p r o v i e d t o a c t i v a t e a crew a l e r t i n d i c a t o r i f r e g u l a t o r out.! ct i n c r e a s e s t o 31.8 20.2 vdc : o r drops b e ~ ~ w +1 vdr . 20 Circuit- p r o t e c t i o n l o g i c a u t o m a t i c a l l y remove:+ t h e r e g u l a t o r irom t h e ? i n e i f t h e o u t p ~ t o l t a g e exceeds 31.8 f 0 . 2 vdc. Automatic rf-1:overy i s ?ot provided. v The r e g u l a t o r may be brought back on t h e l i n e when t h e o u t p u t v o l t a g e r e t u r n s t o a c c e p t a b l e l i m i t s by f i r s t turnirlg i t o f f and t h e n t u r c i n g k t m. ThLs c o n t r o l can be accomplished by s w i t c h e s on t h e c o n t r o l and d i s p l a y c o n s o l e , by t h e d i g i t a l a d d r e s s system keyboard, aild by ground command. The o n l y r e g u l a t o r f a i l a r e noted A f a i l e d comsonent i n t h e c o n t r o l put. Onboard s t a t u s l i g h t s i n d i c a t e d t h e l m i t , , A l l o t h e r f u n c t i o n s of t h e

3.

d u r i n g t h e mission was i n power eondit!oner c i r c u i t oi? !lay 17 ;:aused t h e l o s s o f outsss ~ e t t i n g o t t h e " r e g u l a t o r oq" c ~ m a i d power c o n d i t i o n e r were normal. Also on

Day 17 and subsequently d u r i n g t h e mission, f l u c t u a t i o n s of f.1ampere i i i :he r e g u l a t o r 4 c u r r e n t were noted. The problem was b e l i e v e d t o be caused by an open c a p a c i t o r used i n an i n t e r n a l RF f i l t e r . The f l u c t u a t i o n s were n o t evid e n t on t h e load bus and had no e f f e c t on t o t a l performance. Average regulat o r e f f i c i e n c y was measured u s i n g t h e main bus v o l t a g e . Using a 20 p e r c e n t d e p t h of d i s c h a r g e and a t t r i b u t i n g b a t t e r y d i o d e l o s s a g a i n s t t h e system as a whole, t h e r e g u l a t o r e f f i c i e n c y was c a l c u l a t e d t o be 92.4 p e r c e n t d u r i n g sunl i g h t p e r i o d s and 89.3 p e r c e n t d u r i n g t h e d a r k p o r t i o n s of t h e o r b i t s . During t5e mission i t w a s noted t n a t t h e depth cif d i s c h a r g e o f b a t t e r y 1 1 was g r e a t e r than t h a t o t h e o t h e r b a t t e r i e s . This was e x p l a i n e d by t h e f a c t : t h a t t h e re; Lator c)'.< , - t e r i s t i c s o f power c o n d i t i o n e r 1 when i t was ground 1 t e s t e d shc-z.: tiiat i t .-ended t o provide s l i g h t l y h i g h e r o u t p u t power t h a n t h e e r s t h e r s . The - , ~ ~s h ar i n g c i r c u i t was t e s t e d a t t h e end 3f t h e mission by s w i t c h i n g k o ~ a iprimary and secondary remote s e n s i n g c i r c u i t s o f f and o b s e r v i n g tbe a n t i c i p a t e d 0 . 3 v o l t drop i n bus v o l t a g e p r e d i c t e d from premission ground testing.

7.3.3

Power D i s t r i b u t i o n

The s o l a r o b s e r v a t o r y power d i s t r i b u t i o n system D i s t r i b u t i o n Networks.c o n s i s t s of 2 main power buses fed d i r e c t l y from t h e i 8 power c o n d i t i o n e r s . Downstream a r e s e v e r a l redundant s u b s i d i a r y buses which supply t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e subsystem e l e c t r i c a l equipment. Power is d i s t r i b u t e d through t h e power t r a n s f e r d i s t r i b u t o r , main power d i s t r i b u t o r , a u x i l i a r y power d i s t r i b u t o r , s i x c o n t r o l distributors, and t h r e e measuring d i s t r i b u t o r s . Figure 7-26 is a diagram of t h e s o l a r observatory e l e c t r i c a l power d i s t r i b u t i o n system. F i g u r e 7-27 shows t h e e l e c t r i c a l system c o n t r o l s and monitors l o c a t e d on t h e s o l a r o b s e r v a t o r y c o n t r o l and d i s p l a y p a a e l i n t h e docking a d a p t e r .
- -- - -I

- - - - .- - - - - - - -- - - - - - - - - Laborr:ory - - - - - - - - transfer - - - - - - - - --3":

L--

- ---

f

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I

Figure 7-26

.-

S o l a r o b s e r v a t o r y power d i s t r i b u t i o n .

The s o l a r o b s e r v a t o r y power d i s t r i b u t i o n networks .,let a l l mission r e q u i r l ments .with one exception. On Day 183 a 500-ampere c u r r e n t s p i k e jras observed on t e l e v i s i c n bus 2 f o r 3 seconds. The bus v o l t a g e went t o zero. Afi.er c o n s i d e r a b l e

D i s t r i b u t i o n Control.-

Control of the s o l a r observatory power d i s t r i b u t i o n

is a c z w l i s h e d by ground command o r manual o p e r a t i o n by t h e crew. S t a t u s o f t h e c o n t r o l and of t h e equipment power c o n f i g u r a t i o n is displayed t o t h e crew by onboard meters and s t a t u s l i g h t s and is telemetered t o t h e ground. This d u a l capab i l i t y gives the crew c o n t r o l while r e l i e v i n g them of r o u t i n e o p e r a t i o n s , uhich a r e performed by ground c o n t r o l , and a l s o provides system and experiment operat i o n c a p a b i l i t i e s during t h e unmanned p e r i o d s o f t h e mission. Controls, monitors, onboard d i s p l a y s , and t e l m t r y of bus v o l t a g e s and c u r r e n t s provided s a t i s f a c t o r y o p e r a t i o n of t h e power d i s t r i b u t i o n system, with t h e following exceptions. O v e r a l l c i r c u i t c o n t r o l was s a t i s f a c t o r y except t h a t the X-ray spectrograph's -in power could n o t be turned o f f by normal procedure and t h e doors of t h e X-ray spectrograph, u l t r a v i o l e t scanning polychromator spectroheliometer, and X-ray t e l e s c o p e f a i l e d t o o p e r a t e at v a r i o u s p e r i o d s during the mission. This was l a r g e l y due t o f a u l t y r e l a y s in t h e switch s e l e c t o r s o r mechanical f r i c t i o n on t h e doors. On Day 144, a f t e r t h e issuance o f s e v e r a l "main power o f f " comands t o t h e u l t r a v i o l e t scanning instrument, t h e experiment's power remained on. These colllmands were s e n t from t h e ground d u r i n g t h e t h i r d unmanned period. During t h e t h i r d manned period panel a c t i v a t i o n on Day 187, Lhe u l t r a v i o l e t scanning instrument was configurea t o o p e r a t e on secondary power, and no f u r t h e r onboard troubleshooting was a t t e n p t e d . After t h e t h i r d crew's d e p a r t u r e t h e primary hydrogen a l p h a 2 door motor l o g i c c i r c u i t r y was t e s t e d t o v e r i f y the o p e r a t i o n a l s t a t u s of t h e primary motor c i r c u i t r y and motor. The procedure c a l l e d f o r i n h i b i t i n g both primary and secondary motor power and r e e n a b l i n a t h e primary c i r c u i t r y . Reenabling of t h e p r h a r y c i r c u i t r y f a i l e d t o produce a door motion i n d i c a t o r s i g n a l , i n d i c a t i n g the l o s s of t h e primary d r j v e c i r c u i t r y . A p o s s i b l e cause could have been a s h o r t i n t h e d r i v e motor o r a s s o c i a t e d c i r c u i t r y r e s u l t i n g i n a blown fuse. Also, t h e X-ray spectrograph and r r l t r a v i u l e t scanning instrument command capab i l i t i e s were Lnvestigated f u r t h e r . The test procedures served p r i m a r i l y a s a d d i t i o n a l troubleshooting t o determine why the ground could not command each experiment instrument's main power o f f Ground commands were i s s u e d t o t u r n o f f each instrument's main paver, and real-time d a t a wert analyzed. Analysis of t h e X-ray spectrograph problem i n d i c a t e s the most probable cause was a power r e l a y which f a i l e d i n t h e s e t p o s i t i o n , s i n c e both ground and e a r l i e r p m e l commands t o d e a c t i v a t e were unsuccessful. Because of l i m i t e d f e a s i b l e troubleshooting approaches, only suppos'tions about t k u l t r a v i o l e t scanning instrument problem can be drawn. Probable causes were a r e l a y f a i l u r e o r an op2n c i r c u i t in t h e coarmand l i n e t o e i t h e r of t h e two r e l a y s involved.

.

Protection.- C i r c u i t breakers and f u s e s provide c i r c u i t p r o t e c t i o n f o r tt.e power system. A l l wire is protected t o l i m i t wire temperature t o l e s s than 200°C. Dfodes provide c i r c u i t i s o l a t i o n . The s i z i n g of t h e s e components a l lowed enough power t o be applied t o a l l end i t e m s operated during the mission w!.ile providing the necessary v e h i c l e wiring p r o t e c t i o n . Experiment door motor p r o t e c t i o n c i r c u i t s use timers t o auto ma ti^.-lly i n h i b i t power t o t h e windings a f t e r approximately 60 seconds i f a door f a i l s t o o p e r a t e because i t i s stuck o r j armed.

a
a.

C i r c u i t p r o t e c t i v e devices and designs provided s a f e and adequate power d i s t r i b u t i o n and c o n t r o l through t h e mission. However, a s lrentionsd previously, the f u s e s apparently could not provide t h e r e a c t i o n time required during t h e

hard t e l e v i s i o n bus s h o r t , and t h e r e was damage t o t h a t feeder. This w s suea pected s i n c e several d i s c r e p a n c i e s a f f e c t i n g panel c o n t r o l and monitoring of t h e power system occurred. These p o s s i b l y could have been caused by d e b r i s from t h e short.

7.4

PARALLEL OPERATIONS

The major c o n t r o l s involved i n t h e p a r a l l e l o p e r a t i o n of t h e two power syst m a r e those required f o r normal p a r a l l e l i n g sequence, f o r d i s c o n n e c t i ~ gt h e e s power l i n e s i n t h e event of an emergency, and f o r power sharing. The connections between t h e s o l a r observatory buses and t h e l a b o r a t o r y buses are accomplished by c i r c u i t breakers and r e l a y s . The r e l a y s a r e c o n t r o l l e d by t h e t r a n s f e r switches. These switches are normally c o n t r o l l e d from t h e ground. Manual switches are provided so t h a t t h e crew may disconnect dl l o a d s from t h e power system involved in t h e event of a f f r e o r a low bus v o l t a g e condition. l'he l a b o r a t o r y e l e c t r i c a l system has two switches t h a t remove a l l power except f o r e s s e n t i a l loads on cont r o l buses. The s o l a r observatory e l e c t r i c a l system h a s an enel-gency switch which deenergizes all s o l a r observatory l o a d s a n d a l s o opens t h e t r a n s f e r bus ties. Onboard monitoring of t h e c u r r e n t flowing betwaen t h e s o l a r observatory and t r a n s f e r buses i s provided. Other parameters r e q u i t e d t o e v a l u a t e t h e parallel o p e r a t i o n of t h e power systems, l a b o r a t o r y r e g u l a t o r bus vo!-tages and curr e n t s , and t r a n s f e r bus v o l t a g e s are a l s o displayed. The pover s h a r i n g between t h e s o l a r observatory and labor at or:^ a l e c t r i c a l power systems is c o n t r o l l e d by a d j u s t i n g t h e v o l t a g e of t h e l a b w a t o r y power system. The l a b o r a t o r y r e g u l a t o r bus v o l t a g e s vary a c c o r d h g t o load demands on t h e system. Predicted vaiues of p a r a l l e l e d power c a p a b i l i t i e s a r e derived by assuming an open c i r c u i t v o l t a g e , which i s constent. The open c:.rcuit v o l t age is defined as t h e r e g u l a t o r s ' o u t p u t s under a no-load c o n d i t i o n , The chara c t e r i s t i c v o l t a g e decrease of t h e r e g u l a t o r o u t p u t s in t h e normal c p e r a t i n g range i s 0.01 v o l t f o r each aQpere cE l o a d c u r r e n t . The e q u i v a l e n t open c i r c a i t v o l t a g e is derived by adding t 5 e a c t u a l r e g a l a t o r bus v o l t a g e and 0.01 times t h e bus load c u r r e n t . For e;rample, i o r a r e g u l a t o r bus v c l t a g e of 28.67 vdc and a bus c u r r e n t of 42 amperes, t h e equivalent open c i r c u i t v o l t a g e is 28.67 p l u s 0.+3, o r 25.1 v o l t s . The r e q u i r e d open c i r c u i t v o l t a g e t o provide t h e proper Lsdd s h a r i n g f o r a given condition i s computed, and t h e amount of acjustment of t h e r e g u l a t o r output c o n t r a 1 t o achieve t h i s value i s s p e c i f i e d . This a d j u s t ment is made by t h e crew by t u r n i n g the onboard potentiometers t o t l ~ e prescribed s e t t i n g . The adjustment cannot be c o n t r o l l e d by t h e ground control:,ers. The i n t e n t of t h e o r i g i n a l open c i r c u i t v o l t a g e s e t t i n g w a s t o l i m i t t h e mirimurn debth of discharge t o 30 percent on t h e s o l a r observatory l ~ a t t e r i e sa d 1 5 percent on t h e l a b o r a t o r y b a t t e r i e s . The l e s s e r depth of d i s c h a r g e allowed f o r t h e l a b o r a t o r y b a t t e r i e s was s p e c i f i e d because of t h e l o s s of the s o l a r a r r a y wing 2 power. To ensure t h a t t h e s e depth-of-discharge c o n s t r a i n t s would not be v i o l a t e d , a n open c i r c u i t v o l t a g e s e t t i n g of 29 vdc was se'iected. The t o t a l c a p a b i l i t y of che e l e c t r i c a l power systems a t this s e t t i n g was adequate t o supply t h e t o t a l load requirements o t t h e f i r s t manned period w i t h a SGO-watt p o s i t i v e power margin. This s e t t i n g was r e v i s e d a t v a r i o u s i n t e r v a l s throughout t h e mission t o s a t i s f y load requirements under changing c o n d i t i f ~ n s , Because s-iiie of t h e command and s e r v i c e moduie's equipmeni r e q b i r e s continuous o p e r a t i o n , i t s power system was p a r a l l e l e d with t h e Sz.twn Workshop systems before i t s f u e l c e l l power system was shut down. There $as no evidence of

degradation O L any e l e c t r i c a l power system parameters r e s u l t i n g from t h e s e para l l e l o p e r a t i o r ~ s . Power t r a n s f e r t o t h e command and s e r v i c e module buses was a s high as 2700 w a t t s during checkoui and r e e n t r y simulation. Power t r a n s f e r r e d from the. l a b o r a t o r y power system a f t e r i t was aczivated was a s high as 450 w a t t s . These values do n o t include t h e s h o r t t h a t occurred on t h e s o l a r observatory t e l e v i s i o n bus 2 on Day 83. E n o ~ g hpover was provided t o t h i s s h o r t by t h e combined power system t o c l e a r t h e s h o r t i n a p p r o x i n ~ t e l y3 seconds. 7.5 ANOMALIES

The anomalies described j t h i s s e c t i o n were t h e r e s u l t s of component f a i i n ures in equipment i n i n a c c e s s i b l e l o c a t i o n s , making examinations of f a i l e d items unfeasible. T e s t s , simulations, and d a t a a n a l y s i s permitted i n most cases a loc a l i z a t i o n of t h e f a i l u r e . The use of power margin management and a n a l t e r n a t e power d i s t r i b u t i o n bus allowed s a t i s f a c t o r y performance of t h e e l e c t r i c a l power systems throughout t h e mission. 7.5.1 S o l a r Array Power

Solar cbservstory s o l a r a r r a y power output from s e v e r a l panels shored s t e p changes. Simulation tests performed on t h e ground equipment and e v a l u a t i o n of f l i g h t d a t a supported t h e theory of open o r s h o r t c i r c u i t s i n one o r more of t h e modules i n some of t h e panels. The extreme temperctures e a r l y i n t h e mission and d i s t u r b a n c e s from t h e command and s e r v i c e module t h r u s t e r s d u r i n g flyarounds probably account f o r most of t h e f a i l u r e s . 7.5.2 Power Conditioners

There were t h r e e probleins a s s o c i a t e d with t h e s o l a r observatory power condit i o n e r s . Figure 7-28 i s a simp1i:ied schematic of t h e l o c a t i o n s of t h e a f f e c t e d power c o n d i t i o n e r s ' suspected f a u l t areas.
Relative area o f power conditionerlSfailure7
,

Relative area o f power conditioner 3 f a i l u r e Relative area of power conditioner 5 f a i l u r e

System or.

Chrqer on Charger off Rtgulator on Regul ,tor o f f

Contml

Figure 7-26.-

S o l a r observatory poker c o n d i t j h n e r a r e a s of suspected f a u l t s .

Regulator 3 ceased t o d e l i v e r power on Day 17. A l l o t h e r f u n c t i o n s of ycwer conditioner 3 were normal. Talkhnck from the r e g u l a t o r command was received, and

t h e r e was no o t h e r i n d i c a t i o n of a s h o r t c i r c u i t o r high c u r r e n t t h a t might res u l t from a power component f a i l r t r e . It was concluded t h a t t h e f a i l u r e r e s u l t e d from a connection o r component f a i l u r e in t h e r e g u l a t o r c o n t r o l c i r c u i t . Charger 5 f a i l e d on Day 123. Evaluation of t h e d a t a and crew troubleshooting i n d i c a t e d t h a t t h e power c o n d i t i o n e r 5 input bus was s h o r t e d t o t h e batr e l y relay. The most l i k e l y cause was a s h o r t in one of t h e charger t r a n s i s t o r s ; however, i t could have been a b a t t e r y i s o l a t i o n diode f a i l u r e . This s h o r t caused t h e s o l a r panel o u t p u t t o be t i e d d i r e c t l y t o t h e b a t t e r y , s o t h a t t h e b a t t e r y would be charged u n t i l t h e high v o l t a g e c u t o f f sensor automatically disconnected t h e b a t t e r y . Since t h e charger could not be r e p a i r e d , t h e charger and r e g u l a t o r were turned o f f f o r t h e remainder of t h e mission, except f o r t h r e e Earth observaLion passes when a d d i t i o n a l power was r e q u i r e d and charging termination was commanded from t h e ground. There was no s o l a r panel i n p u t power t o power c o n d i t i o n e r 1 5 on Day 12. The s o l a r a r r a y c o n t a c t o r had t r i b p e d open when t h e c o n d i t i o n e r had a u t o m a t i c a l l y d i s connected from t h e power bus by t h e low v o l t a g e s e n s i n g c i r c u i t r y . Repeated e f f o r t s t o c l o s e t h e c o n t a c t o r were without success. P a s t experiences and ground tests i n d i c a t e d t h a t a crewman should mechanically shock t h e c a s e a t a predetermined p o i n t during t h e next scheduled e x t r a v e h i c u l a r a c t i v i t y . This a c t i o n res t o r e d normal o p e r a t i o n , which l a s t e d f o r t h e remainder of t h e mission. 7.5.3 Television Power Bus

There w a s a command and s e r v i c e module master c a u t i o n and warning alarm on Day 83. This was followed 1 second l a t e r by a 500-ampere c u r r e n t spike on t e l e v i s i o n bus 2. One second a f t e r t h i s , t h e f i n e Sun s e n s o r wedge-position count and t h e t e l e v i s i o n bus 2 v o l t a g e went t o zero. I n v e s t i g a t i o n of t h e t e l e v i s i o n bus s h o r t c i - c u i t f a g l t included determination of t h e p o s s i b i l i t y of o t h e r wiring o r componen~sbeing damaged, and t h e c o r r e l a t i o n of o t h e r v e h i c l e systems and exporimeni systems d a t a with t h i s anomaly. Analysis of a l l power feeder l i n e s from t h e power t r a n s f e r d i s t r i b u t o r was performed. T e s t s were conducted on t h e ground on 10-ampere and 15-ampere f u s e s , and on t h e c u r r e n t handling c a p a c i t y of s i z e 15 and 20 wire. Testing of t h e t e l e v i s i o n bus 2 c i r c u i t r y was performed i n t h e prototype power t r a n s f e r d i s t r i b u t o r . The t e s t wires burned open i n 1 . 8 t o 2 seconds a t 355 amperes, s c a t t e r i n g copper d e b r i s i n s i d e t h e d i s t r i b u t o r . Adjacent wires were not burned open, and t h e bus arrangement withstood t h e c u r r e n t surges.
It was concluded t h a t a hard s h o r t from t e l e v i s i o n bus 2 t o ground had occurred i n t h e power t r a n s f e r d i s t r i b u t c r , r e s u l t i n g i n t h e l o s s of t h e v o l t a g e telemetry s i g n a l f o r t h a t bus and l o s s of t h e bus. The l o c a t i o n of t h e s h o r t and t h e e x t e n t of t h e damage c m l d not be assessed.

SECTlOM 8 THERMAL CONTROL

The Saturn Workshop is heated by s o l a r and Earth r a d i a t i o n . Additional h e a t comes from equipment operation and crew metabolism. Temperatures could range widely, but are c o c t r o l l e d w t t h i n t h e ranges r e q u i r e d f o r m a t e r i a l s , equipment c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , and crew comfort by a combination of a c t i v e and passive systems. P a s s i v e systems c o n t r o l t h e g r a s s rate a t which h e a t e n t e r s and l e a v e s t h e l a b o r a t o r y , and a c t i v e systems provide a d d i t i o n a l c o n t r o l and proper h e a t d i s t r i b u t i o n . Auxiliary systems provide s u i t c o o l i n o , equipment cooling, and r e f r i g e r a t i o n . These systems a r e described and t h e i r performances evaluated. The l a b o r a t o r y and s o l a r observatory systems a r e l a r g e l y independent and a r e t r e a t e d s e p a r a t e l y , a s a r e some a u x i l i a r y systems. System anomalies are discussed i n some d e t a i l , and a d d i t i o n a l information i s contained in r e f e r e n c e s 8 , 9, and 10. 8.1 8.1.1
LUORATORY THERMAL CONTROL

Passive Thermal Control

I n s u l a t i o n , s u r f a c e c o a t i n g s , and o t h e r p a s s i v e elements p ~ r f o r ma major r o l e i n keeping temperatures w i t h i n t h e l a b o r a t o r y a t a c c e p t a b l e values. h e b a s i c i n s u l a t i n g m a t e r i a l s are f i b e r g l a s s r e i n f o r c e d polyurethane foam, f i b e r g l a s s , and m u l t i l a y e r i n s u l a t s o n ( f i g . 8-1). F i b e r g l a s s c u r t a i n s on t h e a i r l o c k both i n s u l a t e i t and p r o t e c t a g a i n s t p e n e t r a t i o n by micrometeoroids. The meteoroid c u r t a i n has an off-white f i b e r g l a s s c l o t h e x t e r i o r f a c i n g and i s gold coated on t h e o t h e r facing.
Emittance = 0.9 Meteoroid curtain Absorptance = 0.43 I r ~ m i t t a n c e= 0.05 Emittance = 0.9-

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Absorptance 0.93 Emit:ance 0.9 Rteoroid Absorptance = 0.3 shfeld Emi ttance = 0.9

\ r

--

-

Absorptance = 0.9

Emlttance = 0.9

Emittame

- 0.05
Emlttance = 0.0; Insulation

Figure 8-1.-

Surface c o a t i n g s and i n s u l a t i o n .

The thermal c u r t a i n i s ilnpregnatrid with Viton rubber on one f a c e and has a gold c o a t i n g on t h e o t h e r face. M u l t i l a y e r i n s u l a t i o n on t h e workshop forward dome ( f i g . 8-2) c o n s i s t s of 48 l a y e r s of aluminized Mylar and Dacron n e t , held tog e t h e r by nylon buttons. Its i n s u l a t i n g p r o p e r t i e s d e r i v e from t h e low r a t e of r a d i a n t h e a t t r a n s f e r between t h e h i g h l y r e f l e c t i v e aluminun: s u r f a c e s while i n a vacuum environment:. S i m i l a r m u l t i l a y e r i n s u l a t i o n cogers t h e o u t s i d e of t h e press u r e v e s s e l of t h e docking a d a p t s r , except t h a t t h e i n s u l a t i o n on t h e docking a d a p t e r i s 91 l a y e r s t h i c k , and is surrounded by t h e meteoroid s h i e l d and r a d i a t o r . To be e f f e c t i v e , m u l t i l a y e r i n s u l a t i o n must f i r s t be evacuated t o e l i m i n a t e conduction between l a y e r s . Before launch, t h e i n s u l a t i o n was purged with dry n i trogen, and evacuation took p l a c e d u r i n g launch. Other kinds of thermal i s o l a t i o n h e l p t o c o n t r o l h e a t t r a n s f e r l o c a l l y . F i b e r g l a s s washers i n t h e a i r l o c k i n s u l a t e bulkhead f i t t i n g s and c o o l i n g sy;tem component; from supporting s t r u c t u r e s . I n s u l a t e d clamps support some coolant l i n e s , and coolant l l n e s a r e wrapped -with i n s u l a t i o n . Analyses i n d i c a t e d no s i g n i f i c a n t change i n p r o p e r t i e s of t h e polyurethane DDub1.l foam during t h e mission. Apparent h e a t (hcmn cloth! V.IW*CT l o s s e s t o t h e waste tank from t h e workshop through t h e common bulkhead were less than p r e d i c t e d , which was p a r t i a l l y t h e r e s u l t of higher temperatures i n t h e waste t ~ n k than had been a n t i c i p a t e d . The a i r l o c k f i b e r g l a s s c u r t a i n s e f f e c t i v e l y l i m i t e d h e a t t r a n s f e r t o t h e des i r e d v a l u e s , a s i n d i c a t e d by a c c e p t a b l e w a l l temperatures. The i n n e r s u r f a c e of t h e docking a d ~ ? t e r l s o remainei a t aca c e p t a b l e temperatures, i n d i c a t i n g chat Figure 8-2. - Multilayer i n s u l a t i o n . t h e i n s u l a t i o n was s u i t a b l e . The thermal conductance of t h e workshop i n s u l a t i o n co-.ld be c a l c u l a t e d u s i n g f l i g h t temperat u r e s and c a l c u l a t e d v a l u e s of h e a t f l u x through t h e foam on t h e inner sucface. The values determined a t s e v e r a l p o i n t s on t h e forward dome ranged from 0.0061 t o 0.01 ~ t u / h r - f t 2 - O F , a l l l e s s than t h e allowable maximum v a l u e of 0.02 ~ t u / h r - f t ~ - ~ ~ . The d i f f e r e n c e s f r o s estimated values were probably due t o v a r i a t i o n s i n t h e mecha n i c a l f a s t e n e r s holding t h e i n s u l a t i o n i n place.
..
h i m ud<-ev

External s u r f a c e c o a t i n g s have two important thermal c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . The s o l a r abscrptance determines t h e f r a c t i o n of i n c i d e n t s u n l i g h t ( d i r e c t and ref l e c t e d ) which t h e s u r f a c e absorbs; t h e i n f r a r e d emittance determines t h e r a t e s a t which heat i s r a d i a t e d from t h e s u r f a c e and gained by t h e s u r f a c e from lowtemperature sources (such a s t h e Earth). Black, white, and aluminum p a i n t s cover a l l e x t e r n a l s u r f a c e s of t h e workshop i n a p a t t e n ( f i g . 8-3) making t h e b e s t use o f t h e s u r f a c e p r o p e r t i e s of t h e p a i n t s t o c o n t r o l l o s s e s and g a i n s of h e a t . Zinc oxide is t h e pigment: i n t h e two types of white p a i n t used. One p a i n t u s c s potassium s i l i c a t e a s a bonding agent, and t h e o t h e r uses a s i l i c o n e m a t e r i a l . White p a i n t u3ing potassium s i l i c a t e a s a bonding agent i s a p p l i e d t o t h e i n a c t i v e s i d r of t h e workshop s o l a r a r r a y panels. When a p p l i e d , t h i s p a i n t had a s o l a r abeorptance of 0.18 and an i n f r a r e d emittance of 0.9. There was appare n t l y no degradation of t h i s p a i n t . Wnite p a i n t using s i l i c o n e a s a bonding agent was a p p l i e d t o the l a s t 3 f e e t of t h e workshop a f t s k i r t and t o p a r t of t h e meteoroid s h i e l d surrounding t h e workshop.

Black enanel s t r i p e (9)-

Y h l t e thermal Cld-coated tap+

Forward skirt Position plane I faces Sun Inactive side Rteoroid shield ( v h i t e epnxy enawl)

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~os!tion

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~osltion

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111

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Paint p a t t e r n

-

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s h ~ n l a t (undeployed neteoroid shield) f

Figure 8-3.-

Wgrkshop e x t e r n a l p a i n t p a t t e r n .

The meteoroid s h i e l d t h a t was t o have p r o t e c t e d t h e c y l i n d r i c a l p a r t of t h e workshop w a s a l s o t o have served a s a thermal r a d i a t i o n b a r r i e r . The workshop under t h e s h i e l d is wrapped with a gold-coated Kapton tape. Gold was s e l e c t e d because i t s low i n f r a r e d e m i s s i v i t y , approximately 0.03 when a p p l i e d , would l i m i t r a d i a n t interchange between t h e workshop s u r f a c e and t h e s h i e l d . Loss of t h e s h i e l d duzing launch exposed p a r t of t h e gold s u r f a c e t o d i r e c t s u n l i g h t . The c o a t i n g ' s s o l a r absorptance was approximately 0.15, much higher than i t s i n f r a red e m i s s i v i t y , s o its equilibrium temperature would have been over 400°F i n t h e s o l a r i n e r t i a l a t t i t u d e . The s u r f a c e s u f f e r e d some damage from s c r a p i n g , b y t h e meteoroid s h i e l d when i t was l o s t , from impingement of exhaust gases from t h e s e p a r a t i o n r e t r o r o c k e t s , and from aerodynamic and s o l a r hecting. Both t h e i n f r a r e d emittance and t h e s o l a r absorptance increased because of t h e s e e f f e c t s . E s t i mates made from measured temperatures i n d i c a t e d f i n a l v a l u e s of s o l a r absorptance between 0.3 and 0.35 and i n f r a r e d emittance between 0.06 and 0.1. Temperatures i n t h e workshop s t a r t e d t o rise a s soon a s t h e Seturn Workshop reached o r b i t ( f i g . 8-4). A s long as t h e gold s u r f a c e was exposed, temperatures i n t h e workshop could be l i m i t e d only by i n c r e a s i n g t h e i n c i d e n t a n g l e of t h e s u n l i g h t . The Saturn Workshop was maneuvered a s described i n 3.2 t o minimize problems u n t i l t h e f i r s t crew deployed t h e p a r a s o l thermal s h i e l d on Day 13. Mean i n t e r n a l temperatures began t o decrease i m e d i a t e l y from the 130°F maximum, and were s t a b i l i z e d i n t h e 73 t o 85°F range during t h e f i r s t manned period ( f i g . 8-5). The twin-pale thermal s h i e l d deployed on Day 85 provided enough a d d i t i o n a l s u r f a c e coverage t o decrease temperatures t o a range of 71 t o 76°F 6uring t h e second manned period. Because of longer d a y l i g h t o r b i t s and a considerable n u u ber of experiment maneuvers which required r o l l i n g t h e s h i e l d away from t h e Sun, workshop temperatures ranged between 71 and 82OF during t h e third. manned period. There were some l o c a t i o n s i n s i d e t h e workshop where t a n p e r a t u r e s could s t i l l have dropped low enough t o cause condensation. Heat pipes, which r e q u i r e n e i t h e r e x t e r n a l power nor c o n t r o l , t r a n s p o r t h e a t from warm places t o t h e s e p o t e n t i a l l y cold spots. These pipes a r e sealed aluminum tubes containing f r e o n and l i n e d with a wickinq m a t e r i a l . Liquid Freon evaporates a t t h e warm end and vapor condenses a t t h e c o o l end. The condensate flows by capill.ary a c t i o n t o t h e wa.m end.

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Solar l n c r t l a l -90' and -45' pltch Solar lntrthl Alternate orblts o f 2 local v e r t ~ c a l-50. -50. pitch -40' pltch 8. Solar i n e r t l a l a d - 0 pltch

- 4 Y pltch. 41. yaw

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Saturn Workshop mission day

10

Figure 8-4.-

Average workshop temperature through Day 15.

Since l i q u i d and gas a r e a t v i r t u a l l y t h e same p r e s s u r e , they a r e e s s e n t i a l l y a t thermal equilibrium, s o a n e a r l y uniform temperature p r e v a i l s throughout t h e h e a t pipe. Loss of t h e meteoroid s h i e l d changed t h e temperature d i s t r i b u t i o n xiear t h e h e a t pipes and prevented determination of t h e i r e f f e c t i v e n e s s .

15

20

25

30

35

40 45 50 Saturn Yorlshoo n h s l c r , day

55

60

65

70

75

Figure 8-5.

-

Average workshop temperature f r o 3 \.herma1 s h i e l d deployment through Day 75.

8,1.2

Active Thermal Control

Heat from t h e walls and equipment, u n l e s s i t is removed i n some o t h e r way, e n t e r s t h e atmosphera of t h e l a b o r a t o r y . P a r t of t h e h e a t produced by t h e crewmen a l s o e n t e r s t h e atmosphere d i r e c t l y , and t h e remainder e n t e r s i n t h e form o f w a t e r vapor. h e d i s t r i b u t i o n of some o f t h i s h e a t and r e j e c t i o n o f t h e e x c e s s h e a t i s accomplished by t h e a c t i v e thermal c o n t r o l system.
A low-viscosity s i l i c o n e e s t e r c i r c u l a t i n g f l u i d , Coolanol 1 5 , t r a n s p o r t s h e a t from t h e i n t e r i o r t o a n e x t e r n a l r a d i a t o r through two independent, p a r a l l e l , n e a r l y i d e n t i c a l l o o p s , d e s i g n a t e d t h e primary and secondary c o o l i n g loops ( f i g . The c o o l a n t flows through h e a t exchangers f o r c o o l i n g and dehumidifying -6). t h e atmosphere, through c o l d p l a t e s a t t a c h e d t o equipment, and through a r a d i a t o r f o r r e j e c t i n g h e a t t o space. There a r e a l s o a d d i t i o n a l h e a t exchangers i n which t h e c o o l a n t removes h e a t from f l u i d used i n a u x i l i a r y c o o l i n g loops t h a t have no e x t e r n a l r a d i a t o r s of t h e i r own. The c o o l a n t l o o p s a l s o t n c l u d e such n e c e s s a r y items a s pumps and v a l v e s . Wax-filled thermal c a p a c i t o r s s t o r e h e a t d u r i n g t h e d a y l i g h t s i d e of t h e o r b i t when t h e r a d i a t o r o u t l e t temperature i s wanner than t h e wax i n t b e c a p a c i t o r . E i t h e r loop can f u r n i s h t h e r e q u i r e d c o o l i n g , and c r i t ical i t e m s i n each loop a r e d u p l i c a t e d t o .increase r e l i a b i l i t y and f l e x i b i l i t y .
B a t t e r y treat exchanger, Regenerative heat e r c h a n g e r 7 S u i t c o o l i n g loop [heat exchangers

7

F i g u r e 8-6.-

Laboratory c o o l a n t loop.

Each c o o l a n t loop h a s t h r e e g e a r pumps plumbed i n p a r a l l e l which may be ope r a t e d s i n g l y o r i n p a i r s . Three i n v e r t e r s a r e i n s t a l l e d I n each loop t o p r o v i d e t h e r e q u i r e d a l t e r n a t i n g c u r r e n t . Each p can be o p e r a t e d from e i t h e r of two d i f f e r e n t i n v e r t e r s , and i f two pumps a r e .?quired i n t h e loop t h e y a r e o p e r a t e d from t h e same i n v e r t e r . T h i s i n c r e a s e o thsa o p e r a t i n g f l e x i b i l i t y , s l n c e o n l y
. L J . ~

p a r t i c u l a r combinations of pump and i n v e r t e r f a i l u r e s can make the loop inoperat i v e . One pump is normally on i n each Poop, a l t h o u g h two pumps may be used i n a a loop i f one loop should f a i l . 'To meet s p e c i f l c a t i o r ~ s s i n g l e pump must d e l i v e r a flow of 230 l b / h r of c o o l a n t and two pumps must d e l i v e r 460 l b / h r . R e s e r v o i r s a r e a l s o proviued t o m a i n t a i n pump-inlet p r e s s u r e arJ t o p r o v i d e an a d d i t i o n a l quant i t y of c o o l a n t should l e a k a g e o r c u r . The performance of t h e pumps d u r i n g t h e mission exceeded s p e c i f i c a t i o n s . Actual f l o w r a t e s were 270 l b i h r f o r a s i n g l e pump and from 510 t o 520 l h / h r f ~ r two pumps. The S a t u r n Workshop v a s launched with one pump o p e r a t i n g i n t h e p r i mary loop. When only one loop i s i n u s e , an s u t o m a t i c s w i t c h i - g network can s h u t down t h e o p e r a t i n g loop and s t a r t a pump i n t h e o t h e r loop i f e i t h e r t h e temperature of t h e c o o l a n t o r t h e p r e s s u r e r i s e a c r o s s t h e pump d e c r e a s e s exc e s s i v e l y . Automatic switchover from t h e primary t o t h e seconda-y loop occurred twice d u r i n g t h e i n i t i a l unmanned p e r i o d . I n n e i t h e r c a s e was t h e p r e s s u r e o r temperature, a s r e p o r t e d by t e l e m e t r y , low enough t o cause t h e switchover. The problem appeared t o be i n t h e s w i t c h i n g c i r c u i t , s i n c e t h e primary loop l a t e r o p e r a t e d s u c c e s s f u l l y by u s i n g o n l y one of t h e s w i t c h i n g c i r c u i r a . One pump i n t h e secondary loop continued t o o p e r a t e u n t i l t h e f i r s t crew a r r i v e d . Therea f t e r , one pun~p i n each loop o p e r a t e d d u r i n g manned p e r i o d s , e x c e p t when condit i o n s r e q u i r e d a d i f f e r e n t mode of o p e r a t i o n . The primary l o o p was s h u t down because of l o s s of c o o l a n t on Day 102 (8.4.1) arid one pump i n t h e secondary loop w a s o p e r a t e d f o r t h e r e s t of t h e second manned p e r i o d . A f t e r r e c h a r g i n g w i t h Coolanol i n t h e t h i r d manned p e r i o d , one pump i n t h e primary loop w a s o p e r a t e d a l o n g w i t h one i n t h e secondary loop e x c e p t d u r i n g e x t r a v e h i c u l a r a c t i v i t : ~and d u r i n g t h e p e r i o d o f maximum exposure t o s u n l i g h t , wheri two pcmps u e r e o p e r a t e d i n t h e primary loop and one i n t h e secondary loop. Valves a t t h r e e p o i n t s i n each l3op a u t o m a t i c a l l y c o n t r o l t h e temperature of t h e c o o l a n t . Each v a l v e has an oul l e t p o r t and two i n l e t p o r t s , one f o r c o l d f l u i d and one f o r warm f l u i d . t; movable s l e e v e r e g u l a t e s t h e flow e n t e r i n g t h e i n l e t p o r t s , a d m i t t i n g more o r l e s s warm o r csLd f l u i d . Two v a l v e s a r a s e t t o g i v e an o u t l e t temperature of 47OF. The f i r s t of t h e s e v a l v e s c o n t r o l s t h e flow t o t h e r a d i a t o r . Fluid l e a v i n g t h e pump flows e i t h e r t o t h e r a d i a t o r o r t o t h e w a r m i n l e t p o r t of t h i s v a l v e , and some of t h e f l u i d p a s s i n g through t h e r-diat o r ;hen flows t o t h e cold i n l e t p o r t of t h i s v a l v e . The c o n t r o l v a l v e mixes t h e s e two streams t o g i v e an o u t l e t t e m p e r n t u ~ eof 47°F. This v a l v e i n each loop operated s a t i s f a c t o r i l y throughout t h e mission. The c o o l m t t h e n flows from t h i s v a l v e t o t h e warm i n l e t p o r t of a second v a l v e which keeps t h e teinpera t u r e of t h e c o o l a n t e n t e r i n g t h e condensing h e a t exchangers a t 4 j ° F . Problems occurred with t h e s e v a l v e s i n b o t h l o o p s beginning on Day 25, and n e c e s s i t a t e d changing procedures used d u r i n g e x t r a v e l l i c u l a r a c t i v i t y (8.4.1). The t h i r d v a l v e r e g u l a t e s i t s o u t l e t temperature t o 4 0 ' ~ . A s t h e c o l d i n l e t p o r t of t h i s v a l v e opens, i t allows p a r t of t h e upstream c o o l a n t flow t o be d i v e r t e d t o a h e a t exchanger, where i t i s cooled by cold f l n i d from t h e r a d i a t o r . The c a p a c i t y of t h i s v a l v e t o c o n t r o l i t s o u t l e t temperature i s l i m i t e d by t h e amount of c o l d f l u i d demanded by t h e 47OF v a l v e a t t h e condensing h e a t exchanger i n l e t . On Day 4, when only t h e primary c o o l a n t loop was o p e r a t i n g , t h e d i s c h a r g e temperature r o s e t o 45.7"F a t a time when equipment b e i n g cooled by t h e f l u i d was o p e r a t i n g a t very low power. To avoid f r e e z i n g c o o l a n t i n s i d e t h e r a d i a t o r , a d d i t i o n a l equipment was turned on. A r e s u l t o f t h e a d d i t i o n a l h e a t l o a d was r e d u c t i o n o f t h e temperature o f t h e f l u i d l e a v i n g t h e v a l v e t o less than 42OF. This v a l v e o p e r a t e d s a t i s f a c t o r i l y throughout t h e mission. F l u i d i n t h e c o o l a n t loop r e j e c t s h e a t t o s p a c e a s i t flows 2hrough an ext e r n a l r a d i a t o r l o c a t e d on t h e o u t s i d e of t h e S a t u r n Workshop. The r a d i a t o r ,

w i t h a t o t a l s u r f a c e a r e a of 432 f t 2 , h a s 1 p a n e l s made by we1dir.g magnesium 1

s k i n s t o extrudnd magnesium s e c t i o n s c o n t a i n i n g flow passages. The exposed s u r f a c e i s p a i n t e d w h i t e . During ! Ile d a y l i g h t s i d e of t h e o r b i t . , h e a t i s s t o r e d i n a thermal c a p a c i t o r which c o n s i s t s of honeycomb boxes t h a t a c e f i l l e d w i t h t r i d e Fluid from b o t h cane vax and have i n t e g r a l c o l J p l a t e flow passages ( f i g . 8-7). c o o l a n t l o o p s p a s s e s through each p l a t e . T r i d e c a n e ' s h e a t of fus-ion i s 66 ~ t u f l b and i t m e l t s a t 22'F, making i t a n e f f e c t i v e m a t e r i a l f o r a b s o r b i n g h e a t - Ref o r e launch i t i s cooled w e l l below i t s f r e e z i n g p o i n t , and i t a b s o r b s a l l r f t h e launch h e a t l o a d s t h a t have t o b e d i s s i p a t e d by t h e c o o l a n t u n t i l t h e shroud i s j e t t i s o n e d . Coolant flows from t h e r a d i a t o r d i r e c t l y t o t h e flow passages i n t h e thermal c a p a c i t o r . During t h e d a r k p a r t o f each o r b i t , when t h e r d i a t o r can r e j e c t h e a t t o s p a c e , t h e o u t l e t of t h e r a d i a t o r i s c71.l. C ~ o l a n tpasscs through t h e thermal c a p a c i t o r , c o o l i n g t h e t r i d e c a n e , and i. : t i l l cold enough t o s a t i s f y t h e c o o l i n g requirements. When t h e Skylab i s on t h e d q ' l i g h t si3e of t h e E a r t h , t h e r a d i a t o r o u t l e t i s warmer t h a n t h e capaciLor, s o i t t r a n s f e r s a p o r t i o n of i t s h e a t t o tl.e t r i d e c a n e .
A1 u v i num sheet

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Weight - 26 l b s S p e c i f i c h e a t - 0.4 M e l t i n g p o i n t - 22.?"F Heat o f t u s i o n - 66.5 B t u l l b S : r u c t u r ? l t r a m i t i o n a t -0.6'F r e a u i r e ~18.6 R t u l l b

Figure 8-i.-

Thermal c a p a c i t o r .

The r a d i a t o r h e a t l o a d s wcrz g e n e r a l l y s o low t h a t a l l of t h e t r i d c c a n e r e inained f r o z e n a t t h e end of t h e o r b i t a l day. A s che o r b i t a l p l a n e s h i f t e d s o t h a t t h e l e n g t h of t h e o r b i t a l day i n c r e a s e d , some of t h e t r i d e c a n e melked. A l l of t h e t r i d e c a n e i n t h e thermal c a p a c i t o r was melted when Skylah was o r i e n t e d t o a l l o w E a r t h o b s e r v a t i o n s d u r i n g a time of maximum o r b i t a l d a y l i g h t i n t h e t h i r d manned p e r i o d . A s expected, c o o l a n t Lemperatures exceeded t h e i r s p e c i f i e d v a l u e s f o r a s h u r t time, b u t n o t long enough t o cause any problem. The c a p a c i t y of t h e r a d u t o r was more t h a n adequate f o r t h e g r e a t e r p a r t of t h e o p e r a t i o n s . Also, as expected, t h e w h i t e p a i n t on t h e r a , d l s t o r s u r f a c e d e t e r i o r a t e d somewhat during t 5 e m i s s i o n . I t s s o l a r a b s o r p t a n c e , a s c a l c l i l a t e d a t t h e end che m i s s i o n , had i n c r e a s e d t o 0.25 from i t s i n i t i a l v a l u e of 0.14, a l t h o u g h t h e i v f r a r e d emitThz crew r e p o r t e d n o t i c e t a n c e d i d n o t change from i t s i n i t i a l v a l u e of 0.85. a b l e d i s c o l o r a t i o n of t h e p a r t of t h e r a d i a t o r t h a t was exposed t o s u n l i g h t . The d i s c o l o r e d s e c t i o n probably had a l a r g e r i n c r e a s e i n a b s q r p t a n c e than t h e p a r t not exposed t o s u n l i g h t , and the. v a l u e caZculated from t h e r a t e s a t which h e a t was d i s s i p a t e d r e f l e c t e d t h e average a n o ~ n tof d e g r a d a t i o n . The c o o l i n g s y s t e m ' s c a p a c i t y exceeded d e m ~ n d sboth f o r c o o l i n g i n d i v i d u a l u n i t s and f o r d i s s i p a t i n g h e a t t o space. The maximum a l l o w s b l e t e n p e r a t u r e of t h e coolant a t t h e pump d i s c h a r g e was 1203F. The maxiinum temperature a t t h i s p o i n t d u r i n g t h e m i s s i o n was 75"F, i n d i c a t i n g a c o m f o r t a b l e margin; a l l i h e equipment remained a t s a t i s f a c t o r y t e m p e r a t u r e s throughout t h e m i s s i o n . The

l t e n p e r a t u r e a t t h e pump d i s c h a r g e r e f l e c t e d t h e t o ~ a amount o f h e a t which had t o be d i s s i p a t e d . Again, t h e r e was a s a t i s f a c t o r y n a r g i n of c a p a c i t y . The s y s tem g a s designed t o r e j e c t up t o 16,000 Btu/hr, b u t t h e maximum h e a t load a t any time d u r i n g t h e mission was j u s t over 12,000 Btu/hr. The e x c e s s c a p a c i t y made p o s s i b l e continued o p e r a t i o n when ;he l o s s of c o o l a n t f o r c e d o p e r a t i o n of o n l y one c o o l a c t loop f o r par5 of t h c second nanned p e r i o d (8.4.1). 8.2

AUXILIARY SYSTEhS

The a u x i l i a r y thermal c o n t r o l s y s t e m a r e t h o s e subsystems prcvided t o resystem and t h e equipment move h e a t from c e r t a i n compocents. T k e s u i t ~ . . , . ~ i n g c o o l i n g system have a h e a t i n t e r c h a n g e w i t h t h e primarv l a b o r a t o r y c o o l i n g s y s t m and r e q u i r e i t s c ~ p e r a t i o nf o r h e a t r e j e c t i o n . These two systcrns use water w i t h a c o r r o s i o n i n h i b i t o r and b i o c i d e a s t h e c o o l i n g medium. TLe r r f r i g e r a t i o n system, xtrich has no connection w i t h t h e p r i n a r y l a b o r a t o r y c o o l i n g system, p r o v i d e s cooli'.g f o r t t l r food and waste management system f r e e z e r s ar.d c h i l l e r s . 8.2.1 S u i t Cooling

Cool water flows through t h e liquid-cooled garments worn by t h e c r e m ~ m und e r t h e i r s p ~ c e s u i t sfrom e i t h e r of two $ . d e n t i c a l , p a r a l l e l l o o p s ( f i g . 8-6). The ;rater i n each l c o p is cooled i n a h e a t exchanger by t r a n s f e r r i n g t h e c i a t e r ' s h e a t t o t h e c o o l a n t flowing through t h e p r i r a r y l a b o r a t o r y c o o l i n g system. Each water loop has two pumps, 2 r e s e r v o i r c o n t a i n i c g t h e water supply ( p r e s s u r i z e d t o 5 p s i a with n i t r c g e n ) , and z s e p a r a t o r t o remove g a s from t h e c i r c u l a t i n g water. The p o s s i b i l i t y t h a t g a s could l e a k i n t o t h e t u b i n g i n che liquid-cooled garments and becorn? e n t r a i n e d i n t h e water l e d t o t h e i n c l u s i o n of t h e s e p a r a t o r . Since w e i g h t l e s s n e s s p r e v e n t s t h e s e p a r a t i o n of g a s from l i q u i d through t h e u s e of d i f f e r e n c e s i n d e n s i t y , a technique based on s u r f a c e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s i s used. r n s i d e t h e s e p a r a t o r a r e two f i l t e r s , one w e t t a b l e by water and t h e o t h e r nonw e t t a b l e . The water e n t e r i n g t h e s e p a r a t o r p a s s e s through t h e w e t t a b l e f i l t e r . The o t h e r f i l t e r s u r f a c e remains d r y , and any e n t r a i n e d g a s p a s s e s through i t . The s e p a r a t o r s performed s a L i s f a c t o r i l y throughout t h e mission.

Suit
C W ill9 ~

Sui t cooling l0Op h ~ t uchatyrn

P;mps

i

Et

A

frw rupp:enenta; batter) :w!ing

'1.

hea: erclanger

- radtato~ bypass
F i g u r e 8-8.S u i t c o o l i n g system.

L

To laboratory heat loads

illthough e x t e r n a l e v e n t s a f f e c t e d tile performance of t h i s system, i t was general l y adequate. Twice d u r i n g t h e m i s s i o n , w a t e r leaked from the composite

connector t h a t a t t a c h e s t o t h e s p a c e s u i t . Liakage f i r s t o c c u r r e d d u r i n g a n e x t r a v e h i c u l a r a c t i v i t y on Day 226, and enough water was l o s t t o r e q u i r e t h a t t h e crew t r a n s f e r water t o t h e r e s e r v o i r . Leakage a l s o o c c u r r e d d u r i n g t h e last ext r a v e h i c u l a r a c t i v i t y , w i t h l o s s o f most of t h e v a t e r from t h e r e s e r v o i r . A fltwmeter became e r r a t i c d u r i n g t h e second e x t r a v e h i c u l a r a c t i v i t y of t h e f i r s t manned period and e v e n t u a l l y i n d i c a t e d no flow. Subseqsently, i t behaved s a t i e f a c t o r i l y , w i t h no f u r t h e r i n d i c a t i o n s o f improper o p e r a t i o n . A t t i t u d e s used d u r i n g t h e i n i t i a l unmanned p e r i o d t o reduce t e m p e r a t u r e s i n t h e workshop a l s o reduced t h e temperature i n t h e v i c i n i t y o f t h i s w a t e r system. The p o s s i b i l i t y t h a t t h e w a t e r might f r e e z e was a major concern, s i n c e f r e e z i n g could r u p t u r s t h e w a t e r l i n e s . F r e a z i n g was a v e r t e d by c h a n g i ~ qt h e a t t i t u d e o f ~ e t h e S a t u r n Workshop t o a l l o w more s o l a r h e a t i n g i n t h e v i c i n i t y o t ~ i xater syst e m . The lowest temperature was between 31.5 and 33.!i°F, depending on t h e accur a c y of t h e qecsurement. I t i s b e l i e v e d t h a t no f r e e z i n g o c c u r r e d , s i n c e t h e r e was no evidence o f damage.
Ucn o f t h e s e water loops d u r i n g t h e m i s s i o n was n o t a s planned. The f i r s t time t h a t c o o l a n t i n t h e l a b o r a t o r y c o o l i n g system was switched t o a l l o w flow through both s u i t - c o o l i r : h e a t exchangers, t h e temperature-control v a l v e s i n t h e l a b o r a t o r y c o o l i n g l o o p s s t a c k i n a p o s i t i o n t h a t allowed e x c e s s i v e flow of cold c o o l a n t ttlrough t h e h e a t exchangers. The c o o l a n t was switched back, and, t o prevent f u r t h e r d i f f i c u l t i e s , c o o l a n t w a s c i r c u l a t e d through o n l y one o f t h e h e a t exchangers f o r o t h e r e x t r a v e h i c u l a r a c t i v i t i e s (8.4.1)

.

8.2.2

Yquipsent Cooling

A s i n g l e water loop ( f i g . 8-91> canable of removing 1437 Btu!hr including 102 Bculhr from t h e c i r c u l a t i n g pump, c o o l s t h e E a r t h o b s e r v a t i o n equipment
5 ps?? n i t n g e n
Check /valves Laboratory coolant loops Water
I *

j_J
\
ncl i c f valve

Hea: exchanger

obserw t o r y

v
selector

9

-Flow limiting orifice

1

1

F i g u r e 8-9.

-

Earth resources e q u f p e n t

Equipment c o o l i n g loop.

and t h e s o l a r o b s e r v a t o r y c o n s o l e i n t h e docking a d a p t e r . The l o o p h a s t h r e e p o s i t i v e - d i s p l a c e m e n t , rotary-vane pbmps i n p a r a l l e l , a l t h o u g h one pump i s enough t o p r o v i d e t h e n e c e s s a r y w a t e r flow of 220 l b l h r . Each pump h a s a r l l i e f v a l v e t o bypass flow t o p r o t e c t t h e pump i f t h e downstream flow p a t h i s blocked, and b a s a

check v a l v e i n t h e d i s c h a r g e lime t o p r e v e n t backf low when t h e pump i s n o t runqing. A h e a t exchanger having p a r a l l e l f l o w p a t h s t o accommodate c o o l a n t from b o t h l a b o r a t o r y c o o l i n g l o o p s m a i n t a i n s t h e w a t e r below 78OF. A t a n k c o n t a i n i n g about 12 pounds of water is p r e s s u r i z e d w i t h n i t r o g e n t o 5 p s i a t o m a i n t a i n pump i n l e t p r e s s u r e and t o provide a d d i t i o n a l water i n t h e e v e n t of leakage. D e s p i t e a problem w i t h g a s (8.4.1), t h i s system f u l f i l l e d i t s f u n c t i o n a l r e quirement t o m a i n t a i n t e m p e r a t u r e s of t h e equipment i t s e r v i c e d w i t h i n s p e c i f i e d v a l u e s . A n a l y s i s showed t h a t t h e equipment would be cooled s u E f i c i e n t l y i f t h e water i n l e t temperature d i d n o t exceed 78OF; t h e maximum i n l e t temperature measured was 74.g°F. Heat l o a d s appeared t o bz g r e a t e r t h a n expected, p a r t l y because of u n a n t i c i p a t e d h e a t 'leaks i n t o t h e system and g r e a t e r t h a n expected conductances between t h e equipment t o be cooled and t h e w a t e r . During a n E a r t h obs e r v a t i o n p a s s on Day 252, t h e h e a t load reached a maximum of 2780 ~ t u / h r . T h i s c o n d i t i o n l a s t e a o n l y a s h o r t t i m e and produced no a d v e r s e e f f e c t s . Khen t h e crew replaced a f i l t e r on Day 1 5 , they r e p o r t e d t h a t t h e i n t e r n a l plunger i n t h e quick-disconnect f i t t i n g d i d n o t c l o s e f d l y when t h e f i t t i n g was removed. T h i s was o n l y a momentary malfunction, and l e a k a g e d i d n o t r e c u r when t h e f i l t e r sras a g a i n r e p l a c e d on Day 32. 8.2.3 Refrigeration

R e f r i g e r a t e d s t o r a g e of food was a major i n n o v a t i o n of t h e Skylab program. There a r e f i v e i n s u l a t e d corr.partments f o r s t o r i n : f r o z e n food and a c h i l l e r f o r A c o o l a n t c i r c u l a t i n g through thawing f r o z e n food and s t o r i n g l e f t o v e r s (10.1.6). t h e s e compartments keeps t h e c o n t e n t s c o l d . The r e f r i g e r a n t i s Coolanol 1 5 ( a l s o used i n t h e l a b o r a t o r y c o o l i n g system). It a l s o c h i l l s water f o r d r i n k i n g , c h i l l s and f r e e z e s u r i n e and blood samples, and c o o l s t h e pump power supply. It c i r c u l a t e s through two independent, p a r a l l e l l o o p s ( f i g . 8-10), d e s i g n a t e d prin.ary and secondary, e i t h e r of which can s a t i s f y a l l r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r r e f r i g e r a t i o n . The l o o p s s h a r e a common r a d i a t o r and a ccmmon thermal c a p a c i t o r . Four pumps a r e a v a i l a b l e f o r c i r c u l a t i n g t h e c o o l a n t i n each l o o p . Only one pump o p e r a t e s a t a t i m e , s o one loop i s i n o p e r a t i o n a t any time. The pumps a r e i n a s c .ed enclos u r e t h a t i s vented t o t h e waste t a n k t o e n s u r e t h a t any r e f r i g e r a n t A - a k i n g from t h e pump does n o t e n t e r t h e h a b i t a b l e volume. There a r e two pump packages f o r each loop. Each package c o n t a i n s two p o s i t i v e displacement g e a r pumps (each having i t s own power s u p p l y ) , a n accumulator, a rel i e f v a l v e , and a check v a l v e i n t h e d i s c h a r g e l i n e . I f t h e p r e s s u r e rise a c r o s s t h e pump exceeds 100 p s i , t h e r e l i e f v a l v e opens, l e t t i n g r e f r i g e r a n t r e t u r n from t h e d i s c h a r g e l i n e t o t h e pump i n l e t . Freon a c t i n g on a bellows i n t h e aczumulat o r e n s u r e s a c o n s t a n t b a s e p r e s s u r e i n t h e c o o l a n t loop. Those pumps had been q u a l i f i e d f o r 2250 hours, n o t long enough co a l l o w completion of t h e mission. T h i s motivated a sequence f o r t u r n i n g pumps on and o f f , e i t h e r m n u a l l y alter f i x e d o p e r a t i n g t i m e s o r a u t o m a t i c a l l y i n r e s p o n s e t o c o n d i t i o n s i n d i c a t i v e of t h e performance of t h e pumps. A d i f f e r e n t i a l p r e s s u r e below 25 p s i a c r o s s t h e o p e r a t i n g pump c a u s e s t h a t pump t o b e t u r n e d o f f and t h e n e x t pump i n t h e sequence t o be turned on. I f t h e o p e r a t i n g pump i s t h e f o u r t h pump i n e i t h e r l o o p , t h e f i r s t pump i n t h e o t h e r loop i s turned on. Any one o f f o u r o t h e r c o n d i t i o n s c a u s e s t h e g p e r a t i n g pump t o b e Surned o l f a r d t h e f i r s t pump i n t h e o t h e r loop t o be turned on: l e s s t h a n 5 i n . of r e f r i g e r a n t i n t h e a c c ~ r n u l a t o rf o r b o t h pump packages, a t e n p e r a t u r e of 1°F a t t h e i n l e t t o t h e frozen-food compartments, a t e n ~ p e r a t u r eof 3 3 . 5 ' ~ o r l e s s a t t h e i n l e t t o t h e c h i l l e r s , o r a l o g l c power sup0.45 v o l t s . ply v o l t a g e beyond 5.0

+ -

Relief valve

---

Radfator bypass valve

*
..

Them 1 cipaci tor

I

Food storage freezers

Wardman food f reozers

Urine freezer

A

v

- ak ,n T Food storaoe f r e e z e r s Food chi1lerWardroom fwezer Wardroom table1

wall penetration

'',

3

P

,Cold plat? Yank wall p a Urine freezer Urine chi1 ler .Controls and displays

Water chiller
I

Thermal capacitor-

-__
OT

ground support equi p e n t

Raaiator thermal control

~adiator

-Ground heat

exchanger

F i g u r e 8-10.

-

Refr i g e r a t i o n system ( o t h e r loo? i d e n t i c a l ) .

One pump i n t h e primary loop w s turned on 24 days b e f o r e laur-h, i n preparaa t i o n f o r loading frozen food. This pump continued t o run u n t i l Daj 27. Then, i n accordance wlzh t h e plan, i t was turned o f f , and t h e second pump i n t h e primary loop s t a r t e d . The changeover from one pump t o t h e o t h e r was smooth, w i t h no i n t e r r u p t i o n cf flow. A v a l v e malfunction n o t a s s o c i a t e d with t h e pumps l e d t o unplanned oper: tions on Day 40 ( 8 . 4 . 2 ) . The f i r s t pump was cycled 105 times, and then it ran :ontinuously u n t i l t h e end of t h e mission, f o r a t o t a l o p e r a t i n g time of 7270 no11 :. The second pump i n t h e primary loop operated f o r 300 hours. One pump ir. thc secondary loop operated f o r 369 hours, of which only 2 hours was i n o r b i t ; duri,lg a period of trocble-shooting, t h i s pump was cycled 28 times. These t h r e e pumgs operated s a t i s f a c t o r i l y , and one of them demonstrated t h a t t h e q u a l i f i e d l i f e t i m e w a s conservative. The o t h e r pumps were never operated during t h e flight. "he r e j r i g e r a t i o n system r a d i a t o r , located a t t h e a 2 t end of t h e Saturn Workshop, r e j e c s h e a t gained by t h e coolant. An octagonal shape w a s chosen t o maxi m i m t h e s r f a c e a r e a and s t i l l provide t h e necessary c l e a r a n c e between t h e rad i a t o t edge and t h e i n t e r s t a g e s t r u c t u r e during separation. The raciiator is cantec 5 d e ~ j r e e ss o t h a t s u n l i g h t does not s t r i k e t h e s u r f a c e d i r e c t l y while i n t h e soLar f n e r t i a l a t t i t u d e . For ane1y=es, t h e white p a i n t on i t s s u r f a c e was assumec! t o have a maximum degradation corresponding t o a s o l a r absorptance of 0.25 and an i n f r a r e d emittance of 0.887. h s h i e l d protected t h e r a d i a t o r s u r f a c e u n t i l t h e Saturn Workshop reached o r b i t . After an hour, t h e temperature of t h e r a d i a t o r b'xame low enough f o r coolant flow t o be s t a r t e d through t h e r a d i a t o r . The m a t e r i a l i n t h e thermal c a p a c i t o r had completely r e f r o z e n a f t e r an a d d i t i o n a l 2 hours, and t h e temperature of t h e coolant was low enough 95 minutes later t o allow by,>aSsing t h e r a d i a t o r . The subsequent performance of t h e r a d i a t o r was excellent. The rate a t which the coolant gains heat v a r i e s with temperatures in the workshop. Ch~zrefore, when t h e meteoroid s h i e l d wz; l o s t and temperatures i n the workshop rose t o 130°r c u r i n g t h e i n i t i a l unrn?z.=.zdperiod, the r a d i a t o r had t o d i s s i p a t e a:.: i\!uch a s ZOO0 Btulhr. However, t h e coolant remained cold enough throughout t.h.is period t o keep t h e warmest frozen-food compartment below the s p e c i f i e d minimum temperature of 0°F. A f t e r the f i r s t crew a r r i v e d and turned on more equ.inment, including v e n t i l a t i n g f a n s , t h e amourit of h e a t t o be d i s s i pateti increase3 somewhat and t h e temperature of t h e warmest compartment r o s e t o O.S°F. T h e r e a f t e r , a s temperatures i n t h e workshop decreased, t h e r a d i a t o r was nevel. a liml ti13 f a c t o r i n m e t i n g t h e requirements f o r ref r i g e r a t i o n . Cold cool.~mt flows t o a thermal c a p a c i t o r from t h e r a d i a t o r , a f t e r passing thtougb a cold pla; attached t o a n i n a c t i v e ground h e a t exchanger which somewhat moder s change i n the temperature of the f l u i d e n t e r i n g t h e thermal capacitor. The thermal c+;;acitor s t o r e s heat during t h e d a y l i g h t s i d e of t h e o r b i t . It consists of I:hr t u n i t s i n s e r i e s . Eaci, u n i t c o n s i s t s of two r e c t a n g u l a r honeycomb s t r u c t u r e 5 separated by a p l a t e containing s e p a r a t e flow passages f o r coolant from bo':i loops, The honeycomb s t r u c t u r e s a r e f i l l e d with undecane, a wax t h a t freez.: * a t -14.5OF. Before launch t h e undecane was cooled t o about -26OF, and f o r ,he f i r s t hour z f t - r t h e Saturn Workshop reached o r b i t t h e t h e m a l c a p a c i t o r absorbed a l l t h e heat picked up by t h e coolant. A f t e r t h e r a d i a t o r o n t l e t tempe r a t u r e dropped btr.3w O°F, t h e flow was automatically switched t o t h e r a d i a t o r . The t h e m 1 c ~ p a c i t o rcontinued t o perform s a t i s f a c t o r i l y f o r t h e whole mission. Its capacfty t o absorb h e a t was adequate f o r normal o p e r a t i o n , and t h e r e was enr.ugh t.aat t r a n s f e r t o cool t h e undec.ane as r a p i d l y a s necessary and t o cool ;hr p ~ o l a n tt o t h e d e s i r e d temperature.

I n a d d i t i o n t o t h e pressure-relief v a l v e s on t h e pump packages, t h e r e is a l s o a pressure-relief valve i n each loop t a procect t h e r a d i a t o r . Should t h e r e f r i g e r a n t flowing through t h e r a d i a t o r become cold enough f o r i t s increased v i s c o s i t y t o cause a pressure drop g r e a t e r than 34 p s i a c r o s s t h e r a d i a t o r , t h e r e l i e f v a l v e opens and allows r e f r i g e r a n t t o bypass t h e r a d f a t o r . N condition r e q u i r i n g t h i s o valve t o open occurred during t h e mission.
A two-positic?, solenoid-operated valve i n each loop c o n t r o l s t h e temperature of t h e coolant. IA'e i t h e r of two independent c o n d i t i o n s e x i s t s , t h e coolant bypasses t h e r a d i a t o r and f l ~ w s i r e c t l y t o t h e thermal c a p a c i t o r . One condition d is high temperature of t h e r a d i a t o r surface. I f t h i s temperature r i s e s t o 15"F, coolant flow bypasses t h e r a d i a t o r , and flow through t h e r a d i a t o r resumes only i f t h e temperature decreases t o @OF. The o t h e r c o n d i t i o n i s low temperature of t h e coolant leaving t h e f i r s t u n i t of the thermal c a p a c i t o r : a decrease t o -34.5OF causes coolant flow t o bypass t h e r a d i a t o r , and an i n c r e a s e t o -12.8OF causes flow through t h e r a d i a t o r t o resume. Improper o p e r a t i o n of t h e s e v a l v e s beginning on Day 40 c o n s t i t u t e d t h e only problem a s s o c i a t e d with t h e r e f r i g e r a t i o n system (8.4.2).

1

The coolant flows from t h e thermal c a p a c i t c r t o t h e u r i n e f r e e z e r and t h e compartments f o r s t o r i n g frozen food. Then some o r a i l of i t may pass through a r e g e n e r a t i v e heat exchanger i n which i t i s warmed t o a temperature compatible with t h e requirements of t h e food c h i l l e r , u r i n e c h i l l e r , and water c h i l l e r . From t h e c h i l l e r s , t h e coolant flows t o one of t h e f o u r pumps i n t h e loop. Flow of cold coolant through t h e r e g e n e r a t i v e h e a t exchanger is c o n t r o l l e d by a v a l v e t h a t n i x e s cold f l u i d and warm f l u i d as needed t o g i v e t h e required temperature. The valve has i n l e t p o r t s f o r warm f l u i d from t h e h e a t exchanger and f o r cold f l u i d t h a t bypasses t h e h e a t exchanger. An element i n s i d e t h e v a l v e expands o r c o n t r a c t s a s t h e temperature of t h c discharge stream i n c r e a s e s o r dec r e a s e s from i t s s e t point of 3g°F, varying t h e r e l a t i v e open a r e a s of t h e h a t and colG i n l e t p o r t s . This v a l v e performed w e l l throughout t h e mission, maint a i n i n g a n e a r l y c o n s t a n t discharge temperature a t a l l times. I f t h e temperature from th2 heat exchanger going t o t h e v a l v e decreases below 37OF an e l e c t r i c h e a t e r warms t h e coolant e n t e r i n g the r e g e n e r a t i v e heat: exchanger. Overall performance of t h e e n t i r e system w a s e x c e l l e n t , d e s p i t e t h e d i f f i c u l t i e s with t h e bypass valves. The frozen food was kept i n good c o n d i t i o n throughcut t h e mission. There was a moderate buildup of f r o s t on t h e s u r f a c e between t h e doors. The crew commented on t h e n e c e s s i t y of removing t h e f r o s t p e r i o d i c a l l y , although removing i t was not d i f f i c u l t . The temperature of t h e u r i n e c h i l l e r remained below 46OF throughout t h e mission, l e s s than t h e 59°F upp e r l i m i t t h z t was s p e c i f i e d . The f r e e z e r f o r samples of u r i n e and blood stayed c c l d enough t o meet t h e requirement of cooling samples below 30°F w i t h i n 90 minu t e s and below -2.S°F w i t h i n 8 hours. N leakage of coolant was detected. o

8.3

SOLAR OBSERVATORY T E M L CONI'ROL HR A

i

i"

ti

The s o l a r observatory was o r i g i n a l l y designed f o r independent o p e r a t i o n and s o it has an autonomous system f o r c o n t r o l l i n g temperatures. To r e g u l a t e t a p e r a t u r e s s a t i s f a c t o r i l y required independent c o n s i d e r a t i o n of eac3 of t h e t h r e e major d i v i s i o n s of t h e s o l a r observatory: t h e instruments, t h e instrument canist e r , and the rack ( f i g . 8-11). The rack e l e c t r i c a l and mechanical components a r e thermally c o n t r o l l e d within desired temperature l i m i t s by means of a combincl+?.on of s e l e c t i v e equipment placement, r a d i a t i o n s h i e l d i n g , low conductance mountings, i n s u l a t i o n , s u r f a c e coatings, and, f o r some components, t h e r m o s t a t i c a l l y c o n t r o l l e d

h e a t e r s . The instrument c a n i s t e r uses , ,a c t i v e l i q u i d h e a t t r a n s p o r t loop t o maintain a near-constant temperature environment f o r t h e experiments. The ind i v i d u a l experiments use p a s s i v e thermal c o n t r o l techniques i n conjunction with t h e r m o s t a t i c a l l y c o n t r o l l e d h e a t e r s t o s a t i s f y t h e s t r i n g e n t temperature requirements d i c t a t e d by o p t i c a l c o n s i d e r a t i o n s .

Car i stcr
1

r

The rack i s a n open assembly of t r u s s e s forming a s t r u c t u r e of octagonal cross-section t h a t completely surrounds t h e c a n i s t e r . It s e r v e s as a mounting f o r approximately 140 e l e c t r i c a l and mec h a n i c a l components, i n c l u d i n g c o n t r o l gyros, c o n t r o l computers, r a t e gyros, b a t t e r i e s , and Sun sensors. These compon e n t s generate h e a t when o p e r a t i n g and are a l s o heated by thermal r a d i a t i o n from t h e Earth and t h e Saturn Workshop and by r e f l e c t e d s u n l i g h t , although an annular s h i e l d p r o t e c t s them from d i r e c t sunzight. The components t h a t generate t h e most h e a t a r e around t h e o u t s i d e t c enhance h e a t rejection. Low-heat-generating componeats a r e l o c a t e d i n bays which a r e covered with r a d i a t i o n s h i e l d s and mcsaic m u l t i l a y e r insulation t o control heat rejection. I f necessary, components a r e furnished with thermostatically controlled heaters.
S o l a r observatory expanded view.

The top and bottom halves of t h e canister a r e each made of e i g h t p l a t e s cont a i n i n g i n t e r n a l passages through which a f l u i d c i r c u l a t e s t o keep t h e i n n e r s u r f a c e s of t h e c a n i s t e r a t a n e a r l y constant temperature. The flow i s divided between t h e two h a l v e s ; in each h a l f , t h e f l u i d , a mixture of methanol and water c o n t a i n i n g . 8 9 percent methanol by weight, flows through a l l t h e passages consecutively. A t t h e design f l o w r a t e of 850 l b l h r , t h e temperature of t h e f l u i d i n c r e a s e s 5OF when equipment i n t h e c a n i s t e r i s o p e r a t i n g a t a t o t a l power of 500 watts. Figure 8-11.Multilayer i n s u l a t i o n covers t h e o u t e r s u r f a c e of t h e c a n i s t e r , i n c h d i n g t h e end f a c i n g t h e Sun. There i s an a p e r t u r e through t h e i n s u l a t i o n i n l i n e with each of t h e s o l a r instruments i n t h e Sun end of t h e c a n i s t e r . Doors covered with r m l t i l a y e r i n s u l a t i o n s e a l t h e opening of each a p e r t u r e when t h e instrument is n o t i n use. The 10-inch overhang a t t h i s end of t h e c a n i s t e r keeps s u n l i g h t from f a l l i n g d i r e c t l y on t h e r a d i a t o r panels mounted around t h e circumference of t h e c a n i s t e r . The r a d i a t o r panels are p a r t of t h e h e a t - t r a n s f e r loop ( f i g ; 8-12). Four panels containing i n t e g r a l flcw passages provide a t o t a l r a d i a t i n g a r e a of 80 f t 2 . A t the designated o p e r a t i n g temperature, t h e r a d i a t o r can r e j e c t 500 watts. The r a d i a t o r and a h e a t e r s e c t i o n provide a l t e r n a t e flow paths f o r t h e f l u i d . For l e s s cooling, some o r a l l of t h e f l u i d i s d!.vertrd t o t h e h e a t e r sect i o n , which has two h e a t i n g elements of 250 w a t t s each. I f t h e t e n g e r a t u r e o f t h e f l u i d f a l l s below 47.7OF, t h e f i r s t h e a t i n g element t u r n s on automatically. A f u r t h e r temperature decrease t o 47.0°? a c t i v a t e s t h e second h e a t i n g element. An i n c r e a s e i n t h e f l u i d temperature t o 48.5OF causes t h e h e a t i n g elements t h a t a r e operating t o be turned o f f .

Radiator flow path selector valve Modulatjng flow control va Heater flow path sr 1 ector valve

F i g u r e 8-12.-

S o l a r o b s e r v a t o r y c o o l a n t loop.

I n s i d e t h e c a n i s t e r and d i v i d i n g i t i n t o q u a d r a n t s i s t h e s p a r , a c r u c i f o r m s t r u c t u r e t h a t s u p p o r t s t h e s o l a r ixist r u m m t s . M u l t i l a y e r i n s u l a t i o n c o v e r i n g t h e aluminum s p a r a s s i s t s i n m a i n t a i n i n g a uniform temperature. To i s o l a t e t h e s p a r and f u r t h e r minimize temperature g r a d i e n t s t h a t might cause misalignment o f o p t i c a l i n s t r u m e n t s , t h e s t r u c t u r a l c o n n e c t i o n s between t h e s p a r and t h e c a n i s t e r have low thermal conduc tancc.
The temperatures o f t h e e i g h t s o l a r i n s t r u m e n t s mmnted on t h e s p a r must be c o n t r o l l e d p r e c i s e l y , s i n c e even s m a l l v a r i a t i o n s i n t e a p e r a t u r e would a f f e c t t h e F .*.nting s t a b i l i t y and t h e f o c u s i n g c h a r a c t e r ' l s t i c s of t h e i n s t r u m e n t s . The housir:g are made c f m a t e r i a l s of h i g h thermal c o n d u c t i v i t y t o minimize temperature g r a d i e n t s . Low-conductance mounts minimize h e a t conduction between t h e i n s t r u ments and t h e s p a r , s o r a d i a t i o n is t h e dominant mode o f h e a t t r a n s f e r between t h e s e and o t h e r s u r f a c e s . Thc i n n e r s u r f a c e o f t h e c a n i s t e r is b l a c k t o maximize i q t e r c h a n g e of thermal r a d i a t i o n between t h i s s u r f a c e and t h e i n s t r u m e n t s . Ins u l a t i o n and s u r f a c e c o a t i n g s on t h e i n s t r u m e n t housings c o n t r o l t h e r a t e s a t which h e a t is r a d i a t e d and absorhoa. Two o f t h e e i g h t i n s t r u m e n t s g e n e r a t e h e a t a t a low r a t s which r e a u i r e s a gold c o a t i n g on t h e s u r f a c e s t o o b t a i n t h e necess a r y low e m i s s i v i t y . he o t h e r i n s t r u m e n t s g e n e r a t e h e a t at h i g h e r r a t e s when they a r e o p e r a t i n g and r e q u i r e h i g h e r s u r f a c e e m i t t a n c e s t o r a d i a t e t h e h e a t away at t h e d e s i r e d temperature. The h i g h e m i t t a n c e , however, a l l c w s t h e i n strument t o r a d i a t e away t o o much h e a t when i t is n o t i n use. To p r e v e n t t h i s , e l e c t r i c h e a t e r s a r e used. I n some c a s e s , t h e h e a t e r is i n c o r p o r a t e d i n a r a d i a t i o n s h i e l d t h a t completely s u r r o u n d s t h e i n s t r u m e n t without touching i t . The

h e a t e r t u r n s Jn and o f f when t h e s h i e l d i s 0.5'F below o r above a f i x e d temperat u r e . The r a d i a t i o n s h i e l d h a s very low thermal c a p a c i t y , s o i t s temperature f1uctc;tes r a p i d l y between t h e two extremes, p r e s e n t i n g a n e a r l y c o n s t a n t r a d i a t i o n e n v i r o n w n t t o t h e i n ~ i t r u m c n t . I n o t h e r c a s e s , t h e h e a t i n g element s u r r o u n d s and is a t t a c h e d t o t h e housing of t h e i n s t r u m e n t . Some of t h e s e l-?aters o p e r a t e i n t e r m i t t e n t l y on demand, w h i l e o t h e r s o p e r a t e c o n t i n u u u s l y , and t h e pover supp l i e d t o them v a r i e s w i t h demand. The o r i e n t a t i o n of t h e Saturr, Workshop t h a t proved most e f f e c t i v e i n cont r o l l i n g t e m p e r a t u r e s i n t h e workshop d u r i n g t h e i n i t i a l unmanned p e r i o d c r e a t e d thermal problems f o r t h e s o l a r o b s e r v a t o r y , s i n c e i t exposed t o d i r e c t s u n l i g h t p a r t s o f t h e rack t h a t would normally be i n t h e shadow of t h e s o l a r s h i e l d . Conc u r r e n t l y , a v a i l a b l e power w a s d r a s t i c a l l y reduced. T h i s mode l a s t e d from s h o r t l y a f t e r t h e S a t u r n Workshop reached o r b i t u n t i l t b e f i r s t crew deployed t h e para s o l thermal s h i e l d . Temperatures of some components on t h e r a c k approached t h e i r q p e r l i m i t s and, i n t h e c a s e o f a power c o n d i t i o n e r and a t a p e r e c o r d e r , exceeded them. I n c r e a s e d demand w h i l e t e m p e r a t u r e s were g e n e r a l l y high caused both t h e s e problems. Because of t h e s h o r t a g e of e l e c t r i c a l power, t h e h e a t - t r a n s f e r loop w a s n o t a c t i v a t e d immediately, and t h e use of e l e c t r i c h e a t e r s was r e s t r i c t e d . Before launch, t h e c a n i s t e r had been purged w i t h a continuous flow of d r y n i t r o g e n at c o n t r o l l e d temperature t o m a i n t a i n c o n s t a n t t e m p e r a t u r e and humidity around t h e equipment i n t h e c a n i s t e r . Consequently, tile c a n i s t e r and tile equipment i n s i d e i t were a t 6 9 . 5 ' ~ a t launch. About 25 h o u r s l a t e r , t h e e l e c t r i c h e a t e r f o r cne t e l e s c o p e i n each quadrant was a c t i v a t e d . Operating t h e s e f o u r h e a t e r s k e p t t h e i n s t r u m e n t s from h e x m i n g t o o c o l d ; t h e lowest temperature was 5 3 ' ~ , w i t h i n t h e a l l o w a b l e range of 40 t o 85°F. The h e a t - t r a n s f e r loop and a l l h e a t e r s were a c t i v a t e d a f t e r t e m p e r a t u r e s i n t h e workshop r e t u r n e d tc normal and Skylab had r e t u r n e d t o t h e s o l a r i n e r t i a l a t t i t u d e . The temperatures of t h e i n s t r u m e n t s s t a b i l i z e d approximately 20 hours as l a t e r . The s p a r , however, because c f i t s m s and t h e low r a t e of h e a t t r m s f e r between i t and t h e c a n i s t e r , r e q u i r e d s e v e r a l d a y s t o r e a c h a s t a b l e c o n d i t i o n . The h e a t - t r a n s f e r loop and t h e h e a t e r s were t u r n e d o f f f o r 1 4 h o u r s on Day 25. This a c t i o n had only a s l i g h t e f f e c t on temperatures. The i n s t r u m e n t s reached s t a b l e t e m p e r a t u r e s i n 5 t o 10 h o u r s , an?. t h e s p a r a f t e r approximately 14 hour?. The s p e c i f i e d temperature o f t h e f l u i d z n t e r i n g t h e cold p l a t e s i s S +'; O 3F a c t u a l v a l u e s d u r i n g t h e m i s s i o n were between 48 arid 51°F. Temperatures were c o n t r o l l e d s a t i s f a c t o r i l y throughout t h e second unmanned p e r i o d . Leaving one of t h e experiment a p e r t u r e d o o r s open c o n t i n u o u s l y d u r i n g unattended o p e r a t i o n s r e s u l t e d i n t e m p e r a t u r e s i a t h a t i n s t r u m e n t i n c r e a s i n g t o w i t h i n 0.4'F of t h e upper l i m i t . Mechanical problems w i t h o t h e r a p e r t u r e d o o r s e v e n t u a l l y r e q u i r e d t h a t f o u r d o o r s be l e f t open permanently. This had no s i g n i f i c a n t e f f e c t on t h e temperature of t h e c a n i s t e r o r t h e i n s t r u m e n t s u n t i l Days 247 throi.gh 250, when Skylab was i n c o n t i n u o u s s u n l i g h t . During t h i s time, tempe r a t u r e s of p a r t s of some of t h e i n s t r u m n n t s and of t h e s p a r exceeded t h e i r maximum a l l o w a b l e v a l u e s . Although t h e s e t e m p e r a t u r e s were h i g h e r than a n t i c i p a t e d , they were n o t high enough t o cause danmge. S i n c e only t h e primary pump had been used f o r t h e e n t i r e m i s s i o n , i t was s h u t down d u r i n g postmission t e s t i n g , and the secondary pump was t: .ned on f o r

t e s t i n g . A f t e r i t had o p e r a t e d f o r a s h o r t time, i t was s h u t down and t h e p r i mary pump r e s t a r t e d . The primary pump had 305 hours o f p r e f l i g h t and 6154 hours of f l i g h t o p e r a t i o n s . There were no problems a s s o c i a t e d w i t h e i t h e r pump. The crews r e p o r t e d d i s c o l o r a t i o n of t h e w h i t e p a i n t used on a l l t h e exposed s u r f a c e s of t h e s o l a r o b s e r v a t o r y . T h i s p a i n t o r i g i n a l l y had w i n f r a r e d emiss i v i t y of 0.9 and a s o l a r a b s o r p t a n c e of 0.22. A n a l y s i s based on measured s u r f a c e temperatures showed a s o l a r a b s e r p t a n c e of 0.53 a t t h e end of t h e l e i s s i o n , a s compared w i t h t h e p r e d i c t e d 0.35 based on premission t e s t s . The g r e a t e r d e g r a d a t i o n o c c u r r i n g d u r i n g t h e mission i s unexplained and i s s t i l l under bnv e s t i g s t ion. 8.4 8.4.1 ANOMALIES

Laboratory Coolant Loops

The 47OF v a l v e a t che i n l e t t o t h e condensing Temperatdre C o n t r o l Valves.h e a t exchangers s t u c k d u r i n g t h e f i r s t e x t r a v e h i c u l a r a c t i v i t y on Day 25 when t h e e x t r a v e h i c u i a r a c t i v i t y v a l i e i n t h e primary l a b o r a t o r y c o o l i n g system ( f i g . 8-6) was switched t o a l l o w c o o l a n t from t h e c a p a c i t o r t o flow through t h e second s u i t c o o l i n g h e a t exchanger. D i v e r t i n g c o o l a n t s o t h a t i t passed through t h i s h e a t exchanger i n i t i a l l y i n c r e a s e d t h e temperature a t t h e c c l d p a r t of t h e 4 7 ' ~v a l v e , which r e a c t e d i n t h e expected manner by moving t o ttie f u l l cold-flow p o s i t i c r . . The v a l v e t h e n should have r e t u r n e d t o a n i n t e r m e d i a t e p o s i t i o n t o c o n t r o l t h e o u t l e t temperature t o 47OF. However, as t h e v a l v e s i n b o t h t h e primary and secondary l o o p s t r a v e l e d back toward t h e i n t e r m e d i a t e p o s i t i o n , they s t u c k i n a p o s i t i o n t h a t provided e x c e s s i v e c o l d flow. T h i s i s thought t o have o c c u r r e d as a r e s u l t o f contamination r e l e a s e d i n t h e system when t h e e x t r a v e h i c u l a r act i v i t y v a l v e was put i n t h e e x t r a v e h i c u l a r a c t i v i t y p o s i t i o n . The imnediate res u l t was t h a t t h e w a t e r i n t h e s u i t c o o l i n g loop (which i n t e r f a c e s w i t h t h e p r i mary loop) a p p a r e n t l y f r o z e . I n a t t e m p t i n g t o r e a c t i v a t e t h e primary c o o l a n t loop l a t e r , t h e condensate i n t h e condensing h e a t exchangers a l s o a p p a r e n t l y f r o z e , c a u s i n g t h e m a l e c u l a r s i e v e compressor flow t o s t o p . Adequate c o o l i n g was provided f o r t h e e x t r a v e h i c u l a r a c t i v i t y , and deploying t h e workshop s o l a r a r r a y was completed s u c c e s s f u l l y by u s i n g t h e secondary c o o l a n t loop and one s u i t cooli n g l o o p t o c o o l a l l t h r e e crewmen. When t h e load was removed from t h e s u i t c o o l i n g loop, t h e o u t l e t temperature 'af t h e 47°F v a l v e i n t h e secondary loop dec r e a s e d s i n c d i t was a l s o s t u c k . I t l a t e r decreased t o approximately 30.7OF, c a u s i n g concern r e g a r d i n g a p o s s i b l e f r e e z i n g i n t h e condensing h e a t exchangers a g a i n . The crew was asked t o r e a c t i v a t e t h e s u i t c o o l i n g loop and p l a c e t h e liquid-cooled garments n e a r a w a t e r t a n k on t h e h o t s i d e of t h e workshop. This added enough h e a t t o r a i s e t h e o u t l e t t o 40°F. L a t e r , b o t h v a l v e s were f r e e d by a l l o w i n g t h e v a l \ z s e n s o r c a r t r i d g e t o warm up u n t i l t h e expansion o f t h e c a r t r i d g e f r e e d t h e v a l v e . To p r e c l u a e a r e c u r r e n c e of t h e same problem, t h e e x t r a v e h i c u l a r a c t i v i t y v a l v e was l e f t i n t h e byp a s s p o s i t i o n continuously. I t was found t h a t c o o l i n g c a p a b i l i t i e s were adequate i n t h i s mode. I n t h e second manned p e r i o d , when i n a d e q u a t e c o o l a n t was a v a i l a b l e due t o leakage i n t h e nrlmary l o o p , one e x t r a v a h i c u l a r a c t i v i t y was accomplished by u s i n g a high f i o w r a t e of oxygen f o r c o o l i n g . The second crew c a r r i e d along a h e a t e r , which was designed and b u i l t d u r i n g t h e unmanned p e r i o d , t o h e a t t h e w a t e r i n t h e s u i t c o o l i n g system s h o u l d i t be r z q u i r e d . A v a l v e d i d s t i c k on a l a t e r o c c a s i o n , but t h e r e s u l t i n g t e m p e r a t u r e s could be t o l e r a t e d s o t h e h e a t e r was n o t used.

On Day 8 4 , a primary loop accumulator low l i m i t warning o c c b r r e d . Leakage.There was no way of measuring d i r e c t l y t h e amount of c o o l a n t i n e i t h e r lo*.)?, but an a n c l y s i s of t h e p r e s s u r e s , temperatures, and volumes showed slow l e a k ~ g ei n both t h e primary and secondary loop. C a l c u l a t i o n s showed t h e l e a k a g e from t h e primary loop t o be from 0.08 t o 0.12 pound of c o o l a n t each day. P r e s s u r e a t t h e pump i n l e t a l s o showed a c o n s i s t e n t d e c r e a s e . The pump i n l e t p r e s s u r e on Day 84 3 was s t i l l h i g h enough t o p r e v e n t c a v i t a t i o n ( l e s s t h a ~ p s i a i n t e s t s ) , s o t h e pumn was allowed t o c o n t i n u e running. By Day 102, t h e pump i n l e t p r e s s u r e w a s o s c i l l a t i n g anti had decreased t o 5.8 p s i a . Should c a v i t a t i o n have o c c u r r e d , i t could have become s e r i o u s enough t o damage t h e pump, s o t h e primary loop was s h u t down. The secondary loop provided a l l c o o l i n g from t h a t time u n t i l t h e primary loop was recharged i n t h e t h i r d manned p e r i o d . During t h e t h i r d unmanned p e r i o d when only t h e secondary l o o p was o p e r a t i o n a l , i t s c o o l a n t l e a k e d c o n s i s t e n t l y a t a r a t e of 0.09 l b / d a y .
Attempts t o l o c a t e t h e l e a k s were u n s u c c e s s f u l . The primary loop appeared t o be l e a k i n g b o t h i n s i d e and o u t s i d e t h e h a b i t a b l e volume, s i n c e p r e s s u r e i n t h e loop followed i n t e r n a l p r e s s u r e b u t remained below i t d u r i n g t h e t h i r d unmanned period when t h e r e s e r v o i r s were d e p l e t e d . A n a l y s i s of r e t u r n e d c a r t r i d g e s from t h e carbon d i 3 x i d e s e n s o r s i n d i c a t e d t h a t some c o o l a n t may nave been i n t h e g a s e n t e r i n g t h e molecular s i e v e assembly. Coolant was a l s o found i n c h a r c o a l f i l t e r c a n i s t e r s t h a t were r e t u r n e d f o r a n a l y s i s . The t h i r d crew r e f i l l e d t h e primary loop w i t h c o o l a n t on Day 190. A res e r v i c i n g k i t c o n s i s t i n g of a s a d d l e v a l v e and a t a n k , developed a f t e r leakage became a p p a r e n t , w a s flown up f o r t h i s purpose. The s a d d l e v a l v e i s a n assembly which f i t s over t h e c o o l a n r l i n e t o provide a t i g h t s e a l s o t h a t a b u i l t - i n cutt e r can puncture t h e l i n e . With t h e v a l v e open, c o o l a n t w a s f o r c e d i n t o t h e l i n e by a p p l y i n g p r e s s u r e t o a bellows i n t h e - q p l y tank. A f t e r f l u i d w a s added t o i t , t h e primary loop was r e s t a r t e d and continued t o o p e r a t e s a t i s f a c t o r i l y f o r t h e r e s t of t h e mission. No f u r t h e r a d d i t i o n of c o o l a n t was n e c e s s a r y . The pump i n l e t p r e s s u r e i n t h e seconckry loop d i d c o n t i n u e t o d e c r e a s e , and a warning of a low l e v e l i n t h e r e s e r v o i r occurred on Day 271 d u r i n g t h e l a s t d e a c t i v a t i o n . I f n e c e s s a r y , c o o l a n t could have been added t o t h e secondary loop. Equipment Cooling.One of t h e prmps i n t h e equipment c o o l i t g loop was turned on d u r i n g a c t i v a t i o n on Day 1 5 , b u t i t gave a f l o w r a t e t h a t o s c i l l a t e d between 240 and 305 l b l h r . The crew t u r n e d o f f t h e pump, changed t h e f i l t e r , and r e s t a r t e d t h e pump. The f l u w r e t e was s t e a d y a t 244 l b / h r . The crew r e p o r t e d a g u r g l i n g sound i n t h e w a t e r loop on Day 132, and l a t e r t h e flow decreased t o 74 Lblhr. A f t e r s h u t t i n g t h e pump down and changing t h e f i l t e t h e crew t u r n e d on a second pump, which provided a s t a b l e flow ~ f 231 t o 234 l b / h r . The f i l t e r was r e t u r n e d f o r a n a l y s i s b u t showed n o t h i n g unusual. L a t e r , tile second pump d i s p l a y e d s i m i l a r t e n d e n c i e s , w i t h t h e flow decreasi n g from 245 t o 165 l b j h r on Day 190. A s e r i e s of t e s t s made on t h e ground elimi n a t e d s e v e r a l p o s s i b l e causes of t h e problem. The second pump was t u r n e d o f f , and t h e t h i r d pump was used u n t i l i t e x h i b i t e d a low p r e s s u r e r i s e and a reduct i o n i n flow. I t then appeared t h a t t h e most l i k e l y p o s s i b i l i t i e s were gas mixed w i t h t h e w a t e r , and d e b r i s i n t h e pump. The crew removed t h e f i l t e r and i n s p e c t e d i t , f i n d i n g o n l y a s m a l l amount of d e b r i s . They n o t i c e d g a s when they opened t h e quick-disconnect f i t t i n g . A s p a r e l i q u i d - g h s s e p a r a t o r f o r t h e s u i t c o o l i n g loop was i n s t a l l e d i n p l a c e of t h e f i l t e r . Both t h e second and t h i r d pumps o p e r a t e d s t a b l y w i t h t h e s e p a r a t o r i n t h e l i n e . The s e p a r a t o r was removed, and o p e r a t i o n

continued w i t h a g r a d u a l d e c r e a s e i n flow and o n l y o c c a s i o n a l flow o s c i l l a t i o n s f o r about 15 days. The crew a g a i n i n s t a l l e d t h e l i q u i d - g a s s e p a r a t o r f o r a time, and t h e flow a g a i n became normal f o r a w h i l e . The problem d i d n o t become s e r i o u s enough b e f o r e t h e end of t h e m i s s i o n t o w a r r a n t f u r t h e r a c t i o n . tiear t h e end of t h e mission t h e f i r s t pump was t u r n e d on, and i t appeared t o o p e r a t e normally, g i v i n g a f u r t h e r i n d i c a t i o n t h a t t h e problems r e s u l t e d l a r g e l y from gas i n t h e system.

On Day 16, secondary i n v e r t e r 1 and pump A were turned on by 1nrerter.ground command. T'ne i n v e r t e r c i r c u i t b r e a k e r opened immediat\?ly, s o t h e crew switched to a n o t h e r i n v e r t e r and pump combination. Lack of daca a t t h e time preclnded d e t e r m i n a t i o n of t h e cause, s o t h e f a i l e d u n i t s were n o t used a g a i n d u r i n g t h e mission. However, t r o u b l e s h o o t i n g procedures were developed f o r use i f a l l t h e o5her pump and i n v e r t e r combinations should have f a i l e d . T e s t i n g a f t e r t h e t h i r d manned p e r i o d ended showed t h a t t h e pumps o p e r a t e d s a t i s f a c t o r i l y except when used w i t h f n v e r t e r 1, and i t was concluded t h a t t h e r e w a s an unknown e l e c t r o n i c problem i n t h a t i n v e r t e r .

-

8.4.2

R e f r i g e r a t i o n Loops

During d e a c t i v a t i o n on Day 40, t h e solenoid-operated v a l v e i n t h e primary loop was o p e r a t i n g normally t o resume flow through t h e r a d i a t o r a f t e r a p e r i o d o f bypassing t h e r a d i a t o r because o f low r e f r i g e r a n t temperature. There was a n abr u p t d e c r e a s e of about 5 p s i i n t h e p r e s s u r e r i s e a c r o s s t h e pump, and t h e r e w a s a r e d u c t i o n i n t h e temperature of t h e r a d i a t o r s u r f a c e d a r i n g t h e succeeding orb i t s . E v e n t u a l l y , t h e m a t e r i a l i n t h e thermal c a p a c i t o r completely melted, and t h e temperature of t h e r e f r i g e r a n t l e a v i n g t h e thermal. c a p a c i t o r r o s e above -14.5"F. Temperatures i n t h e frozen-food coinprtments then began t o r i s e . When t h e temperature of t h e r e f r i g e r a k s u p p l i e d t c t h e compartments reached 1°F, t t h e r e was an automatic switchover t o t h e secondary loop. The r e f r i g e r a n t i n t \ e secondary loop a l s o showed a r a p i d i i s e ir. temperature, b h i c h i n d i c a t e d a s i m i l a r anomaly. Extensive ground t e s t i n g w a s conducted t o determine t h e cause of t h e malf u n c t i o n ar:d t h e e f f e c t o f t h e m a l f u n c t i o n on t h e c a p a b i l i t i e s of t h e system. The most probabie cause was fsi?.i;re of t h e v a l v e t o c l o s e i t s bypass p o r t comp l e t e l y , a l l o w i n g o n l y 20 p e r c e n t of che t o t a l . c o o l a n t flow through the r a d i a t o r . I f t h e p o r t was 25 p e r c e n t open, i t would a l l c w s i g n i f i c a n t flow through t h e byp a s s . T h i s would reduce t h e flow through t h e r a d i a t o r , and mixing of flow from t h e r a d i a t o r w i t h t h e bypass flow would i n c r e a s e t h e temperature of t h e f l a i d e n t e r i n g t h e thermal c a p a c i t o r . I f contamination on t h e v a l v e :eat kept t h e v a l v e from s h u t t i n g o f f bypass flow ~ o m p l e t e l y ,moving t h e v a l v e from one posit i o n t o t h e o t h e r could p o s s i b l y c l e a r i t . The v a l v e moves t o t h e bypass posit i o n when t h e pump i s t u r n e d o f f , and i t moves t o t h e r a d i a t o r - f l o w p o s i t i o n when t h e pumr is turned cn. By ground command, b o t h l o o p s were cycled on and off-t h e primary loop 1U5 times and t h e secondary loop 28 times--and then t h e f i r s t pump i n t h e primary loop was l e f t running. The v a l v e was s t i l l s t u c k b u t some improvement was s e e n , and t h e c o o i a n t began t o c o o l down. The performance was adequate f o r t h e r e s t of t l e m i s s i o n , There was, however, almost no marginal c a p a c i t y , and t h e r e a f t e r t h e r e f r i g e r a n t temperature v a r i e d s l i g h t l y w i t h changes i n t h e temperature i n t h e workshop. The mission was n o t a f f e c t e d .

SECTION 9 LABORATORY ATMOSPHERE

Skylab u s e s a n atmosphere of oxygen and n i t r o g e n , w h l l e previous manned spacec r a f t b u i l t by t h e United S t a t e s used a n atmosphere of pure oxygen. Since t h e command modules were designed f o r ap i n t e r n a l p r e s s u r e of o n l y 5 p s i g , t o t a l p r e s s u r e i n t h e S a t u r n Workshop h a b i t a b l e volume is l i m i t e d t o 5 p s i a . The p a r t i a l p r e s s u r e of oxygen d u r i n g manned p e r i o d s i s h e l d a.t 3.6 9 . 3 p s i a , c l o s e t o i t s normal sea-l.evei v a l u e of 3.1 p s i a , and t h e balance of t h e atmosphere ' ; n i t r o g e n . Means a r e provided t o p u r i f y t h e atmosphere, c o n t r c l ;-.he temperature and humidity. and c i r c u l a t e t h e g a s e s throclghout t h e l a b o - a t o r y . A d d i t i o n a l informatiol; concerning t h i s system i s contained i n r e f e r e n c e s 8 and 10. 9.1 G S SUPPLY A

The S - t u r n Workshop c o n t a i n s an atmosphere of d r y n i t r o g e n when i t i s launched. . - n t s open d u r i n g a s c e n t t o reduce t h e i n t e r n a l p r e s s u r e . A f t e r reaching q r b i t , i t i s r e p r e s s u r i z e d i n t h e c o r r e c t p r o p o r t i o n s w i t h oxygen and n i t r o L-LL s t o r e d a t ambient temperature i n e x t e r n a l high-pressure tanks. The two g a s e s a r e s u p p l i e d a u t o m a t i c a l l y t o m a i n t a i n a n atmosphere of t h e d e s i r e d composition and p r e s s u r e . F i g u r e 9-1 i s a schematic of t h e two-p3s system. Six t a x k s ( f i g . 4-1) c o n t a i n t h e oxygen supply. They a r e connected i n p a i r s t o a manifold t o a l l o w g a s t o f l o w simultaneously from a l l of t h m . A check v a l v e i n t h e d i s c h a r g e l i n e from each t a n k p r e v e n t s b a ~ k f l o w , so t h a t t h e r e w i l l be no l o s s from o t h e r t a n k s i f one l e a k s . A t launch, t h e s e tanks contained a t o t a l of 6113 pounds of oxygen a t p r e s s u r e s varying from 2978 t o 3013 p s i a and a t t m p e r a t u r e s from 67.7 t o 71.6OF. The amount used d u r i n g t h e m i s s i o n was 3437 pounds. S i n c e oxygen cannot be removed a f t e r t h e p r e s s u r e i n t h e tanks f a l l s t o 300 p s i a , 652 pounds of oxygen could n o t be used, and t h e a v a i l a b l e oxygen a t t h e end of t h e mission tias 2024 pounds. N l e a k a g e from t h e tanks or t h e i r a s s o c i a t e d plunbo ing was d e t e c t e d . Nitrogen i s s t o r e d i n s i x s p h e r i c a l t a n k s ( f i g . 4-2). These t a n k s a r e connected i n t h e same manner a s t h e oxygen tanks, except t h a t two of them a r e a l s o concected t o t h e recharging s t a t i o n f o r t h e a s t r o n a u t m i a t w e r i n g experiment. Flow from t h e s e two t a n k s can be added t o t h e common f l o w i f d e s i r e d . The t a n k s contained 1630 pounds of c i t r o g e n a t launch, with p r e s s u r e s i n i n d i v i d u a l t a n k s ranging from 2904 t o 2990 p s i a and temperatures betwecu 63.9 and 70.1°F. The amount of n i t r o g e n used d u r i n g t h e mission was 984 pounds, and t h e remaining usa b l e n i t r o g e n was estimated t o be 469 pounds. There was no d e t e c t a b l e l e a k a g e from t h e s e t a n k s o r t h e i r connections. T o t a l gas usage d u r i n g manned p e r i o d s averaged about S i .5 I b l d a y , i n c l u d i n g metabolic consumption, leakage, and dumps. Metabolic oxygen consumption was e s t l mated t o be 5.52 I b l d a y , l e a k a g e about 2.68 l b l d a y , molecular s i e v e dumps about 2 t o 2.5 lb/day, and miscelJ.aneous dumps about 1 l b l d a y .

F i g u r e 9-1.-

Gas supply system.

U n t i l s h o r t l y b d f o r e launch, t h e workshop was purged and cooled by c i r c - l a The workshop and waste t a n k were t h e n p r e s s u r i z e d w i t h t i n g gaseolis nitrogem d r y n i t r o g e n t o 23.li p s i a f o r s t r u c t u r a l s t a b i l i t y d u r i n g powered f l i g h t . Two p a r a l l . e l , pneumatically o p e r a t e d , normall). c l o s e d workshop v e n t v a l v e s were opened 205 seconds a f t e r launch. Opening ~f t h e v a l v e s was scheduled s o t h a t pres. l r e i n t h e workshop would be a t l e a s t 2 2 ksia wren maximum dynamic p r e s s u r e The a c t u a l p r e s s u r e i n t h e workshop a t t h a t time was 2 2 . 7 8 occurred (fig. 9-2). p s i a , Venting continued u n t i l t h e p r e s s u r e i n t h e workshop reached 1.13 p s i a . The s p h e r e c o n t a i n i n g high-pressure n i t r o g e n f o r o p e r a t i n g t h e s e vaSvrs and e j e c t i n g t h e launch p r o t e c t i v e c o v e r s was vented down a f t e r t h i s , s o t h a t t h e v d v e s could n o t reopen, S i n c e t h e v a l v e s were n o t t o be used a g a i n , t h e f i r s t crew capped than. Contincous v e n t t n g of t h e w a s t e t a n k i s r e q u i r e d i n o r b i t t o m a i n t a i n t h e p r e s s u r c '>elow t h e t r ~ p l e - p o i n t p r e s s u r e of w a t e r . The v e n t d u c t s a r e diametr i c a l l y opposed i n o r d e r t o c a n c e l any t h r u s t produced by t h e e f f l u e n t . Ventrng s t a r t s In o r b i t approximately 1 0 minutes a f t o r launch, when p n e u m a t i c a l l y opera t e d c a p e a t t h e ends of two v e n t d u c t s a r e r e l e a s e d . By 40 minutes a f t e r launch, t h e p r e s s u r e had decreased t o 0.02 p s i a . Except f o r a few s h o r t p e r i o d s when unu s u a l l y l a r g e quantities had been drunyed i n t o t h e w a s t e t a n k , t h e p r e s s u r e t h e r e

Figure 9-2.- Workshop depressurization during launch. remained below the triple-point pressure throughout the mission. sure is s e d to transfer fluids from the water system, washcloth processor, and condensat c svstem to the waste tank (fig. 9-31. ' remve any coolant leakage in t 2 refrigeration-pump enclosure. Thi.s low pressqueezer, waste It also serves tc To eliminate the

!

Y d S t r tank

Figure 9-3.- Vacuum systems.

p r o p u l s i v e e f f e c t s of t h e overboard v e n t , a l i n e f o r e v a c u a t i n g t h e l c v e r body n e g a t i v e p r e s s u r e d e v i c e was a l s o c o n n e c t e d i n t o t h e w a s t e t a n k by t h e crew. l b o motor-operated, 4 - i n c ? ~v a l v e s , connected in s e r i e s to e n s u r e t h a t v e n t i n g could be stopped, vent t h e docking a d a p t e r d u r i n g launch. A t launch, t h e s e v a l v e s were open, s o t h a t p r e s s u r e i n s i d e t h e d o c k i n g a d a p t e r and a i r l o c k would n o t exceed ambient p r e s s u r e enough t o c a u s e s t r u c t u r s l damage. Both v a l v e s c l o s e d on command 288 s e c o n d s a f t e r i a u n c h . They were n o t used a g a i n , and t h e f i r s t crew capped them. Four s e t s of s o l e n o i d - o p e r a t e d v a l v o s may be o p e r a t e d onboard o r from t h e ground t o p r e s s u l i z e t h z l a b o r a t o r y w i t h oxygen, n i t r o g e n , o r a m i x t u r e o f t h e two. E i t h e r t h e e n t i r e h a b i t a b l e volume i s p r e s s u r i z e d a t t h e same t i m e o r t h e workshop and tile r e m a i n d e r o f t h e h a b i t a b l e volume &re p r e s s u r i z e d s e p a r a t e l y . A f t e r v e n t i n g of t h e h a b i t ~ b l evolume was c o m p l e t e , t h e v e n t v a l v e s were c l o s e d , and t h e S a t u r n Workshop r e p r e s s u r i z e d . The h i g h t e m p e r a t u r e i n t h e workshop i n troduced t h e p o s s i b i l i t y t h a t t o x i c substances, p a r t i c u l a r l y toluene d i i s o c y a n a t e from t h e p o l y u r z t h a n e i n s u l a t i o n , might Ee p r e s e n t . h n y s u c h c o n t a m i n a n t s were purged from t h e h a b i t a b l e volume by a l t e r n a t e l y p r e s s u r i z i n g and v e n t i n g . There a r e f o u r s o l e n o i d - o p e r a t e d v e n t v a l v e s i n t h e workshop t o a l l I..? v e n t i n g i n prepa r a t i o n f o r t h e unmanned p e r i o d s . These were used t o venc 'ihe h a b i t a b l e volume d u r i n g e a c h c y c l e o f v e n t i n g and r e p r e s s u r i z a t i o n . S i n c e t h e h a t c h l e a d i n s , t o t h e workshop w a s c l o s e d , g a s flowed from t h e r e s t o f t h e h a b i t a b l e volume i n t o t h e workshop t!lrough t h e check v a l v e s i n t h e h a t c h . F i v e c y c l e s were completed, e n d i n g w i t h f i n a l p r e s s u r i z a t i o n b e f o r e t h e f i r s t crew a r r i v e d . F i g u r e 9-4 shows t h e v e n t r e p r e s s u r i z a t i o n h i s t o r y f o r t h e f i r s t ?O d a y s cf t h e m i s s i o n . The t i n e r e q u i r d f o r d e p r e s s u r i z a t i o n increased w i t h each c y c l e because of d e b r i s coll e c t i n g on t h e s c r e e n s o v e r t h e v e n t q o r t s . A f t e r t h e f i n a l d e p r e s s u r i z a t i o n , twc? o f t h e f o u r v a l v e s f a i l e d t o i n d i c a t e c l o s u r e on command. The two v a l v e s which d i d n o t a p p e a r t o be c l o s e d a r e e a c h i n series w i t h a v a l v e which d i d c l o s e . T h e p r e s s u r e s t a b i l i z e d , and t h e v a l v e s l a t e r o p e r a t e + n o r m a l l y d u r i n g t r o u b l e s h o o t i n g and when used t o v e n t t h e l a b o r a t o r y a f t e r t h e crews l e f t . The v e n t p r e s s u r t z a t i o n p r o f i l e f o r t h e remainder of t h e m i s s i o n w a s similar t o t h e f i r s t manned and second unmanned p e r i o d s , e x c e p t t h a t d u r i n g t h e t h i r d unmanned p e r i o d , t h e h a b i t a b l e volume was r e p r e s s u r i z e d t o p r o v i d e c o o l i n g a i r f o r t h e s u p p l e m e n t a r y r a t e g y r o package. The p r e s s u r i z a t i o n s y s t e m o p e r a t e d s a t i s f a c t o r i l y e a c h t i m e i t was used.

Saturn Workshop mission day
F i g u r e 9-4.Vent r e p r e s s u r i z a t i o n h i s t o r y .

A f t e r p r e s s u r i z a t i o n , t h e atmosphere is c o n t r o l l e d automatically. Both gases a r e supplied a t regulated pressure. Gas flows from t h e s t o r a g e tanks t o a regulat o r assembly c o n s i s t i n g of p a r a l l e l p r e s s u r e r e g u l a t o r s , a f i l t e r , r e l i e f v a l v e s , check valves, and shutoff valves. Each p r e s s u r e r e g u l a t o r d e l i v e r s a minimum flow Except f o r t h e n i t r o g e n t h a t flows d i r e c t l y from t h e s t o r a g e tanks of 22.8 lb!hr. t o t h e recharging s t a t i o n f o r t h e maneuvering u n i t s , t h e p r e s s u r e r e g u l a t o r s supply a l l oxygen and nitrogen. One r e g u l a t o r assembly s u p p l i e s oxygen a t 120 f10 psig. Oxygen flows from t h e r e e l a t o r through a h e a t exchanger i n which i t i s heated by t h e c o o l a n t i n t h e l a b o r a t o r y cooling system. Oxygen l e a v e s t h e h e a t exchanger a t a temperature between 40 and 65OF and is suppligd from t h i s p o i n t f o r t h r ?e uses: r e p r e s s u r i z ing t h e h a b i t a b l e vclume before a crew a r r i v e s , automatic replenishment of t h e atmosphere during manned periods, and supplying space s u i t s . Flov from t h e s e r e g u l a t o r s w a s adequate, and t h e r e g u l a t e d p r e s s u r e r m i n e d above i t s lower l i m i t f o r t h e whole mission. T ~ o t h e r r e g u l a t o r assembly s u p p l i e s n i t r o g e n a t 150 f13 psig. Nitrogen a t P t h i s p r e s s u r e is used t o r e p l e n i s h t k e atmosphere, r e p r e s s u r i z e t h e h a b i t a b l e volume, and o p e r a t e c o n t r o l v a l v e s i n t h e molecular s i e v e assemblies. i t a l s o goes t o equipment f o r experiments. Some n i t r o g e n a t t h i s p r e s s u r e flows t o c t h e r press u r e r e g u l a t o r s . One of t h e s e d e l i v e r s n i t r o g e n a t 35 p s i a t o p r e s s u r i z e wacpr tanks, and t h e o t h e r s u p p l i e s n i t r o g e n a t 5 p s i a f o r p r e s s u r i z i n g water r e s e r v o i r s of a u x i l i a r y cooling systems. Flow from t h i s p r e s s u r e r e g u l a t o r assembly was adequate f o r a l l uses, but decreasing o u t l e t p r e s s u r e caused concern u n t i l a correct i v e procedure was round. During t h e f i r s t manned p ~ r i o dt h e o u t l e t p r e s s u r e gradually decreased from 160 t o 140 p s i a . Then vhen t h e Saturn Workshop w a s dea c t i v a t e d and flow through t h e p r e s s m e r e g u l a t o r e discontinued, t h e d i s c h a r g e p r e s s u r e increased t o 175 p s i a . The p r e s s u r e a t t h e s t a r t of t h e s e c m d manned period was 158 p s i a , but i t decreased t o 141 p s i a a f t e r about 27 days. Since stopping flow had r e s t o r e d p r e s s u r e a t t h e end of t h e f i r s t manned period, one pressure-regulating valve was shut o f f f c r 5 days. Then t h i s *ralve was opened, and t h e o t h e r was closed. The d i s c h a r g e Dressure inmediately incraased from 140 t o 155.5 psia. A l t e r n a t i n g use of t h e s r e s s u r e - r e g u l a t i n g v a l v e s continued through t h e second manned period. The d i s c h a r g e p r e s s u r e s t i l l decreased, but more slowly, during t h e t h i r d manned period. One pressure-regulating v a l v e was used con~:inuouslyf a r t h e !.st 6 2 days of t h i s period, and t h e d i s c h a r g e p r e s s u r e held steady a t 150 psis f o r t h e l a s t 34 i l y s . Attempts t o reproauce t h i s on t h e grcund d i d not succeed, and t h e d s c r e a s i n g p r e s s c r e has not been explained. Sormally during manned p e r i o d s t h e atmosphere's p r e s s u r e and composition art? c o n t r o l l e d automatically. Sensors continuously monitor both t o t a l p r e s s u r e and p a r t i a l p r e s s u r e of oxygen i n t h e atmosphere. Makeup gas is supplied through a 5.0 20.2 p s i a r e g u l a t o r t o ccmpensate f o r leakage and metabolic consumption of oxygen by creumen. Whether oxygen o r n i t r o g e n is added t o t h e atmosphere depends upon t h e p a r t i a l pressure of oxygen d e t e c t e d by a s e n s o r , A normally closed valve i n t h e n i t r o g e n supply l i n e i s opened by t h e c o n t r o l l e r t o maintain t h e oxygen p a r t i a l p r e s s u r e w i t h i n t h e 3.6 f0.3 p s i a range. Check v a l v e s i n t h e oxygen supply l i n e c l o s e when tLe v a l v e i n t h e n i t r o g e n l i n e opens, s i n c e t h e n i trogen i s a t higher p r e s s u r e than oxygen. Therefore, o c l y n i t r o g e n flows when t h e valve i s open, and only oxygen flows when t h e valve is closed. Since power i s required t o open t n i s valve, a l o s s of power o r o t h e r f a i l u r e a f f e c t i n g t h i s valvz would not s ~ u o f f t h e oxygen. t - h e n they were under automatic c o n t r o l , both t h e t o t a l p r e s s u r e and t h e p a r t i a l pressure oi oxygen ( f i g . 9-5) stayed w i t h i n t h e i r s p e c i f i e d ranges.

Saturn Workshop r i s s i o n day

Figure 9-5.-

P a r t i a l p r e s s u r e of oxygen during manned periods.

Thcre were, however, times d u r i n g t h e mission when a u t a t i c c o n t r o l could n o t be used. lhtring such o p e r a t i o n s a s e x t r a v e h i c u l a r a c t i v i t i e s and e ~ z r i m e n t s i t h w che a s t r o n a u t maneuvering u n i t s , p r e s s u r e and composition deviatad s l i g h t l y from t h e i r s p e c i f i e d values.
9.2

ATMOSPHERE PURIFICATION

Gas f l o w s c o n t ~ r t u o u s l gthrough two molecular s i e v e assemblies ( f i g . 9-6)
Se1ec:w v j l v e (desort, p,%i t,on\ Vacum jacket w,- , tw! nrt a

/

canister

l f e l t exchanger Overboard

Figure 9-6.

-

Molecular sieve.

t o remove water vapor, carbon dioxide, and odor-causing m a t e r i a l s from Skylab's atmosphere. Each assembly ( f i g . 9-7) c o n s i s t s of two compressors, two condensing

molecular s i e v e a s s e m b l i e s p a s s e s through a n a d s o r b e n t c a n i s t e r . Two a d s o r b e n t c a n i s t e r s a r e used a l t e r n a t e l y ; w h i l e g a s i s flowing through one, t h e o t h e r i s v t n t e d t o space t o remove adsorbed g a s e s . Each c a n i s t e r p a s s e s from one operat i n g mode t o t h e o t h e r every 1 5 minutes. A three-way v a l v e connected t o each flow. One p o s i t i o n of t h e v a l v e a l l o w s g a s t o flow through canister directs t i i ~ t h e adsorbent c a n i s t e r , a second p o s i t i o n s t o p s g a s flow dnd v e n t s t h e c a n i s t e r t u space, and t h e t h i r d p o s i t i o n s h u t s o f f a l l flow i n t o and o u t of tile c a n i s t e r . High-pressure n i t r o g e n from t h e r e g u l a t e d supply a c t u a t e s t h e v a l v e , a s commanded by a c y c l e timer. Each c a n i s t e r ( f i g . 9-12) c o n t a i n s two s e p a r a t e a d s o r b e n t beds. The s y n t h e t i c z e o l i t e f o r removing carbon d i o x i d e a l s o h a s an a f f i n i t y f o r o t h e r p o l a r compcunds, p a r t i c u l a r l y water. Although t h e g a s l e a v i n g t h e co1:densing h e a t exchanger h a s a low dewpoint, i t s t i l l c o n t a i n s enough water vapor t o r e duce g r e a t l y t h e c a p a b i l i t y of t h e a d s o r b e n t t o remove carbon d i o x i d e . Theref o r e t h e f i r s t s e c t i o n of t h e c a n i s t e r c o n t a i n s a t y p e of s y n t h e t i c z e o l i t e which p r e f e r e n t i a l l y a d s o r b s water. Drying t h e g a s e n s u r e s t h a t carbon d i o x i d e i s removed e f f i c i e n t l y i n t h e second s e c t i o n . T e s t s c o n d u c ~ e dd u r i n g development showed t h a t t h e a d s o r b e n t s were a l s o e f f e c t i v e i n removing a v a r i e t y of o r g a n i c and i n o r g a n i c compounds from t h e g s s stream, i n c l u d i n g t h e c o o l a n t used iil t h e l a b o r a t o r y . The c o o l a n t and some o t h e r compounds i n t h i s group a r e p o t e n t i a l contaminants of t h e S a t u r n Workshop's atmosphere, s o c a p a b i l i t y t o remove them was a n advantage.

Adsorb mode

St'sdr.b imde

F i g u r e 9-12.-

Adsorbent c a n i s t e r .

Kemoving water i n t h e adsorbent c a n i s t e r h e l p s t o c o n t r o l humidity i n t h e L a b i t a b l e volume. Dewpoints were g e n e r a l l y maintained w i t h i n t h e s p e c i f i e d range of 46 t o 60°F. I n i t i a l l y , t h e l a b o r a t o r y contained almost no water vapor, s i n c e i t had been purged with dry n i t r o g e n the S a t u r n Worltshop was launched. High temperatures i n t h e workshop and purging w i t h n i t r o g e n b e f o r e t h e f i r s t crew a r rived could have d r i e d o u t hygroscopic m a t e r i a l s s o completely t h a t i t would have taken e x c e s s i v e time f o r t h e dewpoint t o r i s e t o t h e minimum v a l u e of 46"F, Howe v e r , t h e dewpoint reached 46'F a f t e r o n l y 7 hours. The workshop was still. h a t , worked t h e r e helped t o and a high r a t e of water evaparatioii by tile crew a s :!:ey i n c r e a s e the humidity. L a t e r , dewpoints below 4 6 O F occurred s e v e r h l t i n e s . During e x t r i l v e h i c u l a r a c t i v i t i e s , when only one crewman was i n t h e l a b o r a t o r y , t h e dewpoint d e c r e a s e d , but r e t u r n e d t o normal s h o r t l y a f t e r t h e a c t i v i t y ended.

rhe dewpoint a l s o f e l l below 46OF a s a r e s u l t of t h e v a l v e problem i n t h e l a b o r a t o r y c o o l i n g system, r e s u l t i n g i n crew comments t h a t t h e humidity was t o o low. There were s e v e r a l times while a crewnan was u s i n g t h e shower t h a t t h e dewpoint r o s e b r i e f l y . It reached 5 7 O F d u r i n g use of t h e shower on Day 251, high enough f o r condensation t o take p l a c e i n t h e c a b i n h e a t exchangers. a A l t e r n a t i n g between a d s o r p t i o n and desorptiori m a i n t a i n s ~ i l e d s o r b e n t s ' e f f e c t i v e n e s s , but d e s o r p t i o n a t ambient temperature does n o t e n s u r e complctc r e moval of water and carbon d i o x i d e . Complete r e g e n e r a t i o n of t h e a d s o r b e n t s req u i r e s bake-out of t h e c a n i s t e r . T h i s i s accomplished by v e n t i n g one c a n i s t e r a t a t i m e t o space, while a n e l e c t r i c h e a t e r m a i n t a i n s i t s temperature a t 400°F f c r approximately 5 hours. Experience showed t h a t r e g e n e r a t i n g t h e a d s o r b e n t s was n o t needed a s f r e q u e n t l y a s had been expected. I t had been planned t o execucs t h i s procedure a t che beginning of each manned period and t o r e p e a t i t a f t e r 2 8 days d u r i n g t h e second and t h i r d manned p e r i o d s . Each crew, i n t h e c o u r s e of act i v a t i n g t h e Saturn Workshop, c a r r i e d o u t t h e procedure f o r r e g e n e r a t i n g adsorbe n t s . The second crew r e p e a t e d t h e procedure a f t e r 24 days o f o p e r a t i o n , fcllowi n g a n i n c r e a s e i n c o n c e n t r a t i o n of carbon d i o x i d e i n t h e h a b i t a b l e volume. Subs e q u e n t l y , t h e c o n c e n t r a t i o n was lower. I t s t a y e d l o v throughout t h e t h i r d manned p e r i o d , and r e g e n e r a t i n g t h e a d s o r b e n t s was n o t n e c e s s a r y . The c o n c e n t r a t i o n of carbon d i o x i d e i n t h e S a t u r n korkshop remained a t a s a t i s f a c t o r i l y l o v l e v e l d u r i n g t h e mission. P r e f l i g h t a n a l y s e s based on m e t a b o l i c r a t e s and a d s o r p t i o n e f f i c i e n c i e s gave a n e s t i m a t e d v a l u e of 5 m-Hg f o r t h e p a r t i a l p r e s s u r e of carbon d i o x i d e d u r i n g t h e manned p e r i o d s . A c t u a l v a l u e s d u r i n g t h e f i r s t manned p e r i o d were v e r y c l o s e t o t h i s . The p a r t i a l p r e s s u r e was somewhat h i g h e r dur!.ng t h e secIt returned t o t h e ond manned perfod, w i t h a d a i l y a v e r a g e of about 5.5 mm-Hg. lower v a l u e s of t h e f i r s t manned period d u r i n g t h e t h i r d raanned period. To remove o d o r i f e r o u s compounds such a s b u t y r i c a c i d , hydrogen s u l f i d e , and i n d o l e , p a r t of t h e g a s flowing through each molecdlar s i e v e assembly p a s s e s through a c a n i s t e r c o n t a i n i n g a c t i v a t e d coconut c h a r c o a l . The c h a r c o a l cannot be r e g e n e r a t s d , s o s p a r e c a n i s t e r s were provided. The crews r e p l a c e d b o t h charc o a l c a n i s t e r s a t t h e same time. The ~ e n t i l a t l ~ n i t i n t h e w a s t e management u conpartment a l s o c o n t a i n s a c h a r c o a l c a n i s t e r . The f i r s t crew r e p l a c e d t h e cani s t e r s on Day 39. The second crew changed c a n i s t e r s on Day 114, when t h e cani s t e r s had been i n u s e f o r about 39 days, and a g a i n on Day 134. The t h i r d crew changed t h e c a n i s t e r s , which had been i n u s e f o r about 45 d a y s , on Day 231. A n a l y s i s of c h a r c o a l samples from t h e r e t u r n e d c a n i s t e r s d i s c l o s e d a v a r i e t y of adsorbed compounds. Methanol, e t h a n o l , i s o p r o p a n o l , and a c e t o n e were t h e major d e t e c t a b l e compounds o t h e r than w a t e r . C a n i s t e r s removed d u r i n g t h e second manned period showed t r a c e s of c o o l a n t . Comments made by t h e crews p r c v i d e t h e o n l y means of a s s e s s i n g t h e s u p p r e s s i o n of o d o r s i n t h e S a t u r n Workshop. These comments were q u i t e f a v o r a b l e : "No problems when we e n t e r e d [ t h e l a b c r a t o r y ] , we were q u i t e p l e a s a n t l y s u r p r i s e d Waste management compartment odor removal was o u t s t a n d i n g . . ..Odors j u s t d i d not p e r s i s t . .

....

...;

.."

9.3

VENTILATING AND CONDITIOIiING

The atmosphere i n t h e l a b o r a t o r y c i r c u l a t e s c o n t i r ~ u o u s l y t o e n s u r e uniform temperatures and t o prevent l o c a l c o n c e n t r a t i o n s of carbon d i o x i d e o r water vapor. The c i r c u l a t i o n system i n c l u d e s p r o v i s i o n s f o r h e a t i n g o r c o o l i n g t h e g a s Flow from <he molecular s i e v e t o m a i n t a i n comfortable temperatures ( f i g . 9-13). systems can be d i r e c t e d t o e i c h e r t h e workshop o r t h e docking a d a p t e r o r t o both. Cool g a s from f o u r workshop h e a t exchangers is mixed with t h i s flow and a d d i t i o n a l

f l o w from t h e s t r u c t u r a l t r a n s i t i o n s e c t i o n and r o u t e d t o a mixing chamber i n t h e workshop forward dome.
Condensate hedt exchanger uni tr

01stributiun

pdrtment charcoal

cdnlster a l d fan

F i g u r e 9-13.-

Skylab v e n t i l a t i o n syscem.

Three d u c t s c a r r y t h i s g a s and a d d i t i o n a l gas from t h e forward compartment t o Fixed dticts c a r r y g a s cooled by h e a t exchangers i n t h e a i r l o c k t o t h e docking a d a p t e r . A f l e x i b l e d u c t and f a n c i r c u l a t e gas t o t h e command module. The d u c t r'lat c a r r i e s g a s t o t h e workshcp mixing chamber p a s s e s through t h e hatchway i n t h e workshop's forward dome. Bef o r e t h e S a t u r n Workshop was launched, t h e h a t c h was c l o s e d and t h e d u c t stowed. The f i r s t crew i n s t a l l e d t h i s d u c t a f t e r opening t h e h a t c h l e a d i n g i n t o t h e xorkshop. The d u c t had t o be removed and r e p l a c e d t o c l o s e t h e h a t c h f o r each e x t r a v e h i c u l a r a c t i v i t y . The d u c t l e a d i n g t o t h e command module p a s s e s through t h e docking p o r t , and each crew had t o p u t i t i n p l a c e w h i l e a c t i v a t i n g t h e S a t u r n Workshop and remove i t b e f o r e undocking Gas e n t e r s t h e workshop through a d j u s t a b l e d i f f u s e r s i n t h e f Loor of t h e crew q u a r t e r s . None of t h e crews changed t h e s e t t i n g s of tilc d i f f u s e r s from t h e wide-open p o s i t i o n t h e y had a t launch. Outl e t s i n t h e s l e e p compartments a r e a l s o a d j u s t a b l e , and t h e crewmen s e t them f o r comfort. A i r d i s t r i b u t i o n and v e l o c i t y a t crew s t a t i o n s i n t h e docking a d a p t e r could a l s o b e c o n t r o l l e d by a d j u s t a b l e d i f f u s e r s and c a b i n f a n s .
a plenum beneath t h e f l o o r of t h e crew q u a r t e r s .

C i r c u l a t i o n i s provided by 27 i d e n t i c a l f a n s . There i s a c l u s t e r o f f o u r f a n s i n each of t h e t h r e e d u c t s l e a d i n g t o t h e plenum i n t h e workshop. Two f a n s c o n t r o l l o c a l v e l o c i t i e s i n t h e docking a d a p t e r , and one f a n d e l i v e r s g a s from t h e docking a d e p t e r t o t h e command module w h i l e a crew is aboard. Seven f a n s o p e r a t e i n c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h c a b i n h e a t exchangers t o s u p p l y cooled g a s ; t h e s e f a n s , f o u r supplying t h e workshop and t h r e e supplying t h e docking a d a p t e r , opera t e a s r e q u i r e d . Another f a n draws gas f r o r t h e waste management compartment and d i s c h a r g e s i t t o t h e workshop through a c h a r c o a l f i l t e r t o c o n t r o l odor. 4 f a n i n t h e d i s c h a r g e d u c t from t h e molecuiar s i e v e a s s e m b l i e s d i r e c t s g a s t o t h e mixing chamber. The ~ e m a i n i n gt h r e e f a n s a r e p a r t of p o r t a b l e fdr' a s s e m b l i e s t h a t a l s o i n c l u d e s c r e e n s and n o i s e - s u p p r e s s i n g m u f f l e r s . These f a n s were des i g n e d f o r an e a r l i e r program which r e q u i r e oilly a s h o r t o p e r a t i n g l i f e t i m e . A 1 1 t h r e e crews used a p o r t a b l e f a n some of t h e time t o i n c r e a s e gas flow t o the h e a t exchangers t h a t supply c o o l gas t o t h e workshop. The f i r s t crew used a p o r t a b l e f a n t o provide more c i r c u l a t i o n i n t h e workshop. k p o r t a b l e f a n was sometimes used t o cool a crewman o p e r a t i n g t h e ergometer, and one was u s e d t o

h e a t e r s t u r n o f f . The h e a t e r s were n e v e r used d u r i n g t h e m i s s i o n , s i n c e t h e l o s s of t h e meteoroid s h i e l d i n c r e a s e d t h e r a t e o f s o l a r h e a t i n g o f t h e workshop. During t h e i n i t i a l unmanned p e r i o d , when h i g h t e n l p e r a t u r e s i n t h e workshop were of extreme c o n c e r n , c o o l e d g a s c o u l d n o t b e s u p p l i e d t o t h e workshop because t h e h a t c h i n t h e workshop's forward dome was c l o s e d and t h e c o o l i n g s y s t e m r e q u i r e d crew a c t i v a t i o n . Only when t h e f i r s t crew opened t h e h a t c h l e a d i n g i n t o t h e workshop and i n s t a l l e d t h e d u c t l e a d i n g t o t h e mixing chamber was t h e r e any c o o l i n g a v a i l a b l e i n t h e workshop. The h e a t e x c h a n g e r s were n o t t u r n e d on a s soon as t h e crew e n t e r e d t h e workshop, however, because of t h e l i m i t e d power a v a i l a b l e a t t h a t t i m e . F i r s t , t h e crewmen d e p l o y ~ dt h e p a r a s o l t h e r m a l s h i e l d t o reduce t h e r a t e a t which h e a t e n t e r e d t h e workshop. 'hen, Skylab was maneuv e r e d t o t h e s o l a r - i n e r t i a l a t t i t u d e . With power t h e n a v a i l a h l ? , t h e f a n s f o r 1 a l l f o u r h e a t e x c h a n g e r s were t u r n e d on. These e v e n t s took p l a c e on ~ 3 y 4 , and t e m p e r a t u r e i n t h e workshop immediately d e c r e a s e d ( f i g . 8-4). A l l f c u r heatexchanger f a n s c o n t i n u e d t o rl:.l f o r t h e r e s t o f t h e f i r s t manned p e r i o d , e x c e p t when t h e y were t u r n e d o f f duri,.ig e x t r a v e h i c u l a r a c t i v i t y . O p e r a t i o n of t h e f a n s d u r i n g unmanned p e r i o d s , when p r z s s u r e i n t h e l a b o r a t o r y was low, was n o t p l a n n e d . During t h e second manned p e r i o d , t h e t e m p e r a t u r e c o n t r o l u n i t m a i n t a i n e d t h e t h e r m a l c o n t r o l s y s t e m i n t h e f u l l c o o l i n g mode ( f o u r h e a t exchanger f a n s ) u n t i l Day 118. A t t h i s t i m e a l l tieat exchanger f a n s were t u r n e d o f f wt.en t h e temperat u r e was 69.2OF, which was 1.4OF below t h e s e t p o i n t . The c o n t r o l s y s t e m i a t e r t u r n e d on t h e h e a t exchanger f a n s one by one a s t h e t e m p e r a t u r e i n c r e a s e d , acc o r d i n g t o t h e c o n t r o l system l o g i c . An a n a l y s i s of t h e f l i g h t d a t a i n d i c a t e d t h a t che u n i t ?erformed i t s f u n c t i o n s c o r r e c t l y w i t h i n 0.6OF o f t h e d e s i g n r e quirements. During t h e t h i r d manned p e r i o d , t h e c o n t r o l u n i t a a i n t a i n e d t h e f u l l c o o l i n g mode u n t i l Day 199. A t t h a t ~ i m e , t h e t e m p e r a t u r e was 71°F. The crew changed t h e s e l e c t t e m p e r a t u r e t o 73.3OF and a l l h e a t exchanger f a n s were t u r n e d o f f . On Day 207, when t h e t e m p e r a t u r e had r e a c h e d 75"F, t h e crew changed t h e s e l e c t temp e r a t u r e t o 71.1°F and a l l h e a t e x c h a n g e r s were t u r n e d back o n . All. h e s t exchanger f a n s c o n t i n u e d t o r u n t h e rest o f t:re m i s s i o n e x c e p t when turnec! o f f f u r t h e e x t r a v e h i c u l a r a c t i v i t y p e r i o d s . The a u t o m a t i c c o n t r o l u n i t was d e a c t i v a t e d on Day 248 t o a i d i n r e d u c i n ~t h e i n t e r n a l h e a t g e l & e r a t i o n i n t h e workshcp. A f t e r t h e workshop, t h e d o c k i n g a d a p t e r i s t h e s c e n e o f t h e g r e a t e s t amount crew a c t i v i t y . Three f a n s i n t h e s t r u c t u r a l t r a n s i t i o n s e c t i o n s u p p l y c o o l e d ,as through t h r e e h e a t e x c h a n g e r s . Fixed d u c t s c a r r y t h e c o o l e d g a s t o t h e docki n g a d a p t e r , and g a s can a l s o f l o w i n t o i t from t h e m o l e c u l a r s i e v e a s s e m b l i e s . There i s no d i r e c t c o n t r o l of t e m p e r a t u r e i n t h e a i r l o c k and s t r u c t u r e 1 t r a n s i t i o n s e c t i o n , b u t r e t u r n flow from t h e workshop and doc.king a d a p t e r p r e v e n t s temperat u r e s i n t h e s e r e g i o n s frcm d i f f e r i a g g r e a t l y from t h o s e e l s e w h e r e .
.,.-

The c r e w ' s comments on v e n t i l a t i o n were f a v o r a b l e : "The v e n t i l a t i o n and a t V e n t i l a t i o n was g r e a t . Fans d o n ' t make much m ~ s p h e r i cc o o l i n g were good noise." There was some r e d u c t i o n i n f l o w r a t e t h a t was a t t r i b u t e d t o dus' i n t h e When t h e dews c r e e n s . T h i s was improved by more f r e q u e n t vacuuming ( 1 0 . 1 . 7 ) . p o i n t reached 5 7 O F on Day 250, c o n d e n s a t i o n i n t h e h e a t e x c h a n g e r s d e c r e a s e d g a s f l o w r a t e s . Flow r e t u r n e d t o normal on Day 252 when t h e c o n d e n s a t i o n was removed w i t h t h e vacuum c l e a n e r .

....

9.4 9.4.1

ANOMALIES

Molecular Sieve I n v e r t e r

A compressor i n one m o l e c u l a r s i e v e assembly f a i l e d t o s t a r t d u r i n g a c t i v a t i o n a t t h e b e g i n n i n g of t h e t h i r d manned peri.od oil Day 187. The t r o u b l e was t r a c e d t o t h e i n v e r t e r s u p p l y i n g power t o t h e compressor. The o t h e r compressor i n t h e same assembly s t a r t e d , and i t was used f o r t h e t h i r d manlted p e r i o d . No r e a s o n f o r t h e f a i l u r e was a s c e r t a i n e d . A c a b l e w a s c a r r i e d by t h e t h i r d crew which would have allowed o p e r a t i o n o f t h e c o q w e s s o r from an i n v e r t e r i n t h e o t h e r assembly, b u t i t was n o t neeced.

9.4.2

Water Ccndensate System

During t h e f i r s t manned p e r i o d , t h e p r e s s u r e i n t h e c o n d e n s a t e system, a s measured i n t h e smaller t a n k , was 3.2 t o 4.5 p s i less t h a n t h a t i n t h e . l a b o r a t o r y , b u t when t h e l a r g e r t a n k was disconnected, t h e p r e s s u r e d i f f e r e c c e d e c r e a s e d more r a p i d l y t h a n e x p e c t e d . S i n c e t h e l e a k caused t h e p r e s s u r e d i f f e r e n c e t o d e c r e a s e r a p i d l y when t h e l a r g e r t a n k w a s d i s c o n n e c t e d , t h e l e a k a p p e a r e d t o be somewhere on t h e g a s s i d e of t h e small-er t a n k . A s p a r e was a v a i l a b l e , and t h i s t a n k c o u l d have been r e p l a c e d . D i s c o n n e c t i n g t h e o t h e r t a n k was, however, req11i.red o n l y i n f r e q u e n t l y and f o r s h o r t t i n e s , s o makirig t h e r e p l a c e m e n t d i d n o t s e 2 w a r r a n t e d . An a d d i t i o n a l problem o c c u r r e d d u r i n g t h e second manned p e r i o d . The p r e s s u r e d i f f e r e n c e was i n i t i a l l y 4 . 2 p s i , and t h i s h e l ? u n t i l . w a s t e w a t e r was t r a n s The p r e s s u r e d i f f e r t n c e t h e n s t a r t e d t o def e r r e d from t h e command nodule. c r e a s e . The crew t r i e d u n s u c c e s ~ f u l l yt o l o c a t e t h e l e a k and s t o p i t . Ti:. r a p i d r i s e i n p r e s s u r e made i t n e c e s s a r y t o dump c o n d e n s a t e n e a r l y very day. F i n a l l y , t h e l e a k a g e s t o p p e d when a quick-disconriect f i t t i n g was uncoupled from t h e s ~ a l . l e r t a n k on Day 112; a f t e r t h i s , no l e a k a g e was o b s e r v e d f o r t h e r e s t o f t h i s p e r i o d . There was a p p a r e n ~ . l yn 3 l e a k a g e d u r i n g t h e c h i r d unllianned p e r i c 1, d u r i n g which time a p r e s s u r e d i f f e r e n c e of 2.9 p s i was m a i n t a i n e d . Performance was sati s f a c t o r y u n t i l Day 266, d u r i n g t h e t h i r d manned p e r i o d , when a q u i c k - d i s c o n n e c t f i t t i n g was d i s c o n n e z t e d . Tne p r e s s 8 l r e d i f f e r e n c e d e c r e a s e d t o z e r o i n about 1 5 minutes. S e a l a l ~ ta p p l i e d t o t h e f i t t i n g f a i l e d t o r e d u c e t h e r a t e o f l e a k a g e . The crew t h e n p u t a cap o v e r t h e f i t t i n g , and no more l e a k a g e was o b s e r v e d .

SECTION 10
CREW SYSTEMS

Crew s y s t e m , as used h e r e , i n c l u d e s t h e equipment provided f o r l i v i n g z.d w r k i n g i n t h e Saturn Workshop and t i e man-machine i n t e r f a c e wirh o t h e r systems. The d e s i g n of some systems, s ~ c h s t h o s e f o r e x t r a v e h i c u l a r a c t i v i t y s u p p o r t , a drew l a r g e l y on p r e v i o u s space f l 5 g h t experience. Other systems, p a r t i c u l a r l y t h o s e f o r t h e body f u n c t i o c s of e a t i n g , s l e e p i n g , and human waste d i s p o s a l , were based on s e v e r a l new concepts. Some c f :he more c o m m f u n c t i o n s such as s t o u a g e r e q u i r e d a d a p t a t i o n of p r e c i o u s concepts t o a new and l a r g e r environment. The s p a c i o u s n e s s of t h e S a t u r n Workshop p e r m i t t e d development and testing o f new m o b i l i t y concepts and work o r i e n t a t i m a r r a n g e n e n t s . Planned i n f l i g h t maintenance was i n t r o d u c e d because of t h e mission d u r a t i o n . Hovever, r e r a i r s :a e q u i p ment f a r b e y o ~ dt h o s e envisioned p r i o r t o t h e m i s s i c ! ~were acconpj i s h e d . The equipment and s u b s y s t e n s d e s c r i b e d and e v a l u a t e 6 i n t h i s s e c c i o n i n c l u d e t h e mechanical a d e l e c t r i c a l components t h a t a r e an i n t e g r a l p d r t of t h e subsysterns. I n t e r f a c e s with o t h e r systems s m h as experiments and environmental cont r ~ a r e e v a l u a t e d only w i t h r e s p e c t tc t h e h m a n f a c t o r s involved. E-.valuation l of crew-related f u n c t i o n s and eqaipment developed by o r under t h e cognizance of rhe Johnson Space Ceilter a r e n o t r e p o r t e d h e r e , although they a r e n e n t i o n e d when necessary b e c a ~ s eof an i n t e r f a c e wi+n o t h e r a c t i v i t i e s . A d d i t i o n a l i n f o r m a t i o n on t h e s e can be found i n r e f e r e n c e s 1 5 through 17. Nore d e t a i l e d d i s c u s s i o n of crew systems is c o n t a i n e d i n r e f e r e n c e s 8 , 1 0 , and 11. 10.1 HABITABILITY PROVISIOXS

The s i z e of t h e Szturn Workshop made p o s s i b l e by t h e payload c a p a b i l i t y of t h e Saturn V eaabled. t h e crew t o be provid2d wirh h a b i r a b i l i t y systems and eciuipment t h a t z r e more s o p h i s t i c a t e d than any p r e v i o u s l y Frobided i n a s p a c e c r a f t . Ihe crew's q u a r t e r s a r e c o m p a r t m e n ~ a l i z e df o r t h e v a r i o u s fui?crions o f e a t i n g , s l e e p i n g , body waste e l i m i n a t i o n , a ~ d experiment o p e r a t i o n . Althoxgh "up" and "down" a r e a r b i t r a r y i n space, t h e workshop was d e s i g n e a with a " v i s u a l g r a v i t y v e c t o r . " One s u r f a c e is d e s i g n a t e d t h e f l o o r , m d a l l o p e r a t i o n s and l a b e l i n g a r e planned around t h i s r e f e r e n c e s u r f a c e . Some deviat i o n s from t h i s concep: were r e q u i r e d a s t h e d e s i g n p r o g r e s s e d ; f o r e x a ~ i ~ p l e , t h e s l e e p r s s t r a i n t s a r e suspended v e r t i c a l t o t h e f l o o r , and t h e f e c a l ,soll e c t o r r e q u i r e s t h a t t h e crewman s i t on t h e w a l l . The g r a v i t y v e c t o r orinnEdt i o i l was not followed i n t h e docking a d a p t e r and a i r l o c k because of space and l a y o u t c o n s i d e r a t i o n s . Some of t h e ~ q u i p m e n t il t h e s e is r a d i a l l y o r i e n t e d and some is l m g i t u d i n a l l y 3r i e n t e d . 10.1.1 Crew S t a t i o n s

The t e n x "crew s t a t i o n " is ~ s e d a d e s c r i b e t h o s e ? r e a s where a crewman t spends c o n s i d e r a b l e time performing t a s k s . The work s p a c e , l a y o u t , arm-reach

envelopes, h a b i t a b i l i t y , and c o m p a t i b i l i t y of t h e s t a t i o n s i n s i d e t h e S a t u r n Ncrkshop ( f i g . 13-1) a r e considered. The e x t e r n a l work s t a t i o n s used d u r i n g e x t r a v e h i c t ~ l a ra c t i v i t i e s a r e d i s c u s s e d m 10.5.

Figure 10-1.-

Crew s t a t i o n l o c a t i o n s .

The equipment i n t h e workshop i s arranged on compartment w a l l s , f l o o r s , and c e i l i n g s , as w e l l a s about t h e c y l i n d r i c a l walls. This i s p o s s i b l e because of t h e comparrment d i v i s i o n s an t h e crew q u a r t e r s l e v e l and two open g r i d f l o o r s which d i v i d e t h e c y l i n d r i c a l volume. T h i s c o n f i g u r a t i o n p r o v i d e s wrd of a one-gravity o r i e n t a t i o n w i t h f l o o r t o c e i l i n g e f f e c t s . The equipment i n t h e docking a d a p t e r and a i r l o c k i s arranged about t h e s u r f a c e s of t h e c y l i n d r i c a l walls. A somewhat d i s s o c i a t e d arrangement of equipment r e s u l t e d from t h e growth i n t h e number of experiments and c o n t l n u a l a d d i t i o n s of stowage i t e m s d u r i n g development. The performance of t h e Skylab crews proved t h a t man can f u n c t i o n e f f e c t i v e l y i n a c y l i n d r i c a l module such a s t h e docking a d a p t e r . The crewmen took l o n g e r , however, t o adapt t o working i n t h i s l a y o u t than i n t h e f l o o r t o c e i l i n g l a y o u t of t h e wxkshop. Each of t h e crews expressed an o r i e n t a t i o n problem when t r a n s l a t i n g i n t o t h e docking a d a p t e r u n t i l they found a f a m i l i a r p i e c e of experiment hardware. I t a l s o took t h e crewmen l o n g e r t o l o c a t e a p a r t i c u l a r stowage c o n t a i n e r i n t h e docking a d a p t e r than i n t h e workshop. This s u g g e s t s t h a t i t would he more e f f i c i e n t t o l a y o u t experiment and stowhge hardware i n a g r a v i t y o r i e n t a t i o n eve.! in s m a l l c y l i n d r i c a l volumes. Stowage c o n t a i n e r s could be grouped along one a x i s o r r a d i a l l y i n a p a r t i c u l a r l o c a t i o n . E a r t h Observation Control and Display.-. Located i n t h e forward end of t h e docking a d a p t e r , t h i s s t a t i o n c o n s i s t s of a c o n t r o l and d i s p l a y p a n e l , t h e experimeilt camera a r r a y and stowagc c o n t a i n e r , a s p e a k e r intercom assembly, and a f o c t r e s t r a i n t . The f o o t r e s t r a i n t s e r v e s both t h e c o n t r o l and d i s p l a y p a n e l and t h e m a t e r i a l s p r o c e s s i n g f a c i l i t y s t a t i o n . The crew expressed s a t i s f a c t i o n with t h i s stat i o n .

E a r t h Observation Viewfinder Tracking.This SL ion i s i n t h e forward end of t h e d o c k i n g a d a p t e r and l n c l u d e s t h e v i e w f i n d e r t r a c k i n g system, i t s a s s o c i a t e d c o n t r o l i d d i s p l a y p a n e l , and a c l i p b o a r d on a n experiment c a b l e cover. N f o o t r e s t r a i n t is provided, b u t t h e r e a r e handholds on t h e p a n e l f o r crew o p o s i t i c , l i n g and o p e r a t i o u . The intercom a t t h e m a t e r i a l s p r o c e s s i n g f a c i l i t y s t a t l o n is ~ ! r a r s dw i t h t h e v i e w f i n d e r t r a c k i n g s t a t i o n . The crewman may a l s o use t h e E a r t h o b s e r v a t i o n c o n t r o l and d i s p l a y pan21 and intercom from t h i s s t a t i o n . The l a c k of a f o o t r e s t r a i n t ,t t h e v i e w f i n d e r t r a c k i n g system was t h e most s i g n i f i c a n t drzwback of t h e s t a t i o n . I t was found h i g h l y d e s i r a b l e t o have a f o o t r e s t r a i n t f o r long d u r a t i o n work o r a t s t a t i o n s which r e q u i r e d t h e operat i o n of c o n c r o l s and h a n d l i n g of c h a r t s and c h e c k l i s t s . The o n l y o t h e r p r o b l e a was t h a t t h e c l i p b o a r d mounting p r o v i s i o n s unsnapped s e v e r a l t i m e s d u r i n g use. T h i s s t a t i o n is l o c a t e d toward t h e forward end of M a t e r i a l s Processing.t h e docking a d a p t e r and c o n s i s t s of t h e experiment f a c i l i t y , an intercom, a f o o t r e s t r a i n t ,-and cor!.trols f o r v e n t i n g t h e experiment chamber- The f o o t r e s t r a i n t is t h e same u n i t provided f o r t h e E a r t h o b s e r v a t i o n c o n t r o l and d i s p l a y p a n e l , but r e p o s i t i o n e d f o r t h i s experiment. The w a l l mounting o f t h e e x p e r i n e n t and t h e placement of t h e f o o t r e s t r a i n t p r o v i d e t h e crewman w i t h a c c e s s t o a l l o f t h e experiment equipment, t h e intercom, and t h e two experiment chamber v e n t v a l v e handles. The r e s u l t a n t p o s i t i o n f o r t h e crewman is a compromise between a standup a t t i t u d e and a p o s i t i o n & e r e i n he l e a n s s l i g h t l y forward t o o p e r a t e t h e f a c i l i t y . Operation of t h e i a c i l i t y was as planned, and no major problems were r e ~ o r t e d . Unplanned stowage of a p r e s s u r e s u i t n e a r t h e c r e w w n ' s head appeared t o cause a minor infringement o f t h e working space. This i s a t t h e a f t end o f t h e docking a d a p t e r S o l a r Observatory Console.and c o n s i s t s of a c o n t r o l and d i s p l a y c o n s o l e , a f o o t r e s t r a i n t , a c h a i r , and an intercom ( f i g . 10-2). The c o n s o l e w a s o r i g i n a l l y designed f a r u s e by s e a t e d i n t h e Apollo l u n a r nodule, and t h e b a s i c s i z e and shape o f t h e c o n s o l e crewmen d i d n o t chafige wh2n i n c o r p o r a t e d i n t o Skylab. The c h a i r can be mounted t o t h e foot r e s t r a i n t i f desired. The crew comments were g e n e r a l l y f a v o r a b l e , e x c e p t t h a t t h e crewman opera t i n g t h e console i n t e r f e r e d w i t h n t h e r crewmen t r a n s l a t i n g througn t h e l a b o r a t o r y o r working i n t h e a r e a . T h i s was an annoyance, s i n c e t h e c o n s o l e was occup i e d a good p a r t of t h e time. Crewmen could n o t r e a d t h e i r c h e c k l i s t s by t h e c o n s o l e i n t e g r a l p a n e l l i g h t i n g a l o n e . When t h e docking a d a p t e r f l o o d l i g h t s were turned on, t h e edge l i g h t i n g e f f e c t d i s a p p e a r e a but t h e p a n e l markings could s t i l l be e a s i l y read. Some crewmen p r e f e r r e d u s i n g t h e c h a i r , and some p r e f e r r e d t h e f o o t r e s t r a i n t . Those who used t h e f o o t res:raint a l o n e found e v e r y t h i n g w i t h i n e a s y reach. Use of t h e c h a i r r e s t r i c t e d freedom of motion and reach.

This s t a t i o n , i n t h e forward p a r t o f t h e S t r u c t u r a l T r a n s i t i o n Section.a i r l o c k , c o n s i s t s of t h e c o n t r o l and d i s p l a y p a n e l s , hardware stowage c o u t a i n e r s , f o u r viewing windows, h a n d r a i l s , and h a n d r a i l l i g h t s . I t i r a r r a n g e d i n f o u r equipment groups t o a l l o w space f o r a c c e s s t o t h e windows and f o r maintenance of t h e equipment. The s p a c e i s l a r g e enough f o r a crewman w i t h cameras, sext a n t s , o r o t h e r o p t i c a l viewing d e v i c e s , y e t smsll enough t h a t s u f f i c i e n t body r e s t r a i n t can be o b t a i n e d f o r performing two-handed t a s k s by b r a c i n g between a d j a c e n t equipment s u r f a c e s . H a n d r a i l s and h a n d r a i l l i g h t s a r e i n s t a l l e d a t s t r a t e g i c l o c a t i o n s as a n a i d d u r i n g t r a n s l a t i o n and f o r p r o t e c t i o n of equipment. A n c i l l a r y equipment, l o c a t e d i n t h e a d j a c e n t a i r l o c k forward compartment,

cospartment v e n t i l a t i o n fan, food f r e e z e r s , t h e r e f r i g e r a t i o n pump u n i t , ventil a t i o n d u c t s , fans and a mixing chamber, b i o c i d e monitoring equipment, two scient i f i c a i r l o c k s , miscellaneous l o c k e r s and stowage provisions, t h e f i l m v a u l t and photographic equipment, t h e l a r g e volume r i n g l o c k e r s , and t h e l a r g e food c o n t a i n e r s . Also stowed and operated in t h e compartment a r e t h e hardware items a s s o c i a t e d with the various s c i e n t i f i c , t e c h n i c a l , and medical experiments. A v a r i e t y of r e s t r a i n t s and :ranslation devices a r e prcvided f o r crew n o b i l i t y and s t a b i l i t y during o p e r a t i o n s . The open f l o o r g r i d on t h e f l o o r s of t h e workshop compartments provided f o r creMlan f o o t r e s t r a i n t s , a t t a c h p o i n t s f o r temporary tethering, handholds, and comnunications between compartments. The mst s i g n i f i c z n t f a c t about t h e forward c o r n p a r t e n t cyew s t a t i o n was t h a t t h e l a r g e volume d i d n o t present any d i f f i c u l t y t o t h e crewmen in transl a t i o n o r mobility. Space f o r t h e performance and e v a l u a t i o n of t h e f l y i n g experiments was more than adequate. The 250-pound food boxes were e a s i l y relocated by one crewman from t h e i r floor-mounted launch p o s i t i o n t o t h e i r o r b i t a l stowage l o c a t i o n . The rcixing chanLer screen provided a work t a b l e t o handle small items, using t h e r e t a i n i n g f o r c e of t h e a i r f l o w . Wardroom.- This is a wedge-shaped compartment on t h e crew q u a r t e r s l e v e l ( f i g . 10-4). F a c i l i t i e s include a g a l l e y , food f r e e z e r and c h i l l e r , food t a b l e , viewing window, experiment equipment, crew entertainment c e n t e r , ar.d stowage compartments f o r f l i g h t d a t a , c l o t h i n g , and o t h e r s u p p l i e s . A c u r t a i n is provided t o c l o s e t h e entrance. The wardroom proved t o be a n a t u r a l p l a c e f o r t h e crew t o congregate and r e l a x , in a d d i t i o n t o being t h e c a t e r f o r food p r e p a r a t i o n and e a t i n g . The general s i z e and arrangement of t h e wardroom, with t h e c e n t r a l t a b l e , p r ~ v e d s a t i s f a c t o r y . There were some problems with a c c e s s t o t h e food stowage provis i o n s , and i n c o m p a t i b i l i t y with t h e t r i a n g l e shoes and light-duty f o o t r e s t r a i n t s at t h e wardroom t a b l e . The wardroom t a b l e was used a s a p l a c e t o make t h e many f l i g h t d a t a changes throughout t h e mission, but was n o t s u i t a b l e f o r t h i s t a s k ( f i g . 10-5). A desk, o r s i m i l a r f e c i l i t y , was recommended f o r w r i t i n g r e p o r t s , incorpo-ating t e l e p r i n t e r messages i n t o c h e c k l i s t s , and performing o t h e r paperwork t a s k s . Normally used o f f i c e s u p p l i e s should a l s o be a v a i l a b l e . The wardroom window, with i t s changing kaleidoscope of t h e Earth, was an important a s p e c t in maintaining morale, as looking o u t with b i n o c u l a r s was t h e most r e l a x i n g and enjoyable off-duty a c t i v i t y . The winbow a l s o was used f o r hand-held photography of numerous Earth f e a t u r e s . ?'be l o c a t i o n and o r i e n t a t i o n of t h e window proved adequate f o r most o p e r a t i o n s , but a d e s i r e f o r l a r g e r and more windows was expressed. Waste Management.- This s t a t i o n is a compact rectangular-shaped room loeat e d on t h e crew q u a r t e r s l e v e l ( f i g u r e 10-6). The compartment i n c l u d e s a u r i n e and f e c a l c o l l e c t i o n module; a s i n k with a water d i s p e n s e r and washcloth squeezer; stowage l o c k e r s f o r washcloths, towels, wipes, and t i s s u e s ; waste processors; a u r i n e f r e e z e r ; f e c a l d r y e r ; towel and washcloth drying p r o v i s i o n s ; and necess a r y waste management s u p p l i e s . A f o l d i n g mztal door i s i n s t a l l e d a t t h e entrance

.

The compartment was acceptable i n s i z e and layout f o r o p e r a t i o n by only one crewman a t a time. Privacy would have been d e s i r a b l e between waste management and personal hygiene iunctions. S p i l l s and h ~ u s e k e e p i n gt a s k s a n t i c i p a t e d before t h e mission had r e s u l t e d i n a design u s i n g s o l i d f l o o r s and c e i l i n g s , and t h e

The remainder of t h e crew q u a r t e r s l e v e l i s t h e Experiment CoinpartmenL.expe. iment compartment, which i s s e m i c i r c u l a r in shape. The t r a s h a i r l o c k , a l a r g e amount of medical experimsnt e q u i p n e n t , t h e showsr, and t h e workshop e l e c t r i c a l c o n t r o l p a n e l s a r e l o c a t e d i n t h e c o m p ~ r t m e n t . Entry t o t h e o t h ? r Figure 10-8 crew q u a r t e r s compartments i s from t h e experiment compartment. shows t h e g e n e r a l arrangement of t h e comptrtment.
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Layout and arrangements were adeq u a t e and t h e v e r t i c a l o r i e n t a t i o n made experiment o p e r a t i o n s s e e n more l i k e t h o s e p r a c t i c e d d u r i n g t r a i n i n g . Equipment was crowded i n t h e shower a r e a because i t was added l a t e i n t h e program. The n o i s e of t h e m e t a b o l i c a c t i v i t y e r gometer hindered communication and could be heard on t h e i n t e r c o m s and t a p e r e cordings

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Figure 10-8.Experiment cornpartment arrangement.

.

Plenum Area.This is an i r r e g u l a r s5aped space ( f i g . 10-1) under t h e crew q u a r t e r s f l o o r between t h e o u t e r s h e l l and t h e s a s t e tank common bulkhead. I t i s used f o r permanent stowage o f biologi c a l l y i n a c t i v e t r a s h . Access t o t h e a r e a and t o i n d i v i d u a l stowage bags was s a t i s f a c t o l y and t h e r e was no problem t r a n s l a t i n g through t h e confined space. 10.1.2 Water System

The S a t u r n Workshop w a t e r syscem i n c l u d e s t h e n e c e s s a r y equipnent f o r t h e s t o r a g e , m i c r o b i o l o g i c a l c o n t r o l , d i s t r i b u t i o n , and d i s p e n s i n g of p o t a b l e w a t e r . P o t a b l e water i s used f o r d r i n k i n g , food and beverage r e c o n s t i t u t i o n , crew hygiene, housekeeping, and f l u s h i n g of t h e u r i n e s e p a r a t o r s . Water is a l s o provided f o r s e r v i c i n g t h e e x t r a v e h i c u l a r a c t i v i t y s u i t support e q u i p r x n t , t h e f i r e hose, and c e r t a i n a n c i l l a r y experiment equipment. Figure 10-9 shows t h e arrangement of t h e water system components. 500-poundWater Storage.T h i s e q u i p ~ e n tc o n s i s t s of 10 s t a i n l e s s s t e ~ l , c a p a c i t y water t a n k s evenly spaced around t h e circumference of t h e workshop forward compartment. I n s i d e each tank i s a gas chamber, c o n s i s t i n g of a dome and a s e a l e d metal bellows. k n i t r o g e n d i s t r i b u t i o n network p r o v i d e s n r e g u l a t e d gas supply a t 35 p s i g t o t h e bellows t o maintain t h e w a t e r p r e s s u r e r e q u i r e d f o r d i s t r i b u i i o n . Each water tank can be p r o t e c t e d from f r e e z i n g d u r i n g unmanned p e r i o d s by an e l e c t r i c a l h e a t e r b l a n k e t wrapped around t h e circumference of t h e tank. A 26-pound-capacity p o r c a b l e tank i s provided f o r use a s an emergency 17ater supply i n t h e e v e n t of system f a i l u r e and f o r s t e r i l i z a t i o n o f t h e wardroom water network d u r i n g a c t i v a t i o n f o r t h e second a.nd t h i r d manned p e r i o d s . The p o r t a b l e tank i s a l s o p r e s s u r i z e d w i t h gas from t h e n i t r o g e n d i s t r i b u t i o n net.work. There was concern d u r i n g t h e f i r s t unmanned p e r i o d t h a t t h e e l e v a t e d temye r a t u r e s i n t h e workshop would c a u s e t h e water i n t h e t a n k s t o expand and damage t h e bellows. The f i r s t crew v e r i f i e d t h e i n t e g r i t y of t h e t a n k s ,ven t h w ~ g h temperatures were approximately 130°F. A f t e r t h e deployment of t h e p a r a s o l thermal s h i e l d , t h e workshop t e m p e r a ~ u r e sbegan t o drop, and t h e t a n k temper?'t u r e s became normal w i t h i n a few days. The tank h e a t e r s were not used d u r l n 3 t h e mission. A c t i v a t i o n and o p e r a t i o n of t h e n i t r o g e n d i s t r i b u t i o n network c r e a t e d no problems.

N i t r o g e n supply
\\

,, .

.

_ _-- _
.

A..,

Waste management compartment /water system
\ ~

\
C a t i o n c a r t r i d g e and r e c l r c u l a t ' u n pump Water system pressurization p a ~ e ! ilardroon w a t e r system

'

//watev

Urine flush systm Water tanks

-

Warjroom c h i l i e r , h e a t e r , dispensers

---r
Was tr management compartment h e a t e r , d i s p e n s e r s , washcloth squeezer

P o r t a b l e t a n k launch locztion Water purificationd/.' eqd ipment

11

'-- . ;-1 ,

Water dump 1 ines Waste tank

10-9.-

Workshop w a t e r s y s t e E .

Water -- P u r i f i c a t i o n . - EquipmentLs provided f o r sampling, a n a l y z i n g , and y u r i f y i n g t h z water ~ s i n g o d i n e a s a b i o c i d e . The water p u r i f i c a t i o n equipment i c o n s i s t s of water samplers, reagenr con' -iiners, i o d i n e i n j e c t o r s , i o d i n e cont a i n e r s , a c o l o r comparator, a waste si,mple c o n t a i n e r , and a c a t i o n c a r t r i d g e . Each of t h e 10 water t a n k s i s charged b e f o r e launch w i t h an i o d i n e con,- e n t r a t i o n of 12 ppm. The crew p e r i o d i c a l l y samples t h e i o d i n e l e v e l s and determines t h e amount of i o d i n e r e q u i r e d t o keep t h e l e v e l above 2 ppm. The p o r t a b l e t a n k i s przcharged w i t h i o d i n e t o p r o v i d e a c o n c e n t r a t i o n of 100 ppm when f i l l e d w i t h water. This s o l u t i o n i s i n j e c t e d i n t o t h e wardroom water d i s t r i b u t i o n system a s a b i o c i d e soak d u r i n g a c t i v a t i o n for t h e second and t h i r d manned p e r i o d s . A d e i o n i z a t i o n c a r t r i d g e , c o n t a i n i n g approximately 66 in. 3 of toll exchange r e s i n , is provided t o remove m e t a l l i c i o n s from t h e p o t a b l e w a t e r . During a c t i v a t i o n of t h e water system, t h e f i r s t crew r e p o r t e d I o d i n e conc e n t r a t i o n l e v e l s very c l o s e t o zero. A f t e r t h e i n i t i a l replenishment, t h e i o d i n e l e v e l s i n t.he t a n k s remained above t h e pred2cted d e p l e t i o n r a t e s . 3f t h e 2760 cm3 of i o d i n e s o l u t i o n prcvided, s t o t a l of 530 cm3 was i n j e c t e d i n t o t h e water syst e m d u r i n g t h e u i s s i o n . Eac'. crew r e t u r n e i w a t e r samples f o r a n a l y s i s and t h e r e s u l t s of t h e s e a n a l y s e s a r e p r e s e n t e d i n c a b l e 10-1. Water D i s t r i b u t i o n , Wardroom.- This system c o n s i s t s of a f l e x l i n e from t h e s e l e c t e d w a t e r s t o r a g e t a n k connected t o a h a r d l i n e running from t h e t a n k a r e a t o t h e wardroom t a b l e . I n t h e t a b l e , t h e l i n e branches t o a h e a t e r and c h i l l e r . The h e a t e r is connected t o a food and beverage r e c o n s t i t u t i o n d i s penser extending through t h e cop of t h e t a b l e . The c h i l l e r i s connected eo a food and beverage r e c o n s t i t u t i o n d i s p e n s e r and t h r e e i n d i v i d u a l d r i n k i n g guns. A water dump system i s provided for e v a c u a t i n g t h e f r e s h w a t e r supply l i n e s

Table 10-1. Returned Water Sample A n a l y s i s R e s u l t s

-

I
/
I

Analysis perfomtd

-

Limits

l c n i c species levels (mglml! Cabium Cnroniun (hex) Copper Imn Lead Manganese krcury Nickel Silver Zinc Iodide Selerlwn Iodine 5 ; licon 'otassiun Magnes iun Sodim Arsenic Aluninun

0.01 5.6 0.05 1 .o 0.3
0.C5

d u r i n g f i l l i n g and b i o c i d e f l u s h apera t i o n s and f o r d r a i n i n g t h e l i n e s d u r i n g d e a c t i v a t i o n . The waste w a t e r is t r a n s lhird f e r r e d t o t h e waste t a n k through a r e nanned period - p l a c e a 5 l s h e a t e d dump prc,be, which prev e n t 5 blockage due t o i c e f x m a t i o n . 0.026 F i g u r e 10-10 i s a schematic r e p r e s e n t a 40 0.035 t i o n of t h e system. 0.m5
0.26 0.05 0.03 0.O W ! 0.07 0.005

The wardroom w a t e r system equipment was used by t h e crew a s plaiined and op0.m 5.0 e r a t e d s u c c e s s f u l i y . Because of t h e 18.5 Rererence 0.01 Peference c h i l l i n g , t h e r e was no n o t i c e a b l e i o d i n e 1 .o 0.24 t a s t e i n t h e water. Usually, t h e f o u r t h 5.9 2.5 s h o t from t h e d r i n k i n g d i s p e n s e r provided 0.62 0.05 t h e c o l d e s t water. No condensation prob0.05 lems w i t h t h e c h i l l e r were noted. A s u s p e c t e d l e a k on t h e food r e c o n s t i t u t i o n Reference ~lectr~cal conduCtlbltY, d i s p e n s e r was merely blow-by which tended only micm-tolcn d t 2 5 ' C 4 to 8 pH ( a t 2') 5i t o c o l l e c t on i t e m s w i t h s m a l l r a d i i , 11 Turbidity (Neph~losunits Reference Color true, units g i v i n g t h e appearance o f being a l e a k . only The crew rec.ommended i n c r e a s i n g t h e d i s pensing volume t c 8 ounces i n s t e a d o f 6 ounces, s i n c e many of t h e beverage packs r e q u i r e d 8 ounces of water. The food r e c o n s t i t u t i o n d i s p e n s e r s were c o n s i d e r e d a n e x c e l l e n t p i e c e o f equipment." adequate, and the w a t e r d r i n k i n g guns were ' I .
0.05 0.005 0.05 0.05

..

Nitrogen suppl v

Legend
F ? e x li n e

......... ...................
-P-

Drinking water dimensers

Intercomections

F i g u r e 10-10.-

Wsrdroom water system schematic.

Water D i s t r i b u t i o n , Waste Management Compartment. - T h i s system c o n s i s t s of f l e x l i n e s a t t h e s e l e c t e d water s t o r a g e t a n k s connected t o a hard l i n e n e t work t h a t s u p p l i e s water t o t h e eomparcment w a t e r h e a t e r and u r i n e f l u s h system. The heated water i s r e l e a s e d through a d i s p e n s e r and used f o r p e r s o n a l hygiene purposes i n c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h washcloths, t o w e l s , and t h e w ~ s h c l o t hsqueezer. The u r i n e f l u s h system d i s p e n s e r i s capable ~f d i s p e n s i n , 50-milliliter i n c r e n e n t s of i o d i n e t o f l u s h t h e u r i n e s e p a r a t o r s i f m i c r o b i o l o g l c a i t e s t s i n d i c a t e a need. A water dump svstem i s a i s o provided f o r s e r v i c i n g t h e w a t e r system l i n e s , f o r dumping t h e waste wash w a t e r c o l l e c t e d i n t h e washcloth squeezer bag, and f o r dumping t h e l a b o r a t o r y atmosphere condensate tank. A schematic o f t h e waste management compartment w a t e r system i s show, i n f i g u r e 10-11.
N i t r o y n supply

Uater heater Gas pressure regulators

:

!

ivalve

-

--

-

m

i

I

I

7'
Pressure ~ransducer

\

1 60C --

Water c o n t a i n e r pounds expel l a b 1e w d t e r

\ Mashcloth squeezer
Hygiene water dispenser

t-----J
F i g u r e 10-11.

Hard 1 ine

-

-

Waste management compartment water system schematic.

Only two problems o c c u r r e d w i t h t h e w a s t e management w a t e r system. The water dump system o p e r a t e d very slowly and i n some c a s e s d i d n o t J r a i n completely d u r i n g t h e second manned p e r i o d . This was i n d i c a t i v e of p a r t i a l blockage i n t h e heated dump probe. E f f o r t s t o c l e a r t h e blockage were u n s u c c e s s f u l , and t h e probe was r e p l a c e d w i t h a s p a r e u n i t . The crew found i c e i n t h e removed probe t i p , b u t an e l e c t r i c a l c o n t i n u i t y t e s t r u l e d o u t t h e p o s s i b i l i t y of h e a t e r f a i l o -~ u r e , s o t h e c a u s e of probe f r e e z e u p i s n o t known. N d i f f i ~ u l t g a s encountered w i t h t h e new prcrbe. The h o t w a t e r d i s p e n s e r v a l v e was r e p l a c e d w i t h a s p a r e u n i t when a d e c r e a s e i n flow was noted. The water d i s p e a s i n g and c o l l e c t i o n equipment was considered well-designed. I n s t a l l a t i o n of t h e squeezer bag was no prc'slem. The watt?;- bag dump was performed approxirncitely e v e r y 3 d a y s , when t h e bag was about two-thirds f u l l . The u r i n e f l u s h system was n o t r e q u i r e d d u r i n g t h e m i s aion.

T a b l e 10-11.P r e m i s s i o n Water Taxk A l l o c a t i o n

I:Tl
1 '
1
6
8

--------\~;aye

-...-

I

10

!
Fun, t l o n

1

F i r s t wardtank, f i r s t manned p e r i o d T h l r d r a r d r m ta?k. second ndnned p e r i o d F o u r t n w a r d r m t a n k , t h i r d manned y e r l o d r i f t h uardroum tank. t h i r d ~ m n n e dp r r i o d tank. t h l r d mdnn-d p e r i o d Slxth w ~ t d r m U r l n e f l u s h , r e s e r v e . f i r e hose F l r r t waste mnagcment t a l k . f l r s t and serond m n n d perlods Second waste management tank, second a d t h l r d manned yer:ods a r d r a m o r u a s t e m u g e m e n t and Reserve f o r w extravehicular tiwi t y s u i t l r o p Second w a r d r a m tank. secund rmnned p r r l o d

I

T a b l e 10-111.

-

Water Rudget

Water Man~pemeiit - T h i s f u n c t i o n i n v o l v e s t h e a c t u a l l o a d e d and expel lablb. amounts of w a t e r , t h e a l l o c a t i o n o f w a t e r s t o r a g e t a n k s f o r s p e c i f i c f u n c t i o n s , and t h e manner i n which w a t e r i s used by t h e crew. Approximately 6580 pounds of w a t e r i s l o a d e d o n b o a r d , o f which a p p r o x i m a t e l y 5920 pounds i s e x p e l l a b l e . 'rhe premios i o n a l l o c a t i o n f o r t h e v a r i o u s Skylab w a t e r t a a k s i s shown i n t a b l e 10-11. T a b l e 10-111 shows t h e w a t e r budget p l a n n e d b e f o r e t h e m i s s i o n f o r t h e wardroom and w a s t e management compartments, a l o n g w i t h o t h e r Skylab s y s t e m r e q u i r e men t s .

--

.

There were no problems a s s o c i a t e d w i t h w a t e r management d u r i n g t h e m i s s i o n . f l e t d b o l l r tanks Comdnd nndulr teeurn The crewmen used a t o t a l o f 3990 pounds xetabol i c U d i d r o a , systen b l e e d of water ( l e s s than a l l o t t e d ) , slthough (?n( o f m m e d p r r l ~ d l Wdrdrcon sy5tem t h e y drew 60 pounds o f w a t e r fzdm t a n k m i r o b 1 0 l ~ ! l l ~ dflu'h ! !>tar: u f r r a n n ~ dp e r i o a number 7 t h r o u g h t h e w a t e r h e a t e r in;a l o d i c e sampling t h e wastr3 t a n k i n a n a t t e m p t t o t l ~ a w t h e w a s t e management compartment w a t e r dump Warte nanagement compartmnt tan) p r o b e . The o n l y w a t e r used from t a n k Systen bleed (end ,f rdnncd ii€r.;,d! number 9 was f o r ; e r v i c i n g t h e l i f e s u p p o r t tl",sekeeplng Persondl hyglerr. u m b i l i c a l s before e x t r a v e h i c u l a r a c t i v i Sioher t i e s . F i g u r e 10-12 shows t h e w a t e r used I o d i n e sdmpl l n u d u r i n g t h e m i s s i o n and t h e amounts remain-i n g . I n d i v i d u a l d r i n k i n g w a t e r consumption l l r l n e Sepdrat(lr taf8r Urlne f l u s h was r e c o r d e d d a i l y , and t h e amount used by Urine sppardtor bleed L i f e support u n b l l l c a l e a c h crewman i s p r e s e n t e d i n f i g u r e 10-13. rr.,erv?cinq Solar o b s r r v d t o r y L i q u i d s were a v a i l a b l e , however, from o c h e r console rechdrqe Condensing heat exsources such a s s o f t drinks, s o t h a t f i g u r e Changers r e s e r v l c r n q M479 ext1ngu;shing 10-13 d o e s n o t r e p r e s e n t t h e t o t a l f l u i d I o d l n e san4r6ing i n t a k e . T h i s and d i f f e r e n c e s among i n d i v i d u h l s could a c c o u n t f o r +.he c o n s i d e r a b l e d i f f e r e n c e s s h w n i n t h e w a t e r consumption o f t h e crewmen. The S a t u r n ;Jorkshop s y s t a n o t water s t o r a g e , p r e s s u r i z a t i o n , t r a n s f e r , and g e n e r a l mariagement was c o m p l c t e l y s a t i s f a c t o r y , and i s f e a s i b l e f o r a w a t e r system whe;e weight i s n o t a c r i t i c a l problem.
5

13.1.3

Waste Sysrem

The waste s y s t e m s a m p l e s , p r o c e s s e s , aad s t o r e s a l l crew m e t a b o l i c v a s t e s , i n c l u d i n g f e c e s , u r i n e , and vomitus. I t p r o v i d e s a means f o r t h e crew t o p e r f o r m f e c a l 2nd u r i n e e l i m i n a t i o n s , t o sample and p r e s e r v e t h e m a t e r i a l f o r b i o m e d i c a l a n a l y s i s upon r e t u r n , and t o d i s p o s e of t h e r e m a i n d e r , The s y s t e m c o n s i s t s o f a f e - a l - u r i n e c o l l e c t o r , c o l l e c t ~ o nand sample b a g s , s a m p l i n g e q u i p m e r ~ t , o d o r cont r o l f i l t e r s , a b l o w e r , and o t h e r c e c e s s a r y s u p p l i e s . The components a r e l o c a t e d i n t h e workshop w a s t e management compartment ( f i g . 10-14) A functional

.

,dflk
lisagt.

1
2

1

F i r s t manr,ed p e r i o d wardroom S e c o n d - t h ~ r d manned p e r i o d . wardroom Th!rd n~anned ~ ~ r i o d , wardroom T h i r d manned c e r l n d , wdr.droow T h i r d manned p e r i o d , WdrdrOm Contingency-fire nose First-secund mdnned p e r i o d , waste m a n q m e n t cmpdrtnlent

.

-

1

40

60

80

700

!2U

140

160

180

200

220

240

260

263

Saturn Workshop n l c s i u n days

F i g u r e 10-12.-

Water usage.

F i g u r e 10-13.-

I n d i v i d u a l d r i n k i n g w a t e r consumption.

Th;? f e c a l - u r i n e col.lecschematic of t h e waste system i s shown i n f i g u r e 10-15. t o r ( f i g . 10-16) p r o v i d e s f o r t h e c o l l e c t i o n of both f e c e s and u r i n e , u s i n g a i r flow as a s u b s t i t u t e f o r g r a v i t y t c s e p a r a t e t h e waste m a t e r i a l from t h e body. U r i n a t i o n may be performed i n a s t a n d i n g o r s e a t e d p o s i t i o n , and u r i n a t i o n and d e f e c a t i o n may be performed s i m u l t a n e o u s l y w h i l e s e a t e d .

Figure 30-14.-

Waste s y s t r ~ l components.

Figure 10-15.-

Waste syste,.. schematic.

Fecal C o l l e c t i o n . Equipment f o r f e c a l c o l l e c t i o n i s d e s i g n e d t o c o l l e c t a l l c o n s i s t e n c i e s o f f e c z l matter and t o remove o d o r s through a r e p l a c e a b l e Z i l t e r . The hinged s e a t provide; a c c e s s t o t h e mesh l i n e r t o p e r n i t i r ? s t a l l a of t i o ~ a f t c a l bag. The s e a t i s contour2d a22 c o n t a i n s a i r f l o w h o l e s t o a l l o w cabin a' t o be drawn i n t o t h e 1-liter c a p a c i t y f e c a l bag. A i r i s exhausted through t h e b a g ' s vapor p o r t , throngh t h e mesh l i n e r , i n t o t h e f e c a l c o l l e c t i o n through the t i l t e r b e f o r e r e c i r c u l a t i o n back i n t o t h e r e c e p t a b l e , and t ? ~ e n cabin by t h e blower. A d d i t i o n a l backup o r contingency f e c a l bags a r e provided f o r c o l l e c t i o n of f e c a l m a t t e r i f t h e c o l l e c t i o n f a c i l i t y cannot be u s e d , and f o r t h e c o l l e c t i o n of vomitus. The crew u s e s t h e f e c a l c o l l e e t ~ o nsystem by p o s i t i o n i n g themselves on t h e f e c a l c o l l e c t o r ' s contoured s e a t , much i,. t h e same manner a s i n an Earth environment. To compensate f o r t h e z e r o - g r a v i t y

/Airflow holes / Rubber cuff

_

Hinge seat

Fecal
h g

Hes h 1 iner
vim

Fecal collection rxeptable

Fxal -- collector exploded

Urine drawer exploded vim

F i g u r e 10-16.

- ~ e c a l - u ~ i ccec l l e c t i o c

hardware.

environment, a l a p r e s t r a i n t b e l t , h a n d h o l d s , and f o o t w e l l r e s t r a i n t s Lrr prov i d e d s o t h e crewman may m a i n t a i n a s u f f i c i e n t l y t i g h t seal o n t h e s e a t . A i r f l o w from ~i blower s e p a r a t e s t h e f e c a l n a t t e r from t h e body and r e t a i n s i t i n t h e f e c a l c o l l e c t ' m bag. The bag i s t h e n s e a l e d f o r w a s t e p r o c e s s i n g . A s e p a r a t e f e c a l bag is used f o r e a c h d e f e c a t i o n . A a r t i c u l a r i n g m i r r o r i s pron v i d e d as a c l e a n q a i d f o r t h e c r e m n , The crew used t h e f e c a l c o l l e c t o ~a s t h e p r i m a r y mode of c o l l e c t i o n d u r i n g t h e m i s s i o n . The f e c a l c c l l e c t i o ~eqnipment worked s u c c e s s f v l l y and t h e crew e x p r e s s e d g e n e r a l s a t i s f a c t i c n . The geometry o f t h e f e c a i c o l l e c t o r was s a t i s f a c t o r y , e x c e p t t h a t t h e crew d i d n o t l i k e t h e s e v e r e c r o u c h e d p o s i t i o n r e q u i r e d t o m a i n t a i n a good seal w i t h t h e c o l l e c t o r s e a t . The airfJ-ow s y s t e m of c o l l e c t i c g f e c e s was G good c o n c e p t and worked exc e p t i o n a l l y w e l l ; however, i t was f e l t t h a t h i g h e r a i r f l o w would p r o v i d e even b e t t e r r e s u l t s . The crew recommended t h a t f o r l o n g e r m i s s i o n s , t h e s e a t b e f a b r i c a t e d from a s o f t e r m a t e r i a l and t h e o u t s i d e d i a m e t e r widened, making i t e a s i e r t o o b t a i n a good a i r f l o w s e a l . The hand g l i p s were a l w a y s u s e d t o prov i d e t h e p u l l i n g f o r c e n e c e s s a r y t o a t t a i n a p r o p e r seal. The a i r f l o w d i d n o t become u n c o m f o r t a b l e and b o l u s s e p a r a t i o n was o b t a i n e d i n most c a s e s . There was an a v e r a g e o f one f e c a l c o l l e c t i o n e v e r y 2 d a y s p e r crewman. C o n t r o ! ~ and wipes s-ere r e a d i l y a c c e s s i b l e and rr1lerc.l were no d i f f i c u l t i e s i n wiping. A p p r o x i ~ n a t e l y

two wipes were used f o r each d e f e c a t i o n and p l a c c 2 ~ L tI h e f e c a l bag. A wet washcloth w a s used i u r f i n a l c l e a n i n g and d i s p o s e d of Fn t h e u r i n e d i s p 3 s a l bag. The c r x i n d i c a t e d t h a t t h e a r t i c u l a t i n g q i r r o r was n e c e s s a r y and always used. The c o l l e c t o r s e a t d i d n o t become d i r t y , and odor c o n t r o l was s a t i s f a c tory. The f e c a l bags s u s t a i n e d no damage d a r i n g nse. Minor d i f f i c u l t i e s were encountered w h i l e i n s t a l l i n g t h e bag's inrter c u f f s i n t h e f e c a l r e c e p t a c l e , and s e v e r a l o f t h e b l a c k rubber a u t e r c u f f s came l o o s e froiz f e c a l bags. These bags were d i s c a r d e d . Bag s e a l i n g was always done w i t h t h e blower r u n n i n g , and although no s e a l s l e a k e d , t h e crew commented s e v e r a l t i m e s on t h e "unforgiving" s t i c k y adhesive used. The time r e q u i r e d f o r bag s e a l i n g , mass measuring, and processor l o a d i n g was n o t coxsidered e x c e s s i v e . One crewman rzcommended l o n g e r bags. Fecal c o l l e c t i o n u s i n g t h e contingency f e c a l bags w a s accomplished on seve r a l occasions. A s i n t h e Apollo m i s s i o n s , c l e a n a p a f t e r u s i n g t h e paste-on contingency f e c a l bsg r e q u i r e d e x c e s s i v e wiping. It normally took t h e crew app o x i m a t e l y 1 hour t o perform t h e conticgency f e c a l c o l l e c t i o n . Although no r e c o m e n d a t i o m were made, i t w a s c l e a r t h a t t h e crew w a s n o t s a t i s f i e d w i t h t h e contingency f e c a l bag. S i n c e i t w a s used i n f r e q u e n t l y and t h e r e i s no obvious s u b s t i t u t e , t h e y could o n l y convey t h e i r d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n . The ccntingency f e c a l bag was a l s o s a t i s f a c t o r i l y used t o c o l l e c t vamitus. A smdl amount of vomitus around t h e opening was removed w i t h t i s s u e and t h e bag s e a l e d . A sununary of expendable f e c a l c o l l e c t i o n equipment used d u r i n g t h e m i s s i o n i s shown i n t a b l e 10- I V . Table 10-1V.Fecal and Urine C o l l e c t i o n Expendable Items Usage Sunmary

Waste Processor.- Drying o f crew f e c e s and vomit bags, p r e s s u r e s u i t desi c c a n t s , and f i l m v a u l t d e s i c c a n t s i s done i n t h e waste p r o c e s s o r . The s i x independ m t chainbers ( f i g . 10-14) use mechanical p r e s s u r e , an e l e c t r i c a l h e a t i n g e l r m e n t , and t h e waste tank vacuum t o e v a p o r a t e t h e w a t e r and d r y t h e m a t e r i a l , t h u s p r e v m t i n g b a c t e r i a l growth. Each s e a l e d f e c a l bag i c p l a c e d i n one of t h e top l o u r chambers a f t e r t h e mass is determined on a sprcimen mass measurement d e v i ~ z . Drying time is determined f r o n a c h a r t on t h e mass measurement d e v i c e , which c o r r e l a t e s mass o f t h e specimen w i t h t h e r e q u i r e d d r y i n g t i a e . I n t h e event t h e mass cannot be determined, a p r o c e s s i n g time o f 20 hours f o r normal specimens (C t o 200 grams) is used. m e n t h e chamber i s opened t o t h e waste tall> vacuun,, g a s e s escape from tile f e c a l bag through a v e n t p o r t i n t h e bag. Although t h e system i s designed t o reduce d r y i n g time by h e a t i n g a t approximately 1 0 S O ~ f, e c e s may be processed without h e a t by simply e x t e n d i n g t h e d r y i n g time. Overdrying does n o t compromise t h e biomedical a n a l y s i s . The d r i e d f e c a l bags a r e s t o r e d in bundles f o r r e t u r n and do not r e q u i r e r e f r i g e r a t i o n . The lower two chambers i n t h e p r o c e s s o r a r e r e s e r v e d f o r d r y i n g t h e p r e s s u r e s u i t and film vault desiccants.

o The waste processor p e r f x m e d a s d e s i g n e l . N problems were el countered i n i n s e r t i o n o r removal of t h e f e c a l bags. Drying time g e n e r a l l y ranged from 26 t o 48 hours; a few bags were Left in t h e processor a s long a s 4 days. The a pressure readings were always l e s s than 0.2 ~ s i during processing, and :he samples were acceptable f o r biomedical a n a l y s i s . Each suit-drying d e s i c c a n t required approximately 1 3 hours drying t i m e . The processor chamber f a i l e d t o evacuate on two occasions while drying a s u i t d e s i c c a n t . The crew d e t e m i n e d t h a t t h e t h i c h e s s of t h e d e s i c c a n t held t h e f i l t e r s a v e r valve i n a closed p o s i t i o n over t h e vacuum p o r t . These two d e s i c c a n t s were replaced and no furt h e r problems were encountered. S h c e t h e r e was no r o t e d d i f f e r e n c e between f e c a l specimens d r i e d with o r without h e a t , t h e e l e c t r i c a l h e a t i n g system was probably unnecessary. Urine Collection_.- Two w d e s of o p e r a t i o n a r e used f o r u r i n e c o l l e c t i o n i n t h e l a b o r a t o r y . The f i r s t uses airfloiq a s a g r a v i t y s u b s t i t u t e t o draw u r i n e through a r e c e i v e r and hose i n t o a u r i n e c o l l e c t i o n bag. The second mode incormethod of c o l l e c t i o n , using t h e u r i n e bag d i r e c t l y , withp o r a t e s a roll-on c ~ f f o u t a i r f l o w . Urine i s a l s o c o l l e c t e d during pressure-suited o p e r a t i o n s by t h e A ~ o l l o - t y p e u r i n e c o l l e c t i o n and t r a n s f e r assembly. Each crewman i s provided a u r i n e c o l l e c t i o n system contained i n one of t h r e e dr.awers mounted i n t h e f e c a i u r i n e c o l l e c t o r ( f i g . 10-16 and 10-11). The crewman u r i n a t e s i n t o an inlet cone which is connected by a r e c e i v e r hose t o a c e n t r i f u g a l u r i n e - a i r s e p a r a t o r . The u r i n e i s c a r r i e d i n t o t h e u r i n e s e p a r a t o r by a i r f l o w from t h e same blower used f c f e c a l c o l l e c t i o n . Tho motor-driven u r i n e s e p a r a t o r c o l l e c t s u r i n e and ~ cabin a i r , and the spinning a c t i o n of t h e vanes p r o p e l s t h e u r i n e t o t h e per i p h e r y of t h e s e p a r a t o r through c e n t r i f u g a l x c t i o n ( f i g . 10-18j. The cabin a i r exhausts through a r e p l a c e a b l e hydrophobic f i l t e r i n t h e c e n t e r of t h e s - 2 a r a t o r t o t h e fecal-urine c o l l e c t o r f i l t e r and blower. The u r i n e p a s s e s through a p e r i p h e r a l pickup tube and o u t l e t l i n e i n t o t h e u r i n e bag, where i t i s temporari l y s t o r e d . The accumulation of u r i n e is r e f r i g e r a t e d by a cold p l a t e type c h i l l e r which keeps t h e u r i n e a t approximately 60°F. A h e a t s i n k p l a t e , mounted on t h e top and bottom of t h e s e p a r a t o r housing, c o n t a c t s t h e u r i n e c h i l l e r t o cool t h e s e p a r a t o r b e f o r e u r i n e c o l l e c t i o n . C h i l l i n g a l s o prevents t h e s e p a r a t o r from i n c r e a s i n g t h e tempersture of t h e s t o r e d u r i n e d u r i n g t h e s e p a r a t i o n process. A s e p a r a t o r and * s e p a r a t o r f i l t e r a r e provided f o r each crewman. They a r e ins t a l l e d during a c t i v a t i o n and removed a t d e a c r i v a t i o n f o r each manned period. The u r i n e cuff method of c o l l e c t i o n is used a s a backup mode i f t h e s e p a r a t o r and blover a r e not a v a i l a b l e . The cuff a d a p t s t o a u r i n e bag ( f i g . 10-18) and u r i n a t i o n i s accomplished d i r e c t l y i n t o t h e c u f f ' s f l e x i b l e boot. Each u r i n e coll e c t i o n bag has a c a p a c i t y of 4 l i t e r s and i s changed every 24 hours. A t the end of t h i s d a i l y c y c l e , t h e u r h e volume of each crewmr is measured, a sample is e x t r a c t e d , and a replacement bag is i n s t a l l e d i n each u r i n e drawer. The volume of t h e u r i n e i s measured with t h e vclume measuring p l a t e , which a t t a c h e s t o t h e u r i n e bag box ( f i g . i0-19). A l i t h i u m c h l a r i d e t r a c e r , contained i n t h e u r i n e bag, is mixed with t h e u r i n e t o provide a means of volume determination upon ret u r n t o t h e g,ound. To o b t a i n a u r i n e sample, t h e u r i n e bag is placed i n t h e squeezer device and connected t o a hose attached t~ t h e sample bag. The sample bag i s placed in t h e crimper-cutter mechanism and f i l l e d by squeezing t h e a r i n e bag. The i n t e r c o n n e c t i n g hose i s c u t and crimped, and t h e 120- t o 1 3 0 - m i l l i l i c c r sample is then frozen in t h e u r i n e f r e e z e r s o t h a t i t may be returned t o E a r t h f o r biomedical a n a l y s i s . Tho, c e n t r i f u g a l u r i n e c o l l e c t i c n system was used as the primary c o l l e c t i o n method, end i t appeared adequate. Low a i r f l o w was reported in t h e u r i n e r e c e i v e r

Urine receiver i n l e t cone

Urine receiver cover

Drawer 1 ocking
handle
/

\

/

Alrflw valve handle

-I
I

Urine receiver
ff adapter

plate
Feat sink p l a t e

F i g u r e 10-18.-

Urine drawer schematic.

d w i n g i t s f i r s t use. T h i s &as c o r r e c t e d by i n s t a l l i n g a f e c a l bag i n t h e f e c a l r e c e p t a c l e t o p r o v i d e t h e p r o p e r a i r f l o w p r e s s u r e d i f f e r e n t i a l between t h e f e c a l and u r i n e c o l l e c t i o n r e c e p t a c l e s . L w a i r f l o w was r e p o r t e d once i n u r i n e drawer 3, and chacging t h e s e p a r a t o r f i l t e r r e s t o r e d normal e r f l o u . During che scheduled replacement o f a c e n t r i f u g a l s e p a r z t o r a t t h e end of t h e s2cond manned peri o d , t h e crew found t h a t a s u c t i o n l i n e s e a l had s e p a r a t e d from t h e l i n e . Exami n a t i o n of a r e t u r n e d photograph r e v e a l e d t h a t t h e seal b e c a e debonded from t h e s u c t i o n l i n e f l a n g e , and a r e p a i r k i t c o n t a i n i n g a s t a i n l e s s s t e e l i n s e r , - was flown w i t h t h e t h i r d crew. Airflow was considered adequate, and t h e time r e q u i r e d f a r u r i n e c o l l e c t i o n was n o t e x c e s s i v e . Noise l e v e l o f t h e u r i n e s e p a r a t o r s was n o t d i s t u r b i n g exc e p t d u r i n g s l e e p p e r i o d s , &en t h e o v e r a l l n o i s e l e v e l i n t h e l a b o r a t o r y was r e l a z i v e l y low. One change i n procedure became obvious t o t h e crew. It was more s u i t a b l e i n z e r o g r a v f t y f o r a crewam t~ hold t h e u r i n e r e c e i v e r cone i n h i s hand and t o f l o a t f r e e l y while u r i n a t i n g in t h e s t a n d i n g p o s i t i o n t h a n t o l e a v e t h e cone i n t h e f i x e d r e c e i v e r h o l d e r on t h e w a l l . The crewmen, a s a g e n e r a l p r a c t i c e , wiped t h e e x c e s s u r i n e from t h e r e c e i v e r w i t h t i s s u e a f t e r each use. C a n d e n s a t i o l i n t h e u r i n e drawers was minimal and c n f i n e d t o t h e c h i l l e r p l a t e . The condensation w a s removed by wipicg d a i l y . O c c a s i o n a l l y , t h e u r i n e

L'rfne bag box plate

Urine drawer

Figure 10-19.-

Urine c o l l e c t i o n and sampling equipment.

hoses were pinched &*en caught behind t h e separrztor motor. This was eliminated by properly positLoning t h e hose before c l o s i n g t h e drawer. The s e p a r a t o r motors were removed as p l a n e d a t t h e end of each manned period, and no motor f a i l u r e s occurred. The n i n e c o l l e c t i o n water f l u s h system w a s never raquired. The only evidence of urir. odor from t h e c o l l e c t i o n system occurred l a t e in t h e t h i r d manned period'and i n d i c a t e d a f a i l u r e i n t h e odor c o n t r o l f i l t e r . The f i l t e r , which was designed f o r 28 ciays of o p e r a t i o n , had been used f o r 51 days. The crew changed t h e f i l t e r , but during t h e l a s t veek of t h e mission t h e odor increased, i n d i c a t i n g t h a t t h e problem w p s in t h e blower. The blower was n o t replaced, although s p a r e s were a v a i l a b l e onboard, There were no crew comments on donnrng t h e roll-on c u f f f o r u r i n e c o l l e c t i o n . There was no p h y s i c a l discomfort due t o back g r e s s u r e when using t h e c u f f . The most adverse comments concerned r e s i d u a l u r i n e remalning on t h e roll-on c u f f , which caused f i n g e r s t o become w e t with u r i n e during each use. Handling of t h e l o o s e bag during c o l l e c t i c n and i n s t a l l a t i o n i n t h e drawer was n o t mentioned; however, none of t h e bags were damaged o r leaked. No changes i n procedure were mentioned which would improve roll-on cuff c o l l e c t i o n . N s i g n i f i c a n t problems were reported r e l a t i v e t o u r i n e processing, samo p l i n g , and u r i n e bag replacement, and only minor u r i n e s p i l l s occurred during

The d a i l y sampling and u r i n e bag replacement r e q u i r e d t h e mission (10.1.7). between 1 5 and 20 minutes. Each crewmx normally performed h i s own sampling. When removing t h e u r i n e bag box f r o n t h e u r i n e c o l l e c t o r drawer, disconnecting t h e u r i n e bag i n l e t boot from t h e s e p a r a t o r o u t l e t tube always r e s u l t e d i n some u r i n e drops, which were wiped o f f with a t i s s u e . The crew found i t very d i f f i c u l t t 3 use t h e p u l l t a b on t h e u r i n e bag t o draw t h e u r i n e from t h e s e p a r a t o r o u t l e t . There was no evidence of leakage back inco t h e s e p a r a t o r from t h e u r i n e bag check valve. The u r i n e volume i n t h e r e t v r n e d sample bags was lower than expected, avesaging about 90 t o 100 m i l l i l i t e r s . During sample e x t r a c t i o n , a l l crewmen not i c e d small a i r bubbles entrapped i n t h e sample. These were most e v i d e n t during t h e f i r s t manned period, s i n c e t h e second and t h i r d crews used s e v e r a l techniqces which reduced t h e m o u n t of a i r entrapped. Some of t h e crewmen swung t h e two connected bags l i k e a c e n t r i f u g e , and o t h e r s sloshed t h e bag slowly while squeezing i t in attempts t o remove t h e a i r from t h e u r i n e . It i s n o t understood where t h e a i r came from. The most l i k e l y source was t h e c e n t r i f u g a l s e p a r a t o r , a l though t h e r e is no obvious reason f o r th-: s e p a r a t o r t o pass excess a i r . The samples obtained from roll-on cuff c o l l e c t i o n using t h e u r i n e c o l l e c t i o n bag a l s o contained excess a i r . There were no problems i n o b t a i n i n g samples from t h e u r i n e c o l l e c t i o n and t r a n s f e r zssembly. Samples taken during t h e f i r s t manned period contained approximately 70 percent air. The crew d i d not recommend any method of reducing a i r i n t h e samples, nor d i d they c o m e n t on t h e method used t o squeeze u r i n e samples f r o n 'he c o l l e c t i o n assembly. There was no d i f f i c u l t y i n crimpc u t t i n g t h e sample t a g tube and pushing t h e crimped tube i n t o t h e sample bag. The crimper-cutter a r e a around t h e f e c a l c o l l e c t o r door d i d n o t become contaminated. N sample bags leaked; however, some bags were damaged e i t h e r during o r o before removal from scowage. The frozen samples were returne'd a s planned, and none of t h e bags leaked upon thawing. The samples, except f o r those t h a t were low i n volume, appeared t o be acceptable f o r t h e biomedical experiments. The accuracy of i n f l i g h t volume measurement compared t o p o s t f l i g h t a n a l y s i s using t h e l i t h i u m c h l o r i d e t r a c e r was v a r i a b l e . The i n f l i g h t seeassuring system w a s more a c c u r a t e f o r svnples with higher volumes. The d a i l y u r i n e volumes measured inf l i g h t ranged betweer, 700 and 3800 m i l l i l i t e r s . The l i t h i u m c h l o r i d e a n a l y s i s yielded a s i m i l a r range of volumes. A s m s r y o f expendable u r i n e c o l l e c t i o n and sampling equipment usage i s presented i n t a b l e 10-IV. Urine Freezer.I n d i v i d u a l crew u r i n e and blood samples must be frozen and s t o r e d . The f r e e z e r ( f i g . 10-14) has a f r e e z i n g chamber, u r i n e t r a y s , s p a c e r s , and h e a t s i n k c o n t a i n e r s . It reduces t h e temperature of t h e sample t o below 27OP w i t h i n 3 hours a f t e r i n s e r t i o n and t o -2.5OF w i t h i n 8 hours. Urine f r e e z e r ,emperatures renained w i t h i n s p e c i f i e d t o l e r a n c e s f o r t h o dur a t i o n of t h e mission, and no o p e r a t i o n a l problems were noted. The t h i r d crew, however, had d i f f i c u l t y i n i n s e r t i n g t h e frozen u r i n e t r a y s i n t o t h e r e t u r n cont a i n e r . The cause of t h i s d i f f i c u l t y was t h a t t h e sample bags had frozen above t h e top of t h e t r a y . The crew f e l t t h a t t h e t r a y s could be forced intci t h e cont a i n e r , and t h i s method was a p p a r e n t l y adequate, a s no f u r t h e r d i f f i c u l t y was reported. Urine P i ~ p o s a 1 . - The d a i l y accumulation of u r i n e i n excess of t h a t required f o r aampling is normally d i s ~ o s e dof by p l a c i n g t h e u r i n e begs and o t h e r expendables i n t o a d i s p o s a l bag and e j e c t i n g them i n t o t h e waste tank through

the t r a s h a i r l o c k . A backup l i q u i d u r i n e dump system i s provided i n t h e event of f a i l u r e of t h e primary method. The l i q u i d u r i n e dump system i n plumbed i n t o t h e waste tank through a repl.aceatle, heated dump probe, which prevents blockage due t o i c e formation. The l i q u i d u r i n e dump system w a s not used during t h e f i r s t and second manned periods except t o evacuate t h e u r i n e bags before t h e i r use. However, during t h e extended t h i r d manned period, t h e shortage of u r i n e c o l l e c t i o n bags and t h e prollem a s s o c i a t e d with e j e c t h g full. u r i n e bags through t h e t r a s h a i r l o c k caused use of t h e dump system zpproximately 17 times t o dispose of l i q u i d u r i n e . On Day 237, t h e crew, while x t e m p t i n g t o evacuate a replacement u r i n e bag following a l i q u i d u r i n e dump, could o b t a i n no flow through the system. Since t h e dcmp probe h e a t e r was apparently o p e r a t i n g , i t was l e f t on f o r s e v e r a i hours, and l a t e r t h a t day flow through t h e system resumed. A s no f u r t h e r problems were repcrted, t h e most l i k e l y cause of t h e blockage was a buildup of i c e on t h e probe which required h e a t i n g longer than normal t o d i s s i p a t e . The crew i n d i c a t e d t h a t t h e h e a t e r was l e f t on f o r t h e rest of t h e manned period t o preclude a d a l t i o n a l problems. S u i t Drying.Another waste management function i s t o remove moisture from i n s i d e t h e p r e s s u r e s u i t s a f t e r s u i t e d o p e r a t i o n s . The s u i t drying equipment c o n s i s t s of 3 blower, hoses, and d e s i c c a n t bags. The s u i t s a r e a t t a c h e d t o a p o r t a b l e f o o t r e s t r a i n t on t h e forwara compartment f l o o r and suspended from t h e water tank r i n g f o o t r e s t r a i n t s by a hanger s t r a p . The blower u n i t f o r c e s drying a i r through a hose i n t o t h e s u i t . Moisture i s removed by the a i r and c o l l e c t e d by t h e d e s i c c a n t bags. The bags a r e subsequently d r i e d i n t h e lower two chambers of t h e waste processor.
A l l hardware operated s a t i s f a c t o r i l y except t h a t t h e f i r s t crew r e p o r t e d t h a t t h e blower housing was t o o hot t o touch. The second crew l e f t t h e blower st%age l o c k e r door open f o r a d d i t i o n a l cooling and no f u r t h e r problems were reported. The crew s t a t e d t h a t t h e s u i t s were d r i e d very w e l l and t h a t t h e r e was no odor t o t h e s u i t s a f t e r t h e drying process. The t h i r d crew found dampness and mildew on t h e stowed liquid-cooled garments; however, i t is n o t known whether t h e dampness occurred from i n s u f f i c i e n t drying o r from some stowage condition. The problems involved i n removing t h e mildew a r e discussed i n 10.1.7.

10.1.4

Personal Hygiene

The personal hygiene subsystem provides a l l t h e s u p p l i e s and equipment nece s s a r y f o r h e a l t h and good grooming. I t i n c l u d e s a water module f o r washing, a shower, mirrors, hygiene k i t s , and washcloth and towel d r y i n g f a c i l i t i e s . Wipes, t i s s u e s , soap, washcloths, and towels a r e a l s o provided f o r use with t h e equipmen t

.

Water Module.- P a r t i a l body c l e a n s i n g i s made p o s s i b l e by t h e modalo handwasher u n i t , c o n s i s t i n g of a hot water d i s p e n s e r valve and uashcloth squeezer ( f i g . 10-20). The washcloth i s placed i n t h e washcloth squeezer and t h e squeezer handle pulled down t o squeeze t h e excess water out. of t h e washcloth i n t o a bag. The water collectec. i n t h e squeezer hag i s drained through a squeezer f i l t e r i n t o t h e waste tank through t h e vacuum dump system.

F i g u r e 10-20.-

Wasce management compartment w a t e r module.

A l l crewmen f e l t t h a t t h e equipment was a r e a l n e c e s s i t y and t h a t t h e hardware o p e r a t e d r e l a t i v e l y s a t i s f a c t o r i l y . I t was recommended t h a t t h e handwasher u n i t be enclosed t o c o n t a i n and c o c t r o l t h e water b e t t e r d u r i n g washing. During t h e f i r s t manned p e r i o d , t h e w a t e r d i s p e n s e r v a l v e became clogged and was r e placed with a s p a r e u n i t , which r e s t o r e d nonnal flow. The clogged u n i t was ret u r n e d , and f a i l u r e a n a l y s i s d i s c l o s e d t h a t t h e wrong s e a l m a t e r i a l had been used. A w h i t e , f l a k y r e s i d u e was a l s o found i n t h e v a l v e , which a n a l y s i s showed t o be t h e r e s u l t of i o d i n e r e a c t i n g w i t h a beryllium-copper r e t a i n i n g r i n b . Two reworked s p a r e d i s p e n s e r v a l v e s were s e n t up w i t h t h e second crew, but no f ~ r t h e r f a i l u r e s occurred. During t h e second manned p e r i o d , t h e washcloth squeezer malf u n c t i o n e d . Examination by t h e crew r e v e a l e d t h a t t h e s e a l w a s f o l d e d back i n a t l e a s t one a r e a , a i i o b i n g w a t e r t o l e a k p a s t t h e p i s t o n . Replacement of t h e s e a l c o r r e c t e d t h e problem. Tine t h i r d crew a l s o c l e a n e d , a d j u s t e d , and 1 1 .. - i c a t e d t h e s q u e e z e r , and no f u r t h e r problems were r e p o r t e d . A double s e a l was recommended t o e l i m i n a t e t h e problem. The a n t i b a c t e r i a l b a r soap w a s used a t a c o n s i d e r a b l y lower r a t e t h a n a n t i c i p a t e d . A t o t a l of 55 soap b a r s were provided, 1 f o r t h e f i r s t crew; however, o n l y one b a r w a s used f o r t h e e n t i r e f i r s t manned 1 p e r i o d . There is no a v a i l a b l e i n f o r m a t i o n on soap us;ge by t h e second and t h i r d crews.

Shower.This i s an e n c l o s u r e which u s e s continuous a i r f l o w as a g r a v i t y s u b s t i t u t e t o move t h e water o v e r t h e crewman. A 6-pound c a p a c i t y w a t e r b o t t l e i s f i l l e d from t h e waste management compartment water h e a t e r , p r e s s u r i z e d w i t h n i t r o g e n , and a t t a c h e d t o t h e g r i d c e i l i n g a t t h e shower l o c a t i o n . The n i t r o g e n gas p r e s s u r a n t e x p e l s w a t e r from t h e b o t t l e through a t r a n s f e r hose and a crewo p e r a t e d hand-held s p r a y nozzle. A soap d i s p e n s e r p r o v i d e s t h e crewman w i t h 8 m i l l i l i t e r s o f l i q u i d soap f o r each shower. During t h e shower t h i s d i s p e n s e r head removes w a t e r from t h e crewf a s t e n s t o t h e c e i l i n g w i t h Velcro. A s ~ c t i o n man and t h e shower i n t e r i o r . The s u c t j - t n head i s connected by lioses t o t h e c e n t r i f a g a i s e p a r a t o r , whlch & p o s i t s t h e waste water i n t o a c o l l e c t i o n bag. A blower p u l l s t h e a i r from t h e s e p a , r i r o r through a hydrophobic f i l t e r t h a t prot e c t s t h e blouer. F i g u r e 10-21 i s a schematic of t h e shower system. Figure 10-22 i s a photograph of t h e shower e n c l o s u r e i n a p a r t i a l l y opened p o s i t i o c . The crewmen agreed t h a t t a k i n g a shower p e r i o d i c a l l y was very d e s i r a b l e , but they a l l commented, t o some e x t e n t , about t h e system. The main

cup, and i s d r i e d by t h e c a b i n :itmowhere. Tlie d r y i n g s t a t i o n s p r o v i d e d a conv e n i e n t and e f f e c t i v e means o f d r y i n g t h e t o w e l s and w a s h c l o t h s . One r e p o r ~ e l problem w a s t h a t t o w e l s had a tendency t o s t a n d o u t froni walls i f r e s t , ~ i n e d a t o o n l y one c o r n e r , and t h e t h i r d crew f e l t t h a t t h e r e s t r a i n t s were t ~ crowded. T h i s type of r e s t r a i n t would a l s o have been u s e f u l a s a g e n e r a l f a b r i c r e s t r a i n t .
A t o t a l of 840 r e u s a b l e , 12-inch-square w a s h c l o t h s a r e p r o v i d e d f o r p e r s o n a l h y g i e n e and g e n e r a l c l e a n i n g . They a r e stowed i n d i s p e n s e r s c o n t a i n i n g 28 washc l o t h s each. Three d i s p e n s e r s , o n e f o r e a c h crewman, a r e l o c a t e d i n t h e w a s t e management compartment and p r o v i d e a 14-day s u p p l y a t a usage r a t e o f two v s h c l o t h s p e r day p e r man. Nine l o c k e r s i n t h e wardrocm c o n t a i n r e s u p p l y washindividually r o l l e d c l o t h d i s p e n s e r s . A t o t a l o f 420 r e u s a b l e , 14-by-32-inch, and banded t o w e l s a r e p r o v i d e d f o r s k i n d r y i n g . D i s p e n s e r modules, c o n t a i n i n g 1 3 t o w e l s e a c h , a r e l o c a t o d i n tile w a s t e managemeqt compartment and wardroom. Each module p r o v i d e s a 6-aay s u p p l y a t a usage r a t e o f o n e t o w e l 2 e r man p e r day. A d d i t i o n a l t o w e l s a r e stowed f o r r e s u p p l y . Both t o w e l s and w a s h c l o t h s t r e made o f rayon p o l y n o s i c t e r r y c l o t h , w i t h c c l o r e d s t i t c h i n g f o r i n d i v i d u a l crewman c o l o r code i d e n t i f i c a t i o n .

The crew used t h e t o w e l s and w a s h c l o t h s i n a normal manner f o r p e r s o n a l hygiene and f o r c l e a n i n g windows and w i p i n g up s p i l l a g e as w e l l . Flaking t h e t o w e l s l a r g e r and u s i n g a more a b s o r b e n t m a t e r i a l were s u g g e s t e d improvements. Towel usage i s shown i n t a b l e 10-V. E x t r a t o w e l s were c a r r i e d up f o r t h e t h i r d manned p e r i o d . T a b l e 10-V.P e r s o n a l Hygiene I t e m s A l l o c a t i o n and Usage Summary

Four d i f f e r e n t t y p e s of wipes a r e p r o v i d e d : wet w i p e s , d r y w i p e s , S i o c i d e wipes, and g e n e r a l purpose t i s s u e s . The wet w i p e s a r e used p r i n a r i l y f o r food c l e a n u p and housekeeping. A wardroom d i s p e n s e r c o n t a i n s s e v e n wet-wipe packages. Dry u t i l i t y wipes a r e used p r i m a r i l y EOL p e r s o n a l h y g i e n e d u r i n g f e c a l c o l l e c t i o n . There a r e 23 dry-wipe d i s p e n s e r packages p r o v i d e d a t 1 d i s p e n s i n g l o c a 1 t i o n s : 7 i n t h e wardroom, 3 i n t h e s l e e p compartment, and l i n t h e w a s t e management compartment. B i o c i d e wipes a r e used f o r housekeeping a c t i v i t i e s t h a t r e q u i r e d i s i n f e c t i n g , such a s c l e a n i n g up food s p i l l s and removing c o n t a m i n a t i o n i n t h e f e c a l - u r i n e system. F i v e b i c c i d e wipe packages a r e l o c a t e d i n a s i n g l e d i s p e n s e r i n t h e w a s t e managemer:t c s n p a r t n e n t . G e n e r a l p u r p o s e t i s s u e s a r e used f o r g e n e r a l housekesping and p e r s o n a l h y g i e n e . There a r e 1 t i s s r l e d i s p e n s e r 1 packages: 6 i n t h e s l e e p compartinent, 4 i n t h c wardroom, and 1 i n the waste management com2artment. T a b l e 10-V l l s t s t h e a l l o c a t i o n and u s a g e o f t h e wipes. The crew found t h e wipes g e n e r a l l y s a t i s f a c t o r y . The b i o c i d o wipes lef; an i o d i n e d i s c o l o r a t i o n on wiped a r e a s , b u t t h i s was n o t d i f f i c u l t t o remove.

The second c r e w l s hands became y e l l o w a s a r e s u l t o r d e a c t i v a t i o n c l e a n i n g t a s k s ; however, t h i s .Faded away s e v e r a l d a y s a f t e r splashdown. The crew s t a t e d t h a t t h e y would have p r e f e r r e d a sponge w i t h a h a n d l e f o r b i o c i d e w i p i n g . The quant i t y of b i o c i d e w i p e s , g e n e r a l p u r p o s e w i p e s , and wet and d r y u t i l i t y wipes prov i d e d appeared a d e q u a t e . The t h i r d crew r a n o u t of t i s s u e s i n some l o c a t i o n r ; and s u b s t i t u t e d t h e u t i l i t y wipes. They u s e d a l a r y e number of t i s s u e s b e c a u s e of n a s a l c o n g e s t i o n and f e l t t h a t more t i s s u e s o r h a n d k e i c h i e f s s h o t l d have been p r o v i d e d . The second crew r e p o r t e d u s i n g o l ? s h i r t s and s h o r t s f o r c l e a n i n g i n s t e a d o f a g e n e r a l p u r p o s e t i s s v e , s i n c e c l o t h c l e a n e d f a s t e r and was more p l e a s a n t t o use. 10.1.5 Sleep

x Three i n d i v i d u a l sleep!.ng a r e a s a r e p ~ o v i d e di l he s l e e p compartment. Each s l e e p i n g a r e a h a s a s l e e p r e s t r a i n t , a p r i v a c y c u r t a i n , a l i g n t b a f f l e , a i r d i f f u s e r s , l i g h t s , a s p e a k e r i n t e r c o m a s s e m b l y , stowage compartments, and temporary stowage r e s t r a i n t s . F i g u r e 10-25 i l l u s t r a t e s t h e s l e e p cornparthilent ~rrangement

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F i g u r e 10-25. -

S l e e p compartment arrangement.

Privacy Curtains.One is provided f o r each s l e e p i n g a r e a t o p a r t i t i o n i t s f f from t h e u t h e r s l e e p a r e a s . The Teflon-coated g l a s s - f a b r i c c u r t a i n is stowed a g a i n s t a l o c k e r o r wall when n o t i n use. The c u x a i n a l s o s e r v e s a s a b a r r i e r LO block l i g h t coming from o t h e r s o u r c e s . It i s n o t , however, designed t o block o r reddce sound e n t e r i n g the s l e e p a r e a . Each curtain i s r e t a i n e d i n 2 o s i t i o n with Velcro t h a t mates t o Veicro on t h e l o c k e r s and w a l l s .
Tin2 privacy c u r t a i n s were n o t used a s o f t e n a s illtended because a l l t h r e e crewmen s l e p t s i m i ~ l t a n e o u s l y ,w i t h most of t h e l i g h t s o f f i n t h e workshop and t h e wardroom window shade c l o s e d . L i g h t i n g v a r i e d from all l i g h t s Seing t u r n e d o f f a t n i g h t d u r i n g t h e f i r s t two manned p e r i o d s t o s e v z r a l remaining a n d u r i n g t h e t h i r d . The frequency of u s i n g t h e c u r t a i n d ~ p e n d e dv e r y much on crew p r e f e r e n c e , a ~ d soundproofing was recornended by s e v e r a l crewmen.
. n o n r e 2 l e c t i v e f a b r i c l i g h t b a f f l e is provlded in t h e ; Light B a f f i c s . c e i l i n g of each s l e e p i n g a r e a t o p r e v e n t l i g h t e n t r a n c e from t h e forward comIt is supported p a r t s e n t w h i l e a l l o w i n g flow-through v e n t i l a t i m ( f i g . 10-25). by mating snaps and Velcro on t h e c e i l i n g , w a l l s , and l o c k e r s . The b a f f l e i n t h e c e n t z r s l e e p i n g a r e a h a s a s e c t i o n t h e s i z e o f t h e emergency escape e x i t a t t a c h e d w i t h Velcro t o a l l o w breakaway eaergency e g r e s s .

Tine crew r e p o r t e d t h a t t h e a i r f l o w tended t o c o l l a p s e t h e f a b r i c l o u v e r s , b e , ~ e z s i n g a i r c i r c u l a t i o n . They c o r r e c t e d t h i s by t a p i n g t r i a n g u l a r - s h a p e d p i e c e s of zardboard a d j a c e n t t o t h e l o u v e r s t i f f e n e r s . The l i g h t b a f f l e s were n c t used a s p l a n e d , s i n c e all workshop l i g h t s were g e n e r a l l y o f f 2nd t h e wardiwom windcw w a s covered d u r i n g s l e e p p e r i o d s . 10.1.6 Food System

The food system p r o v i d e s t h e equipment and s u p p l i e s n e c e s s a r y f o r t h e s t o r age, p r e p a r a t i o n , s e r v i c e , dnd consrmption of focd. The system i n c l u d e s a food g a l l e y ana p a n t r y , food t a b l e , food stowage c o n t a i n e r s , food f r e e z e r s and c h i l l e r s , t r a n s f e r and r e s u p p l v , and food management. The l o c a t i o n of t h e food system equipment i s shown in f i g u r e 10-27. T h i s p r o v i d e s f o r a p p r o x i n a t c l y 7 days' stnwage Food Galley and Pantry.of canned food and beverages f o r t h r e e crewmen. The food items a r e s t o r e d i . r p u l l o u t drawers, which a r e color-coded r e d , w h i t e , and b l u e f o r m d i v i d u a l crewman i l e n t i f i , a t i o n . Three wardroom l o c k e r s p r o v i d e t r a n s f e r and r e s u p p l y stowage, w h i l e o t h e r s r e s t r a i n m i s c e l l a n e o u s i t e m s such as u t e n s i l s , wipes, food t r a y l i d s , and t h e specimen mass measurement d e v i c e . The g a l l e y a l s o coiit a i n s a t r a s h a r e a f o r temporary stowage of s i x food overcans. Used food cans, l i d s , and beverage p a c k e t s a r e d e p o s i t e d through a d i s p o s a l w e l l i n t o t h e overcans. The g a l l e y and p a n t r y w i t h food and m i s c e l ~ a n e o u sitems a r e shown in Items a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h e g a l l e y and p a n t r y equipment, such as f i g u r e 10-28. food, food c o n t a i n e r s , beverage c o n t a i n e r s , seasoxling d i s p e n s e r s , t h e specimen mass measurement d e v i c e , and food h e a t e r t r a y s , a r e d i s c u s s e d i n r e f e r e n c e s 1 5 through 17. The food g a l l e y and p a n t r y system o p e r a t e d s a t i s f a c t o r i l y ; h o w e v ~ r , s e v e r a l comments were made by t h e crewmen. The major c r i t i c i s m s were t h a t t h e food had t o be handled t o o many times between launch stowage and meal. p r e p a r a t i o n , t h e p a n t r y was not e a s i l y a c c e s s i b l e LO each crewman, and a c c e s s t o a speclfic item w i t h i n t h e p a n t r y t r a y s was d i f f i c u l t . The crew s u g g e s t e d t h a t colcmon food items be arranged t o g e t h e r i n some s o r t o f d i s p e n s e r r a t h e r t h a n i n t r a y s by

a t t h e t ~ 5 i e . The t h i g h r e s t r a i n t is hinged a t t h e t a b l e t o permit s e l e c t i o n of t h e d e s i r e d e l e v a t i o n and a t i t s midpoint f o r s o l e z t i o n of t h e d e s i r e d s e a t ing p o s f t i o n . The t h i g h r e s t r a i n t i s a d j u s t a b l e t o conform t o t h e crewman's thighs. Each crewman h a s a p e r s o n a l , color-coded food t r a y c o n t a i n i n g f o u r l a r g e and f o u r small £cod can c a v i t i e s . Three o f t h e l a r g e food can c a v i t i e s can be i n d i v i d u a l l y heated f o r p r e p a r i n g f r o z e n foods. The small food can c a v i t i e s r e s t r a i n smll food c a n s and beverage packets. A r e m v a b l e food t r a y l i d i s stowed i n t h e g a l l e y a f t e r t h e food i s heated. I n g e n e r a l , t h e crew commented f a v o r a b l y on t h e food t a b l e . The food prepa r a t i o n system worked extremely w e l i . A l l t a b l e r e s t r a i n t s worked w e l l , except f o r t h e f o o t r e s t r a i n t s . The t h i r d crew removed t h e t a b l e f o o t r e s t r a i n t s an3 used t h e g r i d f l o o r . Throughout t h e mission t h e t a b l e was used as a workbench Irrdividuai and b r i g h t e r l i g h t i n g f o r and o f f i c e a r e a f o r r e a d i n g and w r i t i n g . each crewman was recommended f o r t h e s e t y p e s o f t a s k s , and r e s t r a i n t s were recommended on t h e t a b l e top t o hold c h a r t s , books, c h e c k l i s t s , and s o f o r t h .

1 Food Stowage.- The 1 n o n r e f r i g e r a t e d food stowage c o n t a i n e r s a r e conuon i n d e s i g n and c o n s t r u c t i o n . A l l f o u r s i d e s and he back are corrugated aluminum panels. The door is s i m i l a r t o t h e s t a n d a r d l o c k e r compartment doors. The cont a i n e r s u p p o r t s t r u c t u r e is designed t o c o n f i g u r e t h e c o n t a i n e r s f o r easy aeThe food i s vacuum packed i n i n d i v i d u a l c e s s i b i l i t y t o ti?. crew ( f i g . 10-31).

rarrarC c a O I r t r n L food storage locatlOnS

Co.

Food wercan

atu door

\

urdrrrm food freezer locltlon In".

L

F a d can

"' Figure 10-31.Food s t o u a g e equipment.

p u l l - t o p c a n s which, when opened, provide a d i s h from which t o consume t h e food. Three s i z e s of food cans a r e used: l a r g e , s m a l l , and pudding. Beverages a r e s t o r e d , dehydrated, i n accordion beverage packs t o f a c i l i t a t e s t o r a g e and d r i n k ing. The food cans and beverage p a c k e t s a r e s t o r e d i n l a r g e and s m a l l o v e r c a n s , which a r e s c a l e d w i t h screw t o p l i d s t o p r o t e c t t h e c o n t e n t s . A s t h e food supp l i e s w i t h i n t h e food stowage c o n t a i n e r s z r e d e p l e t e d , t r a s h and t r a n s f e r i t e m s ,

suc.. a s p r e s s u r e c o n t r o l u n i t c o n t a i n e r s and c a r b m dtoxide absorbent s h h s , a r e removed fro= the command module and s t o r e d i n t h e s e empty c o n t a i n e r s . The crew reported t h a t t k e f l a n g e s on t h e edge of t h e food c o n t a i n e r s were very necessary a s holding devices d u r i n g t r a n s f e r and r e l o c a t i o n i n t h e food container stowage rack. The food c o n t a i n e r s were one of t h e l a r g e s t items which t h e crew had t o Lransfrr and r e l o c a t e , and they i n d i c a t e d t h a t t h i s was very e a s i l y accomplished. f There a r e f i v e f o ~ d r e e z e r s in t h e workshop, chree l o c a t e d in t h e farward compartmnt and two i n t h e wardroom. The one food c h i l l e r , l o c a t e d i n t h e wardroom, is used during launch f o r stowing an ambient food module and i n o r b i t f o r stowing l e f t o v e r food item a s w e l l a s experiment items. Each of t h e food freezers c o n t a h s a p p r o x h a t e l y 50 pounds of frozen food such as s t e a k s , prime r i b , and i c e cream--enough f o r t h r e e crewmen f o r 28 days. The r e f r i g e r a t i o n system is designed t o maintain t h e f r e e z e r s a t about -lO°F. Each f r e e z e r is a c c e s s i b l e thr3ugh a foam-fjlied o u t e r door f i t t e d with a vented gasket. A l l frozen fosd is contained i n cans and overcans. Figure 10-31 shows t h e food f r e e z e r s and chiller. The food f r e e z e r s and c h i l l e r were considered s a t i s f a - t o r y i n operation. However, t h e crew d i d comment t h a t space u t i l i z a t i o n w a s poor even though t h e s i z e of t h e conpartments was r e l a t i v e l y small, and t h a t a means of r e s t r a i r A A u g loose food items would have been d e s i r a b l e . There was a l s o i c e bliildup between t h e f r e e z e r and c a n i s t e r doors, reducing a c c e s s i b i l i t y and r e q u i r i n g maintenance procedures. Food khagement E'ood t r a n s f e r and resupply i s Tart of t h e process required i n ranaging t h e food system. The crew t r a s f e r s bundles of food from th:- forward compartment food stowage c o n t a i n e r s every 7 days t o resupply t h e wardroom pantry. A t t h e beginning of each manned period, food c a r r i e d i n t h e command modvle is a l s o t r a n s f e r r e d t o she pantry f o r crew consumption. Excep' f o r b e i t g time-conslaing, food t r a n s f e r and resupply was s a t i s f ~ c tory. Food c o n t a i n e r s were e a s i l y r e l e a s e d and t r a n s f e r r e d t o t h e i r i n - o r b i t stowage l o c a t i o n s . Food bundles were e a s i l y t r a n s f e r r e d and items i n s t a l l e d i n the pantry drawers. The crew recommended a food handbag a s a c o n t a i n e r t o a i d i n t h e t r a n s f e r process. 10.1.7 Housekeeping

.-

Housekeeping i n t h e S a t u r c Workshop involves t h e c o l l e c t i o n of t x s h and expendable .items f o r d i s p o s a l and keeping t h e h a b i t a b l e a r e a f r e e of any agent t h a t could promote b a c t e r i a l growth a i ~ du n d e s i r a b l e odors. Equipment provided f o r t h i s purpose i n c l u d e s t r a s h bags, d i s p c s a l bags, a vacuuu c l e a n e r , and microbial c o n t r o l provisions. Trash is segregated i n t o two c a t e g o r i e s : biol o g i c a l l y a c t i v e t r a s h such a s u r i n e bags and food zans t h a t r e q u i r e d i s p o s a l in t h e waste tank t o prevent b a c t e r i a l grovth, and b i o l o g i c a l l y i n a c t i v e o r inerL t r a s h such a s launch r e s t r a i n t hardware and packing m a t e r i a l t h a t is stowed i n t h e plecum a r e a o r z l i l a b l e ernp'y lockers. Trash Collection.Trash and d i s p o s a l bags a r e c y l i n d r i c a l i n shape and f a b r i c a t e d of ventad Armalon. Trash bags a r e a t t a c h e d t o t h e i n s i d e of a t r a s h Locker door and a r e used t o c o l l e c t d r y and moist s o l i d s . A c i r c u l a r , hinged door on t h e locker door allows access t o the bag diapLragm f o r i n s e r t i o n of t r a s h without opening t h e l o c k e r door. Disposal bags and u r i n e d i s p o s a l bags a r e

designed t o i n t e r f a c e with standard snap p a t t e r n s i n useful l o c a t i o n s throughout the laboratory. Disposal bags accept urine s e p m a t c r s , charcoal c a n i s t e r s , and other l a r g e , disposable items considered a s contamination sources. Urine disposal bags accept t h e u r i n e c o l l e c t i o n bags. The d i f f e r e n c e between t h e disposal bags and t h e urine disposal bags is the s i d e s t i t c h i n g on t h e l a t t e r , which decreases the bag's diameter. Plenum bags a r e used f o r stowage of t r a s h from a c t i v a t i o n and operations t h a t a r e not considered a contamination source. The t r a s h c o l l e c t i o n provisions a r e i l l u s t r a t e d i n f i g u r e 10-32.
TJPICJI trash

Sleep caprr-t

Trash a i r l a k

Rlqid gLldt and diaphrap supGort

-Roil

3 tirs f l a p and integral SCQS IMP S h l t (4 p1a-es)

Figure 10-32. - Trash c o l l e c t i o n provisions.
No problems were encountered with t r a s h c o l l e c t i o n ; however, some d i f f i c u l t i e s experienced during bag disposal are discussed in 10.1.8. Fewer t r a s h bags were used than planned, while more disposal bags were used. The t h i r d crew ran 10-VI summarizes t h e usage of out of disposal-bags early in t h e period. ~ a b i e trash c ~ l l e c t i o n bags. The t r a s h bags were e x c e l l e n t and worked very- well. The spring top on t h e urine disposal bags was w r y convenient; however, the crew £el: t h a t an e a s i e r method of sealing t h e bags f o r a low-bleed l e a k would 5ave been desirable. It was considered cumbersome t o wrap t h e f l a p s a;=-and and snap them t o preclude t h e p o s s i b i l i t y of venting while i n t h e waste tank. The plenum bags were handy t o hold t h e dry t r a s h , t h a t is, empty washcloth, wine, and towel containers, when t h e crew ran short of disposal bags. The plenum bag was considered e x c e l l e n t , p a r t i a l l y because 02 its a d d i t i o n a l stowage c a p a b i l i t y . The crew recommended some improvement o r relocation i n t h e t r a s h c o l l e c t i o n provisions. The location of t h e t r a s h bags in t h e wardroom was scch t h a t t h e crewmen were frequently climbing over each o t h e r from t h e i r p o s i t i o n s at t h e t a b l e t o obtain a c ~ r s s . They rearranged t h e t r a s h lockers f o r a more convenient l o c a t i o n by removing t h e t r e s h door ninge pin and swapping i t with a p l a i n locker door a t a d i f f e r e n t location. The crew recornended t h a t w e t u r i n e items, wet washcloths,

Pocnd i t d i f f i c u l t t o dump f u l l u r i n e d i s p o s a l bags. Reducing t h e number of u r i n e bags pcr d i s p o s a l bag solved t h e problem. On one o c c a s i o n t h e crew opened t h e v a l v e s on t h e u r f n e bags, which r e s u l t e d i n a s i g n i f i c a n t u r i n e s p i l l i n s i d e t h e t r a s h l o c k . Also toward t h e end of t h e m i s s i o n , a g a i n f o r no apparent reason, i t became n e c e s s a r y t o use two men t o o p e r a t e t h e l o c k , one s t a n d i n g on i t t o f o r c e t h e l i d down and the o t h e r t o l a t c h i t . I t was recommended t h a r t h e crew d e a c t i v a t e t h e i n t e r l o c k by t a p i n g t h e l i n k a g e , t h u s r e ducing t h e s e a l compression and c l o s h g f o r c e r e q u i r e d . The crew d i d n o t i n d i c a t e whether o r not t h i s was done. Other than t h e i n c i d e n t s d i s c u s s e d above, t h e o p e r a t i o n of t h e t r a s h a i r l o c k was a c c e p t a b l e . To reduce t h e p o s s i b i l i t y of jamming, c o n t i n u i n g c a r e was e x e r c i s e d i 2 avoiding o v e r f i l l e d t r a s h bags, u r i n e d i s p o s a l bags, and l a r g e i t e m s w i t h p r o t r u s i c n s . N i t e m s were r e p o r ~ e dt o have been dumped through t h e t r a s h o a i r l o c k without b e h g placed i n some t y p ? of bag. The crew expressed t h e i r f e e l i n g of dependence on t h e t r a s h a i r l o c k and t h e i r concern about t h e s i t u a t i o n t h a t would r e s u l t from a permanent malfunction. They a l s o o c c a s i o n a l l y c z i t i c i z e d t h e amount of time needed f o r t r a s h d i s p o s a l and termed t h e o p e r a t i o n a "nuisance." A d e t e n t should have been on t h e v a l v e handle t o p o s i t i v e l y m a i n t a i n t h e handle i n p o s i t i o n t o prevent atmosphere l o s s , and t h e f o r c e r e q u i r e d f o r t h e l i d l e t c h i n g o p e r a t i o n should have been reduced. S i n c e t h e r e were no malfunctions which precluded use ~ f t h e t r a s h a i r l o c k , t h e contingency p l a n f o r t r a s h d i s p o s a l was never r e q u i r e d . The e v a i l a b l e d i s p o s a l volume i n t h e waste tank f o r e j e r t e u bin!.ogic?lly 10-VII summarizes waste t a n k usage d u r i n g a c t i v e t r a s h was 2233 f t 3 . T ~ b l e t h e mission, a suming t h e bags were maintained a t r h e i r extended volume by t h e s u b l i m a t i o n of t h e i c e r e s u l t i n g from t h e Waste Tank Usage m o i s t u r e i n t h e i r c o n t e n t s . Some biologTable 10-VII.

-

Table 10-VI1.-

Vnsie Tank Usage

of g e t t i n g t h e t r a s h i n t o t h e tank and t h e p o s s i b i l i t y of e x t e r n a l contaminat i o n , t h e waste t a l k d i s p o s a l concept was s a t i s f a c t o r y . 10.1.9 Debris C o n t r o l

The primary a c t i v e means of d e b r i s c o n t r o l i n t h e S a t u r n Workshop j, t h e use of a i r f l o w a s a g r a v i t y s u b s t i t u t e . This i s augmented by d i f f e r e n t t y p e s of c l o s e o u t s i n s t . a l l e d around l o c k e r s , equipment, and o t h e r s t r u c t u r e s t o prev e n t l o o s e d e b r i s from c o l l e c t i n g j n i n a c c e s a . b l e a r e a s . S p e c i a l t o o l s a r e provided t o a s s i s t i n r e t r i e v i n g l o o s e i t e m s t h a t f i n d t n e i r way i n t o t i g h t spaces. I n the workshop, a i r i s c i r c u l a t e d froic a plenum a t t h e af t end o f t h e v e h i c l e through d i f f u s e r s t o a ;nixing chambar l o c a t e d i n t h e iorward dome. The a i r i s r e t u r n e d t o t h e plenum a r e a by a f a n and d u c t arrangement. T h i s c o n f i g u r a t i o n p r o v i d e s a i r v e l o c i t i e s r a n g i n g from 20 t o 4 5 f t / m i n , w i t h a i r v e l o c i t y through t h e s c r e e n s of approximately 283 f t / m i n . The s c r e e n s a r e cleaned p e r i o d i c a l l y w i t h t h e vacuum c l e a n e r . S i m i l a r arrangements e x i s t i n t h e a i r l o c k and docking a d a p t e r . Upon i n i t i a l e n t r y , t h e f i r s t crew found t h e l a b o r a t o r y a s " c l ~ a na s a w h i s t l e , " and o n l y a few small l o o s e hardware i t e m s were found. Durlng t h e

mission, l o o s e d e b r i s e v e n t u a l l y migrated t o t h e screemi where t h e a i r f l o w was g r e a t e s t , that i s , t h e docking a d a p t e r - r e n t i l a t i o n f a n s c r e e n s and t h e workshop h e a t exchanger and mixing chamber s c r e e n s . The d e b r i s t h a t c o l l e c t e d on t h e s e scrc~ns was c o n v e n i e n t l y removed u s i n g t h e vacuum c l e a n e r . The d e b r i s c l o s u r e s s e r v e d t h e i r purpose w i t h no problems. 10.1.10 M o b i l i t y - S t a b i l i t y Aids

M o b i l i t y - s t a b i l i t y a i d s a r e provided t h r o ~ r g h o v t t h e SaLurn Workshop t o a s s i s t t h e crew i n t r a n s l a t i n g t o and from work s t a t i c n s and f o r r e s t r a i n i n g thcmselves w h i l e performing v a r i o c s mission t a s k s . H a n d r a i l s , handholds, t h e t r i a n g u l a r g r i d , and body r e s t r a i n t s f o r t h e f e e t , t h j p h s , snd lower l e g s a r e provided a s f i x e d m o b i l i t y - s t a b i l i t y a i d s f o r p e r f o ar.:.l...gs p e c i f i c t a s k s . P o r t a b l e r e s t r a i n t s a r e p r w i d e d f o r use a t a v a r i e t y of work s t a t i o n s . Many o t h e r Items of equipment l o c a t e d throughout t h e i n t e r i o r e e r v e a s m o b i l i t y - s t a b i l i t y a i d s , a1:hough t h a t i s n o t t h e i r primary f u n c t i o n . Flxe6 - - Aids.- H a n d r a i l s r;,id handholds shown i n f i g u r e 10-36 a r e s i t u a t e d i n t h e l a b o r a t o r y t o a s s i s t t h e crewman i n t r a n s l a t i n g o r m a i n t a i n i ~ gtemporary body s i a b i l i t y w h i l e performing one-handed t a s k s . During t h e m i s s i o n , i t became obvious t h a t hand-over-hand t r a n s l a t i o n i n s i d e a l a r g e volume i s n o t req u i r e d a s a means of locomotion. The h a n d r a i l s v e r e used p r i m a r i l y a s a s p r i n g board f o c body movement and as a brake o r p i v o t f o r r e o r i e n t a t i o n . Since t h e arms a r e t h e major means f o r crewmen t o p r o p e l themselves i n zero g r a v i t y , t h e crew f e l t t h a t t h e r e ,,,as 3 need f o r more h a n d r a i l s and handholds in high t r a f f i c a r e a s . These a i d s shoulcl b e a s c l o s e a s ~ o s s i b l et o equipment so t h a t p o i n t s where t o r q u e s and opposing f o r c e s a r e a p p l i e d a r e c l o s e together. The crew a l s o i n d i c a t e d t h a t many of t h e h a n d r a i l s l o c a t e d a t worK s t a t i o n s f o r s t a b i l i t y should have been f o o t r e s t r a i n t s .

I-

Fecal-urine collector
handholds ( 2 )

Figlire 10-36.

-

Fixed h a n d r a i l s and handholds.

Waste mnagement compartment f o o t r e s t r a i n t s e n a b l e t . 2 ~ crcr,men, while b e r e f o o t e d , in s t o c k i n g s , o r iri s o f t b o o t s , t o use t h e urj:,r c o l l e c t o r and handwasher, and t o perform v a r i o u s hygiene and maintenance t a s k s w i t h b o t h hands

C o n t r o l s and d i s p l a y s i n c l u d e a v a r i e t y o f equipment l o c a t e d throughout t h e l a b o r a t o r y and aye t h e d i r e c t i n t e r f a c e between t h e crew and hardware systems. C o n t r o i s , such a s c c g g l e s w i t c h e s , pushSuttons, c i r c u i t breairers, and h m d - o p e r a t s d v a l v e s , a r e o p e r a t e u by t h e crew t o b r i n g about equipment o r performance changes. Displhys provide i n f o r m t i o n :o t h e crew concerning t h e o p e r a t i o n and s t a t u s o f a system o r subsyst-em. These i n c l u d e m e t e r s , h d i c a t o r l i g h t s , gages, and v i d e o d i s p l a y s . Some c o n t r o l p a n e l s p r o v i d e t h e o p t i o n of ground c o n t r o l o r onboard c o n t r c l of l a b o r a t o r y systems and equipment, w i t h primary c o n t r o l c a p a b i l i t y given t o t h e cre. d u r i n g manned p e r i o d s . Other c o c t r o l f u n c t i o n s t h a t do n o t a f f e . manned : - - nes, such a s 2-wat t t r m s m i t t e r s e i e c t i o n , belong t o t h e ground. Sx,zi~..,atdre ail, l a b e l i n g i d e n t i f y t h e c o n t r o l s and d i s p l a y s t o f a c i l i t a t e comm n i c s ' . I.,n and awumentat ion r e f e r e n c e and t o ensure r a p i d and p o s i t i v e recognitior.. Color coding of s e l e c t e d c o n t r o l s is used t o emphasize t h e s p e c i f i c n a t u r e of t h o s e c o n t r o l s t c t h e crew. Emergency c o c t r o l s a r e i n d i c a t e d by red. A b l a c k and yellow c a u t i o n a r y s t i 3 p . d band d e n o t e s a crew i n t e r f a c e t h a t should be used v i t h c a u t i o n and adequate p r e p a r a t t o n . C o n t r o l s r e q u i r i n g unusual manipulation a r e marked with o p e r a t i n g i n s t r u c t i o n s . .Although many c o n t r o l s and d i s p l a y s a r e l o c a t e d a t t h e i a d i v i d u a l hardware i t e m s o r systems, t h e m a j o r i t y a r e i n c l u d e d i n p a n e l s o r c c n s o l e s i n t h e workshop, s i r l o c k , and docking a d a p t e r . Worksh~p. A1 1 c o n t r o l and d i s p l a y func t i o m which could f e a s i b l y be l o c a t e d i n a s i n g l e p l a c e a r e on t h e e l e c t r i c a l control. c o n s o l e i n t h e experiment compartment ( f t g . 2-9). The remaining c o n t r o l s and dj-splays a r e i n s t a l l e d a t t h e i r use l o c a t i o n s o t h a t o p e r a t i n g s t z t u s map be e a s i l y d e t e c t e d a t t h e c o n t r o l ope r a t i n g p o s i t i o n . Tinere were no s p e c i f i c a d v e r s e o r c r i t i c a l crew c o w e n t s r e g a r a i n g t h e w o r k s k p c o n t r o l s and d i s p l a y s . S e v e r a l f a l s e s l a m i n d i c a t i o n s The f i r s t crew i n d i c a t e d t h a t occurred d u r i n g t h e mission a r e d i s c - - s s e u i n 5.5. t h a t t h e use of w i c k e t s and p a r t i 3 1 r e c e s s e s f o r p r e v e n t i n g i n a d v e r t e n t switch and c i r c u i t breaker o p e r a t i o n w a s a good conccpt. The second crew commented t h a t f i n g e r c l e a r a n c e s between t h e s e d e v i c e s and t h e c o n t r o l s were adequate. Airlock.The primary c o n t r o l s and J i s p l a v s f o r l a b o r a t o r y atmosphere and l a b o r a t o r y e l e c t r i c a l power system o p e r a t i o n s are l o c a t e d on p a n e l s i n tho- s t r u c t u r a l t r a n s i c i o n s e c t i o n ( f i g . 4-1, 7-18, and 7-19). Control p o s i t i o n s a r e shown by i n d i c a t o r l i g h t s f o r m ~ m e n t a r ys w i t c h e s o r d e t e n t s and by p o i n t e r s f o r v a i v e s and r o t a r y switches. Bar guards p r o v i d e switch p r o t e c t i o n and o p e r a t i n g r e a c t i o n p o i n t s . C i r c u i t b r e a k c r s a r e grouped by i v n c t i o n and svstem. Schematic and f u n c t i o n a l Flow diagrams a r e superimposed d i r e c t l y 011 control. p a n e l s where t h e r e i s space o r on a 2 j s c e n t a r e a s . Meters a r e l o c a t e d next t o t h e i r r e l a t e d c o n t r o l s . Switches c o n t r o l l i n g c r i t i c a l f u n c t i o n s on t h e s e p a n e l s and t h e ext r a v e h i c u l a r a c t i v i t y c o n t r o l p a n e l s i n t h e l o c k compartment a r e l e v e r - l o c k t y p e t o g g l e s w i t c h e s t o prevent u n i n t e n t i o n a l o p e r a t i o n by a p r e s s u r e - s u i t e d crewman. Control c a p & i l i t i e s of t h e e l e c t r i c a l power system enabled i s o l a t i o n of t h e r a b o r a t o r y b a t t e r i e s u n t i l t h e crew deployed t h e s o l a r a r r a y wing. Subsequcat adjustments permitted f u l l use of tile system w i t h w l y t h e one wing. The c a p a b i l i t y of t h e crew t o s e l e c t c o o l a n t pumps allowed u n i n t e r r u p t e d o p e r a t i o n when t h e s o l a r o b s e r v a t o r y c o o l a n t loop i n d i c a t e d m a l f u n c t i o n s . I n d i v i d u a l cont r o l of r e g u l a t o r s on t h e c a b i n atmosphere c , ' r o l panel enabled t h e crew t o manipulate them t o c o r r e c t n i t r o g e n p r e s s u r e re p l a t i o n p r o b l e a s V i s u a l alarms and a n n u n c i a t o r s i n t h e c a u t i o n and warning system were adcquate t o p r o a p t p r o p e r crew r e a c t i o n and provide system t r o u b l e s h o o t i n g c a p a b i l i t y . O c c a s i o n a l l y c i r c u i t b r e a k e r s were i n a d v e r t e n t l y o p e r a t e d , a p p a r e n t l y because of t h e c l o s e

.

proximity between t h e p a n e l s and t h e heavy crew t r a f f i c i n an a r e a where passi n g crewmen o f t e n changed t h e i r body p o s i t i o n o r t r a j e c t o r y . The c i r c u i t breaker b a r guards used d i d not prevent a s t r a y shoe t i p o r f i n g e r from moving t h e t o g g l e - l e v e r t y p e s w i t c h e s . Although t h e s e b r e a k e r s were s u p e r i o r when used r e g u l a r l y f o r s w i t c h i n g f u n c t i o n s , push-pull t y p e b r e a k e r s would have been p r e f e r a b l e f o r i n f r e q u e n t usage.
A number o f c o n t r o l and d i s p l a y p a n e l s a r e l o c a t e d i n Docking Adapter.t h e docking a d a p t e r . These a r e p r k r i l y a s s o c i a t e d w i t h o p e r a t i o n of t h e vari o u s experiment systems. However, t h e s o l a r c b s e r v a t o r y c o n t r o l and d i s p l a y console i n c l u d e s c o n t r o l s f o r Skylab a t t i t u d e and s o l a r o b s e r v a t o r y e l e c t r i c a l power. The console is t h e most complex s c i e n t i f i c c o n t r o l and d i s p l a y equipI t i s d e s i g n e d f o r perment flown t o d a t e on an o r b i t a l mission ( f i g . 10-2). forming s o p h i s t i c a t e d s o l a r p h y s i c s o b s e r v a t i m s u s i n g e i g h t t e l e s c o p e s . Cont r o l s i n c l u d e t o g g l e and rot;ry s w i t c h e s , a "joy-stick" m u a l p o i n t i n g c o n t r o l Zer, and a keyboard d i g i t a l a d d r e s s system. Systems m o n i t o r i n g i s provided by s t a t u s l i g h c s and f l a g s , a l e r t l i g h t s , d u a l s c a l e meters, p u l s e c o u n t e r s , d i g i t a l d i s p l a y s , an a c t i v i t y h i s t o r y p l o t t e r , and two v i d e o d i s p l a y s . Experiment c o n t r o l s and d i s p l a y s a r e c e i . t r a l l y l o c a t e d i n a row-column m t r i x c o n f i g u r a t i o n wherein rows c o n t a i n i n d i v i d u a l experiment c o n t r o l s and d i s p l a y s and columns c o n t a i n c o n t r o l s and d i s p l a y s having a common f u n c t i o n . Subsystem c o n t r o l s and d i s p l a y s a r e Lunctionally groupeJ around t h e p e r i p h e r y a r e a .

The crew s p e n t many hours a t t h e c o n s o l e performing t h e s o l a r p h y s i c s experiments. The h i g h e s t i n c i d e n c e o f i n t e r f a c e problems w i t h t h e c o n s o l e occ u r r e d on t h e experiment o p e r a t i o n s c o n t r o l s and d i s p l a y s . The crew noted numerous i n s t a n c e s when they i n a d v e r t e n t l y l e f t a r h r e e - p o s i t i o n t o g g l e s w i t c h i n t h e wrong p o s i t i o n For no a p p a r e n t reason. T h i s s w i t c h h a s no p o s i t i o n i n d i c a t i n g d i s p l a y and r e l i e * on t h e o p e r a t o r ' s v i s u a l r e f e r e n c e . A crewman looking s t r a i g h t onto t h e panel at s o s e a n g l e below t h e eye r e f e r e n c e p o i n t may be unable t o d i s t i n g u i s h t h e a c t u a l p o s i t i o n t h e s w i t c h is i n . One experiment 's ready-operate l i g h t fa?-led, s o t h e crew could n o t d e t e r ? ~ i i i i ewhen t h e expeiiment w a s a c t u a l l y i a n o p e r a t i n g mode. An a u x i l i a r y timer w a s i n s t a l l e d by t h e t h i r d ere?? t o r e c t i f y t h i s problem. The crew a l s o f o m d t h e c o l o r s and i l l u n ~ n a t i o nieve--s o f t h e s e l i g h t s v e r y annoying. The alert s t a t u s l i g h t s were i n c w d e d t o i n d i c a t e any abnormal and p o t e n t i a l l y c r i t i c a l system c o n d i t i o n , such a s high c o n t r o l gyro b e a r i n g t e ~ p e r a t u r e sand improper a p e r t u r e door p o s i t i o n s . Malfunctions p e r s i s t e d i n some o f t h e s e systems throughout Lhe d s s i o n . T h i s caused e x t e n s i v e c o n f u s i o n , because when a new a l e r t would il.iumfnate, t h e crewman could n o t d e t e c t i t s presence among t h e surrounding c o l o ~ e dl i g h t s , which rendered t h e system i n e f f e c t i v e . The crew covered thc i n d i c a t o r s of n d f u n c t i o n e d equipment w i t h masking t a p e t o e l i m i n a t e t h e should have had more problem. The grey and w h i t e i n d i c a t o r s on s t a t u s f l ~ g s contrast for v i s i b i l i t y . The crew performed very much a s t h e y d i d d u r i n g t h e i r s i r r . l l a t o r t r a i n i n g , l'he most d e s i r e d change i f i t h e and t h e h a b i t s formulated then n e v e r changed. c o n s o l e wa: h i c s s t r u c t u r a l c o n f i g u r a t i o n . A "wrap-around" s t y l e would have made c o n t r c l e a d d i s p l a y s e a s i e r t o s e e and reach. Although t h e r e were a number of hardwar? problems and p r o c e d u r a l e r r o r s , t h e amount of v a l u a b l e s o l a r p h y s i c s d a t a c o l l e c t e d f a r exceeded premission e x p e c t a t i o n s .

10.3

CREW OPERATION OF EXPERIMENTS

The operatlon of experiments was g e n e r a l l y s a t i s f a c t o r y , and most experiments met o r exceeded t h e i r premission o b j e c t i v e s . The human f a c t o r s problem5 a r e discussed here, and a d e s c r i p t i o n of t h e experiments and t h e system problems is contained i n s e c t i o n 12. The s c i e n t i f i c a i r l o c k system was operated e f f i c i e n t l y and e a s i l y by t h e crew. It was t i g h t and never f a i l e d a l e a k check. More t i m e than expected was needed f o r p r e s s u r i z i n g and d e p r e s s u r i z i n g , which t h e crew had never p r a c t i c e d during t r a i n i n g . Consequently, some lead time was necessary t o s e t up an exo periment. N d i f f i c u l t i e s were experienced a l i g n i n g experiments i n t h e a i r l o c k , and no flanges o r s e a l s were damaged. While using the s c i e n t i f i c a i r l o c k a s a vacuum source t o perform a condensate holding tank dump, one of t h e crewmen l e f t tile o u t e r door open and t h e v a l v e in t h e p r e s s u r i z a t i o n p o s i t i o n . With :he desiccant system valve i n t h e open p o s i t i o n , cabin a i r bled overboard through t h e desiccant canister and o u t of t h e a i r l o c k . The l e a k was discovered by t h e ground c o n t r o l l e r s and t h e crew w a s asked t o c o n 3 g u r e t h e a i r l o c k properly. Handling the contamination measuring experiment instrument was a one-man operation and was f a c i l i t a t e d by t h e handle of t h e c a n i s t e r being l o c a t e d through t h e c e n t e r of gravity. A s o p e r a t i o n s progressed, t h e c r e v n o t i c e d t h a t t h e photometer extension rods f o r use with t h e a i r l o c k became i n c r e a s i n g l y d i f f i c u l t t o screw together. This was thought t o be caused by a buildup of moisture and contamination. During rod r e t r a c t i o n , t h e thermal gloves were required but d i d n o t hinder rod r e t r a c t i o n operations. The second crew i n d i c a t e d t h a t t h e system should have been checked o u t completely and p o s s i b l y operated i n s i d e t h e workshop before i t s use. The u l t r a v i o l e t panorama experiment a c t i v a t i o n and manipulation v a s e a s i l y a one-m.:n operation. The l a t c h i n g technique and d e c a l s on t h e launch stowage s t r u c t u r e were adequate. However, t h e schedules dLd n o t allow enough t i m e between exposures. One minube was added t o t h e s e tlrnes t o allow for ciclj us+,wnts i n pointing and timing f o r t h e upcoming exposure. The crew a l s o s a i d t h e schedule d i d not allow time t o debrief previous experiments before s t a r t i n g . There were no problems associated with t h e workshop l i g h t i n g l e v e l s during operations. The f a r u l t r a v i o l e t e l e c t r o ~ t o g r a p h i ccamera experiment o p e r a t i o n s were performed as scheduled, and procedures and equipment were adequate. While perforati n g t h e experiment through t h e s c i e n t i f i c a i r l o c k , t h e crew noted t h a t t h e green exposure sequence i n d i c a t o r l i g h t was a c t u a l l y brownish r e d and very low i n b r i g h t n e s s and thus would probably be d i f f i c u l t t o read during e x t r a v e h i c u l a r operations. During t h e second e x t r a v e h i c u l a r a c t i v i t y of t h e t h i r d mmned p e r i o d , t h r e e d a t a takes were made even though t h e crew could not see Comet Kohoutek. I t was hoped t h a t t h e comet would he d e t e c t a b l e on t h e phctographic data. The crew reported t h a t t h e barium plasma observations experiment setup was a Lengthy operation and took approximately 2 hours t o coaplete. The barium inj e c t i o n was v i s i b l e t o t h e naked eye and was photographed u s i n g numerous t i m e exposures. During t h e s e photographic seusions, t h e r e were some d i f f i c u l t i e s in damping t h e o s c i l l a t i o n s of t h e camera mount a f t e r exposure a c t u a t i o n . A s t h e experiment progressed and techniques improved, t h e s e o s c i l l a t i o n s were reduced.

The Kohoutek photometric photography experiment was performed a t t h e designated times i n t h e t h i r d manned period t o o b t a i n photographs of Comet Kohoutek.

10-60

Not a l l scheduled phc, t o g r a ~ h i cexposures could be made because of l i m l i n t h e window's f i e l d of view and t h e f a i n t n e s s of t h e comet.

~to n s i

During replacemen. of t h e thermal c o n t r o l c o a t i n g experiment sample, i t was was d i f f i c i i l t t o a l i g n t h e snaps because t h e e x t r a v e h i c u l a r giove r e s t r i c t e d v i s i b i l i t y and d e x t e r i t y . The panel was e v e n t u a l l y a t t a c h e d by touching t h e c e n t e r samples w i t h t h e gloved f i n g e r , p o s s i b l y contaminating them. Although t h e experiment was n o t d e s ~ g i l e df o r replacement in o r b i t , t h e problem could p o s s i b l y have been e l i m i n a t e d w i t h t h e a d d i t j o n of guide p i n s and alignment marks. The samplas were e a s i l y r e t r i e v e d . The crew s t a t e d t h a t t h e ~ v e r a l l design of t h e experiment hardware w a s adequate, b u t they f e l t t h a t a h e e l rest r a i n t would have :-een h e 1pf u l f o r s t a b i l i z a t i o n when r e t r i e v i n g samples.

The m a t e r i a l s p r o c e s s i n g experireent o p e r a t i o n w a s similar t o ground t r a i n i n g except f o r t h e time r e q u i r e d t o h e a t or c o o l t h o specimen and t o o b t a i n a s u f f i c i e n t vacuum i n t h e f a c i l i t y . The crew s t a t e d t h a t t h e t r a i n i n g u n i t w s s e x c e l k n t and i d e n t i c a l t o t h s f l i g h t u n i t . Since t h e y had nevc.: zvacuated t h e f a c i l l e j d u r i n g t r a i n i n g , t h e crew thought t h a t t h e slow bleed-down t h e f i r s t t i m e t h e vacuum gage was used i n d i c a t e d a f a u l t y gage. They experienced no problems in h a n d l i r ~ gt h e specimens a s l o n g as t h e y observed proper cooldown time

.

The crew enjoyed performing t h e e l e c t r i c f u r n a c e experiment. The equipment worked as designed and was e a s i l y i n s t a l l e d i n t o t h e m a t e r i a l s p r o c e s s i n g chamber. The specimen c a r t r i d g e s were very w e l l i d e n t i f i e d t o permit c o o r d i n a t i o n of sample d a t a . The o p e r a t i o n s were c l e a r l y d e f i n e d , and no problems were experienred. The ma~lualnavigatiorl s i g h t i n g s experiment window hood, which was used t o s h i e l d t h e wardroom window from i n t e r n a l r e f l e c t i o n , was c o n s i d e r e d a d e f i n i t e n e c a s s i t y . The crewman found i t d i f f i c u l t t o hold t h e s e x t a n t s t e a d y d u r i n g sigbtings, and emphasized t h e importance of body p o s i t i o n and p o s t u r e i n obtaini n g a c c u r a t e s i g h t i n g s . During an e a r l y o p e r a t i o n , one crewman developed muscle cramps i n h i s arms and l e g s . He devised a r e s t r a i n t system t c hold him i n posit i o n a t t h e window, u s i n g a long s t r a p h o o k 4 over a b a r , aud f e l t t h i s improved t h e accuracy of h i s s i g h t i n g s . There w a s a d i s t i n c t d i f f e r e n c e i n e a s e , a b i l i t y , and accuracy of t h e operacion, depending on whether t h e s t a r s were l o c a t e d up arid down o r l e f t t~ r:ght r e l a t i v z t o h i s body p o s t u r e .
I t was d i f f i c u l t f o r crewmen t o remove t h e i r f i n g e r s from t h e p o i n t i n g conc r o l knobs on t k s e x t a n t w i t h o u t moving i t . They could g e t a good alignmer.t, but when they r e l e a s e d t h e i r f i n g e r s , t h e knob would move s l i g h t l y . The c o n t r o l knobs should be easy io move, but n o t s o s e n s i t i v e . The crew a l s o d i s l i k e d t h e design of t h e knobs on t h e f i l t e r s because t h e y could n o t t e l l whether t h e f i l t e r s were i n o r o u t . The crew experienced p o i n t i n g d i f f i c u l t i e s because t h e shape of t h e c a s e and t h e l o c a t i m of t h e s t r a p made i t d i f f i c u l t t o hold t h e s e x t a n t i n t h e proper p o s i t i o n at t h e windaw. They f e l t they needed phosphorescent a l i g n ment marks t o g e t t h e l i n e of s i g h t d i r e c t e d between two s t a r s . They a l s o suggested t h e use of a colored f i l t e r s o t h a t t h e y would n o t l o s e t r a c k of t h e p a r t i c u l a r star they were s i g h t i n g , which was a problem when holding t h e s e x t a n t at odd a n g l e s . The system should have been designed s o t h a t a1.l c s n t r o l s could be 0perriLed without t h e crewman removing h i s eyes from t h e r e ~ i c l es i g h t . Having t h e s e x t a n t readout i n s i d e t h e r e t i c l e would prevent l o s i n f , s i g h t of t h e s t a r while t a k i n g readings.

The i n f l i g h t a e r o s o l a n a l y s i s d a t a c a r d s were n o t l a r g e enough t o a l l o w s u f f i c i e n t a r e a t o record a l l t h e r e q u i r e d information. 10.4 INFLIGHT UINTENANCE

The f e a s i b i l i t y o f performing i n f l i g h t maintenance, and ;he v a l u e of t h i s c a p a b i l i t y , was e f f e c t i v e l y d e n o n s t r a t e d a s s u c c e s s f u l r e p a i r s d u r i n d t h e f i r s t manned period in e f f e c t saved t h e a i s s i o n . Procedures and hardw-re were developed on t h e ground, and crewmen p r a c t i c e d i n t r a i n e r s and t h e n e u t r a l buoyancy s i m u l a t o r t o perform t a s k s which had been considered i m p r a c t i c a l o r i n f e a s i b l e p r i o r t o t h e mission. The c o n t i n u i n g d e g r ~ d a t i o no r f a i l u r e of c e r t a i n equipment a l s o r e s u l t e d i n t h e planning o f a d d i t i o n a l maintenance a c t i v i t i e s which were c a r r i e d o u t d u r i n g t h e second and t h i r d manned p e r i o d s . I n i t i a l Saturrr Workr;hop design concepts depended on t h e u s e of h i g h - r e l i a b i l i t y hartware and excluded t h e requirements f o r i n £i i g h t maintenance. A s systems i n r teased in magcitude and complexity and t h e mission lengthened, i t became apparent t h a t , even with h i g h - r e l i a b i l i t y hardware, f a i l u r e s could o c c u r , j e o p a r d i z i n g t h e crew and t h e mission o b j e c t i v e s . The p h i l o s q h , g r a d u a l l y evolved t o a concept o f p r o v i d i n g f o r c o n s i d e r a b l e mainten-rice, but w i t h a number of l i m i t a t i o n s , such as no maintenance on e l e c t r i c a l c i r c u i t s and none d u r i n g e x t r a v e h i c d a r a c t i v i t i e s . P r o v i s i o n s were made f o r t h r e e c a t e g o r i e s o f i n f l i g h t maintenance' scheduled a c t i v i t i e s f o r normal c l e a n i n g and replacement t a s k s , unscheduled a c t i v i t i e s f o r a n t i c i p a t e d r e p a i r and s e r v i c i n g of d e s i g n a t e 1 equipment, and a g e n e r a l c a p a b i l i t y f o r unexpected o r contingency r e p a i r s . Scheduled I n f l i g h t Maintenance.This c a t e g o r y was e s t a b l i s h e d f o r p e r i o d i c c l e a n i n g o r replacement of consumable, c y c l e - s e n s i t i v e , o r t i m e - s e n s i t i v e equipment ( t a b l e 10-X). Requirements a r e included i n t h e crew c h e c k l i s t s as p a r t of t h e normal housekeeping t a s k s , b u t a r e h e l d t o a minimum t o conserve crew t i m ; . They a r e scheduled i n t h e d a i l y f l i g h t p l a n s and g e n e r a l i y i n c l u d e t h e c l e a n i n g o r replacement of such items as waste system and environmental c o n t r o l f i l t e r s . Scheduled maintenance t a s k s were performed much a s planned. However, a few t a s k s were added, and t h e frequency of performance was v a r i e d a s t h e mission progressed. N s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f i c u l t i e s were r e p o r t e d i n performing t h e t a s k s . o Onboard t o o l s , s p a r e s , and procedures were adequate f o r a l l t a s k s . The crew ind i c a t e d t h a t t h e t a s k s could have been e f f i c i e n t l y w i t h l i t t l e o r no training. Unscheduled I n f l i g h t Ykiintenance.P r o v i s i o n s a r e made f o r r e p l a c i n g f a i l e d components, i n s t a l l i n g a u x i l i a r y and backup hardware, and s e r v i c i n g and r e p a i r i n g c e r t a i n equipment as r e q u i r e d . Spare components, t o o l s , and procedures a r e provided f o r performing 160 d i f f e r e n t unscheduled t a s k s , and t h e crew is t r a i n e d t o perform each. The s e l e c t i o n of t l s s e t a s k s was based upon a n a l y s i s of f a i l u r e c r i t i c a l i t y , f a i l u r e p r o b a b i l i t y , f a i l u r e e f f e c t s on t h e mission and t h e crew, complexity of t h e r e q u i r e d maintenance, s u p p o r t r e q u i r e d , and time t o perform t h e maintenance. Table 10-XI shows t h e unscheduled t a s k s planned and performed and s p a r e components used. No s i g n i f i c a n t problems were r e p o r t e d by t h e crew, and t o o l s , s p a r e s , and procedures were adequate. Contingency I n f l i g h t Maintenance.I n a d d i t i o n t o t h e provisions f o r scheduled and unscheduled maintenance, t o o l s and m a t e r i a l s a r e included t o permit r e p a i r of f a i l e d equipment f o r which no s p e c i f i c maintenance t a s k could be a n t i c i p a t e d . Items such as t a p e , wire, C-clamps, o l i e r s , a v i s e , twine, hanuners,

Table 10-X.

-

Scheduled Inf light Maintenance A c t i v i t i e s
- - - -- - --

Task description Vacum cleaning tasks Amsphere i n l e t screens : A i r mixing chamber, airlock and docking adapter fans Waste raanagenent compartnent: Debris coarse f i1t e r Debris coarse-fi ne f i 1t e r Debris f i n e f i l t e r hrkshop heat exchanger fans Warkshop heat exchanger vanes Workshop vent valve f i i t e r

Planned frequency of ycrfonmnce

Actual frequency o f performance d u r i ng manned periods First

7 dajs
7 days Added Added Added Added Activation, 2nd and 3rd manned periods 7 days
3 days

7 days

3 days
Activation

2 days 2 dajrs 6 dys Activation

Rei1acemnt tasks aste management compartment: Vent u n i t f i n e f i l t e r Vent coarse-f ine f i 1t e r F i 1t e r and charcoal cartridge Fecal collector f i t e r 1 Urine separator f i l t e r Urine separator Shower f i 1t e r k l e c u l a r sieve sol ids traps A l e c u l a r sieve charcoal canister Carbon dioxide detector cartridges Oxygen p a r t i a l pressure sensor Console coolant uater f i 1t e r

- inlet
-

outlet

Ai rlock gas cool ant separ % t o r

7 days 28 days 28 days 28 days 28 days Deactivation, 1st and 2nd manned periods 7 days 11 days 28 days 14 days 28 days Activation. 2nd and 3rd manned perfods Before and a f t e r Earth observation experiment operation, I st manned period Activation, 2nd and 3rd manned ,eriods

7 days
Day 39 D4Y 39 28 days Deactivation Fol 1wi 11 days 28 days 14 days 14 days

12 days Day134 Day 134 28 days

1 12 days Day214
Day 213 28 days

-

-

Deactivation crew showers 11 days 11 days 28 days 28 davs 14 d&. 14 days 14 days 14 days ActiActivation vation Day 133 Day 236

Day 15 Day 36

-

-

and tweezers a r e included i n t h e t o o l inventory f o r t h i s purpose. During t h e mission, a d d i t i o n a l t o o l s and equipment were launched with t h e crews t o troubleshoot and c o r r e c t malfunctions f o r which onboard maintenance support was inadequate. Other contingency s i t u a t i o n s occurred t h a t were resolved with t h e onboard support equipment, but required t h a t step-by-step procedures be developed on t h e ground and t r a n s m i t t e d t o t h e crew. The following paragraphs r e l a t e , in chranol o g i c a l o r d e r , t h e ccntingency i n F l i g h t maintenance t a s k s performed by t h e crew.
On Day 13, t h e crew s u c c e s s f u l l y deployed a p a r a s o l thermal s h i e l d , c a r r i e d i n t h e i r command module, from t h e +2 s c i e n t i f i c a i r l o c b t o lower temperatures i n t h e workshop and make it h a b i t a b l e ( f i g . 3-11). The p a r a s o l thermal s h i e l d cons i s t e d of four spring-loaded, t e l e s c o p i n g r i b s and a folded s h i e l d stowed i n a modified experiment c a n i s t e r . The c a n i s t e r was i n s t a l l e d in t h e s c i e n t i f i c a i r l o c k and t h e p a r a s o l extended by means of a c e n t e r e x t e n s i o n - r e t r a c t i o n rod t o a d i s t a n c e of 21 f e e t from t h e workshop. t whi cb p g i n t t h e paraeol opened

r e t u r n t o t h e a i r l o c k and t h e disassembly and stowage of t h e deployment hardware were accomplished w i t h no d i f f i c u l t y . Because t h e experiment t r i p o d was needed t o s u p p o r t t h e p a r a s o l c o n t a i n e r ,

a backup u n i t had been stowed i n t h e command module. The backup t r i p o d d i d n o t f i t t h e mounting p r o v i s i o n s p r o p e r l y , s o on Day 29 t h e c r e k used a t t a c h f n g
hardware, salvaged from throwaway launch r e s t r a i n t s , t o mount t h e tripoc;. Duri n g t h e e x t r a v e h i c u l a r a c t i v i t y on Day 39, a crewman s t r u c k power c o n d i t i o n e r 15 w i t h a hammer t o f r e e a s t u c k r e l a y and r e s t o r e b a t t e r y c h a r g i n g r e g u l a t i o n . The twin-pole thermal s h i e l d was depioyed o v e r t h e p a r a s o l d u r i n g t h e f i r s t e x t r a v e h i c u l a r a c t i v i t y by t h e second crew on Day 85. The s h i e l d and a l l . equipment necessary f o r deployment had been developed, t e s t e d , and launchod w i t h t h e f i r s t crew. Two crewmn passed t h e equipment through t h e e x t r a v e h i c u l a r a c t i v i t y hatch i n t o t h e f i x e d a i r l o c k shroud a r e a . Using t h e f i l m t r a n s f e r boom, they t r a n s f e r r e d a Coot r e s t r a i n t assembly, t h e p o l e b a s e p l a t e , and t h e packaged s h i e l d t o t h e s o l a r ~ b s e r v a t o r yA-frame o u t r i g g e r s t r u c t u r e . The f o o t r e s t r a i n t was locked i n p l a c e and one 'crewman i n s t a l l e d t h e b a s e p l a t e on t h e o u t r i g g e r 1 w h i l e t h e o t h e r crewman assembled t h e p o l e s e c t i o n s and c l o t h r ? s l i n e s . A s t h e 1 s e c t i o n s forming ea,:n p ! e were assembled, t h e crewman on t h e o u t r i g g e r locked them i n t o t h e b a s e p l a t e . The s h i e l d bag was opened and t h e s h i e l d was a t t a c h e d w i t h hooks t o r i n g s on t h e c l o t h e s l i n e . The s h i e l d was h o i s t e d l i k e a s a i l t o t h e ends of t h e twin p o l e s , and t h e whole assembly was swung toward t h e exposed a r e a of t h e workshop and locked. Two r e e f i n g l i n e s a t t h e c o m e r s of t h e s h i e l d n e a r e s t t h e s o l a r o b s e r v a t o r y were s e c u r e d t o t h e o u t r i g g e r s , completing t h e s h i e l d deployment ( f i g . 10-48). The i n s t a l l a t i o n was n o t d i f f i c u l t , and no major problems were encountered.

Figure 10-48.-

Thermal s h i e l d deployment c o n f i g u r a t i o n .

A f t e r deploying t h e thermal s h i e l d , t h e crew removed t h e l a t c h ramp from one s o l a r observatory experiment a p e r t u r e door l a t c h mechanism t o e l i m i n a t e b i n d i n g of t h e door d u r i n g opening and c l o s i n g . Two b o l t s t h a t secured t h e l a t c h ramp were removed w i t h ; wrench from t h e t o o l k i t . On Days 90 and 95 t h e l a b o r a t o r y t a p e r e c o r d e r s were disassembled and t h e cause of f a i l u r e was i s o l a t e d t o 3 worn d r i v e b e l t . A l l t o o l s n e c e s s a r y f o r t h i s t a s k were a v a i l a b l e onboard. The crew r e p o r t e d on Day 98 t h a t t h e r c p e on t h e Mark I exerc i s e r had broken. The crew s u c c e s s f u l l y r q l a c e d t h e rope i n accordance w l t h an uplinked procedure, but had t o improvise i l l t i g h t e n i n g a clamp screw, because t h e t o o l k i t d f d n o t c o n t a i n t h e proper s i z e hex wrench. An attempt was made on Day 99 t o i s o l a t e a i r l e a k a g e i n t h e condensate dump system by p r e s s u r i z i n g t h e system and bubble-checking t h e plumbing j o i n t s w i t h a soap and water s o l u t i o n . The l e a k was n o t l o c a t e d , b u t i t stopped a f t e r replacement of t h e dump probe. l A v i s u a l i n s p e c t i o n of '.aboratory c o o l a n t l o ~ p i n e s and f i t t i n g s w a s performed i n two phases on Days 99 and 101, a f t e r -xcessive l o s s of c o o l a n t was det e c t e d . The crew removed a number of s t r u c t u r a l p a n e l s t o g a i n a c c e s s t o t h e p l m b i n g , b u t found no i n t e r n a l leakage. The supplementary r a t e gyro package, o r I1 six-pack," developed d u r i n g t h e second unmanned p e r i o d , was i n s t a l l e d and a c t i v a t e d on Day 1 0 3 i n a combined e x t r a v e h i c u l a r and i n t r a v e h i c u l a r a c t i v i t y . A l l t o o l s and equipment necessary f o r i n s t a l l a t i o n and checkout were included w i t h t h e six-pack. The crew a l s a removed two more a p e r t u r e door l a t c h ramps t o e l i m i n a t e b i n d i n g , u s i n g t h e same procedure a s b e f o r e . A screw from one of t h e ergometer p e d a l s , which had loosened and become l o s t , was r e p l a c e d from an assortment of s p a r e screws on board on Day 107. The new screw was broken duri n g i n s t a l l a t i o n and t h e f i l e b l a d e of t h e Swiss army k n i f e was used t o s l o t t h e screw s o t h a t i t could be removed w i t h a s c r e w d r i v e r . A second screw was removed from a s p a r e u r i n e s e p a r a t o r and s u c c e s s f u l l y i n s t a l l e d i n t h e p e d a l . Low a i r f l o w i n t h e v e n t i l a t i o n d u c t s was c o r r e c t e d on Day 1 1 by vacuum1 c l e a n i n g t h e h e a t exchangers. An adjustment t o t h e m u l t i s p e c t r a l scanner experiment was s u c c e s s f u l l y performed on Day 113 t o correc: a f i l n overexposure problem which had occurred d u r m g t h e f i r s t manned p e r i o d . A t o o l k i t screwd r i v e r b l a d e had t o be f i l e d down w i t h t h e Swiss army k n i f e f i l e b l a d e s o t h a t i t would f i t t h e a d j u s t i n g screw. Four p r i n t e d c i r c u i t boards were removed from t h e video t a p e r e c o r d e r on Day 117 t o be r e t u r n e d f o r f a i l u r e a n a l y s i s ( f i g . 10-45). The crew a l s o performed a t r o u b l e s h o o t i n g procedure on Day 117 1 t o determine t h e condiLion of t h e condensate dump probe removed on Day 1 1 because of i c e accumulat.ion. Checkout of t h e probe h e a t e r s u s i n g t h e d i g i t a l multimeter r e v e a l e d t h a t ;he h e a t e r s had n o t f a i l e d , and t h e probe was restowed f o r use as a s p a r e . During d e a c t i v a t i o n by t h e second crew, one of t h e t h r e e u r i n e drawer s e a l s became unbonded. Three s p a r e s e a l s were c a r r i e d up w i t h t h e t h i r d crew, and t h e f a i l e d s e a l was r e p l a c e d on Day 188 d u r i n g a c t i v a t i o n o f t h e u r i n e system. The t h i r d crew a l s o c a r r i e d up s e r v i c i n g equipment and wrl.tten procedures developed d u r i n g t h e t h i r d unmanned p e r i o d t o r e s t o r e o p e r a t i o n of t h e primary l a b o r a t o r y c o o l a n t loop. On Day 190 t h e crew s u c c e s s f u l l y tapped t h e l i n e s t o r e f i l l t h e system with c o o l a n t and r e s t o r e d i t t o s a t i s f a c t o r y o p e r a t i o n . Liquid c r y s t a l thermoneters, backed w i t h p r e s s u r e - s e n s i t i v e a d h e s i v e , were a t t a c h e d t o each of t h e six-pack r a t e gyros on Day 192 t o f a c i l i t a t e t h e monitoring of gyro temperatures. A f a i l u r e i n t h e microwave radiometer, s c a t t e r o m e t e r , and altimeter experiment antenna c o n t r o l e l e c t r o n i c s d u r i n g t h e second manned p e r i o d r e s u l t e d i n an e x t r a v e h i c u l a r maintenance a c t i v i t y f o r t h e t h i r d crew on Day 193. They had t o r e a c h t h e antenna on t h e -2 e x i s cf t h e docking a d a p t e r without

t h e use of i n s t a l l e d t r a n s l a t i o n a i d s and r e s t r l i n t , s i n c e t h e p a t h was not a L c q t h e norrral e x t r a v e h i c u l a r a c t i s - 1 ~r o u i e . A p o r t a b l e p r e s s u r e garment ~ f o o t r e s t r a i n t and univcrsa.l. mollnt were mounted a t t h e a r ~ t e n n al o c a t f o n t o pravide a f i x e d crew r e s t r a i n t . The crewmen i n s t a l l e d a jumper box and i n h i b i t switch i n t h e antenna c i r c u i t r y and a l o c k assembly on t h e a n t e n n a ' s p i t c h gimbal.

A soltir o b s e r v a t o r y c o n s o l e v i d e o monitor, which had f a i l e d d u r i n g t h e second manned p e r i o d , was r e p l a c s d on Day 196 by a s p a r e u n i t provided w i t h t h e t h i r d crew, S p e c i a l t o o l s , c a b l e s , and procedures had t o be developed and supp l i e d w i t h t h e s p a r e monitor. The second crew had fo1.1nd t h a t more a c c u r a t e timing was r e q u i r e d f o r s p e c t r o g r a p h experiment o p e r a t i o n , b u t an a t t e m p t t o remove t h e console k i c k p l a t e i n p r e p a r a t i o n f o r t h i s a ~ * t i v i t was u n s u c c e s s f u l . y 'An a u x i l i a r y s l i t timer w t s developed f o r i n s t a l l a t i o n by t h e t h i r d crew, a s w e l l a s a s p e c i a l t o o l t o remove t h e screws from t h e k i c k p l a t e . On Day 196, t h e t i m e r was L n s t a l l e d by t h e t h i r d crew and t h e c a b l e c o n n e c t o r s were mated without having t o remove t h e k i c k p l a t e . This was done w i t h s p a i r of s p e c i a l connector p l i e r s which had been developed f o r t h e r a t € gyro i n s t a l h t i o n . A replacement motor was i n s t a l l e d on Day 197 t o r e s t o r e t h e n u c l e a r emulsion experiment d e t e c t o r package deployment d r i v e , which had f a i l e d i n t h e f i r s t manned p e r i o d . A r e p a i r k i t c o n s i s t i n g of a rope, a s p r i n g , and a hex wrench w a s used t o r e p a i r t h e Mark I e x e r c i s e r on Day Lob. This r e p l a c e d t h e tempor a r y r e p a i r made by t h e second crew. A drop i n t h e s o l a r o b s e r v a t o r y c o o l a n t loop f l o w r a t e was c o r r e c t e d on Day 219 by t e m p o r a r i l y i n s t a l l i n g one of t h e s p a r e l i q u i d - g a s s e p a r a t o r s t o f i l t e r o u t p o s s i b l e c o n t a m i n a t i ~ nand gas bubbles i n t h e system. The procedure was r e p e a t e d again on Day 2 3 0 . A maintenance a c t i v i t y was performed d u r i n g t h e e x t r a v e h i c u l a r a c t i v i t y on Day 226 t o move t h e X-ray s p e c t r o g r a p h i c t e l e s c o p e experiment f i l t e r wheel manually t o t h e " c l e a r a p e r t u r e " p o s i t i o n . This r e q ~ i r e dworking through t h e open door i n t h e s o l a r o b s e r v a t o r y c a n i s t e r w i t h an i r l s p e c t i o n m i r r o r , a f l a s h l i g h t , and a l o n g screwdriver

.

Experience on t h e S a t u r n Workshop has shown t h a t e x t r a v e h i c u l a r maintenance i s necessary f o r space m i s s i o n s and should b e given t h e same c o n s i d e r a t i o n d u r i n g p l a n n i n g a s i n t r a v e h i c u l a r maintenance. Most of t h e e x t r a v e h i c u l a r maintenance performed was accomplished w i t h r e a l - t i m e p l a n n i n g and w i t h o u t t h e a s s i s t a n c e of b u i l t - i n t r a n s l a t i o n a i d s , r e s t r a i n t s , o r t o o l s intended f o r such a p p l i c a t i o n s . Contingency i n f l i g h t maintenance a l s o demonstrated t h a t a c c e s s t o equipment, a t t a c h i n g harddare, e l e c t r i c a l connections, and plumbing i s i m p e r a t i v e , even i n a r e a s where maintenance i s n o t a n t i c i p a t e d . The crew i n d i c a t e d t h a t t h e r o u t i n e t a s k s and procedures were s o w e l l planned and documented t h a t many of t h e maintenance t a s k s could have been perfor~ned e f f i c i e n t l y w i t h l i t t l e o r no maintenance t r a i n i n g . Such t r a i n i n g should be l i m i t e d t o complex r e p a i r t a s k s t h a t i n v o l v e unusual equipment disassembly t e c h n i q u e s or t a s k s which could p r e s e n t a hazard t o t h e crew o r could r e s u l t i n damage t o s p a c e c r a f t equipment. Handling, alignment, and manipulation of l a r g e , heavy i t e m s p r e s e n t e d no problems i n zero g r a v i t y . Small i t e m s , such a s b o l t s , screws, and washers, tended t o f l o a t away and become l o s t . However, t h e s e i t e m s u s u a l l y found t h e i r way t o one of t h e a i r i n l e t s c r e e n s . Spares t o support i n f l i g h t maintenance should t a k e i n t o c o n s i d e r a t i o n nonc r i t i c a l and redundant hardware a s w e l l a s s i n g l e p o i n t f a i l u r e s . With t h e exe performed, very few of t h e i t e m s r e p l a c e d c e p t i o n of t h e contingency mainten;
$:

Spares i o r i l ~ i l i g h : mainterlance should were i n t h e premission c r i t i c a l pa tegorj.'. a l s o i n c l u d e r e p a i r p a r t s a s w e l l a s r e p l a c e a b l e assemblies. For i n f l i g h t maintenance purposes. t h e crew p r e f e r r e d t h e q u i c k - r e l e a s e , l o c k i n g screw f a s t e n e r s and magnetic door i a t c h e s i n s t e a d of t h e t w i s t s t r a p an ! hook, b a l l l o c k i n g p i n s , and expandable s l e e v e d p i n s . I n t e r n a l wrenching screw,, and hex-head b o l t s were t h e p r e f e r r e d t y p e s o f a t t a c h i n g hardware. S l o t t e d liead t y p e screws were unacceptable because they could n o t be e a s i l y removed. T9olt.The t o o l s and equipment onboard t h e S a t u r n Workshcp a r e provided t o -support n o t only i n f l i g h t maintenance, but a l s o a c t i v a t i o n , o p e r a t i o n , and deact i v a t i o n of systems and experilnents. Because of t h e l i m i t e d stowqge c a p a b i l i t y , t h e m a j o r i t y of t h e t o o l s a r e s e l e c t e d t o perform s p e c i f i c t a s k s . A s a r e s u l t , f u l l s e t s of wrenches, s o c k e t s , hex wrenches, and s c r e w d r i v e r s a r e n o t provided. However, some s p a r e t o o l s a r e provided where j u s t i f i e d by t h e number of a p p l i c a t l o n s and t h e s u s c e p t i b i l i t y of t o o l s t o l o s s o r breakage. The complement of t o o l s and maintenance equipment i s p r i m a r i l y contained i n f i v e k i t s . Most of t h e s e a r e l o c a t e d i n t h e workshop stowage l o c k e r s . A l o c k e r i n t h e docking a d a p t e r c o n t a i n s t o o l s t h a t mey be needed d u r i n g p e r i a d s when t h e workshop i s i n a c c e s s i b l e , such a s b e f o r e workshop a c t i v a t i o n and d u r i n g e x t r a v e h i c u l a r act i v i t i e s . A t o o l box l o c a t e d on t h e forward s i d e of t h e docking a d a p t e r a x i a l h a t c h c o n t a i ~ st o o l s t o disassemble t h e h a t c h in t h e event of l a t c h i n g mechanism jamming. A r e p a i r k i t i n t h e borkshop c o n ~ a i n st h e m a t e r i a l s n e c e s s a r y t o p a t c h l e a k s w i t h i n t h e h a b i t a t i o n a r e a and m i s c e l l a n e o u s f a s t e n i n g m a t e r i a l s ;nd d e v i c e s , such as t a p e , Velcro, ana snaps. A d d i t i o n a l s p e c i a l purpose k i t s , t o o l s , m a t e r i a l s , and equipment a r e l o c a t e d a t v a r i o u s p l a c e s i n Skylah. These i n c l u d e a command module t o o l k i t , t o o l s f o r experiments, e x t r a v e h i c u l a r m o 3 i l i t v u n i t and p r e s s u r e garment maintenance k i t s , w a t e r system s e r v i c i n g equipment-, and miscellaneous s p a r e t o o l s and maintenance items. This i n v e n t o r y was S U ~ mented d u r i n g t h e missicn w i t h items n e c e s s a r y t o i n s t a l l a u x i i i a r y hardxa . t o support contingency i n f l i g h t maintenance, and t o r e p l a c e l o s t o r broken The crew used n e a r l y a l l t h e t o o l s provided i n the t o o l k i t s . Curing L L , ~ c o u r s e of t h e mission, one r a t c h e t handle f a ' l e d , t h e d i a g o n a l c u t t e r s and a hex s c r e w d r i v e r b i t were broken, ar.d one pinch b a r was l o s t when i t was l e f t t e t h e r e d t o t h e s o l a r a r r a y wing d u r i n g an e x t r a v e h i c u l a r a c t i v i t y . I t was n o t r e p l a c e d , s i n c e two u n i t s were i n i t i a l l y provided. The o t h e r broken t o o l s were r e p l z c e d with t h e launch of t h e next crew. Enough t o o l s were provided t o perform a l l planned a c t i v a t i o n , o p e r a t i o n a l , and maintenance t a s k s . They a l s o proved adeq u a t e f o r s u p p o r t i n g most of t h e contingency maintenance t a s k s . A s a r c s u l t of t h e contingency a c t i v i t i e s performed, t h e crew recommended t h a t a rxmber of eddi-t i o n a l t o o l s be provided, i n c l u d i n g a hacksav, d r i l l and d r i l l b i t s , a f i l e , l a r g e r s c r e w d r i v e r s , and a sharpening s t o n e . The comment was made t h a t t h e t o o l s should i n c l u d e t h e normal t y p e s found i n t h e home workshop and should be complete s e t s . The need f o r some t y p e of workbench t h a t would i n c l u d e f e a t u r e s f o r h o l d i n g t o o l s and s m a l l p a r t s 3s w e l l a s t h e component being r e p a i r e d was a l s o expressed. Only a small number of t o o l s were r e q u i r e d t o perform any one s p e c i f i c t-ask; t h e r e f o r e , t h e crewmen d i d n o t remove t h e t o o l drawers f o r t r a n s p o r t . a t i o n t o t h e worksite. The t o o l c a d d i e s , wh:ch were provided f o r c a r r y i n g and r e s t r a i n i n g h a n d t o o l s , were used on s e v e r a l o c c a s i o n s but proved t o be inadequate except f o r r e t a i n i n g t h e t o o l s a t i h e w o r k s i t e . The Velcro f a i l e d t o r e s t r a i n t h e t o o l s d u r i n g t r a n s l a t i o n and t h e crewmen c a r r i e d mast of t h e t o o l s i n t h e i r pockets.

They i n d i c a t e d t h a t o t o o l caddy made of a t r a n s p a r e n t m a t e r i a l t o f a c i l i t a t e t h e l o c a t i o n o f t h e needed t o o l would be d e s i r a b l e . I t should a l s o be capable of holding small p a r t s such a s screws, n u t s , and washers, s i n c e conof ad t a i n i n g 'n l o c a t i n g t h e s e items was a problem 511 z e r o g r a v i t y . The p a t c h Velcro on t h e t o o l s were of l i t t l e value. The crew s t a t e d t h a t s p e c i f i c c l a s s e s of t o o l s , such a s s o c k e t s and d r i v e a c c e s s o r i e s , open-end wrenches, hex wrenches, and screwdriver b i t s , were n o t l c c a t e d i n s e p a r a t e drawers. They a l s o i n d i c a t e d t h a t t h e placement of t o o l s and t o o l k i t s a t numerous l o c a t i o n s throughout t h e l a b o r a t o r y was u n d ~ s i r a b l e . A t o o l .-munary o r l i s t i n g was nor included and t h e crew was unaware t h a t c e r t a i n t o o l s were a v a i l a b l e u n l e s s they were s p e c i f i e d i n a procedure. None of t h e t o o l s i n t h e i n i t j a l inve ;ry were designed f o r e x t r a v e h i c u l a r use. A s a consequence, t a p e had t o be used t o e n l a r g e t o o l handles acd a t t a c h t h e necessary t e t h e r s . An a d a p t a b l e extra7 Z h i c u l a r a c t i v i t y handle f o r standard t o o l s and t e t h e r a t t a c h p c i n t s would have been d e s i r a b l e . 10.5
SOL& OBSERVATORY F I I d RETRIEVAL

E x t r a v e h i c u l a r a c t i v i t i e s a r e p e r f o n r e d d u r i n g t h e -.armed p e r i o d s of t h e Skylab mission t o r e t r i e v e and r e p l a c e f i l m i n t h e s o l a r o b s e r v a t o r y cameras. With one exception, a l l of t h e sola: o b s e r v a t o r y e u y e r i x e n t s c o l l e c t d a t a on photographic f i l m enclosed i n magazines t h a t r e q u i r e p e r i o . replacement. The hardware d i s c u s s e d i n t h i s s u b s e c t i o n i ~ ~ c l u d e s l major equ-&ment r e q u i r e d f o r al t h i s t a s k . Evaluation of t h e p r e s s u r e s u i t and crew perforrrance i s c o n t a i n e d i n r e f e r e n c e s 3.5, 16, and 17. The f i l m r e t r i e v a l o p e r a t i o n s a r e performed from f o u r work s t a t i o n s l o c a t e d i n t h e f i x e d a i r l o c k shroud a r e a and on t h e s o l a r o b s e r v a t o r y s t r u c t u r e . The f i x e d a i r l o c k shroud work s t a t i o n ( f i g . 10-49) c o n t a i n s t h e e q u i p m c - t f o r stowag and t r a n s f e r r i n g t h e f i l n magrzines t o and from t h e c e n t e r and t r a n s f e r work s t a t i o n s on t h e s o l a r o b s e r v a t o r y . One crewman remains i n t h e shroud a r e a and t h e o t h e r performs t h e f i l m replacement, moving between t h e c e n t e r , t r a n s f e r , and Sun-end work s t a t i o n s t o o b t a i n a c c e s s t o t h e v a r i o u s experiment f i l n r e c e p t a c l e s . S i n g l e h a n d r a i l s and a d u a l - r a i l l a d d e r p r o v i d e a t r a n s l a t i o n path between t h e work s t a t i o n s . Each work s t a t i o n i s equipped wit.h corr.binations of s i n g l e handr a i l s f o r i n g r e s s , e g r e s s , and movement about t h e s t a t i o n . A l l equipment along t h e p a t h i s f a b r i c a t e d without s h a r p c o r n e r s o r edges which might damage a crewman's p r e s s u r e s u i t . Twenty-five incandescent l i g h t f i x t u r e s (18.75 watts each) a r e used t o provide i l l u m i n a t i o n l e v e l s of approximately 1 . 0 2t-lamberts a l o n g trans!.ation paths and 5.0 f t - l a m b e r t s a t t h e work s t a t i o n s . There a r e 5 l i g h t s i n t h e a i r l o c k shroud a r e a , 6 on t h e deploymect assembly, and 1 4 on t h e s o l a r o b s e r v a t o r y . A l l a i r l o c k shroud and s o l a r o b s e r v a t o r y l i g h t s a r e encased i n a wire-grid e n c l o s u r e t o p r o t e c t t h e bulb from damage. Those a t t h e deployment assembly a r e enclosed i q a metal box with a h o l e provided f o r d i r e c t i o n a l l i g h t i n g . L i f e support u m b i l i c a l clamps a r e l o c a t e d a t two o f the work s t a t i o n s t o f a c i l i t a t e management of t h e u m b i l i c a l s d u r i n g t h e e x t r a v e h i c u l a r a c t i v i t y . Fixed - Airlock G r o u d Work S t a t i o n . - T h i s areii, along w i t h t h e a d j a c e n t l o c k compartment, s e r v e s a:: a base camp f o r one crewman t o monitor t h e o t h e r d u r i n g a l l e x t r a v e h i c u l a r o p e r a t i o n s , and h z s f o o t r e s t r a i n t s , stowage l o c a t i o n s i . r a l l hardware and t o o l s , and f i l m magazine t r a n s p o r t a t i 1 ; n d e v i c e s . Two f i l r ! t r a c s f e r booms a r e provided t o t r a n s p o r t t h e f i l m magazines t o and from t h e c e n t e r and t r a n s f e r work s t a t i o n s . The booms a r e o p e r a t e d f-roic a cont r o l panel a t the work s t a t i o n ruld a r e e l . r c t r i . c a l l y d r i v e n , t u b u l a r e x t e n d i b l e

F i g u r e 10-69.-

Film r e t r i e v a l work s t a t i o n s and s u p p o r t hardware.

it-.lir,es w i t h manual backup o p e r a t i o n c a p a b i l i t y . i n t h e e v e n t of t o t a l operat i o n a l f a i l u r e . 3 s p a r e boom u n i t is provided and a toe-bar r e s t r a i n t f o r t h e crekman f a c i l i t a t e s t h e changeout. Two f i l m t r e e p a l l e t s a r e used t o t r a n s f e r f i l m magazines from t h e l a b o r a t o r y t o t h e v o r k s t a t i o n t h r o u g h t h e h a t c h . Each t r e e i n s e r t s and l o c k s i n t o a r e c e p t a c l e w i t h i n r e a c h o f t h e f o o t r e s t r a i n t s . One of t h e trees a t t a c h e s t o a ciamp-type hook on t h e end o f t h e f i l n t r a n s f e r . boon and is used t o t r a n s p o r t t 7 f i l m magazine c o n t a i n e r s t o t h e t r a n s f e r work s t a t i o n s as a u n i t . The o t h e r trr:c s e c u r e s :he r e m a i n i n g magazines as a c l u s t e r f o r h a n d l i n g w i t h i n and between t h e a i r l o c k .!?d t h e f i x e d a i r l o c k shroud work s t a t i o n . These magaziqes a r e a t t a c h e d d i r e c t l y t o :hr boom hook and t r a n s f e r r e o i n d i v i d u a l l y t o t h e c e n t e r work s t a t i o n w h i l s t h e t r e e remains in i t s r e c e p t a c l e .

lbo " c l o t h e s l i n e " f i l m t r a n s f e r u n i t s are a v a i l a b l e i n stowage c c . r t a i n e r s on t h e s i d e s of t h e boom h o u s i n g s as a backup t o a s p a r e boom and £01 normal f i l m r e t r i e v a l on t h e last e x t r a v e h i c u l a r a c t i v i t y o f t h e ~ i s s i o n . r h e s e are e n d l e s s l i n e s w i t h hooks f o r a t t a c h m e n t t o s p e c i a l b r a c k e t s l o c a t e d a t t h e f i x e d a i r l o c k shroud, c e n t e r , and Sun-end ~ o r k t a t i o n s . The l i n e s a r e manually des ployed and t h e f i l m magazines a r e s e c u r e d w i t h t e t h e r hooks. Two s p r i n g - l a a d e d claws a d j a c e l l t t~ t h e h a t c h a r e p r o v i d e d f o r managing t h e crewman's l i f e s u p p o r t u m b i l i c a l . A f t e r e g r e s s from t h e l o c k compartment, e a c h crewman i n s e r t s h i s u m b i l i c a l i n t o t h e clamp w i t h predet5rmined a ~ ~ o u o of s l a c k , d e p e n d i n g o n t h e ts a c t i v i t y t o be performed. I n t h e e v e n t o f s i d e l o a d s , t h e s p r i n g - l o a d e d jaw w i l l r e l e a s e , t h u s p r e v e n t i n g p o s s i b l e damage t o t h e u m b i l i c a l . A l o c k i n g stowage hook is provided f o r temporary r e s t r a i n t of l o o s e equipment.
The f i l m t r a n s f e r booms and c o n t r o l p a n e l o p e r a t e d f l a w l e s s l y d u r i n g operat i o n s a t t h e f i x e d a i r l o c k shrouc! work s t a t i o n , e x c e p t d u r i n g t h e second a c t i v i t y by t h e f i r s t crew. A f t e r one boom was e x t e n d e d t h e f i r c t t i m e , t h e r e t r a c t s w i t c h had t o be c y c l e d once t o make t h e boom r e t r a c t . T h i s d i d n o t r e c u r , and no o t h e r problems were e x p e r i e n c e d w i t h t h e boom, c o n t r o l p a n e l , o r boom hooks. During the t h i r d e x t r a v e h i c u l a r a c t i v i t y o f :he second manned p e r i o d , however, s c r a t c h

T h i s work s t a t i o n i s l o c a t e d t o Sol - . - a r O b s -- v a t o r y-.--e n t e r Work S t a t i . ~ . -er C p r o v i d e a c c e s s t o tile cameras i n s i d e o f t h e experiment c a n i s t e r . T h e crew e q u i ~ m e n tf o r f i l m r a g a z i n e removal and r e p 1 acenierrt i n c l u d e s a c a n i s t e r r o t a t i o n z o n t r o l p a n e l , cxperimerrt a c c e s s d o o r s , f i l m magazines and r e c e p t a c l e s , a p r o t e c t i v e s c r e e n , l i g i ~ t s ,h a n d r a i l s , a f o ~ t e s t r a i n t , and a l i f e s u p p o r t umr b i l i c a l clamp. The r o t a t i o n c o n t r o l p a n e l p r o v i d e s a means f o r r o t a t i n g t h e experiment c a n i s t e r t o p o s i t i o n e a c h of t h e camera a c c e s s d o o r s a t t h e c e n t e r and Sun-end work s t a t i o n s . A hand c o n t r o l l e r a l l o w s two s p e e d s i n e a c h r o t a t i o n d i r e c t i o n arlil can be o p e r a t e d w i t h t h e p r e s s u r e s u i t g l o v e d hand. A prot e c t i v e s c r e e n male from p e r f o r a t e d s h e e t aluminum p r e v e n t s c o n t a c t between t h e crewman's l e g s o r f e e t and t h e s o l a r o b s e r ~ a t o r ygimbal r i n g s o r c a n i s t e r l a u n c h l o c k arms d u r i n g c a n i s r - e r r o t a t i o n . The f o u r manually o p e r a t e d d o o r s i n t h e s i d e c f t h e c a n i s t e r f o r f i l m r e t r i e v a l are d i s c u s s e d i n 4 . 2 . 3 . Tlrc f i l m magaz i n e s f o r f m r e x p e r i m e n t s a r e i n s t a l l e d a t t h e c e n t e r work s t a t i o n . Each can be mounted i n t o t h e c a n i s t e r r e c ~ p t a c l ew i t h o n e !\and and i n c o r p o r a t e s v i s u a l . onc! t a c t i l e i n d i c a t i o n o f p o s i t i o n and l o c k i n g s t a t u s . A l i g n r e n t s t r i p e s , f l a g s . p o s i t i v e d e t e n t s , and e n d - o f - t r a v e l s t o p s a r e used i n v a r i o u s c o m b i n a t i o n s . The r e c e p t a c l e s i n c l u d z snLry g u i d e s t c p r o v i d e s e l f - a l i g n m e n t , t h u s r e d u c i n g tlic r e q u i r e m e n t f o r f i n e alignment by t h e c r e m a n and p r e v e n t i n g c o n t a c t w i t h d e l i c a t e p o r t i o n s o f t h e e x p e r i m e n t . I,i gilts, h a n d r a i l s , f o o t r e s t rai!rts, and t h e u m b i l i *-a1 ciaxu~ are s i m i l a r t o t h o s e a t t h e f i x e d a i r l o c k s h r o u d . A c l o t l i e s l i n e b r a c k e t w i t h ; temporary stowage hook is mo7.1nted on a boom t o t h e r i g h t of t h e work s t a ticn. The ere-man can mailually d e p l o y t h e b r a c k e t t c any one o f t h r e e pcsi:ious. The r o t a t i - o n c o n t r o l p a n e l o p e r a t e d s a t i s £a c t o r i l y d u r i n g a l l f i l m r e t r i e v a l activities. The p r o t e c t i v e scree:: k e p t t h e crewman away from t h e moving c a n i s t e r equipment w i t h no i n t e r f e r e n c e o r s i g n ? 'f i c a n t l o s s o f n o b i l i t y f o r f i l m r e t r i e - : s l . X h i n g e d o r removable s c r e e n , however, would have been p r e f e r a b l e f ~ performr a n c e o f contingency r e p a i r s o r s e r v i c e on e x p e ~ i m e n thardware, s u c h as tile f i l t e r wheel manual p o s i t i o n i n g . A l l f i l m a c c e s s d o o r s o p e r a t e d as e x p e c t e d w i t h o n e exception (4.2.2). No problems o c c u r r e d i n s t a l l i n g t h e f i l m m a g a t i n e s i n t h e e x p e r i n e n t r e c e p t a c l e s o r rcinoving them a f t e r t h e f i l m w a s used. k e f u l n e s s and o p e r a t i o n of t h e o t h e r work s t a t i o n equipment was a d e q u a t e f o r a l l f i l m r e t r i e ; r a i activities. S T a --o l a r O b s e r - t o r x- Sun-End and --- r a n s f e r Work S t ---t i o n s . - Removal and r e p l a c e -v a ment a f two f i l n : magazines i s accomplished a t t h e Sun-end o f t h e t-xperiment cani s t e r . Access d o o r s , f i l m magazine9 and r e c e p t a c l e s , temporary stowage c o n t a i n e r s , a c l o t h e s l i n e b r a c k e t , h a n d r a j . l s , l i g h t s , and a f o o t r e s t r a i n t p l a t f o r m a r e prov i d e d f o r t h i s t a s k . S i n c e t h e Sun-end work s t a t i o n is around t h e c o r n e r from t h e a i r l o c k s h r o u d work s t a t i o n and t h e r e f o r e i n a c c e s s i b l e t o t h e f i l m t r a n s f e r hoom, t h e t r a n s f e r work s t a t i o n b r i d g e s t h i s gap and p r o v i d e s a p o s i t i o n f o r r e m v i n g t h e f i l m magazines from t h e boom. Except f o r a s t a n d a r d f o o t r e s t r a i n t , t h e t r a n s f e r work s t a t i o n c o n t a i i ~ sno s e p a r a t e crew equipment. A crewman a t the t r a n s f e r work s t a t i o n removes t h e loaded f i l m t r e e from t h e boom and p l a c e s che t r e e i n a r e c e p t a c l e on t h e s u n s h i e l d f o r a c c e s s a t t h e Sun-end work s t a t i o n . The work s t a t i o n is a l s o used f o r deployment o f t h e c l o t h e s l i n e and c l o t h e s l i n e b r a c k e t f o r f i l n r e t r i e v a l . The two f i l m r e t r i e v a l a c c e s s d o o r s ( f i g . 4-10) can be opened w i t h one gloved hand by r o t a t i n g a Iiandle w i t h a muslirooni-shaped p u s h b u t t o n l o c k . F r i c t i o n h i n g e s h o l d t h e d o o r s open a t any d e s i r e d p o i n t . The e x p e r i m e n t a p e r t u r e d o o r s , which c o v e r t h e a c c e s s d o o r s i n t h ? i r ciosec! p o s i t i o n , a r e opened from t h e c a n i s t e r r o t a t i o n c o n t r o l p a n e l . The f i l m magazines a r e i n s e r t e d i n t o t h e c a n i s t e r r e c e p t a c l e s w i t h one hand, and e a c h magazine u s e s f l a g i n d i c a t o r s , d e t e n t s , and s t o p s f o r p o s i t i o n and l o c k i n g s t a t u s . Alignment a r r o w s and i n s e r t i o i r g u i d e s e l i m i n a t e f i n e p o s i t i o n i n g reqttirernt+nts f o r t h e crew. A boxl i k e temporary stowngc. c o n t a i n e r , w i t h f o u r f l e x i b l e r e t a i n i ! l g f l a p s , s e c u r e s

t h e unexposed f i l m magazines w h i l e t h e e x w s e d magazines are removed from t h e c a n i s t e r r e c e p t a c l e s and p l a c e d i n t h e magazine c o n t a i n e r s . The f i l m magazines are moucted i n t h e c o n t a i n e r s f o r p r o t e c t i o n from t henna1 e f f e c t s and c o n t a m i n a t i o n . The c o n t a i n e r s are s e c v r e d t o t h e f i l m : lee, which a t t a c h e s The f i l m tree i s t e q o r e r i l y t o t h e f i l m t r a n s f e r boom hook ( f i g . 10-50). stowed i n a r e c e p t a c l e i d e n t i c a l t o t h e one a t t h e f i x e d a i r l o c k shroud work s t a t i o n . The c l i t h e s l i n e a t t a c h b r a c k e t i s a two-part f o l d i n g boom mounted on t h e s u n s h i e l d . The boom is unlocked by r e l e a s i n g a b a l l - l o c k p i n and swung i n t o p o s i t i o n where l a t c h e s hold i t i n p l a c e . L i g h t s , h a n d r a i l s , and f o o t res t r a i n t s are s i m i l a r t o t h o s e a t t h e f i x e d a i r l o c k shroud u o r k s t a t i o n . One experiment d o o r was d i f f i c u l t t o open d u r i n g t h e second manned p e r i o d , and tht. crewmarl had t o p u t b o t h knees on t h e c a n i s t e r s u r f a c e and p u l l t h e h a ~ ~ d l ei t h b o t h arms t o open i t . The f i l m magazines, r e c e p t a c l e s , and conw t a i n e r s a l l performed s a t i s f a c t o r i l y , and l i g h t i n g and r e s t r a i n t p r o v i s i o n s were a d e q u a t e . The c l o t h e s l i n e boom was used t o s u p p o r t t h e c l o t h e s l i n e d u r i n g t h e l a s t e x t r a v e h i c u l a r a c t i v i t y . The o n l y problem n o t e d was d i f f i c u l t y i n r e l e a s i n g t h e b a l l - l o c k p i n d u r l n q deployment.

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The e f f e c t s of t h e e x t e r n a l Skylab-induced atmosphere on t h e Saturn Workshop o p t i c s and coatings, a s w e l l a s t h e e f f e c t of t h e i n t e r n a l atmosphere on o p t i c s , a r e described i n t h i s s e c t i o n . This d s s i o n was the f i r s t long-duration exposure of a manned s p a c e c r a f t t o space environment, and t h u s provided new ?:ontamination iaformatioc.

; The ambient atmosphere had l i t t l e e f f e c t compared t o t h a t induced b- t h e p a c e c r a f t i t s e l f . Heavy emphasis w a s placed on premission design and opera: i o n a l planning t o minimize t h e l e v e l of spacecraft-induced contamination. Several contamination measurement instruments and experiments were flown f o r o b j e c t i v e e v a l u a t i o n of t h e atmosphere and contaminant d e p o s i t i o n , and math a ~ o d e l sa l s o were used t o provide c o n t a m i n a t l m p r e d i c t i o n s . The math model predl.ctions were updaEed and v a l i d a t e d throughout t h e mission a s s p e c i f i c d a t a bec m e a v a i l a b l e from measurements and crew obsenrat ions.
Section 12 d e s c r i b e s t h e contaminat ion experiments and o t h e r referenced experiments, and i n f o r n a t i o n p e r t a i n i n g t o c o n t r o l of f n t e r n a l coutamination Detailed c0ntaminati.a r e s u l t s a r e contained i n r e f e r can be found i n 10.1.7. ence 12.

11.1 INDUCED ATMOSPHERE
The a t - s p h e r e surrounding Skylab is compose3 of t h e Earth atmosphere a t tliat o r b i t a l a l t i t u d e and t h e molecular m a t e r i a l and p a r t i c l e s emitted by t h e vehicle. The ambient atmosphere a t an a l t i t u d e of 435 kilometers c o n s i s t s p r i =:rily of atomic and m d e c u l a r oxygen and molecular n i t r o g e n , with an average g/r3, which kas a n e g l i g i b l e e f f e c t on Saturn Workshop d e n s i t y of 4 x operations. The major aonrces of t h e a r t i f i c i a l o r induced atmosphere a r e outg a r d n g of nonmetal?ic m a t e r i a l s , venting of l i q u i d s and gases, leakage of cabin a t m s ? h e r e , m t - r exhaust products, and matter emitted from p r e s s u r e s u i t s o r scuf:f.?d loose .'aring crew e x t r a v e h i c u l a r a c t i v i t i e s . These m a t e r i a l s c o n s i s t mostly of Vgh-molecular-weight outgassing products and low-molecular-weight ~ 3 s e ss--5 as hydrogen, n i t r o g e n , oxygen, carbon dioxide, and water vapor. The atmosphere may a l s o include p a r t i c l e s i n t h e form of ice c r y s t a l s t h a t r e s u l t dumps o r from n u c l e a t i o n of water vapor o r o t h e r vented g a s e s , and from ~ i q u i d locos:a t e r i a l sloughed from Skylab s u r f a c e s . m

The amount of contamination e n t e r i n g t h e atmosphere because of outgassing

is determined by t h e a r e a exposed t o t h e vacuum, t h e s u r f a c e temperature, and
t h e type of m a t e r i a l exposed. The t o t a l Sk l a b nonmetallic a r e a exposed t o t h e vacuum of space i e approximately 250,000 f t The average s t e a d y s t a t e outgas.ri:'e r e d i c t e d f o r Skylab was 200 g/day, assuming an average r a t e of 100-1 g/cm -sec. There are approximately 200 d i f f e r e n t nonmetallic, vacuume: posed m a t e r i a l s with s u r f a c e a r e a s l a r g e r than 1 f t * on Skylab. The major nonm e t a l l i c material~ having high outgassing r a t e s a r e t h e v a r i o u s p a i n t s and c o a t i n g s

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cove r i n g e x t e r n a l s u r t a c e s and the bonding a d h e s i v e s of s i l i c o n e r u b b e r and epoxy polyamide. Tr> d e r i v e s p e c i f i c o u t g a s s i n g rates, y r e f l i g h t m a t e r i a l o u t g a s s i n g t e s t s were r u n m d e r vacuum c o n d i t i o n s w i t h t h e t e m p e r a t u r e o f t h e t e s t m a t e r i a l a t 100 t o 125°C. The o u t g a s s i n g rate f o r a g i v e n m a t e r i a l i n a vacuum is based p r i m a r i l y on t h e m a t e r i a l ' s temperaLure and age. S i n c e t h e temperat u r e v a r i e s % i t h o r b i t a l p o s i t i o n s , t h e a c t u a l o u t g a s s i n g r a t e is c o ~ ~ t i t ~ u o u s l y v a r y i n g . The o u t g a s s i n g r a t e is a l s o a f f e c t e d h \ * t h e material's t h i c l u l e s s and y r e l a u n c i ~t ~ e a t m e n ts u c h a s a vacuum bake-out. The v e n t i n g o f l i q u i d s and g a s e s i s a l s o a .:.i j o r s o u r c e of c o n t a m i n a t i o u the v d u r i n g Skylab o r b i t a l o p e r a t i o n s . F i g u r e 11-1 s11~~,~s e n t l o c a t i o n s . T a b l e 11-1 g i v e s t h e frequency of o p e r a t i o n and e f f l u e n t c o n s t i t u e n t s f o r e a c h v e n t . A s noted i n t h e t a b l e , c e r t a i n of t h e corninand and s e r v i c e modulc v e n t s are o n l y f o r ur.sc!~edulsc! o p e r a t i o n s while t h e command module is dockcd. The p r i m a r y v e n t systems a r e t h e workshop waste t a n k , t h e c o n d e n s a t e s y s t e m , and t h e molecu l a r sicvc. The w a s t e t a n k is a l a r g e h o l d i n g t a n k i n t c ; which w a s t e f l u i d s and s o l i d s a r e d e p o s i t e d throughout ;he m i s s i o n . T h e i n t e r i o r o f t h e t a n k h a s a network o f f i n e mesh s c r e e n s which t r a p p a r t i c l e s above 2 m i c r o n s i n s i z e (9 m i c r o n s a b s o l u t e ) , t h u s r e d u c i n g m i g r a t i o n o f p a r t i c u l a t e matter t o s p a c e . Gases and v a p o r s r e s u l t i n g from d i s c h a r g e s i n t o t h e w a s t e t a n k are c o n t i n u o u s l y v e n t e d t o s p a c e i n a r a d i a l d i r e c t i o n through two d i a m e t r i c a l l y opposed 1.5-inch-diameter nonpropulsive vents. Water vapor is e x t r a c t e d from c a b i n atmosphexe by conden: :ng h e a t exchange r s and is s t o r e d i n a c o n d e n s a t e h o l d i n g t a n k i n s i d e t h e S a t u l I Workshop, Normally, t h i s l i q u i d is dumped p e r i o d i c a l l y i n t o t h e w a s t e t a n k , b u t d u r i n g unscheduled o p e r a t i o n s i t can be v e n t e d d i r e c t l y o v e r b o a r d i n a r a d i a l d i r e c t i o n t h r o u g h a d w b l e - t a p e r e d 0.05-inch o r i f i c e d n o z z l e a c a d r i v i n g p r e s s u r e o f appror.imately 5 p s i a . The m o l e c u l a r s i e v e s remove carbon d i o x i d e a ~ l dr e s i d u a l w a t e r vapor from t h e c a b i n atmosphere and v e n t them o v e r b o a r d i n 15-minute c y c l e s d u r i n g manned o p e r a t i o n s . The e x t e r n a l v e n t is a T-shaped 3-inchd i a m e t e r v e n t p i p e which emits e f f l u e n t s p a r a l l e l t o t h e Y a x i s . The l e a k a g e o f c a b i n atmosphere is a r e l a t i v e l y minor s o u r c e o f contamin a n t s . The maximum s p e c i f i e d l e a k a g e i s 14.7 l b l d a y a t normal p r e s s u r e ; however, o n l y 3 l b l d a y w a s l o s t d u r i n g t h e m i s s i o n . The gas l e a k a g e from Skylab i s

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V.IL

d l *

F i g u r e 11-1.-

Table 11-1.-

Skylab Vent C l ~ a r a c t e r i s t i c s

1

a t e r vawr k c 1 1 M$ o ~ y ' j e n . frozen urlne. urlne v.pur !-dl bay 911. 0 1 , 9 ~ c . froze.8 UI lnd. brtne vapor .ce. u t ~ n daplr, nyamy*t w t a s i l w n h , d m r l b S l l ~ c o n cr4bbcr a.13 ~edlanl,. rll1.a t l b w IbdrJpm, crygnl nltn;yen. w t . l s s l m h j d l v n l d ~ .adtcl Llu.ld h,&oyen LIu41d n * , p I l

ws.

Wnw

O * Y ~

i
I

h e - - e u r l n g Iauttrh i r h r . p r r l m t L ~ 'L e

C

hltrugm Scrttered n t r l . .

~ c ~ ~ I .~ n t r l rr,ar%. ~ ~ I ! L I cU I W ~I C~S I C

;

FLP& and a f t u r c r v n r s u r c vrat Llrlock overpressure m t

- -

composed of approximately 63 p e r c e n t oxygen, 27 percellt n i t r Lden, 7 p e r c e n t carbon d i o x i d e , ,and 3 p e r c e n t iJater vapor by weight. Although t h e majoricy of t h e contaminants from Skylab v e n t i n g and cabin leakage s o u r c e s a r e l i g h t g a s e s which normally do n o t condense on c r i t i c a l s u r f a c e s a t e x t e r i o r s u r f a c e temperat u r e s , t h e y do c o n t r l - b u t e t o t h e o v e r a l l induced atmosphere. Three p r o p u l s i o n subsystems t h a t o c c a s i o n a l ly o p r x a t e i n tile v i c i n i t y L I ~ t h e Skylab c l u s t e r emit p o t e n t i a l l y contaminating motor e x h a u s t . These subsyst h e s e r v i c e module r e a c t i o n c o n t r o l system, tems a r e t h e S-I1 s t a g e retr-!:ockets; which operaces d u r i n g command and s e r v i c e modul? maneuvers; and t h e Saturn Workshop t h r u s t e r a t t i t u d e c o n t r o l system, which o p e r a t e s i n t e r m i t t e n t l y d u r i n g t h e mission. The f o u r r e t r o r o c k e t e n g i n e s used t o s e p a r a t e the launch v e h i c l e S - I T s t a g e from t h e S a t u r n Workshop a r e l o c a t e d on t h e forward end of t h e S-I1 s t a g e . Ouri n g t h e 1.9-second f i r i n g tinre f o r s e p a r a t i o n , each e n g i n e e x p e l s 188 pounds of exhaust material. S i n c e t h i s event o c c u r s approximately 5.5 minutes b e f o r e j e t i i s o n i n g t h e shroud, t h e impingement on c r i t i c a l s u r f a c e s i s minimal and is not considered a problem. The s e r v i c e module h a s four c l u s t e r s of a t t i t u d e c o i r t r ~ le n g i n e s , each of which c o n t a i n s f o u r engines. Figure 11-1 shows t h e engine o r i e n t a t i o n r e 1 ative. t o t h e S a t u r n Workshop c o o r d i n a t e axes. The e n g i n e s a r e used t o c o n t r o l o r i e n t a t i o n o f t h e c r a f t d u r i n g flyaround i n s p e c t i o n s , t r i m maneuvers t o s d j u s t t h e o r b i t , rendezvous, and docking and undocking maneuvers, and f a r c.ontingency a t t it u d e c o n t r o l of t h e S a t u r n Workshop. The primary e n g i n e exhaust p r o d u c t s a r e shown i n t a b l e 11-11. The S a t u r n Workshop t h r u s t e r a t t i t u d e cont.ro1 subsystem is a cold n i t r o g e n gas system which h a s one s e t of t h r e e t h r u s t e r n o z z l e s l o c a t e d on t h e +Z a x i s and a n o t h e r s e t on t h e -Z a x i s a t t h e a f t end o f t h e workshop. Each s e t cont a i n s one t h r u s t e r d i r e c t e d p a r a l l e l t o t h e Z a x i s and one each d i r e c t e d a l o n g t h e +Y and -Y axes. This subsystem i s used a s needed t o augment t h e c o n t r o l

Table 11-11.-

S e r v i c e Module Reaction Control System Engine Products
-P -

-

Wei g r t percent 41.98 30.65 9.83 3.47 2.57 1.39 Approximately 9.32

Product

Uei ght percent

Hz

'2 NO Trace mtal s. unburned f u e l , and ~ x i d i z e r

0 H HCO NH N

moment gyros d u r i n g o r i e n t a t i o n maneuvers and d u r i n g s t a b i l i z a t i o n a c t i v i t i e s , The t h r u s t e r s produce a v i s i b l e plume of condensed and f r o z e n n i t r o g e n p a r t i c l e s . However, t n e c l e a r i n g times of t h e plumes a r e q u i t e s h o r t , a s t h e y d i s s i p a t e approximaLely 30 seconds a f t e r t h r u s t e r shutdown- Moreover, t h e t h r u s t e r s are seldom used d u r i n g d a t a a c q u i s i t i o n . The crewmen perrorm t a s k s o u t s i d e o f t h e S a t u r n Waricshop t o t e n d experiments and make r e p a i r s . While o u t s i d e , t h e crewman's p r e s s u r e s u i t ,.an become a l o c a l s o u r c e of contamination by v e n t i n g p a r t i c l e s of water and molecular matter such as oxygen and carbon d i o x i d e . These contaminants a r e e m i t t e d from p o r t s on t h e f r o n t of t h e p r e s s u r e c o n t r o l u n i t , which is worn on t h e crewman's c h e s t . The normal d i r e c t i o n of t h e I xhaust flow i s d i r e c t l y toward v e h i c l e s u r f a c e s . Impingement of t h e contaminants on s u r f a c e s i s prevented by a d e f l e c t o r cover worn over t h e p r e s s u r e c o n t r o l u n i t t o change t h e d i r e c t i o n o f t h i s flow w h i l e t h e crewman is working n e a r s u s c e p t i b l e s u r f a c e s . This i s shown i n f i g u r e 11-2. I n a d d i t i o n t o t h e recognized s o u r c e s o f contaminants, random p a r t i c l e s are added t o t h e induced atmosphere from u n p r e d i c t a b l e e v e n t s . These i n c l u d e b l i s t e r i n g and f l a k i n g of p a i n t e d s u r f a c e s , l o o s e n i n g o f launch d e b r i s , e x p u l s i o n o f r e s i d u a l s o l i d d e b r i s from t h r u s t e r s , and o t h e r d e b r i s workins t h e i r way l o o s e from t h e S a t u r n Workshop. The l o s s of t h e meteoroid s h i e l d a l s o exposed workshop s u r f a c e s t o d e g r a d a t i o n from d i r e c t s u n l i g h t which had n o t been planned f o r , and caused f l a k e s of paifit and i n s u l a t i o n t o e n t e r t h e atmosphere. The induced atmosphere, t h e r e f o r e , c o n s i s t s of p a r t i c l e s and molecules cont i n u n u s l y being e m i t t e d from Skylab which form a contaminant cloud about t h e v e h i c l e . The p a r t i c l e s a r e s l o v l y swept away by atmospheric d r a g d e c e l e r a t i o n , w h i l e t h e molecules a r e removed by i n t e r m d e c u l a r c o l l i s i o n s w i t h t h e ambient atmosphere. The g e n e r a l l y c o n s t a n t i n t r o d u c t i o n and c o n c u r r e n t removal of t h i s m a t t e r produce a s t e a d y - s t a t e , induced environment s u r r o u n d i n g Skylab. The c o n t i n u a i l y moving contaminants of t h e induced atmosphere a r e c a p a b l e of producing l i g h t s c a t t e r i n g and a b s o r p t i o n problems f o r o p t i c a l systems. As t h e l i g h t from an o b j e c t of i n v e s t i g a t i m p a s s e s through t h e induced molecular or p a r t i c u l a t e cloud, a p o r t i o n of t h e s i g n a l i s s c a t t e r e d and a p o r t i o n is absorbed, r e s u l t i n g i n s i g n a l a t t e n u a t i o n . The e f f e c t s of l i g h t s c s t t e r i n g on o p t i c a l experiments a r e determined by r e l a t i n g t h e background b r i g h t n e s s o f t h e contaminant cloud t o t h e l i g h t s o u r c e . For any p a r t i c l e s i z e d i s t r i b u t i o n , wavelength of s c a t t e r e d l i g h t , s c a t t e r i n g

11.2

OPERATIONAL CONSTRAINTS

O p e r a t i o n a l c o n s t r a i n t s imposed on v e n t i n g and experimecLs h e i p t o minimize t h e e f f e c t s of contamination on experiment d a t a . These c o n s t r a i n t s e i t h e r r e s t r i c t v e n t i n g d u r h g c r u c i a l experiment p e r i o d s o r avoid t h e c o l l e c t i o n of d a t a d u r i n g n e c e s s a r y v e n t i n g p e r i o d s . Table 11-111 l i s t s t h e o p e r a t i o n a l v e n t i n g and experiment c o n s t r a i n t s f o r a l l Skylab v e n t s which would a f f e c t c o n t a m i n a t i o n - s e n s t t i v e experiments and systems. The c o n s t r a i n t s were r e v i s e d d u r i n g t h e mission t o provide f o r Comet Kohoutek o b s e r v a t i o n s and changes t o e x i s t i n g experiments. Table 1 1 - I V l i s t s t h e e f f e c t of v e n t s w i t h c o n s t r a i n e d v e n t i n g and whether t h e v e n t i n g is scheduled o r unscheduled. The Skylab v e n t s l i s t e d i n t a b l e 1 1 - V are n o t under o p e r a t i o n a l c o n s t r a i n t s because t h e i r operat i o n is n o t d i r e c t l y c o n t r o l l a b l e . Table 11-111
1

.I

O p e r a t i o n a l Venting and Experiment C o n s t r a i n t s

Catrrvehicular d c t i v i t i e s (tncludes lock depress valve m d s u i t overboard vent) ( r u l e uaived f o r 5149. T025, 5020. or YO1 i f d c o l o n d an Service m d d l e r e a c t l o r contml s v s t n Yater dump (unbagged) I n t c u s t e tank --+ .. Cordensate system (contingency) ( k g i n a f t e r o r b i t a l midnight; cmplete t w t ~ r e sunrise crossi n g or e l s e double constraint timr. I* not I n solar I n e r t i a l a t t i t u d e . vent i n direction of negatlve v e l o c i t y vector) C m n d and servlce module (tncludes steam duet. u r l n e duw. u s t a water d w . and fuel c e l l purger) mckin~ adapter emerimemts

! ' I
1

1

----

.

1
1

1u7r
'

----I )1551,

---I

-

bbrkrhop experinants

1653
11)92

R, 1 l

Condensate holding U n k (gas r i d e )

1

I

I. Conplete v m t l n g I S minuter before e r p r r i a m t e.posure. 2. Conplete venting 30 minutes b r f o r e eaperlmmt expasure. 3. C w l e t e overboard rmtl..g I 5 minutes before e x ~ r i n n r erposure m i t h articulated m i r r o r %)its R c m s t r a i r l for w n t l n g i n t o waste tank 4. Cowlete ventlng 15 minutes k f x e i n s t a l l a t l a , o f e a p r l m m t I n -2 I;lmtific airlock 5 Caplete v m t i n g I 5 minutes k f o m e r p r i m t e r w s u r e r i t h w t a r t l c u l a t n l m i r r o r r y s t m o r 30 minutes w i t h n l r r u r . 6. i o q l e t e venting 15 minutrs before experiment expowre w i t h a r t ! c u l a t d mtrror s p s t a . 7. :owlet* v m t i n g I 5 minuter Y f o r e installat:on o f e a p r i m n t . If i n r t a l l c d . e r t m d seven r d s and place t r u n n l m t o r a m . 8. Close cassette covers during and f o r I 5 minut-s rftrr c o g l e t i o n o f cabfn a(ssp)ure venHng, o r I 2 h r s a f t e r wrkshop f i n a l b l w d o n . corpletlun o f v m t i h p . 9. Close c r s r r t t e covers during and for 1 minutes #fur : 10. w l e t e venting X) minutes before o a p r i m m t axpasure w i t h a r t i c u 1 r t . d a l r m r sy-tea. No c o n s t r a i n t f o r e a t r r v e h i c u l w erposL..e.

-

The e f f e c t i v e n e s s and n e c e s s i t y of t h e o p e r a t i o n a l c o n s t r a i n t s wen? demons t r a t e d through t h e mission. There were f i v e i n s t a n c e s where c o n s t r a i n t s were v i o l a t e d . During t h e f i r s t manned period a prolonged v e n t i n g of t h e wardroom water purge Into t h e waste tank occurred i n which t h e t r i p l e p o i n t p r e s s u r e may have been ~ n e n t a r i l yexceeded, a h a b i t a t i o n a r e a vent malfunction checkout produced p a r t i c l e s observed by t h e SO52 v i d e o d i s p l a y , and t h e s e r v i c e module r e a c t i o n c o n t r o l engine8 f i r e d t 9 h i l e t h e T027-SO73 photometel was deployed through t h e s c i e n t i f i c a i r l o c k . During t h e second mawed p e r i o d t h e r e was a

Table 11-IV.
Vent

-

E f f e c t s o f Vents Having Operational Constraints

Docking adapter

ww
.

I

Scheduled (S) o r Unscheduled (U)

I

Effect

Service module reaction control s y s t m C m a n d service module

I

s

I

B r i e f ( f r a c t i o n o f second) increase i n p a r t i c u l a t e colunm density; large f l u x o f condensable matertdls. L i q u i d v e n b produce l a r g e colunn dens1 t i e s o f part i c l e s , thus producing high background l i g h t s c a t t e r ( p a r t i c l e s c l e a r w i t h i n 15 minutes). ground l i g h t o r cause f a l s e stars. S l t g h t increase Debris frm experiment vent canc causen g i n less backi n molecular coluirn densities ( l e a r i increased than 15 minutes).

A i r l ; .t condensate system vent (conttngency) Lock depress valve extravehicular a c t i v i t y

P a r t i c l e s from 1i q u i d vent can increase background brightness ( c l e a r i n g w i t h i n 15 minutes j.

-

Incredses molecular environment o f docking adapter and s o l a r observatary. No experiments operating

Water dump (~cnbagged) :n t o waste tank Uorkshop experiment vacuum vent Condensate holding tank (gas ;ide) vented through -2 a i r l o c k

S

Increased molecular flar f m waste tank increases colunn densities f o r s c i e n t t f t c a t r l o c k l i n e s - o f s i g h t by a f a c t o r o f 2 f o r approximately 1 hour. Gases vented increase t h e molecular column densities. Increase m l e c u l d r column d e m i t i e s along -2 s c i e n t i f i c a i r l o c k lines-of-sight.

I

S
S

vent valve

(lenerally increases the molecular density around the spacecraft.

Table 11-7.Cammnd rnd service m d u l e A van: l r

Vents Having No Operational Constraints
Operation description

i
I

No controls. Cmtlnuously open t o vent the space between the rommnd nodule meteorold s b i e l d and rressure hul I. - - - .. .-- --. .. .~ .---

Uncontrolled vonting (high i n r t i d l f l w r a t e of 4 I b / h r f o r l n l t i a l 7.5 hours o f f i r s t manned pcriud) !olloucd by contlnwus water v.pr venting a t a rate o f abaut 0.1 I b l h r b n t i l water i s r..hausted (1000 hours). + - ..- - - -. . -.-.-. . ..- . .. . -- -- -

1

/
/

1
Nitmgen vent Aft overpressure vent Forward overpressure vev: Airlock Overpressure vent
~

1 '

I

The n m l e c ~ l a ~ sieve vents arc alternately operated continuous vents. Each 15-mln vent cycle cruses r t n p o r d r y increase (approximately 2 min) i n erternal pressure i n the v k i n i t ) o f the vents. Autorat i c regulator overpressure vent Autonuric overpressure ve:t valve cracking pre\sure appruximately 6 ps!d). #t;!anitic overpressutv vent valve [cracking pressure approximately 6 psid). Autonar.~ overpressure vent valve (cracking p r o s u r r a ~ p m x i m a t e l v5 psid). . . - - .. . -- . . . - . . - .- - . . -. -- . . -. .-- . . . - - - - -. . . - - Ve,nt va:ves actuate to i n i t i a l l y $epressurlze the waste tank and remain latched i n the o w n position. Each operation vents a s.mII w u l t o f cabin atmrphere i n t o the waste tank with negli e f f e c t on the nonpmpulsive vent f l a r a t e . l o l i d s are contained by r c j l i n d r i c a l sere Fecal processor o p r r t i o n exhausts gasrs i n t o the waste tank wlth n e q l i g i b l e e f f e c t on mnpmpulsive vent f l w r a t e . R m v c s any r e f r i g e r a n t lerkage from the puw w i t h n e g l i g i b l e effect on the ~OnpPapulS vent flourate. Scientific airlock vents evacuate each experiment and the space between t t - r x p e r i m n t the airlock b t f o r e cover cmninq. Effluents are n e q l i q i b l e except i n the imnedirte v i hovever, the venting ends b e f o r i experiment drplo+nt: Bleed d m vent to m ~ t m e m t r c valve actuation s u ~ ~ b o t t l e s t the beainninq o f t v l v

q

t

e tank mnpropuls!ve vents InItIal bladwn Trash a i r l o c k k c d l pmcesror

I

I II

Refrigerat i o n p u w container Sclentifi~ airlock vent, fblo*dm) Pneuutic b o t t l e vent

iI

I ,

1

contingency cosdensate vent durifig a s o l a r observatory data c o l . l e c t i o n period and a condensate holding tank gas-aide vent w h i l e the SO19 experiment was i n the s c i e n t i f i c a i r l o c k . Observed e f f e c t s o f these constraint v i o l a t i o n s are discussed i n 11.4. Except f o r the SO19 i n c i d e n t , there was no apparent compromise of the system or experiments involved.

11.3

MEASUREMENT AND EVALUATION

Before t h e l a u n c h i n g of t h e Saturn Workshop, t h r e e computer math models had been developed t o c d c u l a t e Skylab s u r f a c e d e p o s i t i o n and background b r i g h t n e s s l e v e l s . The t h r e e a o d e l s were t h e d e p o s i t i o n math model, t h e cloud math model, and t h e workshop w a s t e t a n k math model. These programs r e p r e s e n t e d t h e most c u r r e n t u n d e r s t a n d i n g of t h e phenomena of contamination. They were used f o r premission contamination assessment and c o n t r o l and f o r mission s u p p o r t . The v a l i d a t i o n of t h e models b i t h f l i g h t d a t a provided contamination i n f o r m a t i o n f o r postmission e v a l u a t i o l l a c t i v i t i e s . S a t u r n Workshop contalnination d e t e c t i o n i n s t r u m e n t s and r e t u r n e d photog r a p h i c and experiment d a t a were used t o update t h e math models d u r i n g t h e m i s s i o n . This was done s o t h a t t i m e l y and meaningful contamination p r e d i c t i o n s , assessments, and e v a l u a t i o n s could b e made when s p e c i f i c e x p a r i n e n t s were exposed t o t h e e x t e r n a l environment. The i n s t r u m e n t s t h a t a s k i s t i n d e t e r m i n i n g t h e e x t e n t and e f f e c t s o f t h e induced atmosphere i n c l u d e t h e q u a r t z c r y s t a l microbalances, which measure depo s i t i o n ; t h e T027-SO73 photometer and t h e TO25 coronagraph, which measure l i g h t s c a t t e r i n g e f f e c t s ; and t h e TO27 sample a r r a y , which samples and measures depo s i t i o n . A l l of t h e s e i n s t r u m e n t s e x c e p t t h e microbalances had been planned f o r u s e w i t h t h e +2 s c i e n t i f i c a i r l o c k , but t h i s a i r l o c k w a s n o t a v a i l a b l e d u r i n g t h e m i s s i o n because of t h e thermal s h i e l d i n s t a l l a t i o n . A l i m i t e d amount of d a t a on d e p o s i t i o n and t h e l i g h t s c a t t e r i n g and a b s o r p t i o n p r o p e r t i e s of t h e induced a t n o s p h e r e was g a t h e r e d by exposing t h e TO27 sample a r r a y and t h e T027-SO73 photometer t o space through t h e -2 s c i e n t f f i c a i r l o c k . A d d i t i o n a l experiments, such as D024, S149, and S230, provided c o r r e l a t i v e a a t a oq t h e contaminant atmosphere. Deposition of contaminants i n s e l e c t e d a r e a s o f t h e S a t u r n Workshop is measured by q u a r t z c r y s t a l microbalance a s s e m b l i e s . Each microbalance c o n s i s t s of two c r y s t a l s mounted back t o back. The two c r y s t a l s have c a r e f u l l y matched thermal r e s p o n s e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s t o minimize t h e e f f e c t s o f teinperature upon d a t a . The forward c r y s t a l i s exposed t o t h e atmosphere and respond? +.o any a d d i t i o n of mass d e p o s i t e d on i t by a d e c r e a s e i n r e s o n a n t frequency. The r e a r c r y s t a l is p r o t e c t e d against. d e p o s i t i o n and s e r v e s a s a r e f e r e n c e c r y s t a l . The f r e q u e n c i e s of t h e two c r y s t a l s a r e compared, and t h e r e s u l t i n g b e a t frequency, which y i e l d s t h e measure of d e p o s i r i o n f o r each a r e a , i s t e l e m e t e r e d t o t h e ground. Two microbalances a r e mounted on t h e s o l a r o b s e r v a t o r y s u n s h i e l d ( f i g . 11-1) and view a l o n g t h e +Z a x i s . The c r y s t a l s a r e s l i g h t l y r e c e s s e d and have a f i e l d of view of 4.14 s t e r a d i a n s . There i s no p a r t of t h e S a t u r n Workshop i n t h e d i r e c t f i e l d of view of t h e s e u n i t s ; t h e i r primary f u n c t i o n i s t o monitor t h e r e t u r n f l u x o f contamination molecules t h a t could e n t e r t h e s o l a r o b s e r v a t o r y a p e r t u r e d o o r s , They monitor t h e e f f e c t s of docking and o t h e r o r b i t a l o p e r a t i o n s on t h e s o l a r experiments. Since t h e microbalances were f i r s i t u r n e d on 32 minutes a f t e r launch, t h e i n i t i a l o u t g a s s i n g could n o t be seen. Consequectiy, t h e l a s t r e a d i n g s b e f o r e l i f t o f f were t a k e 0 as t h e r e f e r e n c e . When t h e u n i t s f i r s t r e c e i v e d power, they both i n d i c a t e d d e p o s i t i o n of 0.24 pg/cm2 above t h e r e f e r e n c e v a l u e . This could have been due t o thermal s h i f t s , t o t h e r e f e r e n c e c r y s t a l s ' c l e a n i n g up, o r t o some contamination d u r i n g launch. During exposure t o t h e Sun through Day 2 2 , t h c s e u n i t s showed a g r a d u a l l o s s of mass. Throughoat t h e remainder of t h e

mission they d i d n o t show any i n d i c a t i o n of d e p o s i t s . T h i s was a n t i c i p a t e d s i n c e t h e s e microbalances have no contaminant s o u r c e s i n t h e i r f i e l d of view and t h e i r temperatures were such t h a t many contaminants would n o t d e p o s i t . Four microbalances a r e mounted on a t r u s s below t h e docking a d a p t e r ( f i g . 11-1) i n t h e v i c i n i t y of t h e E a r t h o b s e r v a t i o n experiments. These u n i t s have a f i e l d of view of 1.59 s t e r a d i a n s . Two of t h e s e u n i t s view along t h e -2 d i r e c t i o n . A t h i r d u n i t views along t h e +X a x i s toward t h e command and - - m i c e module. The f o u r t h u n i t views along t h e -X a x i s toward t h e workshop forward dome. The primary purpose of t h e s e u n i t s i s t o monitor t h e environment around t h e E a r t h o b s e r v a t i m experiments and t o s e n s e t h e contamination a s s o c i a t e d w i t h docking, molezular s i e v e o p e r a t i o n , and o t h e r Skylab f u n c t i o n s .
One of t h e two microbalances viewing a l o n g t h e -Z z x i s c p e r a t e d a t t h e amb i e n t temperature of t h e t r u s s assembly, -23 t o 0°C. The u t h e r u n i t was insul a t e d t o r e t a i n some of its i n t e r n a l h e a t i n an attemp. t o e l e v a t e i t s temperat u r e t o near t h a t of t h e S190A window, which i s maintained a t 10°C. A s i n t h e t, c a s e of t h e s o l a r o b s e r v a t o r y m i ~ r o b a l ~ m c e s h e s e u n i t s were not expected t o measure any a p p r e c i a b l e d e p o s i t i o n , s i n c e t h e r e were no Skplab s u r f a c e s i n t h e i r f i e l d o f view.

Both of t h e microbalances viewing i n t h e -Z d i r e c t i o n r e g i s t e r e d d e p o s i t i o n or t h e o r d e r of 10 t o 24 pg/cm2 accumulated through t h e mission. There i s a poss i b i l i t y t h a t t h e d e p o s i t i o n could be a t t r i b u t e d t o r e f l e c t i o n of outgassed mat e r i a l i n t e r a c t i n g w i t h t h e ambient atmosphere. However, i t i s c u r r e n t l y suspected t o have come from a w i r e bundle and connector i n a d v e r t e n t l y l e f t i n t h e u n i t s 1 f i e l d o f view. E a r l y i n t h e f i r s t manned p e r i o d t h e +X and -X viewing microbalances detect e d a s h a r p i n c r e a s e i n d e p o s i t i o n r a t e s . T h i s was because of a u l t i p l e command and s e r v i c e module r e a c t i o n c o n t r o l system f i r i n g s d u r i n g a t t e m p t s t o f r e e t h e j a m e d s o l a r a r r a y and t o dock. N measurable amounts were recorded on tile +Z o o r -Z viewing microbalances. The more v o l a t i l e exhaust p r o d u c t s had evaporated from t h e microbalances by Day 17, reducing t h e accumulation b u i l d u p t o a more normal r a t e . Again, a t t h e beginning of t h e second manned p e r i o d on Day 76, t h e i-X and -X microbalances i n d i c a t e d n o t i c e a b l e i n c r e a s e s i n d e p o s i t i o n r a t e s . By Day 92, t h e d e p o s i t i o n r a t e s had reduced t o l e v e l s comparable t o t h o s e recorded b e f o r e t h e second crew's docking. The sudden i n c r e a s e i n d e p o s i t i o n r a t e s between Days 76 m d 92 was a t t r i b u t e d t o t h e l e a k i n g o x i d i z e r from t h e command and s e r v i c e module r e a c t i o n c o n t r o l system. On Day 104, t h e +X viewing microbalance f i n e v o l t a g e system e l e c t r o n i c s f a i l e d with an accumulated mass o f a b o u ~36 ing/cm2. The c o a r s e v o l t a g e range continued t o provide measurements, but at reduced r e s o l u t i o n . The microbalance d e p o s i t i o n r e a d i n g s became u n s t a b l e around Day 148, a t about 42 pg/cm2. The i n s t a b i l i t y is c h a r a c t e r i s t i c because as t h e d e p o s i t e d m a t t e r becon's t o o t h i c k t o maintain a t i g h c bond t o t h e c r y s t a l s u r f a c e , t h e microhalance system tends t o dampen o u t o r f a l l o f f t o s a t u r a t i o n of i t s measurement range. The -I viewing mlcrobalance reached i t s u n s t a b l e c o n d i t i o n et about 44 pg/cm2, on Day 134. F i n a l l y , by Day 182, b o t h u n i t s reached e l e c t r o n i c s a t u r a t i o n at t h e upper l i m i t s of t h e measurements1 dynamic range, The accumulated mass deposit i o n measured by t h e +X and -X viewing microbalances through t h e mission was on t h e o r d e r of 45 ug/cm2.

The d e p o s i t i o n e x p e r i e n c e d by t h e m i c r o b a l a n c e s viewing d o n g t h e X a x i s is b e l i e v e d t o r e s u l t from Skylab s ~ r ra c e o u t g a s s i n g and t h e r e a c t i o i l c o n t r c > J f s y s t e m f i r i n g s . A n a l y s i s of r e t u r n e d experiment: s c r r a c e s expased t o tile ext e r n a l environment shows t h a t t h e d e p o s i t e d m t e r i a l .is p r i m a r i l y s i l i c e o u s i n n a t u r e . T h i s m a t e r i a l i s most p r o b a b l y from o u t g a s s i n g o f t h e si!.icon b i n d c r used i n t h e w h i t e t h e r m a l c o n t r o l p a i n t s ; however, !?vest i g a t i o n s a r e conti111.1i n g . P r e f l i g h t predict?'.ons, bqnc?d on d a t a from unmanned r a t e l l i t e s , assumed v a l c e of 1000 h o u r s f o r c u t g a s ~g L U r e a c h a f r a c t i o n of l / e o r 36.7 p e r c e n t . Microbalance d a t a i n d i c a t e t h a t i t t o o k t h e o u t g a s s i n g on Skylab 4100 h o u r s tr: r e a c h that. fraction, which r e f l e c t s t h e l o n g term n a t u r e o f o u t g a s s i r ~ gof materials. The d e p o s i t i o n r a t e measured by t h e X v i e w i n g m i c r o b a l a n c e s and t h e Ic:c'R r f d e p o s i t i o n r a t e measurement on t h e +Z v i e w i n g m i c r o b a l a n c e s , which cannot: "see" any S a t u r n Worksbop s u r f a c e s , s u b s t a n t i a t e s one of t h e b a s i c a s s u n p ~ i o n s o f t h e Skylab d e p o s i t i o n math model. T h i s a s t imption i s t h a t t h e r e must b~ a l i n e - o f - s i g h t between a c o n t a m i n a t i o n s o u r c e and a r e c e i v i n g s u r f a c e f o r a s i g n i f i c a n t mass t o b e t r a n s f e ~ r c d t o t h e r e c e i v i n g s u r f ~ ~ e . The d e p o s i t i o n math model p r e d i c t i o n s made d u r i n g t h r n i s s i o n , w i t h correct i o n s f o r t h e i'irst and second manned p e r i o d d o c k i n g and a d j u s t n i c n t s f o r conf i g u r a t i o n changes and t h e r m a l p r o f i l e u p d a t e s , c o r r e l a t e d v e r y c l o s e l y w i t h t h e f l i g h t d a t a p r o v i d e d by t h e +X and -X viewing m i c r o b a l a n c e s u n t i l i o s s of t h e s e d a t a . The f l i g h t d a t a from t h e X v i e w i n g u n i t s became e r r a t i c n e a r Day 117. A f t e r t h a t t i m e , o n l y model p r e d i c t i o n s were & s e d t o i n d i c a t e d e p o s i t i o n l e v e l s i n t h e 7, a x i s . F i g u r e 11-3 p r e s e n t s t h e a c t u a l accumulated d e p o s i t i o n of t h e +X viewing m i c r o b a l a n c e and ~ r e d i c t e dd a t a from t h e d e p o s i t i o . math model. The -X viewing m i c r o b a l a n c e p r e d i c t i o n s and accumulated d e n o s i t i o n a r e v e r y similar; f i g u r e 11-6 shows t h e accumulated mass r e c o r d e d by a l l s i x microbala n c e s . The math model was a l s o used t o p r e d i c t d e p o s i t i o n on o t h e r c r i t i c a l S a t u r n Wcrkshop s u r f a c e s . These p r e d i c t i o n s a r t , ? r e s e n t e d i n 1 1 . 4 . The l i g h t s c a t t e r i n g and background b r i g h t n e s s l e v e l s of t h e ~ n d u c e datmosp h e r e c l o u d were f i r s t measured when t h e T027-SO73 photometer was deployed i : i t o s p a c e from Day 29 t o Day 3 5 . Analyses o: p r e l i m i n a r y d a t a f r o n t h e s e mca:;Jrements show t h a t t h e r e w a s a n induced a t n o s p h e r e a r o c - d Skylab g r e a t e r t h a n t h a t c a l c u l a t e r i w i t h t h e c l o u d model b e f o r e the. m i s s i o n . P r c . f l i g h ~l i g k t s c a t t e r i n g l e v e l p r e d i c t i o n s I n d i c a t e d t h a t t h e r a t i o o f t h e b r i g h t n e s s o f t.!w rontaminat i o n background t o t h e b r i g h t n e s s o f t h e Sun (B,'Bn) wculd be on t h e ilrc.er of 1 x 10-17. How-ver, t h e p h o t o m e t e r measurements i n d i c a t e d J s c a t t e r e d brightnes:; r a t i o of 10-14 d/B9 a t a 90-degree Sun a n g l e . Because l i g h t s c a t t e l - i n g i s ex-t r e m e l y dependent on p a r t i c l e s i z e , t h i s d i f f e r e n c e c a n n o t be r e s o l v e d u n t i l f u r t h e r r e d u c t i o n of photometer d a t a d e t e m i n e s t h e p a r t i c l e size and J i s t i i b . tion.

The second T027-SO73 photometer measurements were mark on Day 82. T h i s was d u r i n g t h e p e r i o d i n which t h e t-X and -X v i e w i n g m i c r o b a l a n c e s u,easured a h i g h e r tha? a n t i c i p a t e u d e p o s i t i o n r a t e . The photometer r e a d i n g s i n d i c a t e d a s c a t t e r e d b r i g h t n e s s r a t i o of a p p r o x i m a t e l y 2 x 10-12 BIBO. These b r i g h t n e s s l e v e l r e a d i n g s are c o n s i d e r a b l y below t h e l i m i t s o f t h e Satu: i i Works!~op cxperimen ts e x c e p t f o r t h e SO73 e x p e r i m e n t , which measures g e g e n s c h e i n a t a r a ~ i o f 1.0-13. o I t was c o n c l u d l d t h a t t h e h i g h e r b r i g h t n e s s l e v e l s of t h e c o n t a m i n a n t c l o u d coulf: tre a t t r i b u t e d t o t h e a d d i t i o n o f t h e r e a c t i o n c o n t r o l s y s t e m o x i d i z e r t o t h e i;;c!uced atmosphere, and t h d t t h e s t a t i c induced atmosphere s c a t t e r e d b r i g h t n e s s r a t i o i s p r o b a b l y 1 0 - l 4 B/Bg w i t h s m a l l t r a n s i e n t s dependent upon operiltional activities.

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!.ight s c a t t e r i n ~e f f e c t s of p a r t i c l e s were o b s e r v e d by t h e s o l a r o b s e r v a t o r y exp e r i m e n t s . P a r t L c l e s were o b s e r v e d i n t h e f i e l d o f view of t h e w h i t e l i g h t coronag r a p ! ~ ( S 0 5 2 ) v i d e o ciisylay and wei-e a l s o t r a c k e d by t h e star t r a c k e r . These r a n g e d from i n d i v i d u a l p a r t i c l e s on Day 1 7 , through p a r t i c u l a t e s t r e z m s on Day 24, t o snovstnrrns" on Day 33.
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The ; r t i c l e s a b s e r v e d d u r i n g t h e F i r s t ~ a n n e dp e r i o d were e s t i m a t e d t o bc from 20 t o 140 m e t e r s from S k y l a b wken obs e r v e d . T h i s was d e t e r ' n e d from t h e degree t o which t h e p a r c ; 2 s a p p e a r e d L O b e o u t o f f o c u s . T h e i r . . r e n t v i s u a l magn i t u d e s ranged from + 1 . ~ b r i g h t e r t h a n to F i r 11-3.C c r r e l a ~ i o no f lrodel -5.4 because o f t h e forward s c a t t e r e d prediction.; ~ 2tih LX viek-ing microl i g ~ l tf r m t h e Sun. These c o r r e s p o n d t o s t a r magnitudes r a n g i n g from +6 t o b r i g h t e r balance i ? t a . t h a n +I. Given t h e d i s t a n c e and a p p a r e n t b r i g h t n e s s , t h e p a r t i c l e s i z e w a s c a l c u l a t e d from s i m p l e d i f f r a c t i o n t h e o r y . T h e i r s i z e s r a n s e d from about 1 0 microns t o s e v e r a l hundred microns. The p a r t i c l e s 311 c r o s s e d t h e SO52 t e l e v i s i o n camera from t h e d i r e c t i o n o f t h e worksliop, t r a v e l i n ? torcard t h e c o m ~ a u d;znd s e r v i c e n o d u l e . However, t h e i r t r a c k s d i d nor: appzar t c wn-;erge t o a c c m o n l o c a t i o n . The p a r t i c l e s p a s s e d t h r o u g h t h e c a m e r a ' s f i e i J i.i view zt a n g u l a r r a t e s r a n g i n g from 0 . 2 t c " 3 d e g / s e c , which c o r r e s p o n d t o v e l o c i t i e s of 0.5 t o 6 m/sec ~ e r p e c d i c u l a rt o t h e c a m e r a ' s a x i s . Ass~nning t 5 e p a r E i c l e s c r l g i n a t e d - r o a + h e Skylab, t h e r e s u l t a n t v e l o c i t y must have been g r e a t e r t!lm 1 . 1 n/sec. On Day 2 1 , t h e s e p a r t i c l e s were d e s c r i b e d a s concaminaLion i ~ a i - jc r o s s i n g tile f i e l d o f view. T h e r e were t i m e s when t h e o b s e r v a t i o n o f s; ch p a r t i c l e s appcared t o b e t i e d t o e.lents. On Day 20, i t w a s r e p o r t e d t h a t n strean! of p a r t i c l e s was s e e n as t h e m o l e c u l a r s i e v e c y c l e d . On Day 29, an enormous q ~ t s n tit! of p a r t i c l e s was o b s e r v e d a s t h e h a b i t a t i o n a r e a s ~ l e n o i d venc -:alve was opened, v e n t i n g c a b i n atmosphere. On Day 33, a s t o r m o f p?rt i i l e s rias renoi-ted, which ;,ay have been a s s o c i a t t d l.i c!i t h e v e n t i n g of tile command and s e r v i c e ;nodule hydrogen t a n k . Additional inforinatisn r e l a t i n g t o these c t s e r v > t i m s by t h e 5052 experiment ip r c s r n t e J ii: 11.4.1. Visual o b s e r v a t i o n r e v e a l e d o n e ucexpec t e d , though n o t s e r i o u s , s o u r c e of l i g h t s c a : t e r i n g p a r t i c l e s : conrie:lsed rlitrogen from t h r u s t e r a t t i t v d e c o n t r o l system i i r i ~ g s . k h i l e docking t h e f i r 5 t conmand a n d s e r v i c e madule, t h e crew saw a t h r u s t e r plume, g r a y o r c o l d b l u e i n c o l o r , each time t h e wo;kshap , i t t i t u d e contrcjl t h r u s t e r s f i r e d . I t is tlstimsted tb,ac t h e plume milst have 'lccu 10-7 R/iI*, to be z a n i l y

F i g u r e 11-4.Quertz c r y s t a l rnicrobal nncc mass nccumulntion recor~l.

v i s i b l e . A computer a n a l y s i s performed on t h e t h r u s t e r s i n d i c a t c d t h a t as much a s 40 p e r c e n t of t h e exhaust p r o d u c t s could have condensed, and p a r t i c l e s i z e s up t o 0.16 micron diaineter could have r e s u l t e d from homogeneous n u c l e a t i o n duri n g expansion in t h e n o z z l e . A p a r t i c l e t h i s s i z e can produce s c a t t e r e d l i g h t which is v i s i b l e w i t h proper background c o n t r a s t . The b l u e c o l o r i n d i c a t e d t h a t t h e condensed p a r t i c l e s were in t h e submicron range. S i n c e t h i s c o n t r o l system was n e v e r used d u r i n g s o l a r o b s e r v a t o r y o r E a r t h o b s e r v a t i o n experiments, i t d i d n o t a f f e c t d a t a from t h e s e experiments. O t h e r experiment d a t a taken along t h e a f f e c t e d l i n e - o f - s i g h t were n o t degraded d u r i n g t h e s e f i r i n g s , s i n c e t h e plumes c l e a r e d in l e s s than a minute. Evaluation of d a t a from t h e T027-SO73 photometer, t h e star t r a c k e r , crew o b s e r v a t i o n s , and t h e SO52 video d i s p l a y h a s r e s u l t e d i n c e r t a i n p r e l i m i n a r y c o n c l u s i c n s . I t is p r e s e n t l y b e l i e v e d t h a t t h e p a r t i c l e s around Skylab ranged i n s i z e from 0 . 1 t o 200 microns i n d i a m e t e r . The m a j o r i t y of p a r t i c l e s were around 1 5 microns i n d i a m e t e r , and t h e fl.uxes of random p a r t i c l e s were on t h e o r d e r of 1 . 3 p a r t i c l e s p e r second p e r s t e r a d i a n . The induced atmosphere c o n s i s t s p r i m a r i l y of p a r t i c u l a t e matter o v e r which no o p e r a t j m a l c o n s t r a i n t s can be e x e r c i s e d . Such an atmosphere w i l l probably e x i s t , t o some d e g r e e , w i t h any spacecraft. 11.4 CONTAMINANT EFFECTS

The s i n g l e m g s t s i g n i f i c a n t e f f e c t o f contamination is t h e d e g r a d a t i o n of r e s u l t s of experiments t h a t a r e dependent on o p t i c s . To a l e s s e r e x t e n t , contamination may degrade t h e d a t a from h i g h energy p a r t i c l e c o l l e c t i o n experiments and c o n t r i b u t e t o t h e d e g r a d d performance of systems which are a f f z c t e d by ext e r n h l induced p r e s s u r e s . Contaminant d e p o s i t s on o p t i c a l experiment s u r f a c e s cause l i g h t a t t e n u a t i o n by a b s o r p t i o n o r s c a t t e r i n g o r both. Noise can be i n troduced i n t o o p t i c a l experiment d a t a by f l u o r e s c e n c e , s c a t t e r i n g , o r wave f r o n t d i s t o r t i o n s . I n t h e c a s e o f c o l l e c t i o n experiments, d e p o s i t i o n o f contaminants c o m p l i c a t e s t h e a n a l y s i s o f t h e c o l l e c t i o n s u r f a c e s . A d d i t i o n a l l y , t h e induced atmocphere may r a i s e p r e s s u r e s i n high v o l t a g e e l e c t r i c a l components, l e a d i n g t o power l o s s e s o r corona. There a r e a number of o p t i c a l d e v i c e s and windows Gn Skylab which a r e susc e p t i b l e t o t h e c o n t a m i n a t i ~ ne f f e c t s o f t h e induced atmcsphere. The o p t i c s i n t h e s o l a r o b s e r v a t o r y and t h e E a r t h o b s e r v a t i o n s e n s o r s are s u s c e p t i b l e t o both t h e l i g h t s c a t t e r i n g e f f e c t s o f t h e atmosphere and d e p o s i t i o n o f i t s c o n s t i t u e n t s . The a s t r o p h y s i c s and e n g i n e e r i n g and technology experiments a r e a l s o prone t o t h i s contamination when t h e y a r e extended from t h e workshop through t h e s c i e n t i f i c a i r l o c k . The S a t u r n Workshop windows a r e s u s c e p t i b l e t o d e p o s i t e d contarnixants, r e s u l t i n g i n a t t e n u a t i o n of r a d i a t i o n by a b s o r p t i o n . The s t a r t r a c k e r o p t i c s , l o c a t e d on t h e e x t e r i o r of the s o l a r o b s e r v a t o r y , a r e a f f e c t e d by t h e l i g h t a b s o r p t i o n and s c a t t e r i n g of p a r t i c l e s i n t h e atmosphere. The thermal c o n t r o l s u r f a c e s and s o l a r a r r a y s can be a f f e c t e d by t h e d e p o s i t i o n o f contaminants, which would reduce thermal c o n t r o l and power g e n e r a t i o r e f f i c i e n c i e s .

I n ge.,zral, l i g h t s c a t t e r i n g from t h e induced atmospbcre cloud had l i t t l e o r no e f f e c t upon t h e viewing o f s e n s i t i v e o p t i c a l experiments. When high p a r t i c l e f l u x e s were noted, t h e d e g r a d a t i o n of d a t a was momentary. Deposition of contamin a n t s on o p t i c a l s u r f a c e s , however, has probably degraded d a t a taker. by some of t h e experiments.

Some experiments and windows a r e a l s o s u b j e c t t o contamination by p a r t i c l e s i n s i d e t h e Saturn Workshop. An assessment of t h e Saturn Workshop i n t e r n a l environment based upon t h e i n f l l g h t a e r o s o l a n a l y s i s e x p ~ r i m e n t(T003) d a t a i n d i c a t e s t h a t the i n t e r n a l environment was r e l a t i v e l y clean. The TO03 p a r t i c l e counter measures the a e r o s o l p a r t i c u l a t e matter concentration and d i s t r i b u t i o n i n t h e 1 t o 100 micron s i z e range. The c o l l e c t e d p a r t i c l e s were returned t o Earth f o r a n a l y s i s . The p a r t i c l e count was on t h e o r d e r of 3000/ft3. For comparison, t h e p a r t i c l e count i n a t y p i c a l o f f i c e environment is approximately 5 0 0 , 0 0 ~ / ft3. 11.4.1 S d a r Observatory Experiments

The s o l a r physics experiments contained i n t h e s o l a r observatory include t h e white l i g h t coronagraph (S052), t h e X-ray s p e c t r o g r a p h i c telescope ( ~ 0 5 4 ) , t h e u l t r a v i o l e t scanning polychromator spectroheliometer (S055), t h e X-ray telescope (S056), t h e extreme u l t r a v i o l e t spectrograph and spectroheliograph (S082A and SO82B), and t h e hydrogen alpha telescopes. A l l t h e o p t i c s in t h ? s o l a r observat o r y have a p e r t u r e doors which a r e closed d u r i n g nonoperational p e r i o d s t o prot e c t t h e o p t i c s from e x t e r n a l contaminants and thermal degradation. The two q u a r t z c r y s t a l microbalances mounted on t h e s o l a r observatory sunshield have a l a r g e r view angle than t h e experiments. Therefore, t h e presence of contaminants from e x t e r n a l sources would be d e t e c t e d before t h e experiments could be a f f e c t e d . Since t h e r e a r e no s u r f a c e s i n t h e f i e l d of view of t h e o p t i c s . the it in source of d e p o s i t s would be from i n s i d e t h e s o l a r observatory c a n i s t e r . During t h e process of o t t a f n i n g t e l e v i s i o n images of t h e Sun, numerous part i c l e s were observed i n t h e SO52 f i e l d of view beginning on Day 17. The most clear-cut p a r t i c l e s i g h c i n g c o r r e l a t i o n d u r i n g t h e f i r s t manned period was t h e a?pearance of p a r t i c l e s on Day 29 during t h e malfunction checkout of workshop h a b i t a t i o n a r e a vents. The crcw's comment a s they opened t h e v e n t valve was, "looks l i k e t h e 4 t h of J u l y on t h e white l i g h t coronagraph." During t h e exerav e h i c u l a r f i l m r e t r i e v a l on Day 37. t h e S352 o c c u l t i n g d i s k was "dusted" with a camel h a i r o p t i c a l brush, removing what appeared t o be a small p i e c e of white thread. During t h i s e x t r a v e h i c u l a r a c t i v i t y , a s i n g l e p i e c e of aluminized myl?tr, a loose washer. and b l i n d r i v e t s were a l s o observed f l o a t i n g o u t of t h e c a n i s t e r . During t h e second manned period, a l a r g e shower of p a r t i c l e s occurred on Day 87, which c o r r e l a t e d with a condensate system malfunction checkout. Liquid from t h e condensate tank had been vented through t h e contingency condensate system vent while an SO52 experiment w a s being conducted. A temporary degradation of experiment d a t a r e s u l t e d from l i g h t s c a t t e r i n g e f f e c t s during t h e p a r t i c l e shower. During t h e e x t r a v e h i c u l a r a c t i v i t y f o r f i l m r e t r i e v a l on Day 132, t h e SO52 o c c u l t i n g d i s k was again dusted t o remove what appeared t o be a small m e t a l l i c whisker. These i n s t a n c e s were i s o l a t e d and did not cause a contaminat i o n problem with t h e s o l a r physics experiments. Many SO52 video transmissions showed no p a r t i c l e s p r e s e n t i n t h e f i e l d of view, i n d i c a t i n g t h a t particles a r e not a continuous phenomenon. There i s no evidence t h a t e x t e r n a l contamination s i g n i f i c a n t l y degraded SO52 experiment d a t a .

On Day 25 t h e SO54 door was l a t c h e d i n t h e open p o s i t i o c because cf door o p e r a t i n g problems. It was determined t h a t the r i s k of d a t a l o s s due t o contamination from an e x t e r n a l source was less than t h e r i s k of d a t a l o s s due t o a s t u c k door. This was based upon microbalance d a t a which i n d i c a t e d t h a t t h e r e was no d e p o s i t i o n of contaminants or, t h e Sun end o f t h e s o l a r observatory. I n a d d i t i o n , t h e s t r u c t u r a l p a r t i t i c n s and l a y e r s of s u p e r i n s u l a t i o n between t h e

i.xperiments minimized t h e p o t e n t i a l e f f e c t s on o t h e r e x p e r i m e n t s f r o n e x t e r r l a l c o n t a m i n a t i o n r n t . e r i n g t h i s d o o r . S u b s e q u e n t l y , t h e d o o r s f o r :he hydrogen a l p h a 3, SOS2A. and S082B e x k e r i m e n t s wpre e i t h e r l a t c h e d o r i n h i b i t e d i n t h e open p o s i t i o i l b e c a u s e o f d o o r problems. Leaving t h e d o o r s open d i d n o t cont r i b u t e t o d e g r a d a t i o n o f t h e e x p e r i m e n t d a t a . The s o l a r o b s e r v a t o r y c a n i s t e r i n t e r n a l p r e s s u r e and t e m p e r a t u r e measurements were m ~ n i t o r e dd u r i n g t h e missLon t o assess t h e p o s s i b i l i t y of deposLtior~.o n o p t i c s from c u t g a s s i n g , and no depcs i t i o n e f f e c t s were n o t e d . 11.4.2 E a r t h 0 b s e r v a t . i o n Lxyeriments

The E a r t h o b s e r v a t i o n e x p e r i a e n t s i n c l u d e t h e n u l t i s p e c t r a l p h o t o g r a p h i c f a c i l i t y e x p e r i a e n t (SlgOA), t h e i r l f r a r e d s p e c t r o n e t e r e x p e r i m e n t (S191), t h e mtiir i y z c t r a l s c a n n e r e x p e r i m e n t (Sl92) , t h e microwave r a d i o m e t e r , s c a t t e r o m e t e r , a i d a1t i m e t e r e x p e r i a e n t (S 133) , and t h e L-band microwave r a d i o m e t e r e x p e r i m e n t (S 194). The d o c k i n g a d a p t e ~ .u i n d o ~ , t h r o u g h which t h e i n t e r n a l S190A cameras c o l l . e c t d a t a , h a s an e x t e r n a l c o v e r which can be c l o s e d t o l i m i t che d e p o s i t i o n o f cont a n i n a n t s on t h e o p t i c a l s u r f a c e . The S191 and SL92 e x p e r i ~ e n t shave e x t e r n a l a p e r t u r e d o o r s t o p r o t e c t t h e o p t i c s from c o n t a m i n s n t s and t h e r m a l d e g r a d a t i o n . These c o v e r s remain c l o s e d e x c e p t d u r i n g d z t a c o l l e c t i o n p e r i o d s . The c r e u c b s e r v e d p a r t i c l e s through t h e S190A window w h i l e o p e u i n g t h e window c o v e r on D.sy 27. These p a r t i c l e s were a p p a r e n t l y p a i n t c h i p s c a u s e d by t h e window c o v e r ' s c o n t a c t i n g t h e e x t e r n a l dockLng a d a p t e r s u r f a c e . The p a r t i c l e s were n a t numerots and d i d n o t n o t i c e a b l y a f f e c t d a t a . A l s o , on Day 28, t h e t h r u s t e r a t t i t u d e z o n t ~ o ls y s t e m f i r e d a 9 p r o x i c ; a t e l y n i n e t i m e s d u r i n g d a t a taking. However, t h e E a r t h o b s e r v a t i o n f i l m c o n d i t i o n and s c i e n t i f i c c a n t e n t were good. On Day 1 6 , t h e crew o b s e r v e d b r o ~ n i s hs p o t s an t h e i n t e r n a l S190A o p t i c a l r ' i l t e r s , b u t d i d no: c l e a n t h e f i l t e r s a t t h a t ti-:. The;e s p o t s may have been r e s i d u e f r ~ m o n d e n s a t i o n . The S190A d e s i c c a n t s were a i s o o b s e r v e d t o be w h i t e , c i n d i c a t i n g m o i s t u r e had beer! p r e s e n t i n o r around t h e camra. During t h e second manned p e r i o d , t h e d e s i c c a n t s were i n s p e c t e d and found t o be p a l e p u r p l e r a t h e r t h a n b l u e i n a p p e a r a n c e , i n d i c a : i n g p o s s i b l e s a t u r a t i o n . D e s i c c a n t s were subseq u e n t l y changed a t i n t e r v a l s o f 2 o r 3 days. N c o n d e n s a t i a n w a s n c t e d on o p t i o c a l e l e m e n t s . On Day 2 7 , tile crew o b s e r v e d s p e c k s o f d u s t o r b v t ~ b l e son t h e i n t e r i o r s u r f a c e s o f t h e l e n s e s o f a l l camera charnels. Using a p e n l i g h t , t h e crew i n s p e c t e d t h e l e c s e s on f o u r o f t h e camera s t a t i o n s on D3y 1 2 6 and a g a i n o b s e r v e d f i n e p a r t i c l e s c r i m p e r f e c t i o n s on i n n e r l e n s e l e m e n t s r,ear the c a n e r a s h u t t e r s . The o r i g i n o f t h e p a r t i c l e s was d e f i n i t e l y i n t e r n a l t o t h e camera and t h e s u r f a c e s were n o t a c c e s s i b l e f o r c l e a n i n g . S c a t t e r i n g o f l i g h t from t h e s e p a r t i c l e s a d d s t o , and p r o b a b l y masks, s c a t t e r i n g e f f e c t s f r ~ u ro t h e r cont a m i n a t i o n s o u r c e s . A l l t h r e e c r e w s o b s e r v e d e m u l s i o n s t r e a k s on t h e fi1.m p l a t e n s and were s u c c e s s f u l i n removing them aad c l e a n i n g t h e p l a t e n s . However, some minute are35 of photographed g r o u n i sceiies were o b s c u v d . T h i s was a p p a r e n t l y due LO t h e p r e s e n c e o f d u s t and p o s s i b l j a s l i g h t amount o f o t h e r m a t e r i a l on t h e p l a t e n s . T h i s c o n d i t i o n h a s had no s u b s t a n t i v e d e g r a d i n g e f f e c t on t h e data. To p r e c l u d e f a i l u r e o f t h e S191 a p e r t u r e d o o r i n a c l o s e d p o s i t i o n , i t was l e f t open from Day 9 1 u n t i l Day 131. The m i c r o b a l a q c e s r e c o r d e d an i n c r e a q e d

t i o n environment j u s t b e f o r e t h e door-closing d i f f i c u l t i e s . There i s a contan; p o s s i b i l i t y t h a t t h e s e r v i c e module o x i d i z e r l e a k c o n t r i b u t e d i o t h e problem by o x i d i z i n g t h e l u b r i c a n t on t h e door hinge. P r e l i m i n a r y review of t h e S191 d a t a taken d u r i n g t h e f i r s t manned p e r i o d i n d i c a t e s t h e p o s s i b i l i t y of some depos!tfon or t h e e x t e r n a l o p t i c s because of t h e r e f l e c t i o n c f o u t g r s s a n t s by t h e ambient atmosphere. U n t i l f u r t h e r d c t a r e d u c t i o n i s completed, no c o n t a m i n a t i o n - r e l a t e d c o x l u s i n n s can be made. The 5192 a p e r t u r e door w a s i n a d v e r t e n t l y l e f t open between Days 96 and 98, more t h a n doubling t h e exposure o f t h e S192 o p t i c s t o t h e e x t e r n a l environment. S i c c e t h e o p t i c s were w e l l p r o t e c t e d f r o n l i n e - o f - s i g h t contamination s o u r c e s , even w i t h t h e door apse, d e t e c t a b l e contamination e f f e c t s were not expected. , G evidence of S142 experiment d a t a deg-a?? Lon h a s been fsund.

The o p e r a t i o n o f t h e S193 experimecc Gias ;iormal u n t i l Daj 125, when crew ~ b ~ e r v e d antenna p i t c h and yaw c o n t r o l d i f f i c u l t i e s . The ~ a l f u n c t i o nappe?.red co be e l e c t r i c a l and p o s s i b l y t h e r e s u l t of s h o r t c i r c u i t s by s c r a p s o f a i m ! ~ r f z e d i n s u l a t i o n on t h e a n t e n n a p o s i t i o a feedback p o t e n t i o m e t e r s , which a r e mount=d on t h e a n t e n n a ' s gimbal s t r u c t u r e . E x t r a v e h i c u l a r r e p a i r v a s c o n s i d e r e d f e a s i b l e , and on Day 1 9 3 t h e crew i n s p e c t e d t h e a n t e n n a , performed e l e c t r i c a l tests, and removed same f o r e i g n naqterial i n t h e gimbal a r e a . The crew was a b l e t o r e s t o r e c o n t r o l l e d motion of t h e antenna i n t h e yax d i r e c t i o n , but had t o d i s a b l e t h e p i t c h gimbal motar and p i n t h e p i t c h gimbal at a z e r o degree p i t c h a n g l e . There were no i n d i c a t i o n s of contamination e f f e c t s on t h e S193 e x p e r i ment d a t a . Radiometer and s c a t t e r o m e t e r r e t u r n was as p r e d i c t e d . The t u n n e l d i o d e a m p l i f i e r b i a s , which is i n d i c a t i v e o f d e g r a d a t i o n of t h e r e c e i v i n g c r y s t a l , w a s w i t h i n c o l e r a n c e s . It was c a l c u l a t e d t h a t t h e r e was approximately 2.5 uglcm2 o f accumulated d e p o s i t i o n a t t h ? antenna fcedhorn, which was f a r belob experiment t o l e r a n c e . F i g u r e 11-5 i l l u s t r a t e s t h e estimated accumulation computed through use of t h e d e p o s i t i o n math model. The p r e s s u r e s around S193 were c a l c u l a t e d t o be on t n e order of 1 x 13-6 t o r r , which is spprcximately t h r e e o r d e r s of magnitude below corona o n s e t b a l u e s .
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The S194 a n t e n n a was exposed t o t h e i n t e r m i t t e n t f i r i n g s of t h e serrrice modale r e a c t i o n c o n t r o l system throughout t h e mission as w e l l as t h e l e a k i n g o x i d i z e r d u r i n g t h e s e c o ~ dmanned p e r i o d . These o c c u r r e n c e s could have r e s u l t e d i n depos i t i o n o r o x i d a t i o n of S194 s c r f a c e s . To d a t e , no contamination e f f e c t s on 5194 d a t a ha-:e been noted. 11.4.3 S c i e n t i f i c Airlock

shop s c i e n t i f i c a i r l o c k i n c l u d e t h e ultrav i o l e t . s t e l l a r astronomy experiment (S019), e , t h e u l t r a v i o l e t airgl-ow horizon photography experiment (S063), t h e gegenschein and F i g u r e ;1-5. - S193 Feedhorn d e p o s i t i o n model p r e d i c t i o n s . z o d i a c a l l i g h t experiment (S073), t h e ul-t r a v i o l e t panorama experiment (S183). t h e u l t r a v i o l e t e l e c t r m o g r a p h i c camera experiment (S201), two contamination measurement experiments (TO25 and TO27), t h e p a r t l c l e c o l l e c t i o n experiment ( ~ 1 . 4 9 ) , and
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t h e Earth t e r r a i n camera (Sl90B). The S149 and S201 experiments wers a l s o performed from l o c a t i o n s o u t s i d e of t h e workshop and a r e discussed f u r t h e r i n 11.4.4. During t h e f i r s t and second manned p e r i o d s , a s e r i e s of i n c i d e n t s involving SO19 experiment systems occurred which may have r e s u l t e d in some experiment d a t a degradation. Since t h e S063, S073, S183, and S201 experiments used SO19 hardware components, t h e i r d a t a may a l s o have been a f f e c t e d . On Day 17, t h e a r t i c u l a t e d m i r r o r system t i l t and r o t a t i o n c o n t r o l malfunctioned. The c r e u performed maintenance on t h e system f o r approximately an hour, during which time the m i r r o r s u r f a c e was exposed t o cabin atmosphere acd crew breath. I n a d d i t i o n , a smudge o r f i n g e r p r i n t w a s discovered on t h e mirror surface. This w a s not removed, a s t h e probable e f f e c t on experiment d a t a w a s cons i d e r e d t o be s l i g h t . Data c o l l e c t e d by t h e second crew on Days 95 and 96 may have been influenced by condensation o r p a r t i c l e s from an evacuation of t h e gas s i d e of t h e condensate hoqding tank chrough t h e s c i e n t i f i c a i r l o c k v e n t which occurred i n v i o l a t i o n of o p e r a t i o n a l c o n s t r a i n t s . On Day 99, t h e a r t i c u l a t e d mirror system would not r e t r a c t and remained i n t h e s c i e n t i f i c a i r l o c k f o r approximately 28 hours u n t i l it was s u c c e s s f u l l y retract1.d. During t h i s period Upon t h e mirror reached a temperature ca3 c u l a t e d t o be approximately -30°C. removal i u t o t h e workshop, d r o p l e t s of moisture condensed on t h e m i r r o r s u r f a c e , f u r t h e r contaminating i t . Subsequenc i n s p e c t i a n s and photographs revealed sone s c r a t c h e s , abrasions, and apparent c n n r a m i : . ~ t i o np a r t i c l e s . There i s a s t r o n g p o s s i b i l i t y t h a t contamination d e p o s i t s on t h e m i r r o r degraded t h e SO13 d a t a from t h e second manned period. Analysis of t h e d a t a i n d i c a t e d t h a t t h e s i g n a l i n t e n s i t y received from a s p e c i f i c star f i e l d i n t h e 1500-angstrom s p e c t r a l region, when measured during t h e second manned perioc!, had degraded a p p r o x l m t e l y 50 percent a s cospared t o a measurement of t h e same s t a r f i e l d a t t h e s.:art of t h e f i r s t mancad period. Because of t h i s d e t e r i o r a t i o n i n u l t r a v i o l e t r e f l e c t i v i t y and p l a n s f o r e x t e n s i v e use of t h e m i r r o r , a replacement mirror w a s i n s t a l l e d by t h e t h i r d crew. Preliminary review of SO19 d a t a from t h e t h i r d manned period shows no obvious e f f e c t s due t o contamination. Since no known anomalies r e l a t e d t o t h e replacement mirror occurred, no degrad a t i o n is expected i n d a t a taken with t h i s mirror. The SO63 experiment operatfons began during t h e second manned period. Photographic d a t a taken through t h e wardroom window and a i r l o c k windows 3 and 4 may have b en degraded by contamination of t h e windows. The n a t u r e of t h i s t contamination i s discussed i n 11.4.5. system was The SO19 a r t i c u l a t e d ~ i r r o r a l s o used i n o b t a i n i n g SO63 d a t a , s o i t is p o s s i b l e t h a t degradation occurred because of t h e reduced u l t r a v i o l e t r e f l e c t i v i t y of t h e mirror. To d a t e , however, no s e r i o u s degradation t o t h e d a t a has been foucd. During one S183 experiment d a t a c o l l e c t i o n period on Day 21, t h e crew reported seeing a few p a r t i c l e s on t h e s o l a r s i d e when using t h e SO52 white l i g h t coronagraph video display. The moon was almost f u l l and r e f l e c t e d moonlight from t h e gold s u r f a c e of t h e workshop could have a f f e c t e d t h e S183 s p e c t r a and been i n t e r p r e t e d as a contamination s c a t t e r i n g phenomenon. While t h e s e conditions were not d e s i r a b l e f o r a c q u i s i t i o n of S183 d a t a , they did not s e r i o u s l y a f f e c t the data. One frame of S183 photography, taken on Day 37, shows a tumbling o b j e c t w v i n g a c r o s s the f i e l d of view. Examination of c o n d i t i o n s e x i s t i n g a t t h e time

seems t o r u l e out t h e p o s s i h i l i t y of t h e o b j e c t being p a r t i c u l a t e matter near t h e workshop. The o b j e c t appeared t o b l i n k every 5 seconds, which may i n d i c a t e t h a t i t was a tumbling shroud segment o r o t h e r l a r g e p i e c e of d e b r i s some d i s t a n c e away. Since the S183 experiment a l s o used t h e SO19 a r t i c u l a t e d mirror system, the d a t a c o l l e c t e d w i l l have t o b e analyzed t o determine i f t h e mirror s u r f a c e contamination caused =y degradation. Experiment o p e r a t i o n s conducted during t h e t h i r d manned period with t h e new mirror revealed no e f f e c t s due t o cor.tamination.
The S201 experiment f i l m i n d i c a t e d corona problems during approximately 25 percent of t h e camera's o p e r a t i o t through t h e -2 s c i e n t i f i c a i r l o c k . The hardware t o a t t a c h SO19 and SO63 equipment f o r use i n t h e a i r l o c k could have increased t h e instrument's leakage r a t e . This would cause t h e higher p r e s s u r e s which allowed corona t o occur. N corona problems were observed during e x t r a v e h i c u l a r a c t i v i t y o operation of t h e camera, which tends t o confirm t h e p o s s i b i l i t y of leakage during t h e a i r l o c k operations. The S201 experiment a l s o used t h e SO19 a r t i c u l a t i n g mirror f o r t h e a i r l o c k exposures, and some d a t a may be degraded because of t h e reduced u l t r a v i o l e t r e f l e c t i v i t y of the mirror. The TO27 sample a r r a y was deployed through t h e -Z s c i e n t i f i c a i r l o c k on Day 35 and r e t r a c t e d on Day 37. The upper c a r o u s e l d i d not c l o s e properly, s o t h e cold upper c a r o u s e l samples were exposed t o cabin air, with condensation very l i k e l y occurring. Laboratory a n a l y s i s of t h e r e t u r n e d samples i n d i c a t e s d e p o s i t i o n l e v e l s below g/cm2 on a l l samples. This w a s t h e low threshold of t h e measurement instrumentation used and i n d i c a t e s c l o s e c o r r e l a t i o n with p r e d i c t e d values. Figure 11-6 shows t h e p r e d i c t e d d e p o s i t i o n as computed with t h e d e p o s i t i o n math model. The sample a r r a y q u a r t z c r y s t a l microbalances could not be used s i n c e t h e sample a r r a y had t o be operated i n t h e -2 s c i e n t i f i c a i r l o c k where instrumentation connections were n o t a v a i l a b l e . During o p e r a t i o n of t h e T027-SO73 photometer on 3ay 33, l a r g e numbers of p a r t i c l e s were s i g h t e d on t h e SO52 white l i g h t coronagraph video d i s p l a y . Except i o n a l l y higk b r i g h t n e s s could r e s u l t from l i g h t s c a t t e r i n g by such p a r t i c l e s . The conmand and s e r v i c e module hydrogen and oxygen v e n t s may s t i l l have bee2 emitt i n g at t h i s time s i n c e t h i s venting s t a r t e d on Day 32 and continued f o r seve r a l days. On Day 33 t h e condensate holdi n g tank (cabin a i r s i d e ) w a s evacuated through t h e -2 s c i e n t i f i c a i r l o c k vacuum vent. To avoid any p o s s i b l e e f f e c t n t h e photometer, t h e photometer w a s exte,..,' and pointed d i r e c t l y along t h e -2 a x i s . On Day 34, t h e photometer-was extended Figure 11-6.TO27 sample a r r a y d .ring t h e s e r v i c e module r e a c t i o n c o n t r o l deposition model p r e d i c t i o n s . system t r i m maneuver. Because of t h e l a r g e d i s t a n c e md t h e f a c t t h a t only t h e +X r e a c t m c o n t r o l system t h r u s t e r s f i r e d , t h e r e was no d e p o s i t i o n on t h e i n s i d e of t h e photometer sunshade. Hawever, s c a t t e r e d l i g h t from t h e r e a c t i o n c o n t r o l system plume w a s d e t e c t a b l e . As measured by t h e T027-SO73 photometer, t h e r a t i o of t h e b r i g h t n e s s of t h e plume t o t h e b r i g h t n e s s of t h e Sun was 4 x 10-14, a t a 90 degree Sun angle, with p o s s i b l y b r i g h t e r t r a n s i e n t s . This was n o t b r i g h t enough nor of s u f f i c i e n t d u r a t i o n t o provide s e r i o u s contamination.

During thd second manned p e r i o d , T027-SO73 photometer d a t a were o b t a i n e d n only on Days 80, 81, and 82. O Day 83, a f t e r a l l a t t e m p t s t o r e t r a c t t h e experiment equipment f a i l e d , t h e experiment was j e t t i s o n e d , r e s u l t i n g i n t h e l o s s of r e f e r e n c e p h ~ t o g r a p h swhich would have a i d e d i n t h e a n a l y s i s o f c o l l e c t e d . d a t a . The e v a l u a t e d b r i g h t n e s s l e v e l from Day 82 d a t a i n d i c a t e d a s c a t t e r e d b r i g h t n e s s r a t i o of approximately 2 x 10-12 BIB@. 'l"t& l e v e l i s o r d e r s o f magn i t u d e h i g h e r than t h a t s e e n d u r i n g t h e f i r s t mamed p e r i o d . I t i s p r e s e n t l y concluded t h a t t h e s e r v i c e module r e a c t i o n c o n t r o l system o x i d i z e r l e a k , whic!~ occurred d u r i n g t h i s d a t a col.lection p e r i o d , was r e s p o n s i b l e f o r t h e change i n b r i g h t n e s s l e v e l s . I n g e n e r a l , t h e S073 photographic d a t a o b t a i n e d i n conjunct i o n w i t h t h e photometer d a t a were e x c e l l e n t . The b a s e fog was low, w i t h some r e t i c u l a t i o n and s t a t i c d i s c h a r g e observed. However, t h e f i l m d a t a and s c i e n t i f i c c o n t e n t were good. A d d i t i c r a l experiment d a t a f o r S373 were o b t a i n e d d u r i n g t h e l a t t e r p a r t of t h e second manned p e r i o d snd d u r i n g t h e t h i r d manned p e r i o d by employing t h e SO19 a r t i c u l a t e d m i r r o r system, t h e TO25 c a n i s t e x , and t h e SO63 canera. The e v a l u a t i o n of t h e s e d a t a has not proceeded f a r enough t o a s s e s s contamination e f f e c t s . However, t h e informat i o n r e l a t i n g t o contamination o f t h e s e experiment o p t i c a l systems w i l l l i k e l y apply t o t h e s e d a t a a l s o . Because of t h e p a r a s o l thermal s h i e l d deployment through t h e +Z s c i e n t i f i c a i r l o c k , TO25 could n o t be o p e r a t e d i n i t s 11,rmal mode. The o c c u l t i n g d i s k was moved a s i d e and on Day 114 seven frames of e x c e l l e n t gegenscheir. photographs were taken, through t h e -Z ; c i e n t i f i c a i r l o c k , u s i n g SO63 f i l n . There appeared t c be no d e g r a d a t i o n due t o contamination, s p e c i f i c a l l y t h a t lcom p a r t i c u l a t e m a t t e r . However, p a r t i c l e s i n t h e v i c i n i c y o f Skylab were not i l l u m i n a t e d by s u n l i g h t ; t h e r e f o r e , l i g h t s c a t t e r i n g from t h e i m e d i a c e v i c i n i t y of Skylab w a s not possible. I n t h e t h i r d manned p e r i o d , t h e TO25 experiment was performed only t o o b t a i n v i s i b l e l i g h t d a t a from Comet Kohoutek d u r i n g f o u r e x t r a v e h i c u l a r a c t i v i t i e s . P r e l i m i n a r y d a t a a n a l y s i s i n d i c a t e s t h a t , because of a camera malf u n c t i o n , photographs were made a t approximateiy an 8-Eoot f o c u s s e t t i n g . Some of t h e frames i n d i c a t e p a r t i c l e s f l o a t i n g wichin t h e f i e l d of view of t h e i n s t r u ment and may h e l p i n d e t e r m i n i ~ gpa, t i c l e s i z e o r i n t e n s i t y d a t a . The 5149 c a s s e t t e was i n i t i a l l y deployed on Day 38 and on Day 41 opened t o s p a c e , where i t remained cugosed through t h e second unmanned p e r i o d . I t was c l o s e d on Day 76 and r e t r i e v e d from t h e -Z s c i e n t i f i c a i r l o c k on Day 79. The experiment was moved t o t h e s o l a r o b s e r v a t o r y s u n s h i e l d d u r i n g an e x t r a v e h i c u l a r a c t i v i t y and exposed on Day 85. I t was r e t r i e v e d on Day 132. The S149 c a s s e t t e s e x h i b i t e d some o x i d a t i o n and v a r y i n g d e g r e e s o f contamination. The c a s s e t t e s exposed from t h e s u n s h i e l d appeared t o b. more coritaminated t h a n t h o s e exposed through t h e s c i e n t i f i c a i r l o c k . It i s n o t kncwn a t t h i s time whether o r &lot cont a m i n a t i o n c o n t r i b u t e d t o t h e formation of o x i d e s on S149 s u r f a c e s . Contaminat i o n does not appear t o have a f f e c t e d t h e S149 experiment o b j e c t i v e s s i g n i f i cantly. There was no i n d i c a t i o n of contamination of any d a t a c o l l e c t e d w i t h t h e S190B E a r t h t e r r a i n camera. 11.4.4 Other E x t e r n a l Experiments

Two experiments were mounted o u t s i d e of t h e S a t u r n Workshop t o s t u d y o r b i t a l environment and c o l l e c t a s t r o p h y s i c s d a t a . They a r e t h e thermal c o n t r o l c o a t i n g experiment (D024) and t h e magnetospheric p a r t i c l e composition experiment (S230).

Three experiments were deployed o r o p e r a t e d d u r i n g e x t r a v e h i c u l a r a c t i v i t i e s . They were t h e X-ray and u l t r a v i o l e t s o l a r photography experiment (S020), t h e u1t r a v i o l e t e l e c t r o n o g r a p h i c camera experiment (S201), and the p a r t i c l e c o l l e c t i o n experiment (S149)

.

The tw; s e t s of thermal c o n t r o l c o a t i n g s (D524) sample t r a y s were exposed on Day 1 when t h e shroud was j e t t i s o n e d . The samples were cont.inuously exposed u n t i l one s e t of t r a y s w a s r e t r i e v e d d u r i n g t h e e x t r a v e h i c u l a r a c t i v i t y on bay 37. When t h e s e samples were analyzed i t was d i s c o v e r e d t h a t they were d i s c o l o r e d a brownish yellow t o brownish gold. Areas on t h e samples t h a t were shaded from t h e Sun by nearby o b j e c t s such a s lanyard c a b l e s and r e s r r a i n i n g p i n s showed no v i s i b l e d i s c o l o r a t i o n . Measurements cf t h e a b s o r p t i v i t y of some sampies i n d i c a t e d changes of almost a n o r d e r o f magnitude g r e a t e r than expected. The second s e t of t r a y s , r e t r i e v e d on Oay 132, were n o t i c e a b l y more degraded. C o l o r a t i o n over a l l a r e a s exposed t o t h e Sun was a deeper brown than seen on p r e v i o u s samples. Sample t r a y s appeared d a r k e r n e a r t h e edge c l o s e s t t o t h e e x t r a v e h i c u lar a c t i v i t y h a t c h , i n d i c a t i n g t h a t a i r l o c k o r crew a c t i v i t y e f f l u z n t s may have a f f e c t e d t h e samples. The d e g r a d a t i o n i n a b s o r p t i v i t y f o r t h e white p a i n t samples was approximately t h r e e times g r e a t e r than t h a t seep on t h e f i r s t sari, ples. Analysis of t h e DG24 s m p l e s has been compromised by t h e anlocnt of contamin a n t s d e p o s i t e d on t h e samples' s u r f a c e s . The contaminant c o a t i n g on t h e f i r s t s e t of samples measured between 700 and 2450 angstroms i n t h i c k n e s s and was corn-posed p r i m a r i l y o f s i l i c a t e s and hydrocarbons. These contaminants could d e r i v e from m a t e r i a l s o u t g a s s i n g , l a b o r a t o r y c o o l a n t l e a k a g e i n o r b i t , o r s e r v i c e m d u l e r e a c t i o n c o n t r o l e n g i n 2 f i r i n g s . The observed high l e v e l of d i s c o l o r a t i o n was not expected and i n d i c a t e s a combination o f contaminant d e p o s i t s i n t e r a c t i n g w i t h h i g h energy s o l a r r a d i a t i o n d u r i n g t h e l o n g term exposure. Consequently, backup DO24 samples were flown up w i t h t h e t h i r d crew and sxposed on Day 193. The samples were r e t r i e v e d on Day 2 6 6 , and e x h i b i t e d c o n r n i nation e f f e c t s s i m i l a r t o those of the two p r e v i o u s samples. The DO24 experiment was exposed t o a n a d d i t i o n a l sour.:- of contamination d u r i n g t h e t h i r d mancc:d p e r i o d . On Day 226, d u r i n g zn extrdveh i c u l a r a c t i v i t y , a l e i k i n t h e Commander's s u i t r e l e a s e d l a r g e amounts of y e l l o w i s n c o l o r e d i c e p a r t i c l e s . A s i m i l a r event o c c u r r e d w i t h t h e Science P i l o t ' s e u i t on Day 266. I n a d d i t i o n , t h e Commandzr's p r e s s u r e c o n t r o l u n i t d e f l e c t o r was n o t used on Days 230 and 266. These e v z n t s S l i m uor.lln, could have r e s u l t e d i n a s i g n i f i c a n t i n F i g u r e 11-7. Experiment DO24 c r e a s e i n t h e p a r t i c u l a t e o r molecular f l u x d e p o s i t i o n model p r e d i c t i o n s . on DO24 s u r f a c e s and i n c r e a s e d t h e deposit i o n of containinants. U n t i l f u r t h e r analysis i s completed, no c o n c l u s i o n s can be drawn from t h e t h i r d s e t of samples. Cont a m i n a t i o n t h i c k n e s s v a l u e s c a l c u l a t e d by t h e d e p o s i t i o n math model were i n c l o s e agreement v i t h t h e p r e l i m i n a r y measured v a l u e s ( f i g . 11-7).
nlsston d r y

-

'.7
1

;
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The S230 experiment c o n ~ i s t e dof c o l l e c t o r f o i l s formed i n t o c u f f s t h a t were wrapped around two s p o o l s on t h e deployment assembly t r u s s . Two c u f f s were used p e r s p o o l w i t h one cuff b e i n g covered by t h e o t h e r . The two o u t e r c u f f s were exposed when t h e shroud was j e t t i s o n e d and r e t r i e v e d a s planned on Day 85. The crew observed i r i d e s c e n c e on t h e c u f f s , s i u i l a r t o t h a t s e e n on w a t e r covered by a t h i n f i l m of o i l . Deposition on t h e s e c u f f s i s s u s p e c t e d t o be up t o 1 micron t h i c k . Only t h e i n n e r c u f f from t h e s p o o l n e a r e s t t h e command module was ret r i e v e d on Day 132. It i s expected t o have a maximum contamination t h i c k n e s s of 7000 angstroms. Upon r e t u r n , t h e two o u t e r c u f f s were v i s i b l y contaminated and were golden brown i n c o l o r . I f c l e a n , they should have appeared metallic o r l i g h t grey. The most deeply d i s c o l o r e d a r e a s were t h o s e f a c i n g away from t h e Sun. Th.c i n n e r c u f f , removed on Day 132, d i d n o t appear s o d i s c o l o r e d , n o r d i d i t appear contaminated. Deposition on t h e c o l l e c t i n g c u f f s s e r i o u s l y hindered i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of t h e d a t a . Beca~rseof t h e degraded d a t a , a n o t h e r i n n e r c u f f was taken up by t h e t h i r d crew a d deployed on Day 193. This cuff and t h e one remaining i n n e r c u f f were c r e t r i e v e d on Day 266. ~ h e i e u f f s showed c o n s i d e r a b l e d e p o s i t i o n as w e l l a s an i r i d e s c e n t d i s c o l o r a t i o n on t h e v a r i o u s sample s t r i p s . No c o n c l u s i o n s r e l a t i n g t o d e s c r i p t i o n o r s o u r c e of t h e contaminants can b e made u n t i l t h e a n a l y s i s is completed. The S230 experiment samples, however, were exposed t o t h e same contamination environment as t h e DO24 samples. C . - r r d a t i o n between a n a l y s e s of d e p o s i t s on t h e two dxperiments w i l l provide very u s e f u l information. Because of t h e p a r a s o l thermal s h i e l d deployment through t h e +Z s c i e n t i f i c a i r l o c k , i t was not p o s s i b l e t o o p e r a t e t h e SO20 experiment a s planned. The t h i r d crew c a r r i e d t h e a p p r o p r i a t e hardware t o mount t h e experiment e x t e r n a l l y f o r e x t r a v e h i c u l a r o p e r a t i o n . The S020 experiment was performed d u r i n g t h r e e e x t r a v e h i c u l a r a c t i v i t y p e r i o d s on Days 226, 230, and 266. The f i r s t exposures, on Day 226, provided d a t a t h a t were good above 1 1 angstroms but were n o n e x i s t e n t 1 1 below 1 1 angstroms. Subsequent d a t a below 1 1 angstroms were e x c e p t i o n a l l y poor. 1 Preliminary o b s e r v a t i o n s of t h e f i l t e r s i n d i c a t e sone d e p o s i t i o n on t h e s u r f a c e s . The p r e s e n c e of water vapor i n t h e f i e l d of view ~ o u l d l s o have degraded t h e a d a t a . F u r t h e r a n a l y s i s w i l l have t o be performed t o determine what tile d e p o s i t s on t h e f i l t e r s a r e and how they a f f e c t t h e experiment d a t a . The S020, S201, and S149 experiments were a l l s u b j e c t e d t o t h e s u i t leakage d i s c u s s e d p r e v i o u s l y . A s i g n i f i c a n t i n c r e a s e i n t h e r e l e a s e of p a r t i c u l a t e and molecular m a t e r i a l i n t h e v i c i n i t y of t h e experiments could c o n t r i b u t e t o degrad a t i o n of t h e d a t a c o l l e c t e d . 11.4.5 Windows

F i g u r e 11-8.S a t u r n Workshop window l c c a t i o n s .

The S a t u r n Workshop h a s s i x windows used f o r experiment d a t a a c q u i s i t i o n , g e n e r a l viewing, and hand--held photography. Figure 11-8 shows t h e l o c a t i o n s of t h e s e windows. The experiments u s i n g t h e windows include the u l t r a v i o l e t airglow horizon photography experiment (S063), t h e m u l t i s p e c t r a l photographic f a c i l i t y experiment (SlgOA), t h e barium plasma o b s e r v a t i o n s experiment (S232), t h e Comet Kohoutek phot o m e t r i c photography experiment (S233), and t h e Skylab-Earth l a s e r beacon experiment (T053)

.

To p r o t e c t t h e c r i t i c a l experiment wiadows, a number of p r e c a u t i o n s were taken. The S190A window c o n t a i n s one f i x e d , e x t e r n a l , o p t i c a l - q u a l i t y pane and one i n n e r , removable, lower-quality s a f e t y pane. T h e r m o s t a t i c a l l y c o n t r o l l e d h e z t i n g elzments prevent fogging and o p t i c a l d i s t o r t i o n . The a i r l o c k windows a r e double-paned, s e a l e d u n i t s . The S190k and a i r l o c k windows have hand-operated p r o t e c t i v e e x t e r n a l covers. The wardroom window i s double-paned, w i t h p r o ~ i . ~ o n f o r v e n t i n g t h e volume between t h e panes. There is no e x t e r n a l cover; however, it h a s both an i n t e r n a l p c o t e c t i v e cover and a window h e a t e r . During t h e i n i t i a l phase of t h e f i r s t manned p e r i o d t h e S190A window h e a t e r was o p e r a t e d i n t e r m i t t e n t l y t o conserve e l e c t r i c a l power. Because of t h e low temperatures and high r e l a t i v e humidity I n t h e docking a d a p t e r , t h e r e was t h e p o s s i b i l i t y t h a t moisture might condense on t h e window's s u r f a c e . The window h e a t e r was turned on 1 t o 1.5 hours b e f o r e an E a r t h o b s e r v a t i o n experiment and turned o f f immediately a f t e r t h e pass. This h e a t i n g b e f o r e opening t h e e x t e r n a l window cover prevented t h e window s u r f a c e temperature from r e a c h i n g t h e dewpoint and no condensation formed. The second crew r e p o r t e d c l e a n i n g two smudges from t h e i n t e r n a l s u r f a c e of t h e window w i t h wet wipes. The t h i r d crew, although they r e p o r t e d t h a t t h e window was v i s u a l l y c l e a n , a l s o cleaned t h e i n n e r s u r f a c e . N e x t e r n a l contamination of t h e window s u r f a c e was obsozved throughout t h e m i s o s i o n . The h e a t e r s and covers f o r t h i s window appeared t o be q u i t e e f f e c t i v e i n p r e v e c t i n g condensation on t h e window s u r f a c e s , and t h e r e were no contamination e f f e c t s Qn t h e S190A experiment.
The a i r l o c k windows were f r e e of c o r t a m i n a t i o n up t o Day 18, when s e v e r a l l e a f y " p a r t i c l e s were observed on t h e e x t e r i o r s u r f a c e of window 4 . These p a r t i c l e s were p r e s e n t t o a l e s s e r d e g r e e on t h e c t h e r windows. The source of t h e s e p a r t i c l e s was suspected t o be wind;v frame i n s u l a t i o n which was rubbed of' by t h e c o v e r s d u r i n g opening and c l o s i a g o p e r a t i o n s . The window covers on t h e s o l a r s i d e were opened, s t a r t i n g on Day 1 9 , f o r about 6 hours a day d u r i n g t h e f i r s t manned p e r i o d Lo provide a d d i t i o n a l i l l u m i n a t i o n . The s=cond crew r e p o r t e d t h a t t h e a i r l o c k windows were l e f t c l o s e d except f o r s p e c i f i c o b s e n a tionis o r photography. Each window was used f o r a maximum of about 1 hour p e r day, as opening t h e windows c r e a t e d l i g h t i n t e r f e r e n c e w i t h s o l a r o b s e r v a t o r y console video d i s p l a y s .
11

During t h e e x t r a v e h i c u l a r a c t i v i t y t o deploy t h e s o l a r a r r a y wing on Day 25, a f o o t p r i n t was l e f t on t h e o u t s i d e o f a i r l o c k window 2 , and remained throughout t h e mission. F i n e d u s t was a l s o noted on t h e o u t s i d e of a l l windows. This d u s t was probably t i n y p a i n t f l a k e s s c u f f e d l o o s e by crewmen d u r i n g e x t r a v e h i c u l a r a c t i v i t i e s , a s w e l l a s t h e p a r t i c l e s o f window i n s u l a t i o n p r e v i o u s l y mentioned. The p a r t i c l e s were probably a t t r a c t e d t o t h e window s u r f a c e and h e l d by e l e c t r o s t a t i c charge. A i r l o c k windows 1 and 2, o p p o s i t e t h e s o l a r s i d e , showed p e r i o d i c conderisstion on t h e i n n e r s u r f a c e s when open, which c l e a r e d a s soon a s t h e covers were closed. Windows 3 and 4 , on t h e s o l a r s i d e , never showed any condensation. The r e s i d u e from condensation and smudges from crew concact were removed from t h e i n t e r i o r window s u r f a c e s wirS water and wet wipes, which was a very e f f e c t i v e technique. Airlock window 3, which was t h e l e a s t contaminated of t h e f o u r windows, was w e d t o o b t a i n S233 experiment photographs of Comet Kohoutel:. Although no information on t h e e f f e c t s of window c o n t a s i n a t i o n on t h e experiment d a t a i s a v a i l a b l e a t n i s time, t h e c a l c u l a t e d t r a n s m i s s i o t l o s s was minimal. Figure 1 1 - 4 shows t h e d e p o s i t i o n and r e s u l t a n t t ansmission l o s s , a s c a l c u l a t e d w i t h t h e depos i t i o n math model.

The wardroom window was uscd extens i v e l y f o r g e n e r a l viewing, photography, and t e l e v i s i o n and t h e r e f o r e was under the window was continuous s c r u t i n y . f i r s t a c t i v a t e d , a s m a l l i c e formation about t h e s i z e of a dime was n o t i c e d I n t h e c e n t e r of t h e i n n e r s u r f a c e o f t h e o u t e r pane. A more c r i t i c a l i n s p e c t i o r , l a t e r r e v e z l e d an o i l y f i l m on t h e o u t e r s u r f a c e of t h e o u t e r pane. The f i l m appeared t o have w a t e r s t r e a k s which r a n It i s t o a r d t h e a f t end o f t h e v e h i c l e . s u s p e c t e d t h a t both of t h e s e e f f e c t s res u l t e d from c o n d i t i o n s e x i s t i n g on t h e pad b e f o r e launch.
1
140 i60 180 ZW 2M 211 I a t u r n Y ~ r k s h om i 5 % i m day ~

I
260

I
280

As t h e m i s s i o n p r o g r e s s e d t h e i c e s p o t a l t e r n a t e l y melted and r e f r c z e as t h e window h e a t e r was t u r n e d on and off Figure 11-9.Window d e p o s i t i o n and a l s o as t h e e f f e c t s of E a r t h albedo m d e l ~ rd irc t i o n s . i n c r e a s e d and decreased. I t e v e n t u a l l y spread t o n e a r l y 4 i n c h e s i n d i a m e t e r . The volume between t h e Fanes was vented t o space ~ h r o u g ht h e s c i e n t i f i c a i r l o c k vacuum v e n t and t h e n r e p r e s s u r i z e d w i t h d r y a i r . Crew r e p o r t s i n d i c c t e d t h a t t h e v e n t from between t h e panes t o t h e c a b i n a p p a r e n t l y leaked and p e r m i t t e d c a b i n atmosphere t o r e e n t e r a f t e r t h e evacuation p r o c e s s . This was evidenced by conaensation s t r e a k s running from t h e v e n t o r i f i c e toward t h e c e n t e r of t h e window. The e v a c u a t i o n and r e p r e s s u r i z a t i o n p r o c e s s was r e q u i r e d approximately e v e r y 2 weeks d u r i n g t h e second manned a e r i o d and e v e r y 3 weeks t h e r e a f t e r , b u t t h e s p o t and i n t e r n a l s t r e a k i n g never conipletely d i s a p p e a r e d . Even immediately a f t e r t h e r e p r e s s u r i z a t i o n with d r y a i r some s o l i d r e s i d u e remained.

T e l e v i s i o n p i c t u r e s t a k e n through t h e window d u r i n g t h e f i r s t manned p e r i o d r e v e a l e d p a r t i c l e s which t h e crew r e p o r t e d t o be t h e outermost s u r f a c e . Those p a r t i c l e s a r e suspected t o have come from p a i n t anu i n s u l a t i o ~ c r a p e d l o o s e durs i n g t h e meteoroid s h i e l d i n c i d e n t and t h e subsequent s o l a r a r r a y deployment. When t h e window h e a t e r w a s t u r n e d o f f , c a b i n atmosphere o f t e n condensed on t h e i n n e r s u r f a c e . The e x t e n s i v e use of t h e window f o r viewing a l s o r e s u l t e d i n condensation on t h e i n n e r s u r f a c e from t h e crewmen's b r e a t h , a l o n g w i t h hand and nose p r i n t s . This s u r f a c e v. 3 r e p e a t e d l y c l e a n e d w i t h wet wipes. The u s e f u l n e s s of t h e wardroom window f o r photography was compromised by t h e contamination i n t h e c e n t e r of t h e window. The crew t.d t o move around t h e edge of t h e window as c l o s e t o t h e p e r i p h e r y a s p o s s i b l e t o t a k e hand-held photographs. Figure 11-10 is a photograph of t h e window taken d u r i n g t h e second manned p e r i o d , showing t h e c e n t r a l i c e mass, s t r e a k i n g from t h e v e n t , and v a r i o u s p a r t i c l e s clinging to the outer surface. Visual o b s e r v a t i o n and photography were performed through t h e wardroom window t o c o l l e c t d a t a f o r t h e S063, S232, and TO53 experiments. The TO53 experiment was conducted d u r i n g t h e second and t h i r d manned p e r i o d s t o e v a h a t e t h e use o f l a s e r s f o r n a v i g a t i o n and communications. There i s no i n d i c a t i o n t h a t t h e contamination on t h e window a f f e c t e d t h e r e s u j t s of t h e TO53 experiment. Analyses

F i g u r e 11-10.

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Wardroom windvw con: ~ m i n a t j o n .

o f t h e SO63 a n d S2:2 e x p e r i m e n t d a t a a r e a s y e t t o o i r , c o m p l c t c t o a s s e s s t h e e f f e c t s of t l ~ ewlndow c o n t a m i n a t i o n . A s shown i n f i g u r e 1 1 - 9 , t h e d e p o s i t i o n math model c a l c u l i l t i o n s r e v p a l e d a l o s s o f l i g h t t r a n s m i s s i o n c a p a b i l i t y d l ~ r i n g the mission. 1.1.4.5 S t a r Tracker

C o n t a n ~ i n a t i o n a f f e c t s t h e i i s e f u l n e s s o f t h e s t a r t r a c l t c r d!!e3n t h e i n s t r u ment , 7 c q u i r e s , l o c k s o n t o , and t r a c k s 3 p a r t i c l e i n t l w i ~ ! J a i ' c d a t m o s p h e r e i n l i e u 0:- t h e s t a r . The s t a r t r a c k e r c a n abandon a t a r g e t s t a r and l o c k or1t.o a contam..nant p a r t i c l e i f t!lL, p a r t i c l e i s i n t h e s c a r t r a c k e l ' s f i e l d of view ;ind i f t h e a p p a r e n t mgniLucie of t h e p a r t i c l e is b r i g l l t t r t h a n t h e s t a r t r a c k e r ' s minimum : h r e s l ~ o l d . T h i s i s p r e s e t a t a m a g n i t u d e o f 1 - 1 6 , which i s 0 . 5 mngnit u d e b e l o w the d i n m e s t t a r g e t s t a r . TI-~ea u t o m a t - i c g a i n c o n t r o l i n t l i c v i d e o a m p l i f i e r r e j e c t s s i g n a l s g e n e r a t e d i n t h e s t a r t r a c k e r pl;oto:u!c! by object:; dimmer t h a n 1 . 1 6 m a g n i t u d e . When t r a c k i n g a 11rigl1tt.r s t a r , t11c ; ~ u t o m ait c g a i n c o n t r o l d e t e r m i n e s 3 I ~ i g h e r t h r e s h o l d , w h i c h d e c r e a s e s t h r p o s s i b i l i t y o f :ICq u i r i n g c o n t a m i ~ a n tp a r t i c l e s . D u r i n g t l ~ ef i r s t m a n ~ ~ rp e r i o d i n c i d e n t s of trac.l:ing t a ! s e s t a r s w > r c ~ 1 ' d m a j o r c o n c e r n . T l w r e w e r e f a r f e w e r i . n c i d e n t s , Ilowt.vcr, d u r i n g t11c s e c o n d

The experiment was performed u s i n g samples 1 through 18 on Day 267, 19 through 30 on Day 266, and 31 through 37 on Day 270. The experiment equipment worked normally; however, t h e m a t e r i a l s p r o c e s s i n g i n s p a c e f a c i l i t y w a t e ~ quench system d i d not f u n c t i o n a s expected. By u s i n g t h e hand pump on t h e f a c i l i t y accumulator, ,.ie crewman was a b l e t o provide s u f f i c i e n t water t o o b t a i n water quench d a t a on a t l e a s t two o f t h e samples. There was n o t time t o perform I t v a s s u b s e q u e n t l y concluded a ~ l f u n c t i o ni s o l a t i o n o f t h e water problem. t h a ~ h e w a t e r s o u r c e t a n k i n t h e workshop was n o t p r e s s u r i z e d s u f f i c i e n t l y . t There were no p r o c e d u r a l requirements f o r t h e crewman performing t h e experiment t o p r e s s u r i z e o r v e r i f y p r e s s u r e i n t h e tank. The remaining i n t e r f a c i n g and su:q.arti.ng s ? .terns f u n c t i o n e d properly. Four r..! s of 16-millimeter f i l m d a t a and t h e remains of fouz samples were r e r r - r l e d f o r a n a l y s i s . I n a d d i t i o n , crew cornments on t h e experiment performance a n ' t e l e v i s i o n coverage of t h r e e samples were recorded and r e t u r n e d .

1 .4 :

ENGINEZRISG AND TECHNOJJGY

The e ~ g i a e e r i n g and technology experiments were s e l e c t e d t o p r o v i d e d a t a necessary f o r t h e development of f u t u r e manned s p a c e s t a t i o n s . Ths r e s u l t s provide a b e t t e r understanding o f how man performs i n s p a c e , what t o o l s he needs to accomplish h i s t a s k s , and what h i s i n f l u e n c e is on t h e s p a c e environment. Q u a n t i t a t i v e i n f o r m a t i o n from some o f t h e experiments on t h e s p a c e environment's e f f e c t s on m a t e r i a l s and f u u c t i o n s a l s o supported t h e a n a l y s e s of t h e Skylab systems a d o t h e r experiments. This group of experiments can b e c l a s s i f i e d i n t o t h r e e g e n e r a l c a t e g o r i e s : zero g r a v i t y s t u d i e s , thermal c o n t r o l c o a t i n g s , and contamination. The z e r o g r a v i t y s t u d i e s i n c l u d e t h e h a b i t a b i l i t - of crew q u a r t e r s , manual n a v i g a t i o n sighting;, crew v e h i c l e C t s t u r b a n c e s , and f o o t - c o n t r o l l e d maneuvering u n i t experiments. They a r e p a r t i c u l a r l y o r i e n t e d toward t h e i n t e r a c t i o n of man w i t h a zero g r a v i t y environment. T h e i r scope r a n g e s from t h e crewmen's p r e f e r e n c e s i n t h e rrrangements of h a b i t a b l e a r e a s t o t e s t i n g t h e i r p r o f i c i e n c y i n making space n a v i g a t i o n measurements a f t e r b e i n g w e i g h t l e s s f o r an extended p e r i o d . They a l s o i n c l u d e t h e measuring of f o r c e s t h a t man e x e r t s on t h e s p a c e c r a f t wfiile h e moves around i n s i d e and t h e t e s t i n g o f a n a s t r o n a u t maneuvering u n i t . The two c'nermai c o n t r o l c o a t i n g s experiments r e q u i r e v e r y l i t t l e p a r t i c i p a t i c : , b; the c r e m n . The f i r s t begins c o l l e c t i n g d a t a 36 hours p r i o r t o launch : through s e v e r a l minutes of E a r t h o r b i t and r e q u i r e s no crew p a r t i c i p a t i o n . The o t h e r one starts when t h e payload shroud i s j e t t i s o n e d ; d i f f e r e n t samples are retrieved at t h r e e d i f f e r e n t times d u r i n g t h e m i s s i o n d u r i n g e x t r a v e h i c u l a r a c t i v i t y . The i n f l i g h t a e r o s o l a q a l y s i s and contaminati.on measurements e x p e r i ments a r e devoted t o o b t a i n i n g d a t a on cobitaminati o n t y p e p a r t i c l e s . One is concerned with c o l l e c t i n g a e r o s o l p a r t i c l e s w i t h i n t h e h a b i t a b l e a r e a of t h e l a b o r a t o r y and r e t u r n i n g them t o Earth. These p a r t i c l e s a r e of i n t e r e s t because they r e l a t e t o t h e crewmen's well-being. The o t h e r measures t h e magnitude o f the contamination w i t h i n t h e i ~ d u c e datmosphere s u r r o u n d i n g Skylab. OutsiGe contamination is of i n t e r e s t because It can cause d e g r a d a t i o n 01 o p t i c a l s u r f a c e s and s o l a r energy c o n v e r t e r s . One experiment, t h e p r o t o n spectronieter is mcwnted o u t s i d e t h e l a b o r a t o r y and does n o t f a l l i n e i t h e r of t h e c a t e g o r i e s l i s t e d . The proton s p e c t r o m e t e r maps t h e h i g h r a d i a t i o n a r e a s t h a t Skylab p a s s e s through. The i n s t r u m e n t ' s o p e r a t i o n i s s u t o m a t i c and r e q u i r e s no crew p a r t i c i p a t i o n .

s t r i p s a r e 1.27 c e n t i m e t e r s wide and 24 s t r i p s a r e 0.64 c e n t i m e t e r wide. A l l p a n e l s a r e square p l a t e s , about 17 c e n t i m e t e r s on a s i d e and 0.6 c e n t i m e t e r t h i c k . Each has a f l e x i b l e handle t o prevent contamination of t h e samples w h i l e handling. The p a n e l s are a t t a c h e d w i t h snap f a s t e n e r s and p i p p i n s t o t h e airl o c k t r u s s assembly o u t s i d e t h e workshop. They are p r o t e c t e d by t h e s h r o r d d u r i n g launch, and a r e n o t a f f e c t e d by t h e laugch environment. Two c o n t a i n e l s a r e provided f o r r e t u r n o f t h e samples. The c o n t a i n e r s are stowed a d j a c e n t t o t h e p a n e l s , thereby allowing t h e p a n e l s t o be s e a l e d i n t h e c o n t a i n e r s i n t h e space vacuum. The h e r m e t i c a l l y s e a l e d container m a i n t a i n s a vacuum f o r t h e szmples u n t i l they reach t h e l a b o r a t o r y , where they are p l a c e d i n a vacuum chamber. T e s t s are performed on t h e r e t u r n e d samples and t h e r e s u l t s are compared w i t h t h e r e s u l t s o b t a i n e d from t h e ground c o n t r o l group samples. The samples were exposed t o t h e space environment when t h e shroud gas jett i s o n e d from t h e S a t u r n Workshop. They were r e t r i e v e d by t h e crewman d u r i n g e x t r a v e h i c u l a r a c t i v i t i e s o a Days 37 and 132. These samples were r e t u r n e d t o E a r t h i n t h e coomend module and d e l i v e r e d t o t h e s c i e n t i s t s w i t h i n 4 daqs o f splashdown from each manned period. Because o f contamination found on chese samples, one new p a n e l of each sample and a r e t u r n c o n t a i n e r = e r e launched and deployed d u r i n g t h e t h i r d manned period. The new p a n e l s were deployed d u r i n g e x t r a v e h i c u l a r a c t i v i t i e s on Day 1 9 3 and r e t r i e v e d on Day 266. These samples were t h e r e f o r e not exposed t o c o n t r o l rocket e x h a u s t s d u r i n g docking, undocking, and flyaround maneuvers by t h e cormnand and s e r v i c e module. When t h e c o n t a i n e r with t h e new samples w a s r e t u r n e d t o t h e s c i e n t i s t s i t w a s found t h a t atmospheric p r e s s u r e e x i s t e d i n s i d e t h e c o n t a i n e r , n o t space vacuum as intended.
. -

The hardware f u n c t i o n e d properly under normal c o n d i t i o n s . However, t h e crewman experienced d i f f i c u l t y i n deploying t h e r e s u p p l i e d sample p a n e l s . The hardware design had n o t provided f o r i n s t a l l a t i o n i n o r b i t by a s u i t e d crewman; n e v e r t h e l e s s , i n s t a l l a t i o n was s u c c e s s f u l . The crewman f a i l e d t o c l o s e t h e l i d on t b 3 r e t u r n c o n t a i n e r a f t e r stowing i t a d j a c e n t t o t h e newly deployed p a n e l s , and t h e open l i d allowed s o l a r r a d i a t i o n t o impinge on t h e c o n t a i n e r seals f o r 73 days. When t h e c o n t a i n e r was r e t u r n e d t o t h e l a b o r a t o r y , i t had n o t maint a i n e d t h e space vacuum as intended. The crewman r e p o r t e d t h a t some of t h e t\ermal c o n t r o l sample d i s k s from t h e second manned p e r i o d appeared t o be coming debonded. This c o n d i t i o n wzs n o t e v i d e n t when t h e samples were r e t u r n e d t o t h e s c i e n t i s t s back on Earth. Oue thermal c o n t r o l sample panel and one polymeric f i l m s t r i p p a n e l i n s i d e t h e r e t u r n c o n t a i n e r were r e t u r n e d from each manned p e r i o d . A l l r e t u r n e d hardware showed evidence of a yellowish-brown contamination t h ? t a p p a r e n t l y r e l a t e d t o exposure t.ime and s u n l i g h t . Eff ec ts of + h i s contamination obscured t h e degr a d a t i o n of t h e samples expected because of s o l a r r a d i a t i o n . I t a l s o obscured any atmospheric recombination which could have a f f e c t e d t h e l a s t samples because of t h e l o s s of vacuum on r e t u r n . The source of t h i s contamination i s now under investigation. 12.4.2 Thermal Control Coatings, Instrument Unit CM415)

The thermal c o n t r o l c o a t i n g s experiment (M415j t h a t is launched on t h e ins t rument u n i t determines t h e degradation e f f e c t s of prelaunch, laanch, and s p a c e environments on t h e thermal a b s o r p t i o n and emission c h a r a c t e r i s c i c s of v a r i o u s c o a t i n g s connnonly used f o r p a s s i v e thermal c o n t r o l . The hardware c o n s i s t s of two i d e n t i c a l panels a s shown i n f i g u r e 12-45. The c o a t i n g samples a r e t h e r m a l l y i s o l a t e d from surrounding s t r u c t u r e s , and each row is p r o t e c t e d by a removablz

Exposure sequence I 36 hours p r i o r t o launch Just p r i o r to r e t r o f i r i n g I1 I11 Just p r i o r t o LES tower jttti son IV 1 minutes a f t e r spacecraft 0 s r n r a t i o n (56 minutes a f t e r 1aunch)

A.

Material sample
S-lk,

zinc-oxide visaent i n

B.
C.

D.

s1.rface 2-93, zinc-oxide pigment i n potasslm s i l i c a t e binder, mediun rough surface HXH, USFC composite o f synthetic mica, potassium silicate, and zinc-oxide BC, black control, Cat-A-Lac black, medim rough surface

met+,ilsiliconc biiwler, rough

Front view

F1 i h gt direction,

&

n

Fmnt view

~
Panel 1

~
Figure 1.2-45.-

sequence
-

_ I

L

~

~

:

Panel 2

Instrument u n i t thermal c o n t r o l c o a t i n g s experiment specimen panels.

cover. The panels a r e mounted 51 degrees a p a r t on t h e instrument u n i t of a Saturn I B launch v e h i c l e . This l o c c t i o n allows a r e t r o r o c k e t t o impinge on one panel. The instrument u n i t provides a t t i t u d e c o n t r o l of t h e s t a g e and of t h e experiment. It maintains t h e X a x i s along t h e f l i g h t v e c t o r perpendicular t o t h e l o c a l v e r t i c a l and r o l l s s o t h a t a t l o c a l noon t h e s u n l i n s passes midway between t h e two sensor panels, i l l u m i n a t i n g them equally. This experinent does not permit d e t a i l e d s p e c t r a l r e f l e c t i o n measurements; t h e thermal p r o p e r t i e s a r e measured by temperature sensors. The d a t a a r e telemetered t o t h e ground when t h e spent s t a g e is i n c o n t a c t with s e l e c t e d ground s t a t i o n s . Telemetry d a t a begin a t lakilch and a r e required f o r 5.75 hours. The experiment w a s flown on t h e v e h i c l e t h a t c a r r i e d t h e f i r s t crew i n t o Earth o r b i t . I t performed satisf a c t o r i l y and a s predicted. The s i x p r o t e c t i v e covers remaining a f t e r launch

were deployed a t t h e scheduled tiLPes in accordance with t h e f l i g h t plan. This was confirmeJ by telemetry records of t h e cover r e l e a s e event s i g n a l s and t h e col-responding s t e p change in t h e r e l e v a n t specimen temperatures. A l l temperat u r e s e n s o r s worked properly and u a , , b l e d a t a v e r e obtained from each of them. The instrument u n i t i n t e r f a c e s supported t h e expe,isent i n a normal manner, irnd t h e a t t i t . l e cdntro? systpm p o s i t i o n e d t h e spent s t a g e s o t h e p a n e l s were properly a l i g n e d w i t h t h e Sun. Returned d a t a c o n s i s t e d e n t i r e l y of telemetry. The experiment d a t a included event s i g n a l s and temperature measurements. Event s i g n a l s v e r i f i e d t h e deployment of the covers. These properly coincided with t h e programed event sequence. Temperatures of t h e 1 2 specimens i n each panel (and t h e p a n e l s themselves) w e n monitored over s e l e c t e d ground s t a t i o n s a t :he r a t e of 12 samples p e r second. Equilibrium temperatures w e r e reached on t h e d a y l i g h t p o r t i o n o f two o r b i t s . This condition provided a11 t h e necessary information f o r c a l c u l a t i n g t h e absorl ~ i v i t y / e m i s s i v l t yr a t i o f o r all specimens, from which t h e i r s u r f a c e condition.; could then be determined. 12.4.3 H a b i t a b i l i t y cf Crew Q u a r t e r s (M487)

The h a b i t a b i l i t y of crew q u a r t e r s experiment (M487) e v a l u a t e s t h e f e a t u r e s t h a t make it. j l a b l i v a b l e . H a b i t a b i l i t y f e a t u r e s such a s a r c h i t e c t u r e , environmental elements, and communications techniques a f f e c t everyday s p a c e c r a f t a c t l v i tjes and crew performances. Such i t e m s a s food, water, garments, and personal hygiene f a c i l i t i e s a r e minimum requirements f o r l i v i n g in space. Throughout t h e manned p e r i o d s o f Skylab, t h e crewmen were asked t o e v a l u a t e t h e i r performances of a c t i v i t i e s and t h e adequacy of t h e i r h a b i t a t i o n . To a i d t h e crewmen i n t h e i r evaluation, t h e following p o r t a b l e measuring instruments a r e provided: a. Velorreter

- Measures v e l o c i t y
- Measures

of a i r movement i n t h e workshop.

b. Measuring t a p e locations.
c. d.

d i s t a n c e s t o e v a l u a t e pertinent sizes and

Sound l e v e l meter Frequency analyzer

- Measures sound p r e s s u r e l e v e l s i n t h e workshop.
- Analyzes
t h e sound spectrum in t h e workshop. ambient a i r temperatures in t h e workshop. temperatures of w a l l s , s o l i d s , and sur-

e.

Ambient thermometers

f . D i g i t a l thermometers faces i n t h e works5op. g. Force gage and panels.

- Measures - Measures

- Measures

f o r c e s required t o open o r c l o s e l o c k e r s , drawers,

The crew me^'^ t a s k s and a c t i v i t i e s a s s o c i a t e d with t h e h a b i t a b i l i t y evaluat i o n were arranged and categorized i n t o f u n c t i o n a l o b j e c t i v e s . These items were scheduled i n t o t h e d a i l y f l i g h t p l a n s a t moments of opportunity and o t h e r times when a c t i v i t i e s t o be photographed were being performed. The creii documented with photography and tape-recorded comments t h e i ~ v a l u a t i o n of t h e h a b i t a b i l i t y e featur:s of t h e Saturn Workshop. They a l s o obtained f i l m sequences of s e l e c t e d a c t i v i t i e s which demonstrated t h e i r a d a p t a t i o n t o zero g r a v i t y . The crew comp l e t e d 97 percent of t h e f u n c t i o n a l o b j e c t i v e s during t h e f i r s t manned period and 100 percent i n t h e l a s t two peziods. They reported no problems r e l a t i v e t o t h e use of c h e c k l i s t s and procedures. The p c o t a b l e measuring instruments functioned normally. I n f a c t , t h e crew used t h e f o r c e gage t o c a l i b r a t e and e v a l u a t e t h e hardware of two o t h e r experiments. Tape-recorded c o m e n t s of t h e crewmen's

k

g

,

p e r i o d . S i g h t i n g s were taken through t h e wardroom window. The c o l l a p s i b l e hood was arranged over t h e window t o block o u t t h e i n t e r n a l l i g h t s . S i g h t i n g s were taken by one crewman durirrg each p e r i o d . The experiment was performed fewer times than planned because of l i m i t e d ot crew time. M s s i g h t i n g p e r i o d s re,quired 10 t o 1 5 minufies, e x c e p t f o r t h e o p e r a t i o n a l s i g h t i n g s , which requireld a n hour o r more. High q u a l i t y o r b i t a l n a v i g a t i o n s i g h t i n g s could n o t D e performed a s planned because t h e E a r t h h o r i z o n was t o o d i f f u s e t o s i g h t on. This c h a r a c t e r i s t i c and t h e l e n g t h of time req u i r e d f o r combined o p e r a t i o n a l s i g h t i n g s caused t h e o p e r a t i o n a l s i g h t i n g s t o be c a n c e l l e d f o r t h e t h i r d p e r i o d . The last two s e s s i o n s of midcourse s i g h t i n g s d u r i n g t h e t h i r d p e r i o d provided t h e b e s t d a t a from t h a t p e r i o d . Previous s i g h t i n g s d u r i n g t h a t p e r i o d had v i o l a t e d t h e c h e c k l i s t s t a t e m e n t which r e q u i r e d removal of t h e t r a n s p a r e n t protectivme s h i e l d from t h e window. Voice r e c o r d i n g s of t h e experiment d a t a were made by the crewmen and t r z n s m i t t e d t o E a r t h . Although t h e n i g h t ~ a r t h ' sh o r i z o n is t o o d i f f u - ? - and nonuniform t o u s e a s a t a r g e t f o r high q u a l i t y o r b i t a l s i g h t i n g s , t h e d a t a o b t a i n e d i n d i c a t e d t h a t a s a f e r e e n t r y could be made. S i g h t i n g s taken through t h e wardroom window prot e c t i v e s h i e l d r e s u l t e d i n b i a s e s and d e v i a t i c n s , t h e r e b y a f f i r m i n g t h e need f o r h i g h q u a l i t y o p t i c a l windows. The window hood %as r e p o r t e d t o be e f f e c t i v e and n e c e s s a r y i n reducing r e f l e c t e d g l a r e , b u t was somewhat awkward t o handle. Eoth crews r e p o r t e d t h a t t h e i n s t r u m e n t adjustment knobs could be bumped o r j a r r e d , causing t h e measurement i n d i c a t i o n t o s h i f t . T h i s could be minimized by red e s i g n o r new approaches. Also, b o t h crews r e p o r t e d d i f f i c u l t y i n l o c a t i n g a t s p e c i f i c s t a r i n t h e f i e l d of view. A v a r i a b l e f i e l d of view could s ~ l v e h i s d i f f i c u l t y . A v a r i a b l e f i e l d of view i s a n advantage because a wide f i e l d makes s t a r i d e n t i f i c a t i o n e a s i e r and a narrow f i e l d improves p r e c i s i o n . While t h e v o i c e r e c o r d i n g t e c h n i q u e f o r r e c o r d i n g d a t a measurements was a c c u r a t e , o p e r a t i o n a l a p p l i c a t i o n s could u s e d i r e c t w i r i n g t o a computer. 01.e crewman suggested a d i g i t a l time d i s p l a y i n t h e f i e l d o f view t o be f r o z e n a t t h e i n s t a n t o f measurement. Also s u g g e s t e d was a m o d i f i c a t i o n t o i n c l u d e t h e d a t a d i s p l a y i n t h e i n s t r u m e n t ' s f i e l d of view t o avoid r e a d a p t a t i o n of t h e o p e r a t o r ' s v i s i o n f o r subsequent s i g h t i n g s and r e a d i n g s .
A l l d a t a from t h e experiment were c o n t a i n e d i n v o i c e r e c o r d i n g s . The r e c o r d i n g s included d a t a from 57 performances of t h e e x p e r i a e n t . The d a t a v e r i f y t h a t man's p r o f i c i e n c y i n o p e r a t i n g t h e i n s t r u m e ~ t si s m i n t a i n e d a f t e r 69 days i n orbit.

12.4.5

I n f l i g h t Aerosol P n a l y s i s (T003)

The i n f l i g h t a e r o s o l a n a l y s i s experiment (T003) measures t h e a e r o s o l part i c u l a t e matter c o n c e n t r a t i o n and d i s t r i b u t i o n i n t h e h a b i t a b l e a r e a s of Skylab d u r i n g each manned p e r i o d . The experiment d e t e c t s , measures, and c o l l e c t s f o r r e t u r n t o E a r t h samples of t h e a i r b o r n e p a r t i c l e s w i t h i n Skylab a t c e r t a i n times and l o c a t i o n s . The i n s t r u m e ~ ~ c n m u l t i c h a n n e l , b a t t e r y - o p e r a t e d p a r t i c l e is counter capable of s o r t i n g a e r o s o l p a r t i c l e s l a r g e r than 1 micron i n t o s i z e groups: 1 t o 3, 3 t o 9, and 9 t o 100 microns ( f i g . 12-48). Each group i s t o t a l e d and d i s p l a y e d on t h e i n s t r u m e n t a t 8-second i ~ t e r v a l s . The c o l l e c t i o n system allows t h e p a r t i c l e s t o be r e t u r n e d f o r p o s t f l i g h t a n a l y s i s , i n c l u d i n g a n a l y s i s of shapes and compositions. Measurements a r e made a t a s s i g n e d l o c a t i o n s w i t h i n Skylab. Each l o c a t i o n i s a s s i g n e I i t s s e p a r a t e s e c t i o n of t h e o Instrument f i l t e r . This p e r m i t s c o l l e c t e d p a r t i c l e s t o h e t r a c e d C t h e l o c a t i o n where they a r e c o l l e c t e d . The f i l t e r s have e i g h t . ? e l e c t a b l e sections,

T ul t te
I

,Gas

inlet

F+ 1 te* i n s e r t container

Filter insert arotective container

A l l dimensions i n inches

Figure 12-48.

-

I n f l i g h t a e r o ~ o la n a l y s i s experfment particle collector.

The experiment *as o p e r a t e d d u r i n g a l l manned p e r i o d s a t t h e s'esignated loc a t i o n s . The crew t a s k s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h o p e r a t i n g t h e equipment and t h e l o c a t i o n s were arranged and c a t e g o r i z e d i n t g f u n c t i o n a l o b j e c t i v e s . These o b j e c t i v e s were scheduled i n t o t h e d a i l y f l i g h t p l a n . The crewman would o p e r a t e t h e equipment and r e c o r d t h e r e s u l t s on t h e experiment l o g card. The equipment was o p e r a t e d on 153 of t h e 172 days t h a t Skylab was manned, f o r a t o t a l o f 390 t i m e s . The experiment equipment performed w e l l . The crewmen's comments p e r t i n e n t t o t h e o p e r a t i o n , perfcrrzac-e, and h a n d l i n g o f t h e hardware were c o n s i s t e n t l y f a v o r a b l e . A t t h e c o n c l u s i o n of each manned p e r i o d , t h e used f i l t e r and t h e l o g c a r d s were r e t u r n e d t o E a r t h . Three f i l t e r s and 25 l o g c a r d s were r e t u r n e d . 12.4.6

Crew V e h i c l e D i s t u r b a n c e s (T013)

The crew v e h i c l e d i s t u r b a n c e s experiment (T013) measures t h e t o r q u e s , f o r c e s , and v e h i c l e motions produced by t h e crewman's body movement and determines t h e e f f e c t s of t h e s e items on t h e a t t i t u d e and c o n t r o l of t h e v e h i c l e . The hardware c o n s i s t s o i d e v i c e s t o measure t h e body motions of a crewman and t h e f o r c e s he a p p l i e s t o t h e workshop w h i l e making t h e s e motions. I t c o n s i s t s of t h r e e systems: a limb motion s e n s i n g system, a f o r c e measuring system, and a d a t a s y s t e n . Onboard motion p i c t u r e s , u s i n g t h e 16-millimeter d a t a a c q u i s i t i o n camera, s r c obcained c o n c u r r e n t l y w i t h t h e experiment o p e r a t i o n . The limb motion s e n s i n g system ( f i g . 12-49) is a s k e l e t a l s t r u c t u r e i n c o r p o r a t e d i n t o a s u i t , w i t h p i v o t s a t t h e major body j o i n t s . Each p i v o t i s monitored by a l i n e t r p o t m t i o m t e r which p r o v i d e s a continuous measurement of body limb p o s i t i o n . The f o r c e measuring system c o n s i s t s of two f o r c e measuring u n i t s a t t a c h e d t o t h e walls of t h e w o r k ~ h n v

new s c a n n i n g program v-is implemented. The photometer s y s t e m was i n s t a l l e d and f i r s t used on Day 23. I t had a minimum s c i l e d u l i n g r e q u i r e n e n t o f n i n e st-ans. I t m d e 11 s c a n s i n 6 ddys and g a t h e r e d p h o t o g r a p h i c and t e l e n ~ e t r yd a t a f o r 1 approximately 1 5 h o u r s . The 1 s c a n s were n o t performed e x a c t l y a s c a l l e d f o r i n t h e r e q u i r e m e n t s because t h e Noon and p l a n e t l o c a t i o n s were d i f f e r e n t from t h o s e planned f o r and because p r i o r i t i e s were re..ised as t h e m i s s i o n p r o g r e s s e d . The u n i v e r s a l e x t e n s i o n mec'lanism was used t o expose t h e p a r t i c l e c d l l e c t i m experiment (S149) from Days 38 t o 80. Tile photometer was a g a i n i n s t a l l e d and deployed on Day 80. A minimum o t . " s c a n s were r e q u i r e d f c r t h i s second manned p e r i o d . The n e x t d a y , a m a l f u n c t i c n made i t i m p o s s i b l e t o r e t r a c t t h e p h o t o m e t e r , s o t h e photometer arid e x t e n s i o n mect:anisn had t o be j e t t i s o n e d o v e r b o a r d . No 1 6 - m i l l i m e t e r p h o t o g r a p h s were o b t a i n e d d u r i n g t h i s p e r i o d because t h e camera, 'no, was j e t l i s o n e d . Approximately 6 h w r s o f t e l e m e t r y d a t a was o b t a i n e d , howe v e r , b e f o r e t h e photometer was j e t t i s o n e d . L a t e r d u r i n g t h i s p e r i o d , t h e crew r i g g e d t h e coronagraph c o n t a c i n a t i o n measurements hardware and t h e u l t r a v i o l e t a i r g l o w h o r i z o n photog rap:^^ camera and took s e v e n e x p o s u r e s . These p i c t u r e s were s o s u c c e s s f t ~ lt h a t t h i s coalbination was used f o r t h e t h i r d manned p e r i o d , o n a luw priority basic During t h e t h i r d manned p e r i o d , 17 n i g h t p a s s e s were r e q u i r e d t o o b t a i n 85 photogr;tphs. The 1 7 n i g h t p a s s e s produced 96 p h o t o g r a p h s , a g a i n o f 11 photographs. On. 140-foot magazine o f 1 6 - m i l l i m e t e r f i l m , t e l e ~ ~ e t r yand 1 0 3 , 3 5 - m i l l i m e t e r pho'ographs v e r e r e t u r ~ e df o r t h o s e e x p e r i m e n t s t h a t used t h e pllot o m e t e r system. The i n a b i l i t y of t h e p h o ~ o m e t e rt o r e t r a c t -.gas c l a s s i f i e d a s an anomaly. The photometer head c c u l d n o t b e changed from t h e s h a f t p o s i t i o n o f 354.4 d e g r e e s on Day 81. The photometer x u s t be i n a s h a f t p o s i t i o n o f e i t h e r 45, 1 3 5 , 225, o r 315 d e g r e e s f o r i t t o be r e t r a c t e d i n t o t h e workshop. Two d a y s were s p e n t t r ~ u b l e - s h o o t i n g and p e r f o r m i n g m a l f u n c t i o n p r o c e d u r e s , i n an e f f o r t t o r e t r a c t t h e photometer. A 1 1 p r o c e d u r e s Gere u n s u c c e s s f u l , a 4 t h e photometer and u n i v e r s a l e x t e n s i o n mechanism were j e t t isoried o v e r b o a r d cn Day 53. J e t t i s o n i n g w a s necess a r y t o c l e a r t h e s c i e n t i f i c a i r l o c k s o i t c o u l d b e u s e d by o t h e r e x p e r i m e n t s . The remaining c a n i s t e r assembly was stowed. The m a l f u n c t i o n w a s caused by t h e f a i l u r e of a c i r c u i t e l e m e n t which k e p t a r e l a y from o p e r a t i n g . C i r c u i t u r l a l y s i s o f t h e motor d r i v e l o g i c c i r c u i t , s n a f t d r i v e r e l a y c i r c u i t , and i n p u t e l e n e n t s showed t h a t t h e d e s i g n was a d e q u a t e and t h a t no weak e l e m e n t s e x i s t e d . Tt.2 c i r c u i t e l e m e n t t h a t f a i l e d had a r a t h e r Long f a i l u r e t r a n s i e ~ tt i m e o f 6 h o u r s . During t h i s p e r i o d , tile f a i l e d e l e m e n t was o v e r l e a d i n g t h e 5 - v o l t power s u p p l y and c a u s i n g t h e 5- and 29.5-volt power s u p p l y t o d r o p o u t when t h e low r e g u l a t i o n l i m i t 0.' 4.6 v o l t s was exceeded. Afzer t h e t r a n s i e n t p e r i o d , t h e s h a f t motor d r i v e c i r c u i t was c o m p l e t e l y open. The f a i l u r e o f t h e J e m e n t can b e c l a s s i f i e d a s random i n n a t u r e . '11ie s p e c i f i c e l e m e n t t h a t f a i l e d i s n o t known, 5 u t i t s l o c a t i o n i s b e l i e v e d t o be e i t h e r i n t h e common p a n e l o r i n t h e r e l a y and d r i v e r assembly. The u n i t s t h a t c o n t a i n e d t h e s u s p e c t e d f a i l e d element remained o:lboard Skylab.
The l o s s of t h e ?hotomcter s y s t e m and u n i v e r s a l e x t e n s i o r i mechanism hampered t h e performance o f t h r e e e x p e r i n e n t s . The con t a m i n a t i o n me llrements (T027) and gegenschein and z o d i a c a l l i g h t (S073) use4 t h e photometer s y s t e m t o measure cont a m i n a t i o n and z o d i a c s 1 l i g h t . The p a r t i c l e c o l l e c t i o r ~e x p e r i m e n t (S149) used Lhe u c i v e r s a l e x t e n s i o n mechanism, which was a l s o l o s t . The u s e of c o r o n a g r a p h c o n t a m i n a t i o n measurements (T025) and u l t r a v i o l e t a i r g l o w h o r i z o n photography (S063) hardware t o g a t h e r d a t a t o r t h e c o n t a m i n a t i o n measixements (T027) and gegenschein and z o d i a c a l l i g h t ($073) e x p e r i m e n t s minimized t h e l o s s t o t h e l a t t e r e x p e r i m e n t s . I n a d d i t i o n , t h e p a r t i c l e c o l l e c t i o n (S149) hardware was deployed

o u t s i d e t h e workshop hy t h e crew d u r i n g e x t r a v e h i c u l a r a c t i v i t y f o r 47 days of exposure. 12.4.9 Proton Spectrometer

The p r o t o n s p e c t r o m e t e r o b t a i n s t h e d a t a n e c e s s a r y f o r mapping such r a d i a t i o n a r e a s a s t h e South t i t l . a n t r c Anomaly and t h e p o r t i o n s of t h e Northern and Sout!?ern horns t h a t Skylab p a s s e s o v e r . Thf: p r o t o n s p e c t r o m e t e r c o n s i s t s o f a d e t e c t o r head assembly and an e l e c t r o n i c s subsystem ( f i g . 12-54). It i s ins t a l l e d on a t r u s s a t t h e forward end of t h e docking a d a p t e r . The i n s t r u m e n t

Ant

Figure 12-54

.-

Proton s p e c t r o m e t e r d e t e c t o r head assembly.

e d measures and c l a s s i f i e s e l e c t r o n s from 1 . 2 t o 10 MV a ~ p r o t o n s from 18.5 t o The d e t e c t o r head is a d i r e c t i o n a l d e v i c e composed o f f o u r d e t e c t o r s . 400 MeV. Three d e t e c t o r s (Dl, D 2 , and D3) a r e used t o d e t e c t f h e presence and energy of t h e p a r t i c l e s . A f o u r t h d e t e c t o r (DG) surrounds t h e s e d e t e c t o r s and i s used a s a n a n t i c o i n c i d e n c e d e t e c t o r t o c r e a t e a 45-degree acceptance cone and t o measure The e l e c t r o n i c s subsystem t h e t o t a l f l u x of t h e r a d i a t i o n f i e l d ( f i g . 12-55). processes t h e d a t a from t h e d e t e c t o r s and p r e s e n t s them t o t h e l a b o r a t o r y d a t a s)stem. The p r o c e s s i n g determines i f t h e p a r t i c l e e n t e r e d t h e i n s t r u m e n t through t h e 45-degree acceptance coue and i f i t i s an e l e c t r o n o r 3 proton. It t h e n determines t h e p a r t i c l e ' s enelgy and adds i t t o t h e a p p r o p r i a t e c o u n t e r . The instrument bas 12 d i g i t a l channels and 4 analog measurements. The d a t a a r e

t r a n s m i t t e d t o t h e ground s t a t i o n d i r e c t l y o r r e c o r d e d onbon;cf f o r s u b s e q u e n t t r a n s m i s s i o n , t h u s enah ! i n g r e c o n s t r u c t i o n of an e n t i r e o r b i t . Real-time m o n i t o r i n g , Collfortor of tile d a t a is l i m i t e d t o t h e f o i ~ ra n a l o g measuremell t s.
' h w c o n s t r a i n t s are imposed on t h e p r o t o n s p e c t r o m e t e r . A t e m p e r a t u r e cons t r a i n t s p e c i f ies t h a t power s h a l l be a p p l i e d t o t h e i n s t r u m e n t axytime t h e i n s t r u m e l ~ t l st e m p e r a t u r e a p p r o a c h e s - 2 5 ' ~ . A corona c - m s t r a i ~ ~p e c i f i e s t h a t t h e st i n s t r u m e n t s h a l l be turtled o f f d u r i n g command and s e r v i c e module r e a c t i o n c o n t r o l system t h r u s t e r o p e r a t i o n s , i n c l u d i n g docki!lg and undocking

-\ A n t i - s c s t t e r rings

F i g u r e 12-55.

-

Iktector o r i r , l L a t ion.

.

The p r o t o n s p e c t r o m e t e r was e s p o s e d t o t h e s p a c e environment when t h e shroud was j e t t i s o n e d . The i n s t r u m e n t was t u r n e d on by ground conunand a p p r o x i m a t e l y 1 2 hours a f t e r launch. A c t i v a t i o n w a s supposed t o o c c u r a p p r o x i m a t e l y 4 h o u r s a f t e r l a u n c h , b u t t h i s was d e l a y e d t o c o n s e r v e power.
The f i r s t d a t a from t h e p r o t o n s p e c t r o m e t e r were r e c e i v e d a p p r o x i m a t e l y 5 hours a f t e r i t .*=ist u r n e d on. The p e a k i n g of t h e t o t a l f l u x measurement d e t e c t o r was monitored i n real time. The f i r s t d i g i t a l d a t a were r e c e i v e d a p p r o x i m a t e l y 23 h o u r s a f t e r s p e c t r o m e t e r a c t i v a t i o n . These i a t a and t h o s e from s u b s e q u e n t p a s s e s which were g o i n g i n t o o r coming o u t o f t h e Northern Horn B e l t showed t h a t Subtwo e l e c t r o n c h a n n e l s and a l l p r o t a n c h a n n e l s were n o t o ? e r a t i n g p r o p e r l y . s e q u e n t i n v e s t i g a t i o n found t h a t t h i s i n d i c a t i o n was c a u s e d by a t e m p e r a t u r e induced f a i l u r e . The i n s t r u m e n t was c y c l e d o f f and on t h r o u g h o u t t h e m i s s i o n i n an e f f o r t t o r e s t o r e p r o p e r o p e r a t i o n , b u t w i t h o u t s u c c e s s . I t w a s o p e r a t e d throughout t h e S k y l a b m i s s i o n even though some of t h e d a t a were degraded. The d a t a were t e l e m e t e r e d throughout t h e m i s s i o n and s t o c k p i l e d f o r s u b s e q u e n t a n a l y s i s . The c o n s t r a i n t t o t u r n power o f f d u r i n g r e a c t i o n c o n t r o l s y s t e m t h r u s t e r o p e r a t i o n s was c a n c e l l e d on Day 38. Because t h e i n s t r u m e n t was e x p e r i e n c i n g c o l d e r t e m p e r a t u r e s t h a n e x p e c t e d (-32OC i n s t e a d of -IO°C), t h e r e w a s more concern a b o u t t h e c o l d t e m p e r a t u r e ' s f u r t h e r damaging t h e i n s t r u m e n t i f i t were t u r n e d o f f t h a n t h e r e was a b o u t c o r o n a i f t h e i n s t r u m e c t were l e f t on d u r i n g thruster operation.
A temperature-induced f a i l u r e i n t h e i n s t r u m e n t c a u s e d t h e o u t p u t s o f a l l 8 p r o t o n c h a n n ~ l sand 2 o f t h e 3 e l e c t r o n c h a n n e l s L O be d e g r a d e d ; t h u s 10 of t h e 1 2 d i g i t a l c h a n n e l s d i d n o t p r o v i d e d a t a as e x p e c t e d . I t h a s s u b s c q u e n r l y been determined t h a a d e s i g n e r r o r w a s mide i n Lhe e m i s s i v i t y v a l u e o f t h e t h e m s l shroud o f t h e i n s t r u m e n t . The v a l u e o f 0.05 was used i n t h c model r a t h e r t h a n t h e c o r r e c t v a l u e of 0.88. The f i r s t d a t a r e c e i v e d from c h e s e c h a n n e l s r e v e a l e d t h a t t h e problem e x i s t e d , s o tile e x a c t time o f o c c u r r e n c e i s r!.-'aown. The t e m p e r a t u r e o f t h e i n s t r u m e n t was -25OC when i t was t u r n e d on 8 h o u r s ' a t e r than p l a n n e d , and t h e temDerature c o n s t r a i n t would have been v i o l a t e d had t k i n s t i a m e n t n o t been t u r n e d on a t t h a t time. The d a t a from t h e r e m a i n i n g c h a n n e l s a r e good. From t h e s e i t w i l l be p o s s i b l e t o measure t h e t o t a l f l u x l e v e l s and d o s a g e l e v e l s e n c o u n t e r e d . D i f f e r e n t methods f o r p r o c e s s i n g t h e degraded d a t a from t h e a f f e c t e d c h a n n e l s a r e b e i n g e x p l o r e d i n an e f f o r t t o o b t a i n t h e most i n f o r m a t i o n p o s s i b l e .

12.5

STUDENT INVESTICATIONS

The Skylab Student P r o j e c t was designed t o involve in the space program p u n g people who possess an interest in s c i e n c e and technology and t o f o s t e r t h i s i n t e r e s t through d i r e c t p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the Skylab program. To implement t h e Skylab Student P r o j e c t , the National Science Teachers F;:sociation was requested t o sponsor, organize, and administer a n a t i o n a l compei t i o n f o r high school s t u d e n t s . Twelve geographic regions were designated, each A t h a r e g i o n a l chairman appointed t o r e c e i v e a l l proposals f o r h i s region. The r e g i o n a l chairman i n t u r n appointed a committee t o t v a l u a t e ezch proposal. A l : ) t a l of 3409 proposals were submitted by s t u d e n t s ; however, because of team prroposals, more than 4000 s t u d e n t s p a r t i c i p a t e d i n proposal s u b m i t t a l s . Three hundred proposals were s e l e c t e d from t h e 1 2 geographic regions. From t h e s e 300 r agional winners, 25 n a t i o n a l winners were s e l e c t e d . The 25 winning s t u d e n t s were e !ch assigned a s c i e n c e a d v i s o r t o a i d with t h e p r e p a r a t i o n and e v a l u a t i o n of h i s c geriment i n terms of c o m p a t i b i l i t y with, and c o n s t r a i n t s o f , t h e Skylab program.
f

A t a prelfminary design review i n May 1972, a review board determined t h a t 19 of t h e 25 proposed experiments could be flown. Of t h e s e , 1 required hardware 1 development and 8 used t h e hardware and d a t a of o t h e r experiments. The remaining 6 af the 25 s e l e c t e d experiments were incompatible f o r f l i g h t on Skylab, but were recognized as possessing considerable merit. Arrangements were made f o r t h e s e :six s t u d e n t s t o be a s s o c i a t e d with s c i e n t i s t s i n a l t e r n a t e , c o r o l l a r y research programs t o ~ e e p them involved i n space s c i e n c e a c t i v i t i e s . Four of these s:x a r e discussed a t t h e end of t h i s s e c t i o n . The o t h e r two, c o l l o i d i a l s t a t e (EDi1) and powder flow (ED73), a r e n o t included s i n c e :he assigned a l t e r n a t e a c t i v i t i e s were not r e l a t e d t o Skylab.

Experiments were implemented by a s s o c i a t i n g t h e s t u d e n t i n v e s t i g a t o r with a Skylab p r i n c i p a l i n v e s t i g a t o r who then supported t h e s t u d e n t i n v e s t i g a t o r ' s requirements. Experiment hardware was developed a t Marshall Space F l i g h t Center. During t h e mission, tt.2 s t u d e n t i n v e s t i g a t o r s were a c t i v e l y involved i n following tht: conduct of t h e i r experiments o r r e l a t e d experiments. A f t e r t h e mission, i t is t h e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of thc s t u d e n t i n v e s t i g a t o r t o submit a formal r e p o r t of h i s experiment covering both ground-based and i n - o r b i t operations. The r e p o r t m a t a l s o r e f l e c t an independent = a l y s i s by t h e s t u d e n t of a l l experiment d a t a der ived from t h e performance of h i s experiment. 12 5 . 1 Atmospheric Attenuation o f Radiant Energy (ED11)

l'he it. .!ospheric a t t e n u a t i o n of r a d i a n t energy experiment (ED111 determines t h e attc..dation of energy i n t h e v i s i b l e and near-infrared s p e c t r a l regions through t h e Y r t h ' s a t m o s ~ h e r ea t various l o c a t i o n s and under varying atmospheric condiThe a t t e n u a t i o n is determined f o r s c l a r r a d i a t i o n and f o r energy r e f l e c t e d tio f Jm t h e E a r t h ' s s u r f e c e .

,.

Data o b t a i ~ o i t h r e e Instruments used f o r t h e Earth o b s e r v a t i o n s and d a t a hy obtaine8 a t s d e c t e d Earth s u r f a c e sites are used i n t h e i n v e s t i g a t i o n . The i n f r a red spectrometer (S191), o b t a i n s d a t a i n t h e 0.4 t o 2.4 micron s p e c t r a l band, with concurrenlt synoptic photographic d a t a being acquired by t h e m u l t i s p e c t r a l photoThe photographic grap;' LC f a c i l i r y (S190A) and t h e Earth terrain camera (S190B) l , - t a a r e f u r t h e r supplemented by t r a c k i n g photography from t h e onboard Earth oba e r v a t i o n viewfinder-tracker, which provides a p l o t t i n g base f o r t h e i n f r a r e d include d i r e c t , t o t a l , and d i f f u s e s o l a r r a d i a t i o n spectrometer d a t a . Ground d ~ t a

,

.

measurements o b t a i n e d w i t h p y r o h e l i o m e t e r s and pyronometers. R e f l e c t e d r a d i a t i o n is measured w i t h similar i n s t r u m e n t s . F i g u r e 12-56 shows t h e p o i n t i n g range o f t h e i n f r a r e d spectrometer r e l a t i v e t o the ground t a r g e t site. Ground t a r g e t sites a r e l o c a t e d a t t h e Houston, Texas, and White Sands, New Mexico, a r e a s and at t h e Four Corners a r e a ( j u n c t i o n o f Colorado, Utah, Arizona, and New Mexico). Experiment o b j e c t i v e s a r e s a t i s f i e d through a n a l y s i s o f t h e same d a t a o b t a i n e d by E a r t h o b s e r v a t i o n experiments. During t h e first manned p e r i o d , p a s s e s were made on Day 23 o v e r t h e Houston a r e a and on Day 32 o v e r t h e White Sands a r e a . I n t h e Houston p a s s , e x t e n s i v e cloud cover precluded s e n s o r o p e r a t i o n , b u t on t h e White Sands p a s s , a ~ l o l ei n t h e cloud Infrared F i g u r e 12-56.covcr w a s found and i t is assumed t h a t some s p e c t r o m e t e r p o i n t i n g range. d a t a were o b t a i n e d . During t h e second manned p e r i o d , d a t a were n o t o b t a i n e d d u r i n g s e v e r a l a t t e m p t s o v e r a s s i g n e d s i t e s because of a westward s h i f t i n t h e grcund t r a c k . On Day 1 1 6 . u s a b l e d a t a through unpolluted and p o l l u t e d atmospheres were o b t a i n e d a t Phoenix, Arizona, a p r e v i o u s l y unassigned t a s k s i t e . During t h e t h i r d manned p e r i o d , p a s s e s were made o v e r t h e Houston a r e a on Day 202 and o v e r t h e Whice Sands a r e a on -'.~ys 206 and 207. Data o b t a i n e d i n c l u d e d E a r t h o b s e r v a t i o n experiment p h o t o g ~ p h srecorded at 684 samples p e r second t o a 1 0 - b i t q u a n t i z a t i o n . These d a t a were reduced and provided t o t h e s t u d e n t i n v e s t i g a t o r i n a t a b u l a r p r e s e n t a t i o n of r a d i a t i o n int e n s i t y v e r s u s wavelength. The ground s i t e d a t a a c q u i r e d were a l s o provided. 12.5.2 Volcanic Study (ED12)

The v o l c a n i c study experiment (ED12) examines t h e f e a s i b i l i t y of p r e d i c t i n g v o l c a n i c a c t i v i t y through remote thermal i n f r a r e d s e n s i n g . Active volcanoes a r e monitored from Skylab u s i n g t h e i n f r a r e d s p e c t r o m e t e r (S191) , t h e m u l t i s p e c t r a l scanner jS192), t h e m u l t i s p e c t r a l photographic f a c i l i t y (S190A), and t h e E a r t h t e r r a i n camera (S19CB). Emitted thermal r a d i a n c e i s monitored i n t h e 6.2 t o 1 5 . 5 micron r e g i o n by the i n f r a r e d s p e c t r o m e t e r . The m u l t i s p e c t r a l s c a n n e r s e n s e s the:-ual i n f r a r e d energy i n t h e 10.2 t o 12.5 micron r e g i o n . The cameras provide high q u a l i t y m u l t i s p e c t r a l s y n o p t i c photography i n 70-millimeter format. The i n v e s t i g a t i o n ; e 2 s d u p l i c a t e s of E a r t h o b s e r v a t i o n d a t a e x c e p t t h a t t h e i n f r a r e d s p e c t r o m e t e r o b t a i n s d a t a s p e c i f i c a 1 , l y f o r t h e vol.cano s t u d y w h i l e i n t h e crew t r a c k i n g mode. The sites s e l e c t e d a r e i n Nicaragua a t Concepcion, Masaya, Cerro Negro, and T e l i c a . The experiment was performed d u r i n g a l l manned p e r i o d s . On Day 32, a pass was made over the Nicaraguan v o l c a n i c r e g i o n , but cloud cover w a s t o o heavy t o permit s a t i s f a c t o r y viewing. S e v e r a l subsequent a t t e m p t s were hampered e i t h e r by cloud cover o r by t h e crew's d i f f i c u l t y i n i d e n t i f y i n g t h e volcanoes. On Day 130, t h e crew r e p o r t e d t h a t M t . Etna, i n S i c i l y , was smoking. On Day 131, a s a t i s f a c t o r y d a t a pass was made over M t . Etna. A d d i t i o n a l p a s s e s were made over t h e

Nicaraguan volcanic region on Days 206 and 235. The r e t u r n e d d a t a c o n s i s t e d of photographs and recorded binary d i g i t a l d a t a having 10-bit q u a n t i z a t i o n a t 684 samples per second and o t h e r binary d i g i t a l d a t a having 8-bit q u a n t i z a t i o n a t 1240 and 2480 samples p e r scan. The photographic d a t a were provided t o t h e s t u d e n t i n v e s t i g a t o r i n a format and s c a l e s u i t a b l e f o r u s e i n p l o t t i n g thermal contours. The thermal i n f r a r e d d a t a were provided i n a form t h a t could 5e superimposed on t h e photographic d a t a . C o r r e l a t i v e ground d a t a , where a v a i l a b l e , were a l s o provided. 12.5.3 L i b r a t i o n Clouds (ED21)

The l i b r a t i o n clouds experiment (ED2i) s t u d i e s t h e l u n a r l i b r a t i o n cloud regions a t t h e Lagrangian p o i n t s L4 and L5. Figure 12-57 shows t h e Earth-Moon g r a v i t y f o r c e contour p a t t e r n and t h e l o c a t i o n of t h e l i b r a t i o n cloud regions and t h e zero f o r c e f i e l d s . The white l i g h t coronagraph (S052) is used t o observe and

Gravl ty contours Earth-kn systm

Lagrangian points

-. Figure 12-57.-

Gravity contours and Lagrangian p o i n t s .

record t h e e x i s t e n c e of dust cloud accumulation i n l u n c r l i b r a t i o n regions and t h e v a r i a t i o n i n s i z e o r b r i g h t n e s s a s a f u n c t i o n of o r b i t a l p o s i t i o n . The requirements of t h e l i b r a t i o n clouds experiment a r e m e t with d u p l i c a t e s of d a t a produced by t h e white l i g h t coroaagrnph experiment. During o r b i t s where t h e l i b r a t i o n cloud regions a r e w i t h i n t h e f i e l d o f view, a d d i t i o n a l white l i g h t coronagraph d a t a a r e obtained a s s o l a r c o n d i t i o n s and f i l m supply permit. Film d a t a of t h e L5 Lagrangian p o i n t were obtained during t h e f i r s t manned period. S i d l a r photographs were obtained during t h e second unmanned period on o Days 52 and 53. N observations were made d u r i n g t h e second mannod period except f o r an unattended filming of t h e L4 p o i n t on Day 77. During t h e t h i r d manned period, observations were made of t h e L4 p o i n t on Day 219, and a p a r t i a l observar i o n was made on Day 2 5 1 , Returned d a t a c o n s i s t e d of white l i g h t coronagraph photographs of t h e observed l u n a r l i b r a t i o n p o i n t s .

12.5.4

O b j e c t s X i t h i n tlercury's O r b i t (ED22)

This experiment o b s e r v e s f o r p o s s i b l e b o d i e s i n o r b i t between Mercury and t h e Sun. Figure 12-58 shows t h e p o s t u l a t e d s o l a r o r b i t o f an intra-Mercuryo r b i t body and t h e r e g i o n s where Skylab o b s e r v a t i o n s a r e made t h a t w i l l s a t i s f y t h e experiment. The w h i t e l i g h t coronagrapk (SO521 p r o v i d e s t h e r e q u i r e d obs e r v a t i o n a l c a p a b i l i t y , and s y n o p t i c photographic d a t a o b t a i n e d without modific a t i o n t o hardware o r procedures a r e d u p l i c a t e d f o r c h i s s t u d e n t i n v e s t i g a t i o n .
( 1 AU aop-ox. 150 x 106 km)

\

\

Postulated o r b i t o f i n t r a Mercury body (0.1 AU radius)

\ ,
L e g i r i ~ swhere observations
o f oody w i l l be possible w i t h 5052 white 1 i g h t coronagraph

L '
F i g u r e 32-58.-

Observation r e g i o n s .

Synoptic o b s e r v a t i o n s of t h e Sun ;rere r i a n n e d t o o c c u r throughout t h e e n t i r e mission on a d a i l y b a s i s . During t h e f i r s t manned p e r i o d , 31 o b s e r v a t i o n s were performed. S e v e r a l days were l o s c w h i l e a f a i l e d pl\otographic camera was b e i n g r e p l a c e d . During t h e second unmanned p e r i o d a ~ s e c t a d manned p e r i o d s , a l l d planned o b s e r v a t i o n s were c a r r i e d o ~ t and 9737 frames of f i l m were a c q u i r e d . , During t h e t h i r d manned p e r i o d , s y n o p t i c o b s e r v a t i o n s o f t h e Sun were performed on an average of 4 times a day, and 12,547 frames o f f i l m were a c q u i r e d . I t i s not y e t known how many of t h e exposed f i l m frames c o n t a i n u b s e r v a t i o n s o f t h e d e s i r e d o r b i t a l region. Very few o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r s y n o p t i c photography were missed. 12.5.5 Quasars (ED231

The quasar experiment (ED23) o b t a i n s s p e c t r a of s e l e c t e d q u a s a r s and S e y f e r t g a l a x i e s i n t h e u l t r a v i o l e t s p e c t r a l r e g i o n . The u l t r a v i o l e t s t e l l a r astronomy i n s t r u m e n t (S019) i s used t o perform t h e i n v e s t i g a t i o n . The i n s t r u m e n t ' s prism and widening mechanism a r e not used. Figure 12-59 shows t h e i n s t r u m e n t i n s t a l l e d i n t h e s c i e n t i f i c a i r l o c k . One d a r k s i d e p a s s o f 32 minutes d u r a t i o n w h i l e t h e Moh-il is a t l e s s than h a l f phase is performed. S a t u r n Workshop v e n t i n g and a t t i cude maneuvers a r e c o n s t r a i n e d b e f o r e and d u r i n g performance o f t h i s experiment. A list of p o s s i b l e t a r g e t s , i n c l u d i n g p o i n t i n g and p r i o r i t y i n f o r m a t i o n , i s provided t o t h e crew. Three 30- o r 90-second exposures of each t z r g e t a r e r e q u i r e d . One exposure i s focused on t h e t a r g e t , one exposure i s o f f s e t 1 degree i n t i l t , and one exposure is o f f s e t 1 d e g r e e i n r o t a t i o n . During t h e f i r s t manned p e r i o d , on Day 28, t h e data p a s s f o r t h i s experiment was performed when t h e Moon was near1;r f u l l . Photographs of Q u a s a r 36273 and

F i g u r e 12-59.Ultraviolet s t e l l a r astronomy i n s t r u m e n t mounted i n s c i e n t i f i c a i r l o c k . 12.5.6

S e y f c r t g a l a x y NGC7469 were t a k e n , and a c q u i s i t i o n o f Seyf e r t g a l a x y NGC5548 was a t tempted. During t h e second manned p e r i o d , n ~ h o t o g r a p ho f t h e M7 c l u s t e r was made f o r c a l i b r a t i o n p u r p o s e s , and a t t e m p t s were made t o photograph two S e y f e r t g a l a x i e s , NGC1068 and NGC1275. P o i n t i n g was i n e r r o r , however, by 3 d e g r e e s . F u r t h e r performance was s c h e d u l e d f o r t h e t h i r d manned p e r i o d , b u t c o n s i d e r a b l e demand on t h e u l t r a v i o l e t s t e l l a r astronomy i n s t r u m e n t f o r t h e supp o r t o f o t h e r c o r o l l a r y e x p e r i m e n t s prec l u d e d i t s f u r t h e r u s e f o r t h e q u a s a r exp e r i m e n t . The r e t u r n e d d a t a were t h e p h o t o g r a p h s o b t a i n e d . Some u s e f u l d a t a a r e e x p e c t e d from t h e sass d u r i n g t h e f i r s t manned p e r i o d d e s p i t e v i o l a t i o n o f t h e Moon p h a s e c o n s t r a i n t . No d a t a were obt a i n e d from t h e o t h e r a t t e m p t s .

X-Ray S t e l l a r C l a s s e s (ED24)

The X-ray s t e l l a r c l a s s e s expeLlnlr,.t (ED24) d e t e r m i n e s t h e l o c a t i o r . o f s t e l l a r s o u r c e s and t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p between t h e a g e of a s t a r , t h e s p e c t r a l c l a s s , and t h e i n t e n s i t y o f e m i r t e d X-rays. The i n v e s t i g a t i o n u s e s d u p l i c a t i o n s o f d a t a The X-ray s p e c t r o g r a p h f i l m camera from t h e X-ray s p e c t r o g r a p h e x p e r i m e n t (SO%). p r o v i d e s t h e r e q u i r e d p h o t o g r a p h i c d a t a o f SCO S-1 o r a l t e r n a t e s t e l l a r X-ray s o L r c e s . During t h e t h i r d manned p e r i o d , t h r e e a t t e m p t s were made t o a c q u i r e s t e l l a r X-ray d a t a . However, t h e X-ray s p e c t r o g r a p h i n s t r u m e n t , which was des i g n e d f o r s o l a r o b s e r v a t i o n , was n o t s e n s i t i v e enough t o d e t e c t s t c l * a r X-rays. Tine r e t u r n e d d a t a c o n s i s t e d o f p h o t o g r a p h s and s u p p o r t i v e i n s t r u m e n t p o i n t i n g d a t a . S i n c e s t e l l a r X-ray d a t a w e r e n o t a c q u i r e d , s o l a r X-ray p h o t o g r a p h s were p r o v i d e d . The s t u d e n t i n v e s t i g a t o r w i l l p a r t i c i p a t e i n a problem o f d a t a a n l l y s i s and i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f s o l a r X-ray d a t a . 12.5.7 X-Rays Fru,.i J u p i t e r (ED25)

The X-rays from J u p i t e r e x p e r i m e n t (ED25) o b t a i n s X-ray e m i s s i o n d a t a from t h e p l a n e t J u p i t e r and i n v e s t i g a t e s f o r c o r r e l a t i o n o f X-ray e m i s s i o n w i t h s o l a r a c t i v i t y and J c v i a n d e c a m e t r i c r a d i o e m i s s i o n . A d d i t i o n a l l y , X-ray e m i s s i o n d a t a a r e s o u g h t from a n e u t r o n s t a r p o s s i b l y p r e s e n t i n t h e Cygnus Loop. The i n v c s t i g a t i o n u s e s d a t a a c q u i r e d by t h e X-ray s p e c t r o g r a p h (S054). J o v i a n o b s e r v a t i o n s a r e s c h e d u l e d as d i c t a t e d by s o l a r f l a r e s and r e l a t e d geomagnetic a c t i v i t y . I n t h e a b s e n c e o f a l a r g e s o l a r f l a r e , o b s e r v a t i o n s a r e conducted any t i m e J u p i t e r i s o b s e r v a b l e . I f d a t a from J u p i t e r a r e n o t obtained, s t e l l a r X-rays from t h e Cygnus Loop a r e o b s e r v e d . I t i s mandatory t h a t a t l e a s t o n e r e f e r e n c e s t a r be z c c e s s i b l e t o t h e s t a r t r a c k e r d u r i n g t h e e x p e r i m e n t maneuver p e r i o d t o p r o v i d e the required p o i n t i n g accuracy. The e x p e r i m e n t was performed d u r i n g t h e t h i r d manned p e r i o d . I t became e v i d e n t t h a t t h e i n s t r u m e n t was n o t s e n s i t i v e enough t o r e c o r d t h e r e l a t i v e l y s l i g h t i n t e n s i t y o f J o v i a n X-rays. Operational c o n s t r a i n t s developed t h a t precluded observci:ion of t h e Cygnus Loop. No d a t a wore r e t u r n e d on e l t l i t ; r o f t h e s e l e c t e d t a r g e t s . The s t u d e n t i n v e s t i g a t o r w i l l be p e r m i t t e d t o c a r r y t h r o u g h a s t u d y program on s o l a r X-ray phenomena.

12.5.8

U l t r a v i o l e t From P u l s a r s (ED26)

The u l t r a v i o l e t from p u l s a r s experiment (ED26) J.nvest:igates p u l s a r s p e c t r a in t h e u l t r a v i o l e t region. The u l t r a v i o l e t s t e l l a r astronomy instrument (S019) is used t o perform t h e i n v e s t i g a t i o n during a dark s i d e pass of 32 minutes durat i o n , while t h e Moon i s i n the dark phase. The instrument's prism and widening mechanism a r e not used. Saturn Workshop v e n t i n g o r a t t i t u d e maneuvers a r e avoided before and during performance. A l i s t of p o s ~ i b l et a r g e t s , and p o i n t i n g and p r i o r i t y information, a r e provided t o t h e crew. Three 30- o r 90-second exposures of each photographed t a r g e t a r e rzquired. One exposure is focused on t h e c e n t e r of t h e t a r g e t and t h e o t h e r s a r e o f f s e t . Because of improved prime t a r g e t a v a i l a b i l i t y , t h e experiment was performed during t h e second i n s t e a d of t h e f l - r s t manned period. On Day 96, an u l t r a v i o l e t s t e l l a r astronomy pass w a s dedicated t o t h i s experiment. The t m g e t s photographed were Scorpius, HZ Hercules, and Cygnus X-1 X-ray s t a r s , and one a s y e t unnamed r a d i o s t a r . The corresponding u l t r a v i o l e t s t e l l a r astronomy experiment s t a r f i e l d designators t o r t h e s e t a r g e t s are ED261, K264, ED2611, and ED261 5. The returned d a t a consisted of t h e photographs of t h e experiment t a r g e t s t a r f i e l d s . Corollary pointing d a t a were provided. 12.5.9 B a c t e r i a and Spores (ED31)

The b a c t e r i a and spores experiment (ED31) determines t h e e f f e c t s of t h e Skylab environment, p a r t i c u l a r l y weightlessness, on t h e s u r v i v a l , growth r a t e s , and mutations of b a c t e r i a and spores. The experiment equipment comprises 15 P e t r i d i s h e s containing growth media and a 1 6 t h P e t r i d i s h c o n t a i n i n g f i v e s t r a i n s of l i v i n g b a c t e r i a l forms. A c o n t a i n e r p r e s s u r i z e d a t 5 p s i a holds a s t e r i l e p l a s t i c bag t o contain t h e P e t r i d i s h e s and a sterile forceps. Addi'ional equipment includes a 35-millimeter still. camera and f i l m , an i n c u b a t o r , and a food chiller.
Nine inoculated P e t r i d i s h e s a r e incubated f o r 48 hours a t 35°C. Six inocul a t e d P e t r i d i s h e s a r e exposed t o t h e Saturn Workshop ambient temperature f o r 48 hours. Performance w a s scheduled f o r t h e l a s t 7 days of t h e manned period. A s t i l l photograph of each d i s h i s obtained from each of f i v e photographic s e s s i o n s . After t h e f i n a l s e s s i o n , t h e d i s h e s a r e stowed i n t h e food c h i l l e r a t 5 f3OC, using a medical support system resupply container. The experiment i s p e r f o m e d on t h e medical support system worktable i n t h e workshop. Each P e t r i d i s h of agar i s implanted with an inoculum d i s k , using t h e s t e r i l e forceps. The t r a n s p a r e n t cover of each d i s h i s i n s t a l l e d f o r t h e remainder of t h e experiment. The r-tquired photographic s e s s i o n s a r e conducted a t approximately equal i n t e r v a l s . A t t h e conc l u s i o n , t h e d i s h e s a r e stcwed t o await t r a n s f e r and r z t u r n on the command and s e r v i c e module. The experiment was s t a r t e d on Day 21, during t h e f i r s t manned p e r i o d , and completed on Day 24. The crew reported a s l o b microbial growth r a t e , and t h e incubation period was then increased from 48 hours t o 68.75 hours. F u r t h e r , a p r e c h i l l e d food c o n t a i n e r overcan was used f o r r e t u r n stowage r a t h e r than t h e planned medical. support system resupply container. I t was determined upon inspection of t h e returned P e t r i d i s h e s t h a t only 75 of t h e 2500 b a c t e r i a l c o l o n i e s showed any development. The experiment was reassigned f o r performance during t h e t h i r d manned period. The seconc performance was i n i t i a t e d on Day 235, e a r l i e r than s p e c i f i e d , because of p o s s i b l e s h o r t e n i n g of t h e mission. Again an extended incubation (88.5 hours) was performed because of t h e slow growth r a t e observed.

s y r i n g e . The p l a t e s a r e then s t o r e d a t ambient temperature f o r i n c u b a t i o n . A t t h e end of t h e i n c u b a t i o n p e r i o d , t h e r e q u i r e d photography i s yerfonaed. On Day 78, t h e experiment hardware was t r a n s f e r r e d from t h e command and s e r v i c e module t o t h e Skylab food c h i l l e r . The experiment was deployed on Day 90. The crew r e y o r t e d t h a t 5 t o 1 0 minutes a f t e r i n o c u l a t i o n , t h e a g a r had absorbed all of t h e a n t i g e n , which was normal. The crew r e y o r t e d on Day 93 t h a t t h e f i n a l photographic s e s s i o n s had been completed. They r e p o r t e d t h a t " l i t t l e round t h i n g s " were c l e a r l y v i s i b l e which grew d u r i n g t h e 24- t o 48-hour p e r i o d i n which photography was performed. The requirement t o o b t a i n 36 s t i l l photographs i n t h e d e s i g n a t e d t i m e p e r i o d was f u l f i l l e d . A l l time c o n s t r a i n t s on s t o r a g e and performance were s a t i s f i e d . 12.5.11 Motor sensor.^ Performance (ED41)

The motor s e n s o r y performance experiment (ED41) o b t a i n s human motor s e n s o r y d a t a d u r i n g prolonged w e i g h t l e s s n e s s , f o r f u t u r e m i s s i o n use. The experiment hardware c o n s i s t s of a maze aiming and t a r g e t assembly, a s t j l u s , and a s i g n a l c a b l e , a s shown i n f i g u r e 12-61. The maze i s t h e eye-hand c o o r d i n a t i o n t y p e and c o n t a i n s 119 0.125-inch d i a m e t e r h o l e s i n a d e l i n e a t e d p a t t e r n . When t h e s t y l u s is f u l l y i n s e r t e d i n t g a hole, an accelercable ometer i n t h e a a z e i s shocked and a s i g n a l conditioned pulse is s e n t over t h e s i g n a l --Stylus c a b l e f o r i n p u t t o t h e S a t u r n Workshop t e l e m e t r y system. The t e l e m e t r y d a t a c o n t a i n time i n f o r m a t i o n whic3 p e r m i t s d e t e r m i n a t i o n of e l a p s e d time between F i g u r e 12-61.Maze mci s t y l u s . pulses.
It is r e q u i r e d t h a t t h e experiment be performed by each crewman n e a r t h e start, midpoint, a d end of t h e manned p e r i o d . The maze assembly i s deployed on

t h e workshop wardroom window s h e l f and t h e s i g n a l c a b l e connected t o a tel.emetry channel i n p u t a t intercom. The experiment is t h e n performed by p l a c i n g t h e s t y l u s I n each h o l e of t h e maze i n t h e p r e s c r i b e d sequence, a s q u i c k l y as p o s s i b l e , w i t h o u t t h e hand o r forearm r e s t i n g on t h e maze. A s i n g l e performance conp r i d e s t h r e e t r a v e r s e s through t h e maze. During t h e t h i r d manned p e r i o d , t h e f i r s t performance was completed on Day 196 by a l l t h r e e crewmen. The mid-period performance was accomplished on Dny 224. The f i n a l performance was on Day 264. The experiment was performed a s expected. The d a t a r e b u r n e d were t h e t e l e m e t r y d a t a c o n t a i n i n g t h e t i m e - c c r r e l a t e d maze s i g n a l p u l s e s . 12.5.12 Web Formation (ED52)

The web formation experiment (ED52) determines t h e e f f e c t s o f a z e r o g r a v i t y environment on t h e web b u i l d i n g p r o c e s s of .A common c r o s s s p i d e r ( a r e n u s diadematus) through comparison of webs b u i l t i n o r b i t and on t h e ground. The experiment equipment c o a s i s t s o f two s p i d e r s , w a t e r and f l i e s t o feed t h e s p i d e r s , v i a l s i n a c a r r y i n g c a s e f o r t r a n s p o r t i n g t h e s p i d e r s and f c ~ d , an e n c l o s u r e , and a n a u t o m a t i c motion p i c t u r e a c t u a t o r . Lxperiment s u p p o r t hardware i n c l u d e s a 35-millimeter still camera and a 16-millimeter motion p i c t u r e camera, w i t h a supply of f i 1 . m f o r each. F l u o r e s c e n t lampa i l l u m i n a t e t h e e n c l o s u r e , The g l a s s viewing doors of t h e e n c l o s u r e a r e opened far photography, and a r i g i d

The s p i d e r s were stowed aboard t h e command and s e r v i c e module on Day 73. The automatic motion p i c t u r e camera a c t u a t o r would n o t f u n c t i o n , s o t h e manual mode was s u b s t i t u t e d . When t h e s p i d e r was shaken from i t s v i a l , i t f l i c k d i t s l e g s abnormally, and bounced back and f o r t h w i t h i n t h e e n c l o s u r e b e f o r e a f f i Ang i t s e l f t o one . it:^. On Day 85 t h e crew r e p o r t e d t h e f i r s t web. When planned photography was comp l e t e d , t h e crew r e q u e s t e d a d d i t i o n a l procedures. These were f u r n i s h e d , an a l t e r n a t e food supply was provided, and a d d i t i o n a l web formation was photogra?hed A completed web and t h e s p i d e r were stowed f o r r e t u r n . The second ( f i g . 12-62). s p i d e r was deployed on Day 105. It completed a web by Day 108 and was found dead on Day 125, The food supply f o r t h e f i r s t s p i d e r was r e p l e n i s h e d , b u t i t d i e d .

The experiment was t r a n s f e r r e d and deployed on Day 79.

The requirement f o r s t i l l photographs was exceeded by t h e 43 p i c t u r e s obt a i n e d . Motion p i c t u r e f i l m was o b t a i n e d o t s p i d e r deployment only. The added i n v e s t i g a t i o n included r e t r i e v a l a f web material and t h e s p i d e r bodies. The crew r e p o r t e d +3at t h e s p i d e r s d i d n o t appear t o use t h e w F L t r . The c o n s t r a i n t t o deploy t h e experiment w i t h i n 3 days a f t e r launch was liot observed because of d e l a y i n t h e o v e r a l l scheduled Skylab a c t i v i t i e s a t t h a t time. A i t e r v e r i f i c a t i o n check on Day 73, t h e crew d e s c r i b e d t o ground c o n t r o l t h e f a i l u r e of t h e automatic cemera a c t u a t o r t o o p e r a t e p r o p e r l y i n t h e automatic mode. On Day 80, a procedure w a s s e n t up t o t h e crew f o r r e a d j u s t i n g t h e a c t u a t o r e l e c t r o n i c s . Implementing t h e procedure d i d n o t r e s o l v e t h e problem, s o t h e experiment was performed with t h e a c t u a t o r i n t h e manual mode. S i n c e t h e 1 ~ r i . twas n o t r e turned, t h e only b a s i s f o r f a i i x r e a n a l y s i s was t h e crew v o i c e t c d n s c r i p t . P r i mary power flow i n t h e automatic mode was normal. The camera and l i g h t s were turned on a t i n i t i . 9 1 equjpment a c t i v a t i o n , and t h e time-delay c i r c u i t r y deenergized both camera and l i g h t i n g c i r c u i t i n t h e normal d e s i g n f a s h j o n . S i g n a l flow i n t h e automatic mode was n o t complete i n t b ~ t h e l i g h t s and camera would n o t come on a g a i n when t h e u l t r a s o n i c f i e l d was ir,, m t i o n a l l y d i s t u r b l d t o check proper operacion. The u n i t i s complex and t h e ~ a i l u r e experienced could be a t t r i b u t e d t o f a i l u r e of any one of a number o f e l e c t r i c a l components o r i n t e r c o n n e c t i o n s . Also, detuning of t h e l o c a l o s c i l l a t o r o r a frequency s h i f t i n e i t h e r o f t h e u l t r a s o n i c t r a n s d u c e r s could account f o r t h e problem. No f u r t h e r a c t i o n trias taker1 t o r e s o l v e t h e problem. The motion p i c t u r e f i l m of web formation duri n g unattended p e r i o d s was n o t acquired. 12.5.13 PI-ant Growth and P l a n t Phototropism (ED61-62)

The p l a n t growth e x p e r i w n t (ED61) determines t h e e f f e c t o f zero g r a v i t y on r i c e seed r o o t and stem growt~l. The p l a n t pkototroyism experiment (ED62) d e t e r mines whether l i g h t can be used a s a s u b s t i t u t e in causing r i c e seed r o o t and stem growth i n t h e a p p r o p r i a t e d i r e c t i o n i n zero g r a v i t y , and i n v e s t i g a t e s t h e minimum l i g h t l e v e l required.
The e x r e x i r e n t equipment c u n s i s t s of an 8-compartment s e e d c o n t a i n e r with agar and a seed p l a n t e r w i t h 24 r i c e s e e d s , as shown i? f i g w e 12-63. Experiment support hardware i n c l u d e s a 35-millimeter s t i l l camera w i t h i i l m supply and a l i g h t meter. Six of t h e seed c o n t a i n e r compartments have windows of v a r y i n g neut r a l d e n s i t y t o admit l i g h t , and two compartments have no windows. A l l have a second t r m s p a r e n t window t h a t i s opened o n l y f o r photography.

It i s r e q u i r e d t h a t , p e r i o d i c a l l y , over 12 days, e i g h t photographic s e s s i o n s be conducted i n which p a i r s of compartments a r e photographed from t h e t o p and fro^ t h e side f o r e i g h t photographs per s e s s i o n . I l l u m i n a t i o n a t t h e l i g h t - a d m i t t i n g windows of t h e seed c o n t a i n e r is t o be a t l e a s t 30 f o o t , . c a n d l e s . The. seed p l a n t e r

All d i g n s ~ o n s
i n inches

k t d contaiwr

L % d plaflr-r

Figure 12-63.-

Seed c o n t a i n e r and p l a n t e r .

m a t be disposed of inmediately a f t e r seed implantation. The seed p l a n t e r and container are removed from stowage and t r a n s f e r r e d t o t h e workshop wardroom. Three seeds are planted i n each of t h e e i g h t compartments. The c o n t a i n e r is mounted in t h e p l a n t growth l o c a t i o n o p p o s i t e t h e designated i l l u m i n a t i o n source, and t h e i l l u m i n a t i o n f a l l i n g ol; t h e c o n t a i n e r windows i s measured. Observations and photographic s e s s i o n s are conducted p e r i o d i c a l l y as required.
O Day 237, t n e seea., were p l a n t e d in all compartments except i n compartment n i' container was i n s t a l l e d i n t h e wardroom. I l l u m i n a t i o n measured 5 t o 20 The container w a s discovered a f t e r t h e mission t o have been s h i f t a d foot-candles. someghat from its c o r r e c t l o c a t i o n . Photography w a s performed 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 8, 12, 16, and 22 days a f t e r seed p l a n t i n g . The g l a s s cover p i a t e s sad f i l t e r s =ere remcved on Day 263 t o expose t h e p l a n t t o ambient atmosphere.

2, and

-

The required photographic d a t a and crew v o i c e c o m e n t a r y were obtained. A 1 1 o t h e r requiremeuts were s a t t s f i e d excepc t h a t t h e i l l u m i n a t i o n was low and photography w a s not obcained a s required on t h e 10th day. Three f u n c t i o n a l d i s c r e p a n c i e s were experienced. The seed c o n t a i n e r was i n c o r r e c t l y positioned and low l i g h t l e v e l s r e s u l t e d . Also, seed implantation of compartment 2 d i d n o t occur. These two problems were a t t r i b u t e d t o inadequacies i n crew check lists and t r a i n i n g . The t h i r d problem was t h a t t h e o r i g i n a l seed p l a n t e r had t o be replaced because of t h e abnormally high temperatures experienced i n t h e Saturn Workshop before t h e f i r s t malined period. 12.5.14 Cytoplasmic Streaming (ED63)

The cytoplasmic streaming experiment (ED63) observes t h e e f f e c t s of zero g r a v i t y on i n t e r c e l l u l a r cytoplasmic streaming i n t h e a q u a t i c p l a n t , elodea. The experiment equipment c o n s i s t s of t h r e e v i a l s c o n t a i n i n g elodea s p r i g s suspended i n a n u t r i e n t agar s o l u t i o n , a set of microscopic s l i d e s and cover s l i p s , and a p a i r of tweezers, a l l packaged i n a c o n t a i n e r . Experiment support hardware includes a microscope, microscope camera adapter, microscope mirror assembly, and a 16-millineter motion p i c t u r e camera with f i l m supply.

It is required t h a t t h e elodea v i a l s be t r a n s f e r r e d t o an a r e a with an i l l u mination l e v e l of a t l e a s t 20 foot-candles within 3 days a f t e r laumh. Photography of microscopic images a t 400:l magnification is t o be conducted between 5 t o 7, 12 t o 15, and 21 t o 25 days a f t e r launch. F i f t y f e e t of motion p i c t w e f i l m at 6 frames per sscond a r e t o be acquired. The elodea v i a l s a r e deployed In t h e wrkshop wardroom, aad t h e ambient illumination is measured. Three times dur?ng the mission, wet s l i d e s of plant l e a v e s a r e prepared f o r microsccpic examinatior. and p3o tography

.

The p l a n t v i a l s were deployed during t h e second manned period on Day 79, a f t e r 8 days of darkness. I n the f i r s t observation, on Day 90, of a s l i d e prepared from the h e a l t h i e s t appearing p l a n t , no streaming could be observed. The experiment was rescheduled f o r t h e t h i r d manned period, and t h e p l a n t v i a l s were packaged is transparent containers t o keep then a l i v e by permitting t h e impingement of all a v a i l a b l e l i g h t . Exposure t o d i r e c t sunlight occurred during transport in the command and s e r v i c e module. I n t h e f i r s t observation during t h e t h i r d manned period, streaming could be observed in t h e specimen prepared from t h e one p l a n t remaining viable. I n t h e second observation no streaming could be detected. The returned d a t a consisted of t h e motion p i c t u r e film. Film from t h e second manned period was underexposed and unusable because t h e microscope had not been adjusted t o provide adequate l i g h t f o r photography. Portions of t h e f i l m from t h e t h i r d manned period were acceptable though no streaming ws photographed. Some a of t h e f i l m was shot with the microscope eyepiece inadvertently omitted, r e s u l t i n g in too l i t t l e magnification. Somt s o f t focus was noted, possibly caused by an improperly made s l i d e . The elodea p l a n t s died during both experiment attempts. In t h e f i r s t attempt, ground support personnel had ar.ticipated t h e problem when t h e storage period went past 6 days of darkness and had s e n t the crew a test f o r p l a n t v i a b i l i t y . Ground t e s t i n g revealed t h a t p l a n t v i a b i l i t y became margin&, a f t e r 8 days of darkness. I n t h e second attempt, p l a n t death w s possibly caused by t h e d i r e c t exposure t o a sunlight a f t e r transparent s t c r a g e containers had been provided t o prevent repet i t i o n of the f i r s t f a i l u r e . 12.5.15 Capillary Study (3372)

The c a p i l l a r y study experiment (ED72) determines t h e e f f e c t of zero g r a v i t y on t h e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of wicking and c a p i l l a r y a t t r a c t i o n . The experiment hardware c o n s i s t s of two c a p i l l a r y tube modules and a c a p i l l ~ r y wick module. Each c a p i l l a r y tube module contains i d e n t i c a l sets of t h r e e tubes of graduated s i z e s . Each module has a f l u i d r e s e r v o i r , one c m t a i n i n g water and t h e o t h e r o i l . The c a p i l l a r y wick module contains t h r e e c e p i l l a r i e s of twill and mesh screen with a reservoir of water. The mouths of t h e c a p i l l a r y devices a r e maintained i n cont a c t with the r e s e r v o i r f l u i d , but c a p i l l a r y action is i n h i b i t e d by a levercontrolled valve u n t i l experiment a c t i v a t i o n . The experiment support hardware includes a 16-millimeter motion p i c t u r e camera with f i l m and a portable timer. It is required t h a t t h r u s t e r f i r i n g s and c o n t r o l gyro desaturation maneuvers be i n h i b i t e d during experiment operation. U t o 100 f e e t of f i l m d a t a of t h e operap t i o n a l sequence a r e t o be acquired. The t h r e e c a p i l l a r y modules a r e deployed on t h e workshop wardroom worktable. The camera is i n s t a l l e d on t h e mount, and t h e portable timer i s positioned so t h a t t h e readout is in the camera's f i e l d of view. The screen wicking assembly i s activated f i r s t . Time and motion p i c t u r e d a t a a r e obtained during wicking action. A maximum of 1 minutes is a l l o c a t e d . The same performance sequence is employed 1

f o r t h e water and o i l c a p i l l a r y tube modules wi:h maximum time a l l o i a t i o n s of 30 seconds f o r t h e water a-qd 16.5 minutes :or t h e o i l . Operation of t h e experiment vicking mcdules was i n i t i a t e d on Day 225. L i t t l e o r no wfcking a c t i o n was observed over an extended observatiou period of 2.5 hours. The wicking module was then moved and a complete vicking a c t i o n thereby i n i t i a t e d , although no f i l m d a t a were obtained. On Day 242, t h e c a p i l l a r y tube modules were of a c t i v a t e d , but no c a p i l l a r y a c t i o n occurred. The returned d a t a c o n s i ~ t e d a s m a l l amount of f i l m showing t h e very l i t t l e i n i t i a l wicking t h a t occurred and a sketch by a crewman of t h e wicking observed a f t e r 27 minutes, a f t e r 1 hour 47 minutes, and aEter 2 hours 44 minutes following a c t i v a t i o n . Wicking and c a p i l l a r y a c t i m f a i l e d t o occur t h e modules w e r e activated. Inspection of t h e stowage a r e a by t h e crew revealed evidence of f l u i d leakage. A procedure t o r e f i l l t h e r e s e r v o i r s w a s s e n t up, but the crew had discarded t h e modules. The hardware was not returned f o r a n a l y s i s , s o t h e cause of leakage can only be hypothesized. Some leakage problems were experienced during hardware development. Several possible l o c a t i o n s and causes f o r t h e leakage were postul a t e d , however, no s p e c i f i c cause can be i d e n t i f i e d except t h e abnormal c o d i n a t i o n s of temperature and pressure. 12.5.16 Ms Measurement (EU74) as

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as The mass measurement experiment (ED74) demonstrates the measurement of m s i n zero g r a v i t y and how t h e laws governing simple harmonic motion a r e applied i n fie Skylab specimen mass and body m s zo-asurement devices. The experiment hardas xare c o n s i s t s of a cantilevered s p r i n g beam firmly attached t o a frequency counbmllrry f ' l m w i d t b r ter ( f i g . 12-64), s i x weights, and a d a t a table. A means is provided f o r a t t a c h i a g t h e weights t o the f r e e a d of t h e beam. A s t r a i n gage senses beam o s c i l l a t i o n and provides a s i g n a l t o t h e frequency counter which has a v i s i b l e readout of the period i n seconds. The d a t a t a b l e c o r r e l a t e s period measurements t o m s as calculated as ~ ~ ~ t r a i ~ mO&lu using t h e beam s p r i n g constant measured on Earth. The experiment support hardware X s measurement as includes a 16-millimeter motion p i c t u r e Figure 12-64.device. camera and f i l m supply. The experiment requires four mass measurements using up t o s i x masses, and one measurement using only t h e c a l i b r a t i o n mass. It requires photographic coverage of each measurement a t 24 frames per second f o r S o s c i l O l a t i o n s a f t e r i n i t i a l beam deflection. ~ i a s smeaturements a r e not t o be performed during Skylab a t t i t u d e maneuvering.
The experiment hardware is bolted t o t h e workshop f i l m v a u l t f o r operation. Motion p i c t u r e f i l m is obtained of beam d e f l e c t i o n and o s c i l l a t i o n f o r each mass measurement of the weights a f f i x e d t o t h e beam. The camera is pointed t o include the counter display i n t h e f i e l d of view. The experiment was performed on Dtry 106. Five mass measurements were made and the required motion p i c t u r e photography performed. All experiment requirements and c o n s t r a i n t s wxe s a t i s f i e d . Period d a t a returned over the voice l i n k a r e shown together with premission calculated period d a t a i n t a b l e 12-V. Performance of t h e experiment was a s expected. The 3 t o 4 percent d i f f e r e n c e between calculated and flight-measured d a t a is a t t r i b uted t o inexact knowledge of t h e beam's physical properties. The returned d a t a aleo included 90 f e e t of motion p i c t u r e film.

i

12.5.17

Neutron Analysis (ED76)

The neutron a n a l y s i s experiment (BD76) measures t h e ambiect neutron f l u x and determines the r e l a t i v e sources of t h i s f l u x from high energy s.>larneutrons, Earth albedo neutrons, and cosmic ray secondary neutrons.
The experiment hardware c o n s i s t s of 1 0 neutron d e t e c t o r s (fig. 12-65) w i t h carrying cases. Each neutron d e t e c t o r c o n s i s t s of a l a y e r having; panels of bPsm t h , thorium, uranium, cadmium covered U-235, and B-10 f i s s i o n a b l e f o i l s . A boron panel is also included. P a r a l l e l t o t h e l a y e r of panels and i n intimate contact

with i t is a recording l a y e r of s o l i d A l d n u d i e l e c t r i c mterial. An aluminum case s l i d e separating the paneled l a y e r from the recording medium is removed when t h e d e t e c t o r is activated. When t h e f o i l elements undergo f i s s i o n caused by neutron impingemeat, they Flssion foilsemit charged f i s s i ~ n fragments. Simil a r l y , t h e borou is a c t i v a t e d by neut r o n r a d i a t i o n and rmdermes radioFigure 12-65.Neutron detector. a c t i v e decay, emitting alpha p a r t i c l e s . These emissions produce damaged polymer chains i n t h e c r y s t a l s t r u c t u r e of the d i e l e c t r i c recording layer. The damage paths a r e subsequently etched o u t chemi c a l l y , and t h e p a r t i c l e path is observed under t h e microscope. The d e t e c t o r s must be deployed throughout t h e Skylab i n t e r i o r within 5 days a f t e r launch and remain a minimum of 18 days. Four a r e returned a t t h e end of t h e Z i r s t manned period and t h e remainder at t h e end of t h e t h i r d manned period. The d e t e c t o r s are deployed throughout t h e forward compartment and dome a r e a s of t h e workshop. The aluminum s l i d e i s removed from each d e t e c t o r t o a c t i v a t e i t .
The d e t e c t o r s were deployed on Day 18. Four vere deactivated f o r r e t u r n on Day 38. The remainder were deactivated f o r r e t u r n on Day 264. Preliminary d a t a analysis performed on t h e four d e t e c t o r s returned a f t e r t h e f i r s t manned period indicated t h a t t h e observed track d e n s i t i e s were s i g n i f i c a n t l y g r e a t e r than predicted. As a r e s u l t , an 11th d e t e c t o r w a s launched and deployed in t h e command and s e r v i c e module during t h e t h i r d manned osriod. The returned data v e r e the 1 detectors. Tnere were indj.:ations t h a t t h e 1 tracks i n t h e high energy bismuth and thorium recording media may have been biased by proton induced f i s s i o n . The d e t e c t o r located i n t h e coomand and s e r v i c e module provided b e t t e r d a t a f o r modifying the Skylab neutron f l u x sources, s i n c e t h i s location is l e a s t af fected by the Saturn Workshop water tanks. 12.5.18 Liquid Motion i n Zero Gravity (ED78)

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The l i q u i d motion i n zero gravity experiment (ED78) examines t h e dynamic response of a l i q u i d and gas i n t e r f a c e i n a zero gravity environment when subjected t o o pseudo-impulse. The experiment hardware is a l i q u i d motion module having two s e c t i o n s , as shown conceptually i n f i g u r e 12-66. One s e c t i o n is a gas and l i q u i d chamber with a viewing port f o r photographic purposes. It contains a

liquid r; t i n g agent mixed with dye in which an a i r bubble dumber is sealed by a f l e x i b l e diaphragm : a pressure of t other section contains a piston and a piston retention. and The piston maintains pressure on the diaphragm u n t i l is is

is insertei. The one atmosphere. The release mechanism. released i n the Skylab 5-psia atmsphere, W a r t i n g an impulse

It is required t o obtain up t o 100 f e e t of rotion picture film at 24 framee Liquid m t i ~ n Figure 12-66.b ~ second of the l i q u i d and gas i n t e r f a c e m d u l e fuuctional diagram. when subjected t o the impulse. Skylab a t t i t u d e c8newers are not t o be performed durjmg the exyor.Imcnt. An atte-+: was made t o perfonn the experiment on Day 1 1 The crew reported t h a t although the 1. necessary photography was accomplfshed, no inpulse was obseiwd when the piston was ucieased. The crcopented t h a t the pressure on the gas rmd l i q u i d appea-&. t o have been previously released. It was concluded t h a t a hardware f a i l u r e had occurred t h a t would preclude completion of the experipent, so ta further experiment a c t i v i t i e s w e r e scheduled.
None of the returned d a t a supported the experiment objectives. No violation of the constraints uas detected. 'Ihe piston f a i l e d t o impart an Impulse t o the liquid and gas interface. The crewman attempted t o reset the piston and reestabl i s h the pressure d i f f e r e n t i a l without success. lie could then observe t h a t the diaphragoe was damaged. Fluid l o s s was not evident nor could c t i g e in s i z e of the gas bubble be detected. The hardware was not returned f o r analysis. It can be hypothesized t h a t the l o v i n t e r n a l Skylab pressure and elevated temperature experienced before t h e f i r s t manned period could have caused an excessive d i f f e r e n t i a l pressure across t h e diaphragm resulting in- its eventual rupture. It has been proposed t h a t f l u i d mechanics data p e r t i n m t t o t h i s experiment from the water drop science demonstration be furnished t o the student investigator. 12.5.19 Hicroorganisms in Varying Cxavity (ED33)

The microorganisms i n varying gravity experiment (ED33) determines the e f f e c t s of varying gravity levGtg upon c e r t a i n organism ' growth r a t e , development process, . and a b i l i t y t o survive. The investigation uses a centrifuge t o subject specinens t o a carefully controlled regime of acceleration-time profiles. The experineat is incompatible with Skylab because of the excessive volume, e l e c t r i c a l power, hardware complexity, and crew time requiraG f o r hplenentation. Ar?. a l t e r n a t e arrangement was made t o provide the student investigator wfth d a t a from the Skylab Environmentel Xicrobiology Detailed Test Objective f o r study. This a c t i v i t y requires the acquisition and return of 30 hardware, 1 2 crew body, and 2 atmospheric microbiological samples.

12.5.20

Chick Embryology (ED51)

The chick embryology experiment (ED51) s t u d i e s the embryological development of chick eggs incubated in zero gravity, and compares the motor coordination and vestibular function of a space chick with an Earth chick. F e r t i l e eggs a r e launched and incubated i n the workshop incubator. Development is terminated a t s p e c i f i c times and the eggs returned. Sn one case, a chick is hatched and its behavior observed and photographed before its return. The experinrent is incomp a t i b l e wlth Skylab because of its excessive launch volume and hardware complexity.

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arrangement was provided f o r the student i n v e s t i g a t o r t o study the d a t a from the circadian rhythm, pocket mice, experiment (S071).

The Brwaian amtion experinent (ED75) is a q u a l i t a t i v e evaluation of the eff e c t s of a zero gravity envirornreat on Brownian motion. A c r y s t a l of copper sulphate is slowly imnersed in a constant temperature l i q u i d , held i n place, and allowed to dissolve. Periodic photographs are made of t h e dissolving salt c r y s t a l . Skylab is unable t o provide t h e absolutely s t a b l e operating site f o r t h e time periods up t o 1 month t h a t t h e experiment r e q d r e s . A n arrangement w a s provided f o r t h e student investigator t o study d a t a from the stellar astronomy experiment (SOU)

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l2.5.22

Universal Gravity (ED77)

The universal g r a v i t y experiment @D77) determines t h e universal g r a v i t a t i o n constant in a null-gravity environment. A portable Cavendish balance is i n s t a l l e d i n Sltylab, and t h e motion of the c a l i b r a t e d spheres is measured as a function of time. The experiment is incompatible with Skylab i n t h a t a c c e l e r a t i o n s from t h e Skylab control mode operations g r e a t l y exceed t h e expected accelerations of t h e n Cavendish balance spheres. A arrangeneat was provided f o r t h e student investigator t o study d a t a from t h e crew vlehicle disturbance experiment (T013). 12.6 SCIENCE DmPSTXATIONS

The scie~.-ce demonstrations were developed f o r Skylab t o demonstrate scient i f i c p r i n c i p l e s s u i t a b l e f o r educational programing. A hardware k i t f o r 1 3 denanstrations w a s launched f o r t h e second manned period. These demonstrations, devised a t J o b o n Space Center and not discussed herein, are shown in t a b l e During t h e midportion of t h e second ranned period, the crew requested more a r - t i v i t i e s a s they =re accomp1;shbg s c i e n t i f i c a c t i v i t i e s in less than t h e ti.e all.ocated Marshall Space Flight G.rvity gradient effects Center developed t h e d i f f u s i o n i n l i q u i d s k g n e t i c toque (SD15) and ice meltiug (SD16) science Ilmentu, effects demonstrations t o use onboard hardware Energy loss and angular mnentu Bead chain and provided t h e crew with operating proL v e transmission reflection cedures. These demonstrations were perNilberforce pendulu formed and are discussed i n t h i s report Water drop with the o t h e r 15 demonstrations prepared Fish otolith by Marshall Space Flight Center chat were Electrostatic effects p l a n e d f o r t h e t h i r d manned period. O f Magnetic effects Magnetic electrostatic effects those prepared f o r t h e t h i r d manned period, Airplane all except t h e gyrwscope (SD28) and o r b i t a l me!chanics (SD30) demonstrations were intended t o provide scientific data. The data were returned through the Skylab t e l e v i s i o n , f i l m camera, and audio systems. I n soape cases, material samples were brought back t o Earth by t h e crew. Table 1241.- Science Demons t r a t 3 o n s Launched with t h e Second Crew

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The science demonatration procedure8 included an addendum f o r the t e l e v i e i o n operatloae book, and t h e aesigped t e l e v i s i o n deeignation numbers a r e fncluded v i t h t h e science demonetration number.

12.6.1

Fluic) Mechanics S e r i e s (SD9-TV107)

The f l u i d mechanics series d m n s t r a t i o n (SP9) is used t o i n v e s t i g a t e t h e behavior of f l u i d s in low gravity. The demonstration i n s t r u c t s t h e crew t o perform a series of experiments k i t h f r e e f l o a t i n g f l u i d s and f l u i d s attached t o surfaces. Qscillation damping times, s u r f a c e wetting characteristics, d r o p l e t impact and coalescence, vortex formation and damping, and r o t a t i o n of f r e e f l o a t i n g f l u i d globules a r e recorded by t h e crew. A l l hardware f o r t h e demons c r a t i o n except a brow tube was already onboard Skylab. The crew used syringes, thread, soap, various coloring agents, wire, cans, and o t h e r operational equipment, including t h e spider experiment cage, a t t h e i r d i s c r e t i o n . Television recordings of t h i s d e m o n ~ t r a t i o n were made on Days 231, 254, and 258. The f i r s t day's demonstration included o s c i l l a t i o n s in f r e e f l o a t i n g w a t e r globules, impact coalescence, globuls r o t a t i o n , and formation of i n t e r n a l v o r t i c e s i n t h e globule. Also, th2 newly invented zero gravity drinking cup was demna s t r a t e d , and t h e f i r s t drink from an open cup in zero gravity ws taken, F9r t h e second perf omance, t h e crew demonstrated o s c i l l a t i o n s with t h e globule on a thrwd, by squeezing t h e globule with n o n w t t i n g t o o l s and suddenly r e l e a s i n g i t . l t r e recorded t e l e v i s i o n d a t a showed t h a t squeezing and suddenly r e l a r i n g t h e globule w a s aore e f f e c t i v e i n demonstrating osci1lati.cn than t h e plwaned procedure of simultaneously removing syringe needles from t h e glcbule. Further o s c i l l a t o r y motions were denronstrated with air and then with may- m j e c t e d i n t o t h e globule. For t h e l a s t performance, t h e crewman used two cans with t h r e e threads s t r e t c h e d between them. H e placed t h e globule on the s t r i n g s and r o t a t e d t h e globule u n t i l i t separated. H e then maneuvered t h e globules i n t o a c o l l i s i o n t o observe coa!.escence. Coalescence did n o t always occur ; sometimes t h e g l o b 3 e s collided and bounced apart. The hardware associated with this demonstration performed w e l l . The d a t a a c q u i s i t i o n W j r a could not be used t o obtain motion p i c t u r e s because i t jammed; however, approximately 2 hours of e x c e l l e n t t e l e v i s i o n recording was made. 12.6.2 Diffusion i n Liquids (SD15-TV115)

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The d i f f u s i o n i n l i q u i d s d e m n s t r a t i o n (SD15) i s used t o obtain low g r a v i t y d a t a on mass d i f f u s i o n and t o demonstrate t h e slowness of molecular d i f f u s i o n i n the absence of convective mixing. Tea i s prepared and i n j e c t e d i n t o t h e f i b e r wad portion of a discarded forceps container cap. The transparent container is then f i l l e d with wafer. The t e a and water a r e brought together i n t o an i n t e r f a c e without r e s i d u a l motions. The d j f f u s i o n of t h e dark t e a i n t o the water is recorded by t h e 16-millimeter motion p i c t u r e caoera, with t h e portable timer i n t h e f i e l d of view. The demonstration w a s performed four times on Day 241. The f i r s t t h r e e a t tempts were unsuccessful i n achieving t h e desired l i q u i d I n t e r f a c e ; however, t h e fourth attempt succeeded. The followiag day, t h e crew reported on a t l e a a t t h r e e occasions t h a t no d i f f u s i o n had occurred. The crew was i n s t r u c t e d t o begin t h e demonstration again. I n t h e f i f t h and f i n a l setup, an i n t e r f a c e was formed witho u t mechanical disturbance. Diffusion was photographed, a few frames a t a t i m e , over a 3-day period. Diffusion occurred, taking an unexpected b u l l e t shape with l i t t l e o r no d i f f u s i o n occurring along t h e walls of t h e transparent container. The returned data were t h e 16-millimeter f i l m with voice t r a n s c r i p t s providing background i n f o ~ l n a t i o nand a d e s c r i p t i o n of setup problems. . Film images were out of focue because of a procedural e r r o r , and viewing was d i f f i c u l t but not impossible.

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12.6.3

I c e Melting (S~16-TV111)

The i c e melting demonstration (SD16) is used t o observe the temporal progressfon o f t h e liquid-solid i n t e r f a c e i n a melting m a t e r i a l and to obtain d a t a f a r thermal a n a l y s i s of zero-gravity melting. The s u r f a c e tension e f f e c t s demonstration is used t o observe changes i n t h e shape of a s p h e r i c a l water globule when soap is added t o one s i d e t o lower t h e s u r f a c e tension on t h a t side. Water is frozen i n a l a r g e p l a s t i c 3111 dispenser and its melting is photographed. A timer and scale a r e placed i n t h e camera's f i e l d of view t o permit p o s t f l i g h t determination of t h e melting r a t e and quantitative evaluation of t h e chansing liquid-solid i n t e r f a c e . Tbe weight of t h e i c e cube and container is determined and a small piece of paper is stuck t o t h e i c e s u r f a c e t o permit observation of f l u i d pation as t h e i c e melts. During t h e surface tension e f f e c t s demonstration, l i q u i d shower soap is used t o change t h e surface tension of t h e water globule. A 5 cm3 syringe is used t o i n j e c t grapej uice and air i n t o the water globule. The i c e was removed from t h e container using a dry swab t h a t had been frozen i n t o f a c i l i t a t e handling. The i c e cylinder was then attached t o tape while the melting process was observed. Photographs were taken a t 5-minute i n t e r v a l s throughout t h e approximately 3 hours required t o melt t h e ice. Liquid shower soap was then applied t o t h e s i d e of the r e s u l t a n t water globule. However, the soap spread s o rapidly o % e rt h e surface of t h e globule t h a t no shape change was detected. A few drops of grapejuice were added with no apparent change t o the globule. The crew then e l e c t e d t o i n j e c t a i r i n t o t h e globule, and discovered t h a t small, r e l a t i v e l y uniformly sized bubbles were formed. As air was i n j e c t e d more bubbles formed u n t i l t h e globule was f u l l of l i t t l e bubbles. As more a i r was i n j e c t e d individual l i t t l e bubbles broke through the surface, sending l i t t l e b i t s of t h e l i q u i d i n t o t h e workshop environment. The 16-millimeter f i l m w a s returned from t h i s demonstration. Development of t h e f i l m revealed t h a t t h e images were o u t of focus. Voice t r a n s c r i p t s and the p o s t f l i g h t crew comments provided valuable d e s c r i p t i v e information, p a r t i c u l a r l y f o r t h e surface tension e f f e c t s demonstration. 12.6.4 I c e Formation (SD17-TV112)

The ice formation demonstration (SD17) is used t o observe t h e freezing chara c t e r i s t i c s of containerless water and aqueous s o l u t i o n globules. S p e c i f i c interest is t o observe t h e d i s t r i b u t i o n O L bubbles formed when dissolved gases come out of solution, t h e segregation of s o l u t e , the e f f e c t s of expansion, the time of freezing, and t h e freezing of a water droplet on a sphere of i c e . This demonstration uses hardware already onboard Skylab. Two globules of water a r e suspended on a s t r i n g attached i n s i d e a corner of a food freezer. One globule is c l e a r water and t h e o t h e r is dyed with an onboard s o l u t e . The globules a r e observed and photographed during freezing. After they have frozen, a small drop of water is placed on one of t h e i c e spheres, anc! the behavior of the drop observed and photographed. Returned data were t o be 35-millimeter photographs. The demons t r a t i o n , however, was not performed because of the lack of crew time. 12.6.5 Effervescence (SD18-W113>

The effervescence demonstration (SD18) i s used t o observe bubble formation i n an effervescent reaction i n low gravity. Another o b j e c t i v e , r e l a t e d t o zero gravity flammability s t u d i e s , i a t o determine whether o r not the reaction is

self-quenching a s t h e bubble grows. A transparent container, s e l e c t e d by the crew, is f i l l e d with water, an effervescing t a b l e t i s i n s e r t e d , and the r e a c t i o n is observed. This demonstration wati not performed because of i n s u f f i c i e n t crew time

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12.6.6

Immiscible Liquids (SD19-TV102)

!tte i d s c i b l e l i q u i d s demonstration (SD19) is used t o examine t h e behavior of h n l s c i b l e l i q u i d s i n zero g r a v i t y and t o determine t h e time of coalescence. Three i d e n t i c a l , transparent v i a l s a r e provided, each containing d i f f e r e n t proportions of c l e a r o i l and colored water. The proportions a r e 25, 50, and 75 percent Krytox 143 AZ o i l , with t h e remaining volume f i l l e d with water. A small brass nut is included i n each v i a l t o stir the l i q u i d s when shaken in zero gravity. The vials are assembled i n a frame s o t h a t they. can be e i t h e r shaken, centrifuged, o r photographed simultaneously. Band-held photography using a 35-millimeter still camera with an extension tube is performed over a 24-hour period a f t e r a g i t a t i o n of t h e v i a l s .
The demonstration w a s performed on Day 235. The l i q u i d s were separated by c e n t r i f u g a l motion and then shaken t o i n i t i a t e mixing. The frame of v i a l s was mounted and long term coalescence photography was s t a r t e d . Three photographs were taken a t 30-second i n t e r v a l s , f i v e at 2-minute i n t e r v a l s , and one photograph a f t e r 1, 2, 5 , and 1 0 hours. Photography was terminated a t t h a t t i m e becau-e of a time c o n f l i c t i n t h e use of t h e 35-millimeter camera. Beyond t h e normal video, returned data were t h e 35-millimeter photographs and verbal comments. The photographs were poor, possibly because of l i g h t i n g o r focusing problems, but some useful d a t a may be extracted using densitometric scanning techniques.

12.6.7

Liquid Floating Zone (SD20-TV101)

The l i q u i d f l o a t i n g zone demonstration (SD20) i s used to examine the s t a b i l i t y of a l i q u i d zone s u r f a c e in low g r a v i t y under r o t a t i c g conditions and a x i a l a.ccelerations and t o i n v e s t i g a t e t h e f l u i d dynamics of t h e l i q c i d z ~ a e i n t e r i o r under r o t a t i n g conditions. The demonstration is performed by placing a water globule of measured zone s i z e between two c i r c u l a r wetting surfaces t h a t can be r o t a t e d about a common a x i s normal t o t h e surfaces. The surfaces can be rotated singly o r simultaneously, i n t h e same d i r e c t i o n o r i n opposite d i r e c t i o n s , and a t various r o t a t i o n a l v e l o c i t i e s . The demonstration setup is arranged using onboard universal mounts and socket set extensions with items from the science demonstration k i t . Rope p a r t i c l e s , t e a , grapejuice, and strawberry drink a r e used t o provide v i s u a l t r a c e r s i n t h e l i q u i d so t h a t i n t e r n a l f l u i d motion can be observed. The crew began t h e demonstration on Day 243 and performed 26 runs u n t i l the conclusion on Day 247. The demonstration was s e t up a s expectea except t h a t some undesirable wetting of t h e d i s k edges occurred. This was controlled by applicat i o n of Krytox grease t o t h e edges. Video data were s a t i s f a c t o r y except t h a t procedural oversights i n t h e t e l e v i s i o n system operation resulted i n the l o s s of video d a t a f o r s i x runs. The i n s t a b i l i t y of the l i q u i d zones a t liicreased r o t a t i o n a l v e l o c i t i e s was generally manifested by the e n t i r e zone's taking on a "jump rope" shape t h a t swung around t h e axis of r o t a t i o n . The e f f e c t o f a r t i f i c i a l gravity created by c e n t r i f u g a l force in the r o t a t i n g l i q u i d zone was observed on i c e and a i r bubbles. These bubbles moved toward t h e a x i s of rotation.

12.6.8

Depositiou of S i l v e r Crystals (SD21-TV106)

The deposition of s i l v e r c r y s t a l s demonstration (SD21) shows c r y s t a l growth by chemical reaction in low gravity t o compare c r y s t a l s grown i n low gravity with those grown i n normal Earth gravity. The crewman places copper wire, with breaks i n t h e coating t o provide reaction sites, in a d i l u t e s i l v e r n i t r a t e solution and observes s i l v e r c r y s t a l growth. Photographs a r e taken a t i n t e r v a l s of approximately 6, 24, and 72 hours t o encompass t h e a n t i c i p a t e d c r y s t a l growth period. Approximately 1 0 hours a f t e r i n i t i a t i o n of the demonstration, t h e f i r s t two photographs of t h e c r y s t a l s were taken with a 35-millimeter Nikon camera with t h e 55-millimeter l e n s and K-1 adapter. A t approximately 24 hours i n t o t h e c r y s t a l growth cycle, a second s e t of two photographs w a s taken. The f i n a l s e t of t h r e e photographs was taken approximately 72 hours a f t e r i n i t i a t i o n . The crew commented t h a t t h e g r e a t e s t growth r a t e was i n t h e f i r s t 24 hours, with maximum growth reached between 24 and 48 hours. The returned c r y s t a l s were t h e p r i n c i p a l d a t a from t h i s demonstration; however, t h e v i a l was dropped while being unwrapped and t h e s i l v e r c r y s t a l s were broken off of t h e wire. Supplemental d a t a were t o be derived from photographs and t h e crew's description, but t h e 35-millimeter magazine which contained a l l of t h e photographs was blank. The reason f o r t h e blank f i l m has not been established. Some of t h e individual c r y s t a l s from t h e v i a l may be recoverable; however, t h e crew comments and d e s c r i p t i o n s provide t h e only record of t h e i r appearance and d i s t r i b u t i o n on t h e wire. 12.6.9 Liquid Films (SD22-TV103)

The l i q u i d films demonstration (SD22) c o n s i s t s of forming l i q u i d films i n zero gravity and obseming t h e i r 1iEetime. A crewman, using a syringe, forms l i q u i d films by injectin.g a water o r soap and water globule i n t o expandable, two-dimensional, wire frames. H e then expands t h e frames t o form films of d i f f e r i n g area s i z e . The crewman a l s o forms f i l m by immersing three-dimensional, cube o r tetrahedron, wire frames i n a container of t h e l i q u i d . He d t h d r a w s and shakes t h e frames t o remove excess l i q u i d u n t i l separate films a r e formed in each of t h e frames. The l i f e t i m e of t h e films is observed. The demonstration was performed on Day 256. Using water, t h e crewman could expand t h e two-dimensional frame t o 1.5 t o 2 inches i n diameter. Using a 40:l soap and water s o l u t i o n , he could obtain 3- t o 6.5-inch diameters. With the three-dimensional frames, it was b e s t t o remove t h e frame from t h e l i q u i d slowly. It proved d i f f i c u l t t o remove a l l of the c e n t e r globules of l i q u i d and s t i l l r e t a i n a film t o each of t h e sides. The three-dimensional frames produced films t h a t were r e l a t i v e l y short-lived. The crew reported a maximum f i l m l i f e t i t r e of 1 minute with t h e cube frame. The video d a t a were of f a i r q u a l i t y and could ?erhaps have been improved by b e t t e r l i g h t i n g and use of t h e accessory closeup lens on the t e l e v i s i o n camera. 12.6.10 Lens Formation (SD23-TV116)

The l e n s formation demonstration (SD23) is used t o observe formation of lenses shaped by surface tension under zero gravity conditions and t o obtain preliminary d a t a on t h e o p t i c a l p r o p e r t i e s of lenses formed by surface tension. The crewman forms maximum and minimum sized wafer l e n s e s on a w i r e loop and records t h e i r shapes with edge-view photographs using a 35-millimeter s t i l l

camera. H e t a k e s photographs through t h e l e n s e s t o determine f o c a l l e n g t h s and o t h e r o p t i c a l p r o p e r t i e s . Lenses a r e a l s o formed from a soap s o l u t i o n d u r i n g t h i s p o r t i o n of the demonstration. I n a d d i t i o n , t h e crewman examines t h e o p t i c a l p r o p e r t i e s of a wafer prism defined by a bent wire shape. F i n a l l y , t h e crewman, by allowing melted soap t o cool an t h e wire frame, forms a soap lens f o r r e t u r n and postmission examination. The demonstration was not performed because of i n s u f f i c i e n t crew time. 12.6.11 Acoustic P o s i t i o n i n g (SD24-TJ114)

The a c o u s t i c p o s i t i