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/ˈlæk.rɪ.məʊs/ /-moʊs/ adj literary sad or likely to cry often and easily He is better known for his lachrymose ballads than hard rock numbers.
/ˈvæŋ.kwɪʃ/ v [T] literary to defeat an opponent, especially in war Napoleon was vanquished at the battle of Waterloo in 1815. The vanquished army surrendered their weapons.
fender noun ( FIRE )
/ˈfen.dər / /-dɚ/ n [C] a low metal frame around an open fireplace which stops the coal or wood from falling out
/drɔːl/ /drɑːl/ n [S] a slow way of speaking in which the vowel sounds are made longer and words are not separated clearly a southern/Texan/mid-Atlantic drawl
v [I or T] [+ speech] "Hey, what's the rush? Slow down baby, " he drawled.
blade noun ( MAN )
/bleɪd/ n [C] old use an attractive and confident young man a dashing young blade
whey noun - serwatka, złamany biały kolor
/weɪ/ n [U] the watery part of milk which is separated from the solid curds during the process of making cheese
prosecute verb ( LEGAL )
/ˈprɒs.ɪ.kjuːt/ /ˈprɑː.sɪ-/ v [I or T] to officially accuse someone of committing a crime in a court of law, or (of a lawyer) to try to prove that a person accused of committing a crime is guilty of that crime Shoplifters will be prosecuted. He was prosecuted for fraud. Any manufacturer who does not conform to the standards could be prosecuted under the Consumers Protection Act, 1987. The victim has said that she will not prosecute. Compare: defend
/ˈpɜː.sɪ.kjuːt/ /ˈpɝː-/ v [T] to treat someone unfairly or cruelly over a long period of time because of their race, religion, or political beliefs or to annoy someone by refusing to leave them alone Religious minorities were persecuted and massacred during the ten-year regime. His latest film is about the experience of being persecuted for being gay.
Ever since the news broke about her divorce, she has been persecuted by the tabloid press.
dead weight noun
n [C usually singular] the heaviness of a person or object that cannot or does not move by itself She may be small but, when I have to carry her upstairs after she's fallen asleep, she's a dead weight/US also she is dead weight.
lever noun ( ADVANTAGE )
/ˈliː.vər/ /ˈlev.ɚ/ n [C] something you use, often unfairly, to try to persuade someone to do what you want
v [T usually + adverb or preposition]
inkling noun - przeczucie
/ˈɪŋ.klɪŋ/ n [C usually singular U] when you think that something is true or likely to happen, although you are not certain [+ that] I didn't have the slightest inkling that she was unhappy. He must have had some inkling of what was happening.
liaison noun ( RELATIONSHIP )
/liˈeɪ.zɒn/ /-zɑːn/ n [C] formal a sexual relationship, especially between two people not married to each other He's had a number of liaisons.
/ˈbær.ən.es/, /ˌ-ˈ-/ n [C] a British woman who has the lowest rank in the highest social class, or who is the wife of a baron in·fan·tine ( n f n-t n , -t n) adj. Infantile; childish.
/ˈdɪk.təm/ n [C] (plural dicta or dictums) a short statement, especially one expressing advice or a general truth He followed the famous American dictum, 'Don't get mad, get even'.
ransack verb - przetrząsać, splądrować
/ˈræn.sæk/ v [T] to search a place or container in a violent and careless way The burglars ransacked the house but found nothing valuable. I ransacked the cupboard for my ski boots.
/ˌvɪz.ɪˈteɪ.ʃən/ n • [C] an official visit from someone important humorous We're awaiting a visitation from the inspector. On May 13, 1917 three young shepherd children reported a visitation from the Virgin Mary. •
[U] US when a divorced (= previously but no longer married) parent may spend time with the child(ren) he or she no longer lives with, at agreed times and under agreed conditions The mother agreed to visitation rights for the boys' father. •
[C] formal an event which is considered to be a message or a punishment from God the onus noun
/ðiˈəʊ.nəs/ /-ˈoʊ-/ n [S] formal the responsibility or duty to do something [+ to infinitive] The onus is on the landlord to ensure that the property is habitable. We are trying to shift the onus for passenger safety onto the government.
/bɪˈhest/ n formal
at sb's behest/at the behest of sb
because someone has asked or ordered you to do something The budget proposal was adopted at the president's behest.
prelude noun ( MUSIC )
• [C] specialized a short piece of music which introduces the main work •
[C] specialized a short independent piece of music written especially for the piano
high horse - an attitude of arrogant superiority; "get off your high horse and admit you are
wrong" attitude, mental attitude - a complex mental state involving beliefs and feelings and values and dispositions to act in certain ways; "he had the attitude that work was fun"
/ˈpjuː.ni/ adj small; weak; not effective a puny little man My car only has a puny little engine. The party's share of the vote rose from a puny 11% in the last election to 21% this time.
/prɪˈrɒg.ə.tɪv/ /-ˈrɑː.gə.t ̬ɪv/ n [C usually singular] formal something which some people are able or allowed to do or have, but which is not possible or allowed for everyone Alex makes all the big decisions - that's his prerogative as company director. Skiing used to be the prerogative of the rich, but now a far wider range of people do it. the Royal Prerogative (= the special rights of the ruling king or queen)
appanage, apanage [ˈæpənɪdʒ]n
1. (Historical Terms) land or other provision granted by a king for the support of a member of the royal family, esp a younger son 2. a natural or customary accompaniment or perquisite, as to a job or position
(US valor) /ˈvæl.ər/ /-ɚ/ n [U] formal
great bravery He was promoted to the rank of major in recognition of his valour during the battle.
/ˈhɒm.ɪdʒ/ /ˈhɑː.mɪdʒ/ n [U] deep respect and often praise shown for a person or god On this occasion we pay homage to him for his achievements.
foil noun ( COMPARISON ) - tło, kontrast
/fɔɪl/ n [C] something or someone that makes another's good or bad qualities more noticeable The older, cynical character in the play is the perfect foil for the innocent William. corsair [ˈkɔːsɛə]n 1. (Transport / Nautical Terms) a pirate 2. (Transport / Nautical Terms) a privateer, esp of the Barbary Coast
/tʃæsˈtaɪz/ v [T] formal to criticize someone severely Charity organizations have chastised the Government for not doing enough to prevent the latest famine in Africa.
/tʃæsˈtaɪz.mənt/ n [U]
/ˈsev.ər/ • to break or separate, especially by cutting The knife severed an artery and he bled to death. Her foot was severed from her leg in a car accident. Electricity cables have been severed by the storm. • to end a connection with someone or something The US severed diplomatic relations with Cuba in 1961. The company has severed its connection/links/relationship/ties with its previous partners. /-ɚ/ v [T]
bass noun ( MUSIC ) /beɪs/ n (plural basses)
• [C or U] the lowest range of musical notes, or a man with a singing voice in this range He sings bass. Italy's leading bass • [U] the set of low musical sounds on a radio, music system, etc., or the button that controls them Turn down the bass. • [C] a double bass
• [C] (ALSO bass guitar) an electric guitar with four strings that plays very low notes He plays (the) bass guitar.
mellow adjective ( SMOOTH ) - łagodny, soczysty, dojrzały
/ˈmel.əʊ/ /-oʊ/ adj smooth, soft or developed; not too sharp, bright, new or rough mellow flavours mellow sounds mellow autumn sunlight
bead noun /biːd/ n [C]
• a small coloured often round piece of plastic, wood, glass, etc. with a hole through it. It is usually put on a string with a lot of others to make jewellery She wore a necklace of brightly coloured wooden beads. • a very small amount of liquid Beads of sweat stood out on his forehead.
/ˈaɪ.læʃ/ n [C] any of the short hairs which grow along the edges of the eye long eyelashes
flag3vb flags, flagging, flagged (intr)
1. to hang down; become limp; droop 2. to decline in strength or vigour; become weak or tired
/preɪt/ v [I] (also prate on) old-fashioned to talk stupidly, or about things which are not important, for a long time Inevitably there's some caller prating on about the decline in moral standards.
/prɪg/ n [C] disapproving a person who obeys the rules of correct behaviour and considers himself or herself to be morally better than other people
lever noun ( BAR/HANDLE )
/ˈliː.vər/ /ˈlev.ɚ/ n [C] a bar or handle which moves around a fixed point, so that one end of it can be pushed or pulled in order to control the operation of a machine or move a heavy or stiff object
v [T usually + adverb or preposition] listless [ˈlɪstlɪs] adj disinclined for any effort or exertion; lacking vigour, enthusiasm, or energy [from list desire + -less]
listlessly adv listlessness n
slip vs sleep - well-smoothed, drooping clusters, - tables - footstool - reclining vs recycling - azure stature - _trailing_ Mrs. Dent; that is, playing on her ignorance - content vs content - is gentleman-like not is a gentleman-like: - involuntarily vs involuntary - What was the gallant grace of the Lynns, the languid elegance of Lord Ingram,--even the military distinction of Colonel Dent, contrasted with his look of native pith and genuine power? - candles - "Mr. Rochester, I thought you were not fond of children?" "Nor am I." - crumbled - "I should say the preference lies with you," responded Colonel Dent. Chapter XVIII halcyon [ˈhælsɪən] adj also halcyonian [ˌhælsɪˈəʊnɪən], halcyonic [ˌhælsɪˈɒnɪk] 1. peaceful, gentle, and calm 2. happy and carefree n 1. (Myth & Legend / Classical Myth & Legend) Greek myth a fabulous bird associated with the winter solstice 2. (Life Sciences & Allied Applications / Animals) a poetic name for the kingfisher halcyon days a. a fortnight of calm weather during the winter solstice b. a period of peace and happiness
halcyon days plural noun
/ˌhæl.si.ənˈdeɪz/ n literary a very happy or successful period in the past
She recalled the halcyon days of her youth.
/ˈdʒiː.ni.əl/ adj friendly and pleasant The headteacher is very genial/has a genial manner.
/ˌdʒiː.niˈæl.ɪ.ti/ /-ə.t ̬i/ n [U] His geniality, reliability and ability made him a popular figure.
charade noun ( GAME )
/ʃəˈrɑːd/ /-ˈreɪd/ n charades [U] a team game in which each member tries to communicate to the others a particular word or phrase that they have been given, by expressing each syllable or word using silent actions
/brəˈkeɪd/ n [U]
heavy cloth with a raised design often of gold or silver threads curtains of rich brocade
/huːp/ n [C] •
a ring of wood, metal or plastic, or sometimes a half ring The dogs had been trained to jump through hoops. • (also hoop earring) a ring-shaped earring (= a piece of jewellery which hangs from the ear) She was wearing large gold hoops in her ears.
sacque - a woman's full loose hiplength jacket
sack jacket - a short coat
lappet [ˈlæpɪt] n
1. (Clothing & Fashion) a small hanging flap or piece of lace, etc., such as one dangling from a headdress
/ˈɑːm.fʊl/ /ˈɑːrm-/ n [C] the amount that a person can carry in one or both arms She struggled along with an
armful of clothes.
• [S] a tight hold with your hand or arms She held the child's hand in a firm clasp as they crossed the road. • /klæsp/ n
[C] a small metal device which is used to fasten a belt, bag or a piece of jewellery
/ˈkres.ənt/ n [C] • (something with) a curved shape that has two narrow pointed ends, like the moon when it is less than half of a circle The moon was a brightly shining crescent. • a row of houses or a road built in a curve They live at 15 Park Crescent.
adj the crescent moon
too big and taking up too much space bulky equipment
/ɪnˈvel.əp/ v [T] literary to cover or surround something completely The graveyard looked ghostly, enveloped in mist.
dumb adjective ( SILENT )
permanently or temporarily unable to speak He's been deaf and dumb since birth. She was struck dumb by what she had seen.
/ˈdʌm.nəs/ n [U]
conservatory noun ( ROOM )
/kənˈsɜː.və.tri/ /-ˈsɝː.və.tɔː.ri/ n [C] (US also solarium) a glass room, usually connected to a house, in which plants are grown and kept
/ˈswɔːr-/ adj (of a person or their skin) dark a swarthy face/complexion a swarthy fisherman
paynim [ˈpeɪnɪm]n Archaic
1. (Christianity / Ecclesiastical Terms) a heathen or pagan 2. (Christianity / Ecclesiastical Terms) a Muslim
/emˈɪər / /-ˈɪr/ n [C] a ruler of particular Muslim countries in the Middle East
the Emir of Kuwait
n (Individual Sports & Recreations / Archery) the string of an archer's bow, usually consisting of three strands of hemp
/ˌpeɪ.triˈɑː.kəl/ /-ˈɑːr-/ adj ruled or controlled by men patriarchal structure a patriarchal society
camel noun ( ANIMAL )
/ˈkæm.əl/ n [C] a large animal with a long neck, that lives in the desert and has one or two humps (= large raised areas of flesh) on its back See also: dromedary
/ˈsɪl.ə.bl / n [C] ̩
illustrate verb ( EXPLAIN )
/ˈɪl.ə.streɪt/ v [T] to show the meaning or truth of something more clearly, especially by giving examples The lecturer illustrated his point with a diagram on the blackboard. This latest conflict further illustrates the weakness of the UN. [+ question word] The exhibition will illustrate how life evolved from water.
/ˈtæb.ləʊ/ /-loʊ/ n [C] (plural tableaux or tableaus) an arrangement of people who do not move or speak, especially on a stage, who represent a view of life, an event, etc. begrimed - thickly covered with ingrained dirt or soot; "a miner's begrimed face"; "dingy linen"; "grimy hands"; "grubby little fingers"; "a grungy kitchen" dingy, grimy, grungy, grubby, raunchy dirty, soiled, unclean - soiled or likely to soil with dirt or grime; "dirty unswept sidewalks"; "a child in dirty overalls"; "dirty slums"; "piles of dirty dishes"; "put his dirty feet on the clean sheet"; "wore an unclean shirt"; "mining is a dirty job"; "Cinderella did the dirty work while her sisters preened themselves"
/ˈskʌf.l / n [C] ̩ a short and sudden fight, especially one involving a small number of people Two police officers were injured in scuffles with fans at Sunday's National Football League contest.
v [I] The youths scuffled with the policeman, then escaped down the lane.
bristle verb ( HAIR )
/ˈbrɪs.l / v ̩ [I] (of hair) to stand up
The cat's fur bristled and it arched its back. scowl verb /skaʊl/ v [I]
to look at someone or something with a very annoyed expression The boy scowled at her and reluctantly followed her back into school. scowl noun n [C]
/ruːʒ/ n [U] a red or pink powder put on the cheeks to make the face look more attractive
/əˈlæs/ adv old-fashioned or formal used to express sadness or feeling sorry about something I love football but, alas, I have no talent as a player. "Will you be able to come tomorrow?" "Alas, no." Levantine [ˈlɛvənˌtaɪn] adj (Placename) of or relating to the Levant n (Social Science / Peoples) (esp formerly) an inhabitant of the Levant
/dɪˈvaɪ.nər / /-nɚ/ n [C] (also dowser) a person who divines for water or mineral
/əˈteɪn.mənt/ n •
[U] formal when you achieve something the attainment of a goal attainment targets • [C usually plural] UK formal Someone's attainments are the things they have done and the skills they have learned.
erewhile [ɛəˈwaɪl], erewhiles
adv Archaic a short time ago; a little while before
/ʌnˈdjuː/ /-ˈduː/ adj [before noun] formal to a level which is more than is necessary, acceptable or reasonable Such a high increase will impose an undue burden on the local tax payer.
/ʌnˈdjuː.li/ /-ˈduː-/ adv There's no need to be unduly pessimistic about the situation.
spite noun ( HURT ) - złośliwość
[U] a feeling of anger towards someone that makes a person want to annoy, upset or hurt them, especially in a small way He's the sort of man who would let down the tyres on your car just
out of/from spite.
/ˈspaɪt.fəl/ adj disapproving
/ˈspaɪt.fəl.i/ adv disapproving
/ˈspaɪt.fəl.nəs/ n [U] disapproving
/ˈfɪg.ər.ə.tɪv.li/ /-ɚ.ə.t ̬ɪv-/ adv in a way which uses words and phrases with a more imaginative meaning than usual Figuratively speaking, it was a blow right between the eyes (= it was a bad shock).
contumelious surveillance noun
/səˈveɪ.lənt s/ /sɚ-/ n [U] the careful watching of a person or place, especially by the police or army, because of a crime that has happened or is expected The police have kept the nightclub under surveillance because of suspected illegal drug activity. More banks are now installing surveillance cameras.
/kwiˈes.ənt/ adj formal temporarily quiet and not active
The political situation was now relatively quiescent.
shaft noun ( POLE ) - drzewiec
/ʃɑːft/ • a pole or rod which forms the handle of a tool or weapon the shaft of a golf club • a rod which forms part of a machine such as an engine, and which turns in order to pass power on to the machine the drive shaft of a car the propeller shaft of an aircraft See also: crankshaft shaft of light a beam of light A shaft of (sun)light came through the open door. plume - be proud of; "He prides himself on making it into law school" pride, congratulate feel, experience - undergo an emotional sensation or be in a particular state of mind; "She felt resentful"; "He felt regret" /ʃæft/ n [C]
/kəmˈpleɪ. ənt .si/ n [U] (also complacence) disapproving
ruthless adjective - bezwzględny, bezpardonowy
/ˈruːθ.ləs/ adj not thinking or worrying about any pain caused to others; cruel
ruthless ambition a ruthless dictator Some people believe that to succeed in this world you have to be ruthless.
/ˈruːθ.lə.sli/ adv She ruthlessly pursued her ambition, letting nothing get in her way.
/ˈruːθ.lə.snəs/ n [U]
glance off (sth) phrasal verb - odbijać się od czegoś
phrasal verb to hit or touch something quickly and lightly at an angle and move away in another direction
The bullets glanced off the car. multitudinous [ˌmʌltɪˈtjuːdɪnəs]
adj 1. very numerous 2. Rare great in extent, variety, etc. 3. Poetic crowded multitudinously adv multitudinousness n nigh (n ) adv. nigh·er, nigh·est 1. Near in time, place, or relationship: Evening draws nigh. 2. Nearly; almost: talked for nigh onto two hours. adj. nigher, nighest
1. Being near in time, place, or relationship; close. See Synonyms at close. 2. a. Being on the left side of an animal or vehicle: pulling hard on the nigh rein. b. Being the animal or vehicle on the left: the nigh horse. prep. Not far from; near. tr. & intr.v. nighed, nigh·ing, nighs To come near to or draw near.
/vɪˈveɪ.ʃəs/ adj approving A vivacious person, especially a woman or girl, is attractively energetic and enthusiastic He brought along his wife, a vivacious blonde, some twenty years his junior.
/vɪˈvæs.ɪ.ti/ /-ə.t ̬i/ n [U]
meretricious adjective - zwodniczy
/ˌmer.ɪˈtrɪʃ.əs/ adj formal seeming attractive but really false or of little value He claims that a lot of journalism is meretricious and superficial.
/ˈgrɪ.məs/ v [I] to make an expression of pain, strong dislike, etc. in which the face twists in an ugly way
He tried to stand and grimaced with pain.
n [C] Helen made a grimace of disgust when she saw the raw meat.
/ˌkɒn.dəmˈneɪ.ʃən/ /ˌkɑːn-/ n [C or U] when you condemn something or someone The shooting of the policeman has received universal condemnation.
/kənˈdem.nə.tri/ /-tɔːr.i/ adj a condemnatory speech/tone
/ˈfæð.əm/ v [T] • to discover the meaning of something For years people have been trying to fathom (out) the mysteries of the whale's song. • to understand someone or why someone acts as they do I can't fathom her at all.
/ˈek.wɪ.tə.bl ̩/ /-t ̬ə-/ adj formal fair and reasonable; treating everyone in the same way an equitable tax system
/ˈek.wɪ.tə.bli/ /-t ə-/ adv ̬ If the law is to be effective it must be applied equitably.
/ˈkɒn.dɪ.mənt/ /ˈkɑːn-/ n [C] formal a substance, such as salt, that you add to food to improve its taste
vb [dɪˈspɒnd] (intr) to lose heart or hope; become disheartened; despair n [ˈdɛspɒnd dɪˈspɒnd] an archaic word for despondency
/vɑːlˈkeɪ.noʊ/ n [C] (plural volcanoes or volcanos) a mountain with a large circular hole at the top through which lava (= hot liquid rock) gases, steam and dust are or have been forced out an extinct/dormant volcano an active volcano Erupting volcanoes discharge massive quantities of dust into the stratosphere.
/vɑːl-/ adj volcanic ash/activity/rock
palsy [ˈpɔːlzɪ] Pathol
n pl -sies (Medicine / Pathology) paralysis, esp of a specified type cerebral palsy
vb -sies, -sying, -sied (tr) (Medicine / Pathology) to paralyse [C13 palesi, from Old French paralisie, from Latin paralysis] palsied adj
abyss noun ( HOLE )
/əˈbɪs/ n [C usually singular]
literary a very deep hole which seems to have no bottom
/kənˈsɔːt/ /-ˈsɔːrt/ v [I + adverb or preposition] to spend a lot of time in the company of a particular group of people, especially people whose character is not approved of They claimed he had been consorting with drug dealers. consort vb [kənˈsɔːt] 1. (intr; usually foll by with) to keep company (with undesirable people); associate 2. (intr) to agree or harmonize 3. (tr) Rare to combine or unite n [ˈkɒnsɔːt] 1. (Music / Instruments) (esp formerly) a. a small group of instruments, either of the same type, such as viols, (a whole consort) or of different types (a broken consort) b. (as modifier) consort music 2. (Government, Politics & Diplomacy) the husband or wife of a reigning monarch 3. a partner or companion, esp a husband or wife 4. (Transport / Nautical Terms) a ship that escorts another
5. Obsolete a. companionship or association b. agreement or accord
/ˈkɜː.ti.əs/ /ˈkɝː.t i-/ adj ̬ polite and respectful; well-mannered Although she often disagreed with me, she was always courteous.
/ˈkɜː.ti.ə.sli/ /ˈkɝː.t i-/ adv ̬ He's always behaved courteously toward my family.
/ˈbɪl.i.ədz/ /ˈbɪl.jɚdz/ n [U] a game played by two people on a table covered in green cloth in which a cue (= a long pole) is used to hit balls against each other and into pockets around the table
/ˈbɪl.i.əd/ /ˈbɪl.jɚd/ adj [before noun] a billiard table a billiard ball
/ˌsuː.pəˈsɪl.i.əs/ /-pɚ-/ adj disapproving behaving as if or showing that you think that you are better than other people, and that their opinions, beliefs or ideas are not important He spoke in a haughty, supercilious voice.
/ˌsuː.pəˈsɪl.i.ə.sli/ /-pɚ-/ adv
/ˌsuː.pəˈsɪl.i.ə.snəs/ /-pɚ-/ n [U]
/ˈlɪst .ləs/ adj having no energy and enthusiasm and unwilling to do anything needing effort He's been listless and a bit depressed ever since he got his exam results.
/ˈlɪst .lə.sli/ adv
/ˈlɪst .lə.snəs/ n [U]
/bɪˈgaɪl/ v [T] literary to persuade, attract or interest, sometimes in order to deceive He was completely beguiled by her beauty. The salesman beguiled him into buying a car he didn't want. chaise [ʃeɪz] n 1. a light open horse-drawn carriage, esp one with two wheels designed for two passengers 2. short for post chaise and chaise longue
/gɑːb/ /gɑːrb/ n [U] literary clothes that are in a particular style or are a uniform
prison/clerical/military garb tiresome adjective
/ˈtaɪə.səm/ /ˈtaɪr-/ adj boring or annoying; making you lose patience I find it very tiresome doing the same job day after day. He has the tiresome habit of finishing your sentences for you.
/ˈtaɪə.səm.li/ /ˈtaɪr-/ adv a tiresomely repetitive speech a tiresomely long wait
/ˈpɑː.li/ /ˈpɑːr-/ n [C] old-fashioned or humorous a discussion between two groups of people, especially one that is intended to end an argument
v [I] old-fashioned After some serious parleying, both sides agreed to settle their differences.
sallow adjective - ziemisty, niezdrowy
/ˈsæl.əʊ/ /-oʊ/ adj (of white-skinned people) yellowish and looking unhealthy
a sallow complexion/face
/ˈsæl.əʊ.nəs/ /-oʊ-/ n [U]
tame adjective ( NOT EXCITING )
/teɪm/ adj disapproving not interesting or exciting It was a tame film in comparison to some that she's made.
/ˈəʊ.vəl/ /ˈoʊ-/ adj shaped like a circle that is flattened either at one place or at two opposite places, so that it is like either an egg or an ellipse an oval mirror an oval face
n [C] Her eyes were large ovals.
/ˈæk.wɪ.laɪn/ adj literary of or like an eagle (= large bird) an aquiline nose (= a nose curved like an eagle's beak) aquiline features (= a face with this type of nose) girandole [ˈdʒɪrənˌdəʊl], girandola [dʒɪˈrændələ] n
1. (Fine Arts & Visual Arts / Furniture) an ornamental branched wall candleholder, usually incorporating a mirror 2. (Clothing, Personal Arts & Crafts / Jewellery) an earring or pendant having a central gem surrounded by smaller ones 3. (Chemistry) a kind of revolving firework 4. (Military / Firearms, Gunnery, Ordnance & Artillery) Artillery a group of connected mines
gander noun ( BIRD )
/ˈgæn.dər / /-dɚ/ n [C] a male goose
sleek adjective - lśniący, gładki
(especially of hair, clothes or shapes) smooth, shiny and lying close to the body, and therefore looking well cared for; not untidy and with no parts sticking out The cat had sleek fur. Who owns that sleek black car parked outside your house? disapproving He's one of those sleek (= seeming rich and dishonest) businessman types.
/ˈsliːk.nəs/ n [U]
pointed adjective ( CRITICISM ) - ostry, uszczypliwy
/ˈpɔɪn.tɪd/ /-t ̬ɪd/ adj describes a remark, question or manner that is intended as a criticism of the person it is directed to My aunt made a few pointed remarks about my taste in clothes.
/ˈæd.ɪdʒ/ n [C] a wise saying; proverb He remembered the old adage 'Look before you leap'.
/ˈɪn.stənt s/ v [T] UK formal to give something as an example She argued the need for legal reform and instanced several recent cases with grossly unfair
/ˈtrʌb.l .səm/ adj ̩ causing a lot of problems for someone Her hip has been troublesome for quite a while, and she'll probably need surgery on it. The negotiations have proven more troublesome than any of us expected Several Elizabethan writers allude jokingly to a notorious Mother Bunch who sold strong ale, kept a brothel, and seems to have been proverbial for coarse humour; various traditional jests and bawdy anecdotes were ascribed to her, for instance in a booklet of 1604, Pasquil's Jests Mixed with Mother Bunches Merriments. Later, her name was put to different uses; from the 17th century onwards there were chapbooks where she figures as a wise old countrywoman, teaching a medley of charms and magical recipes. Mother Bunch's Fairy Tales (1777) is a collection of elegant moralistic fairytales translated from French, where she is the supposed teller.
stock noun ( FRAME )
/stɒk/ /stɑːk/ n the stocks - dyby (in Europe in the Middle Ages) a wooden frame which was fixed around someone's feet, hands and sometimes head, so that they were forced to sit or stand for a long time in public as a punishment
leave noun ( PERMISSION )
/liːv/ n [U] formal permission or agreement He did it without (my) leave. [+ to infinitive] Did you get leave to do that?
turn/use sth to good account
UK formal to use your skills and abilities to produce good results I think we'd all agree that you turned your negotiating skills to very good account in this afternoon's meeting. crock n 1. (Fine Arts & Visual Arts / Ceramics) an earthen pot, jar, etc. 2. (Fine Arts & Visual Arts / Ceramics) a piece of broken earthenware 3. Also crock of shit US and Canadian informal a quantity or source of lies or nonsense
glinany garnek, bzdury
chime in phrasal verb
phrasal verb informal to interrupt or speak in a conversation, usually to agree with what has been said "It's very difficult, " I said. "Impossible, " she chimed in.
Andy chimed in with his view of the situation.
/ˈsʌn.dri/ adj [before noun] formal
several different; various
Sundry distant relatives, most of whom I hardly recognized, turned up for my brother's wedding.
/ˈdʒuː.vən.aɪl/ • formal or legal relating to a young person who is not yet old enough to be considered an adult juvenile crime/offenders • disapproving silly and typical of a child juvenile behaviour a juvenile sense of humour tinker - formerly a person (traditionally a Gypsy) who traveled from place to place mending pots and kettles and other metal utensils as a way to earn a living gipsy, gypsy, itinerant - a laborer who moves from place to place as demanded by employment; "itinerant traders" /-nəl/ adj
titter verb - chichotać
/ˈtɪt.ər/ /ˈtɪt ̬.ɚ/ v [I] to laugh nervously, often at something that you feel you should not be laughing at A couple of the younger teachers tittered at his smutty jokes.
n [C] The love scene raised breach n. 1. a. An opening, a tear, or a rupture.
a few titters from a party of schoolboys.
b. A gap or rift, especially in or as if in a solid structure such as a dike or fortification.
rebuff verb - odtrącić, odrzucić
/rɪˈbʌf/ v [T] formal
to refuse to accept a helpful suggestion or offer from someone, often by answering in an unfriendly way
She rebuffed all suggestions that she should resign.
n [C] Her desperate request for help was met with a rebuff.
/ˈvæg.ə.bɒnd/ /-bɑːnd/ n [C] old use or literary a person who has no home and usually no job, and who travels from place to place They live a vagabond life/existence, travelling around in a caravan. Compare: vagrant
flur·ry ˈflʌri - nawałnica, poryw, przypływ
n. pl. flur·ries 1. A brief, light snowfall. 2. a. A sudden gust of wind. b. A stirring mass, as of leaves or dust; a shower. 3. A sudden burst or commotion; a stir: a flurry of interest in the new product; a flurry of activity when the plane landed. 4. A short period of active trading, as on a stock exchange. v. flur·ried, flur·ry·ing, flur·ries
v.tr. To agitate, stir, or confuse. v.intr. To move or come down in a flurry.
/rɪˈbʌf/ v [T] formal to refuse to accept a helpful suggestion or offer from someone, often by answering in an unfriendly way She rebuffed all suggestions that she should resign.
n [C] Her desperate request for help was met with a rebuff.
/ˈpɑː.mɪ.stri/ n [U] (also palm reading) the skill and activity of looking at the lines on the inside of people's hands and claiming to be able to see signs about their character and future
calf noun ( LEG )
/kɑːf/ /kæf/ n [C] (plural calves) the thick curved part at the back of the human leg between the knee and the foot She's been unable to play since January because of a torn calf muscle.
/ˈkiːp.seɪk/ n [C] a small present, usually not expensive, that is given to you by someone so that you will remember that person
• a slight shaking movement in a person's body, especially because of nervousness or excitement The disease mostly affects people over 50, causing paralysis and uncontrollable tremors. There was a slight tremor in her voice. figurative A tremor of excitement went through the audience as he came on stage. • a slight earthquake The tremor was centered just south of San Francisco and was felt as far as 200 miles away. /-ɚ/ n [C]
wield verb - dzierżyć
/wiːld/ v [T] to hold a weapon or tool and look as if you are going to use it She was confronted by a man wielding a knife.
wield influence/power, etc.
to have a lot of influence or power over other people He still wields enormous influence within the party.
/ˌɪm.pɔːˈtjuːn/ • to make repeated forceful requests for something, usually in a way that is annoying or causing slight problems As a tourist, you are importuned for money the moment you step outside your hotel. • /ˌɪm.pɔːrˈtuːn/ v [T] formal
to request sex with someone in return for payment He was arrested for importuning a young boy outside the station. hem 2 (h m) n. A short cough or clearing of the throat made especially to gain attention, warn another, hide embarrassment, or fill a pause in speech. intr.v. hemmed, hem·ming, hems 1. To utter a hem. 2. To hesitate in speech.
/ˈtriː.əʊ/ • [C + singular or plural verb] a group of three people or things There was disappointment for our trio of 200 metre runners, all of whom failed to reach the final. • [C + singular or plural verb] a group of three musicians or singers who perform together Many jazz trios consist of a piano, guitar and double bass. • [C] a piece of music that has been written to be performed by three people The final item in today's programme is Beethoven's Trio in B flat, Opus 11. /-oʊ/ n (plural trios)
reach verb ( ARRIVE )
[T] to arrive at a place, especially after spending a long time or a lot of effort travelling
monotony - tables (tabes) - alterations (alternations) - above - giggled - vent vs went - infatuatedly excitation (tends to take the American form) - principles - were only like keen condiments in a choice dish - theme vs team - gravel (grave) - false - altogether (al together) Chapter XIX
/straɪpt/ adj Something that is striped has stripes on it green and white
striped pyjamas - /pɪˈdʒɑː.məz/
Do you prefer plain or striped shirts?
/ˈsed.ə.tɪv/ /-t ̬ɪv/ n [C] a drug used to calm a person or animal or to make them sleep
/pɔːr/ /pɔːr/ n [C] a very small hole in the skin of people or other animals, or a similar hole on the surface of plants or rocks Sweat passes through the pores and cools the body down. Pimples form when pores become blocked with dirt.
pore over sth phrasal verb
phrasal verb to look at and study something, usually a book or document, carefully She spends her evenings
poring over textbooks.
He pored over the letter searching for clues about the writer.
ripple - 1 a small wave on the surface of a liquid, especially water in a lake, etc
The air was so still that there was hardly a ripple on the pond's surface. 2 a thing that looks or moves like a small wave ripples of sand 3 [usually singular] ripple of something a sound that gradually becomes louder and then quieter again
a ripple of applause/laughter
4 [usually singular] ripple of something a feeling that gradually spreads through a person or group of people
A ripple of fear passed through him.
The announcement sent a ripple of excitement through the crowd. Her visit caused no more than a ripple of interest.
/flɪt/ v [I usually + adverb or preposition] (-tt-) • to fly or move quickly and lightly In the fading light we saw bats flitting around/about in the garden. figurative Sara finds it very difficult to settle - she's always flitting from one thing to another (= changing her activities). • to appear or exist suddenly and for a short time in someone's mind or on their face A ghost of a smile flitted across his face.
n [C] UK nutriment [ˈn uːtrɪmənt]
n any material providing nourishment diablerie [dɪˈɑːblərɪ (French) djɑbləri] n 1. (Non-Christian Religions / Other Non-Christian Religions) magic or witchcraft connected with devils 2. (Non-Christian Religions / Other Non-Christian Religions) demonic lore or esoteric knowledge of devils 3. (Non-Christian Religions / Other Non-Christian Religions) the domain of devils 4. devilry; mischief
/məˈnɒt.ən.əs/ /-ˈnɑː.t ən-/ adj ̬ staying the same and not changing and therefore boring a monotonous job a monotonous voice The music became monotonous after a while.
/məˈnɒt.ən.əs.li/ /-ˈnɑː.t ən-/ ̬
moment noun ( IMPORTANCE )
/ˈməʊ.mənt/ /ˈmoʊ-/ n
of (great) moment formal
very important a decision of great moment See also: momentous
blot sth out phrasal verb ( MEMORY )
phrasal verb [M] to stop yourself, or to prevent you, thinking about something unpleasant Perhaps there are some memories so bad that you have to blot them out.
/ˈwʌn.drəs/ adj literary extremely and surprisingly good a wondrous sight/sound/thing Our new improved face cream has wondrous effects on tired-looking skin.
/ˈblæk əˌvaɪst, -ˌvaɪzd/ –adjective dark-complexioned. Also, black-a-viced /ˈblæk əˌvaɪst/ Origin: 1750–60; Scots blackaviced, equiv. to black a vice (one) black of face ( black + a3 + obs. vice < MF vis; see visage) + -ed3
/dɪʃ/ v dish the dirt to tell people unpleasant or shocking personal information about someone She agreed to dish the dirt on her ex-husband for a fee of fifty thousand pounds. v. dished, dish·ing, dish·es v.tr. 1. To serve (food) in or as if in a dish: dished up the stew.
2. To present: dished up an excellent entertainment. 3. To hollow out; make concave. 4. Informal To gossip about. 5. Chiefly British Slang To ruin, foil, or defeat. v.intr. Informal To talk idly, especially to gossip. Look out! something you say or shout in order to tell someone that they are in danger Look out, Russ, there's a car coming! lookout noun a person who is watching for danger The lookout was standing on the corner while the two men broke into the store.
/kəˈtæs.trə.fi/ n [C]
• a sudden event that causes very great trouble or destruction They were warned of the ecological catastrophe to come. • a bad situation The emigration of scientists is a catastrophe for the country.
/ˌkæt.əˈstrɒf.ɪk/ An unchecked increase in the use of fossil fuels could have catastrophic results for the planet. rot rotten hot fought taught caught smile (smi) - haughty (hotty :O) -
[09:31:12] Your Teacher: "No, Sam, return to the kitchen: I am not in the least afraid." Nor was [emphasis] I; but I was a good deal interested and excited.
haughty adjective /ˈhɔː.ti/
/ˈhɑː.t i/ adj disapproving ̬
unfriendly and seeming to consider yourself better than other people She has a rather haughty manner.
/ˈhɔː.tɪ.nəs/ /ˈhɑː.t ̬ɪ-/ n [U]
hottie, hotty [ˈhɒtɪ]
n pl -ties Informal 1. US a sexually attractive person 2. a hot-water bottle
hot adjective ( VERY WARM )
/hɑːt/ adj (hotter, hottest)
having a high temperature Chapter 19 next time
threshold noun ( ENTRANCE ) /ˈθreʃ.h əʊld/
/-h oʊld/ n
[C] the floor of an entrance to a building or room
/məˈnɒt.ən.i/ /-ˈnɑː.t ən-/ n [U] (also monotonousness) ̬ when something stays the same and does not change and is therefore boring The monotony of motorway driving causes many accidents. The routine was the same every day, with nothing to break/relieve the monotony.
susceptible adjective ( INFLUENCED )
• easily influenced or harmed by something She isn't very susceptible to flattery. These plants are particularly susceptible to frost. Among particularly susceptible children, the disease can develop very fast. • describes someone who is easily emotionally influenced They persuade susceptible teenagers to part with their money. adj
lassitude noun - zmęczenie
/ˈlæs.ɪ.tjuːd/ /-tuːd/ n [U] formal physical or mental tiredness Shareholders are blaming the company's problems on the lassitude of the managing director.
chagrin noun /ˈʃæg.rɪn/ n [U] formal disappointment or anger, especially when caused by a failure or mistake My children have never shown an interest in music, much to my chagrin.
chagrined adjective /ˈʃæg.rɪnd/ impart verb /ɪmˈpɑːt/ • to communicate information to someone to impart the bad news I was rather quiet as I didn't feel I had much wisdom to impart on the subject. • to give something a particular feeling, quality or taste Preservatives can impart colour and flavour to a product. extraneous adjective /ɪkˈstreɪ.ni.əs/ not directly connected with or related to something extraneous information These questions are extraneous to the issue being discussed. chasm noun /-ˈpɑːrt/ [T] formal
- szczelina, przen. przepaść
/ˈkæz.əm/ [C] • a very deep narrow opening in rock, ice or the ground They leaned over the rails and peered down into the dizzying chasm below. •
formal a very large difference between two opinions or groups of people There is still a vast economic chasm between developed and developing countries
chasm [ˈkæzəm] n 1. (Earth Sciences / Physical Geography) a deep cleft in the ground; abyss 2. a break in continuity; gap 3. a wide difference in interests, feelings, etc.
heathen noun /ˈhiː.ðən/ n [C] • old use disapproving a person who has no religion, or who belongs to a religion that is not Christianity, Judaism or Islam the heathen [plural] old-fashioned heathen people Those who attempted to convert the heathen were put to death. • humorous someone who behaves as if they are not educated He's such a heathen - he's never even heard of Puccini.
casting vote noun - decydujący głos
[S] a single vote given by the person in charge of a meeting if the number of votes about something is equal, and which therefore decides the matter dictate noun /ˈdɪk.teɪt/ [C usually plural] formal
an order which should be obeyed, often one which you give to yourself the dictates of conscience/common sense Compare: diktat dictate verb (SPEAK) /dɪkˈteɪt/ /ˈ-/
[I or T] to speak something aloud for a person or machine to record the words said, so that they can be written down I dictated my order over the phone. She spent the morning dictating letters to her secretary dregs plural noun /dregz/ the small solid pieces that sink to the bottom of some liquids, such as wine or coffee, which are not usually drunk In one swift go, she had drunk her coffee down blight verb /blaɪt/ [T] to spoil something A broken leg blighted her chances of winning the championship. brine noun - solanka /braɪn/ [U] water with salt in it, especially when used to preserve food tuna/olives in brine
- osad, fusy
to the dregs (=finished it).
rave verb (SPEAK FOOLISHLY)
/reɪv/ [I] to speak in an uncontrolled way, usually because you are upset or angry, or because you are ill He's always raving
(on) about the government.
She was ranting and raving about some imagined insult. rouse verb
/raʊz/ [T] to wake someone up or make someone more active or excited
He roused himself (from a pleasant daydream) and got back to work.
The speaker attempted to rouse the crowd with a cry for action.
doff verb /dɒf/ /dɑːf/ [T] old-fashioned
to remove your hat, usually to show respect Compare: don masquerade noun /ˌmæs.kərˈeɪd/ /-kəˈreɪd/ [C orU]
behaviour that is intended to prevent the truth about something unpleasant or not wanted from becoming known They kept up the masquerade of being happily married for over thirty years. automaton noun /ɔːˈtɒm.ə.tən/ /ɑːˈtɑː.mə.t ən/ [C](plural automatons or automata) ̬
a machine which operates on its own without the need for human control, or a person who acts like a machine, without thinking or feeling I do the same route to work every day, like some sort of automaton. stagger verb (MOVE) /ˈstæg.ər/ /-ɚ/
[I usually + adverb or preposition] to walk or move with difficulty as if you are going to fall After he was attacked, he managed to stagger to the phone and call for help. figurative The company is staggering under a $15 million debt and will almost certainly collapse by the end of the year chafe verb (RUB) /tʃeɪf/ • [I or T] to make or become damaged or sore by rubbing The bracelet was so tight that it started to chafe (my wrist). • [T] old-fashioned to warm a part of the body by rubbing
wrapped adjective ( COVERED )
covered with paper or other material individually wrapped chocolates
supple adjective ( BENDING ) /ˈsʌp.l ̩/ adj bending or able to be bent easily; not stiff
I'm not supple enough (= My body doesn't bend easily enough) to be able to touch the floor with my hands while I'm standing up. The gloves were made of very supple leather. suppleness noun /ˈsʌp.l ̩.nəs/ n [U] usher verb /ˈʌʃ.ər/ /-ɚ/ v [T usually + adverb or preposition]
to show someone where they should go, or to make someone go where you want them to go She ushered us into her office and offered us a coffee. Officials quickly ushered the protesters out of the hall. band noun ( STRIP ) /bænd/ n [C] a thin flat piece of cloth, elastic, metal or other material put around something to fasten or strengthen it, or a long narrow piece of colour, light, etc. that is different from what surrounds it a wrist band a red silk band A narrow band of grass separated the greenhouse from the vegetable garden. elflock [ˈɛlfˌlɒk] n (Clothing, Personal Arts & Crafts / Hairdressing & Grooming) a lock of hair, fancifully regarded as having been tangled by the elves deliberately adverb /dɪˈlɪb.ər.ət.li/ • /-ɚ-/ adv
intentionally I'm sure he says these things deliberately to annoy me. • slowly and carefully Calmly and deliberately, she poured petrol over the car and set it alight. and the Sibyl--if Sibyl she were--was seated snugly - blaze vs blade - You could scarcely find me one. - "Oh, I have not much choice! - quibble - self-respect - ad infinitum Next time, Chapter 20
ad infinitum adverb
forever, without ending
/-t ̬əm/ adv
"Why was she such a lousy boss?" "Oh, because she was unreasonable, disrespectful, rude, inconsiderate - I could go on ad infinitum."
twain number /tweɪn/ num old use two rend verb /rend/ v [T] (rent or US ALSO rended, rent or US ALSO rended) old use or literary to tear or break something violently With one stroke of his sword, he rent his enemy's helmet in two. [+ adjective] Firemen had to rend him free (= pull him out) of the burning car. figurative A terrifying scream rent the air. condor noun /ˈkɒn.dɔːr / /ˈkɑːn.dɔːr/ n [C]
a type of vulture (= a large bird which feeds on dead animals) from South America eyrie noun ( BIRD'S NEST )
/ˈɪr.i/ n [C]
(mainly US aerie) the nest of an eagle or other large bird which eats meat, usually built in a high, far place plank noun ( FLAT PIECE ) /plæŋk/ n [C] a long narrow flat piece of wood or similar material, of the type used for making floors oak/concrete planks a plank of wood We used a plank to cross the ditch. plaster noun ( SUBSTANCE ) /ˈplɑː.stər/ /ˈplæs.tɚ/ n
[U] a substance which becomes hard as it dries and is used especially for spreading on walls and ceilings in order to give a smooth surface The plaster on the walls was cracked and flaking. See also: plasterboard in plaster UK (US in a cast) If a part of your body is in plaster, it has a plaster cast (= protective covering) around it to protect it while the bone heals My leg was in plaster for about six weeks. bear down phrasal verb to move in a threatening way towards someone or something
on sb/sth phrasal verb
I looked up to see the car bearing down on me
alternate adjective /ɒlˈtɜː.nət/ • with first one thing, then another thing, and then the first thing again a dessert with alternate layers of chocolate and cream • If something happens on alternate days, it happens every second day Private cars are banned from the city on alternate days. • US (UK alternative) An alternate plan or method is one that you can use if you do not want to use another one. alternately adverb /ɒlˈtɜː.nət.li/ /ɑːlˈtɝː-/ adv /ɑːlˈtɝː-/ adj [before noun]
The film is alternately depressing and amusing. alternating adjective /ˈɒl.tə.neɪ.tɪŋ/ /ˈɑːl.t ̬ɚ.neɪ.t ̬ɪŋ/ adj
alternating moods of anger and sadness
empire noun ( COUNTRIES ) /ˈem.paɪər / /-paɪr/ n [C]
a group of countries ruled by a single person, government or country the Holy Roman Empire See also: imperial
deserts plural noun /dɪˈzɜːts/ /-ˈzɝːts/ n
get your just deserts to get what you deserve I'd say he got his just deserts for not sticking around to help with the children volatile adjective /ˈvɒl.ə.taɪl/ • likely to change suddenly and unexpectedly or suddenly become violent or angry Food and fuel prices are very volatile in a war situation. The situation was made more volatile by the fact that people had been drinking a lot of alcohol. He had a rather volatile temper and can't have been easy to live with. • A volatile liquid or solid substance will change easily into a gas. volatility noun /ˌvɒl.əˈtɪl.ɪ.ti/ /ˌvɑː.ləˈtɪl.ə.t i/ n [U] ̬ /ˈvɑː.lə.t əl/ adj ̬
retrace your steps to go back to a place in the same way that you came She walked straight past her office and then had to retrace her steps. tapestry noun /ˈtæp.ɪ.stri/ n [C] a piece of cloth whose pattern or picture is created by sewing or weaving different coloured threads onto a special type of strong cloth
snarl verb /snɑːl/ /snɑːrl/ v [I or T]
(especially of dogs) to make a deep rough sound while showing the teeth, usually in anger or (of people) to speak or say something angrily and forcefully The dogs started to snarl at each other so I had to separate them. [+ speech] "Go to hell!", he snarled. moisten verb /ˈmɔɪ.sən/ v [I or T] to make something slightly wet or to become slightly wet Moisten the cloth before using it to clean glass. fasten verb /ˈfɑː.sən/ /ˈfæs.ən/ v
[I or T] to (cause something to) become firmly fixed together, or in position, or closed Make sure your seat belt is securely fastened. This shirt fastens at the back. fasten sth on/to/together, etc. to fix one thing to another I fastened the sticker to the windscreen. burst out laughing/crying to suddenly start laughing/crying I walked in and everyone burst out laughing. dull adjective ( NOT BRIGHT ) /dʌl/ adj
not clear, bright or shiny; dark We could just see a dull glow given off by the fire's last embers. The first day of our holiday was dull (= cloudy).
dully adverb /ˈdʌl.li/ adv dullness noun /ˈdʌl.nəs/ n [U]
gore noun - zakrzepła krew /gɔːr / /gɔːr/ n [U]
blood that has come from an injury and become thick It's a good film, but there's a lot of blood and gore in it (= pictures of people being badly injured).
n & adj (Fine Arts & Visual Arts / Colours) a poetic word for ebony crucifix noun /ˈkruː.sɪ.fɪks/ n [C] a model or picture representing Jesus Christ on a cross She always wears a small gold crucifix round her neck. hover verb - unosić się w powietrzu, krążyć, wahać się /ˈhɒv.ər/ • [I usually + adverb or preposition] to stay in one place in the air, usually by moving the wings quickly /ˈhɑː.vɚ/ v
A hawk hovered in the sky, waiting to swoop down on its prey. I heard the noise of a helicopter hovering overhead. • [I usually + adverb or preposition] to stand somewhere, especially near another person, eagerly or nervously waiting for their attention A waiter hovered at the table, ready to take our order. I could sense him behind me, hovering and building up the courage to ask me a question. • [I + adverb or preposition] to stay at or near a particular level Inflation is hovering at 3%.
devilish adjective (BAD)
/ˈdev.əl.ɪʃ/ • evil or morally bad a devilish plot • morally bad but in an attractive way a devilish grin subordinate noun /səˈbɔː.dɪ.nət/ /-ˈbɔːr-/ [C]
a person who has a less important position than you in an organization He left the routine checks to one of his subordinates.
/-ˈkɑːr-/ [after noun]
in human form One survivor described his torturers as devils incarnate.
sequester verb (KEEP SEPARATE) - odseparować, oddzielić, zarekwirować
/sɪˈkwes.tər/ /-tɚ/[T] US legal to keep a jury together in a place so that they cannot discuss the case with other people or read or hear news reports about it sequestration noun /ˌsiː.kwesˈtreɪ.ʃən/ [U] legal
carrion noun - padlina
/ˈkær.i.ən/ /ˈker-/ [U] dead or decaying flesh d mon noun /ˈdiː.mən/ • [C] an evil spirit • [C usually singular] approving a person who does a particular activity with great skill or energy She works like a demon. Stefan has a demon serve. •
[C] a person who behaves very badly humorous That's the last time I look after her kids - I'll be glad when thelittle demons go home. • [C] a negative feeling which causes you to worry or behave badly She had her demons and, later in life, they drove her to drink. outrage verb /ˈaʊt.reɪdʒ/ [T] (especially of an unfair action or statement) to cause someone to feel very angry, shocked or upset Local people were outraged at the bombing. A proposed 5% pay cut has outraged staff at the warehouse. outraged adjective /ˈaʊt.reɪdʒd/ feeling outrage Many outraged viewers wrote to the BBC to complain dismay noun /dɪˈsmeɪ/ [U] a feeling of unhappiness and disappointment Aid workers were said to have been filled with dismay by the appalling conditions that the refugees were living in. The supporters watched in/with dismay as their team lost 6-0. She discovered, to her dismay, that her exam was a whole month earlier than she'd expected.
dismay verb [T] dismayed adjective /dɪˈsmeɪd/ I was dismayed to discover that he'd lied. thunderbolt noun (THUNDER) /ˈθʌn.də.bəʊlt/ /-dɚ.boʊlt/
[C] a flash of lightning and the sound of thunder together prostrate verb /prɒsˈtreɪt/ /ˈprɑː.streɪt/
prostrate yourself to lie with the face down and arms stretched out, especially in obedience or worship prostration noun /prɒsˈtreɪ.ʃən/ /prɑːˈstreɪ-/ [C orU]
warp verb ( BEND )
/wɔːp/ /wɔːrp/ v [I or T] (especially of wood) to become damaged by bending or twisting, usually as a result of the presence of water or heat, or (of water or heat) to cause this to happen Left in the garage where it was damp, the wooden frame had warped. If I put the shelves near the radiator, the heat might warp them.
/traɪs/ n [S] informal
in a trice
in a very short time Jim had the wheel mended in a trice.
/rɪˈpɒz.ɪ.tər.i/ • [C] formal a place where things are stored and can be found • [C usually singular] a person who has, or a book that contains, a lot of information or detailed knowledge She's a repository of knowledge about our family history. /-ˈpɑː.zɪ.tɔːr-/ n
canny adjective ( CLEVER )
/ˈkæn.i/ adj thinking quickly and cleverly, especially in business or financial matters
These salesmen are a canny lot.
mantle noun ( LAYER )
/ˈmæn.tl ̩/ • [C] literary a layer of something which covers a surface A thick mantle of snow lay on the ground. /-t l / n ̬ ̩
We watched the building vanish under a mantle of thick grey smoke as the fire swiftly moved through it. • [C] specialized the part of the Earth that surrounds the central core • [C] in the past, a piece of clothing without sleeves which was worn over other clothes
clod noun ( SOIL )
/klɒd/ /klɑːd/ n [C]
a piece of soil or clay
Their hooves threw up clods of earth as they galloped across the field.
/ʃɒd/ /ʃɑːd/ v past simple and past participle of shoe clod-hopping
hop verb - podskakiwać
/hɒp/ • [I] to jump on one foot or to move about in this way I tried to hop on my good foot while holding onto Jim. • [I + adverb or preposition] informal to go somewhere quickly or to get into or out of a vehicle quickly We hopped over to Bruges for the weekend. I hopped on the bus at the traffic lights. • /hɑːp/ v (-pp-)
[I] If a small animal, bird or insect hops, it moves by jumping on all or two of its feet at the same time The rabbit/bird hopped across the grass.
/ˈdʒʌŋk.tʃər/ /-tʃɚ/ n [C] formal a particular point in time At this juncture, it is impossible to say whether she will make a full recovery.
administer verb ( GIVE )
/ədˈmɪn.ɪ.stər / /-stɚ/ v [T] formal to cause someone to receive something to administer medicine/punishment/relief Tests will be administered to schoolchildren at seven, twelve and sixteen years. figurative The latest opinion polls have administered a severe blow to the party. administering
lip noun ( EDGE ) - krawędź, brzeg
[C] a part of an edge of a container that is shaped to allow liquid to be poured easily from the container
trip verb ( MOVE )
/trɪp/ v (-pp-) [I usually + adverb or preposition] to move with quick gentle steps She looked stunning as she tripped down the stairs in her ball gown.
/ˈʃɑːr.lə.t ən/ n [C] disapproving ̬
a person who pretends to have skills or knowledge that they do not have, especially in medicine
/ˌɪn.dɪˈskrɪm.ɪ.nət/ adj not showing careful thought or planning, especially so that harm results an indiscriminate terrorist attack on civilians The indiscriminate use of fertilizers can cause long-term problems.
/ˌɪn.dɪˈskrɪm.ɪ.nət.li/ adv They fired indiscriminately into the crowd.
blanch verb ( PALE )
/blɑːnt ʃ/ • [I] to turn pale While most people would blanch at the prospect of so much work, Daniels seems to enjoy it. • [T] to make a plant pale by covering it up so that the light does not reach it as it grows /blænt ʃ/ v
/baʊ/ n [C] literary a large branch of a tree
gild verb - złocić, pozłacać
/gɪld/ v [T]
• to cover a surface with a thin layer of gold or a substance that looks like gold
• literary to cover the surface of something with bright gold light Sunlight gilded the children's faces.
slime noun - muł, śluz
/slaɪm/ n [U] a sticky liquid substance which is unpleasant to touch, such as the liquid produced by fish and snails and the greenish brown substance found near water There was a revolting green slime in between the bathroom tiles. You could see trails of slime where the slugs had been.
scale - n C 1. (of fish, reptile etc.) łuska. 2. (on teeth) kamień nazębny; (in kettle) kamień. vt to ~ a fish skrobać rybę.
scaly adjective ( COVERING )
/ˈskeɪ.li/ adj If the inside of a pipe or container that heats water is scaly, it is covered in a hard white or grey layer of material.
/ˈskeɪ.lɪ.nəs/ n [U]
slate noun ( ROCK ) - łupek
/sleɪt/ n [C or U] a dark grey rock that can be easily divided into thin pieces, or a small thin piece of this used to cover a roof
briar noun - dzika róża
(also brier) /ˈbraɪər / /braɪr/ n [C or U] a wild rose bush with long stems and sharp thorns
dappled adjective - nakrapiany, centkowany
/ˈdæp.l d/ adj ̩ covered with spots of colour that are lighter or darker than the main colour, or covered with areas of light and darkness a dappled pony.
The dappled sunlight fell across her face as she lay beneath the tree.
pear - gruszka pear noun
/per/ n [C or U] a sweet fruit with a lot of juice and a green skin which has a round base and is slightly pointed towards the stem
balmy adjective - kojący, balsamiczny
/ˈbɑː.mi/ adj (of weather) pleasantly warm a balmy summer evening
/ˈkreɪ.tər / /-t ̬ɚ/ n [C]
the round hole at the top of a volcano, or a hole similar to this the huge crater of Vesuvius a bomb crater With a good telescope, you can see craters on the moon.
/ˈkreɪ.təd/ /-t ̬ɚd/ adj
a cratered surface
vb spues, spuing, spued an archaic spelling of spew spuer n
/dɪˈfaɪ.ənt s/ n [U]
when you refuse to obey someone or something
The demonstration is a pointless act/gesture of defiance against the government. In defiance of the ceasefire, rebel troops are again firing on the capital.
mien noun - mina, wygląd
/miːn/ n [C] literary a person's appearance, especially the typical expression on their face His aristocratic mien and smart clothes singled him out.
gait noun - chód
/geɪt/ n [C] • formal a particular way of walking He walked with a slow stiff gait. • the particular way a horse walks or runs The pony's gait slowed from a canter to a trot.
/əˈmiː.nə.bl ̩/ adj
willing to accept or be influenced by a suggestion
She might be more amenable to the idea if you explained how much money it would save. Do you think the new manager will prove more amenable to our proposals?
/ˈkʌl.pə.bl / adj formal ̩ deserving to be blamed or considered responsible for something bad He was held culpable (= blamed) for all that had happened.
/ˌkʌl.pəˈbɪl.ɪ.ti/ /-ə.t ̬i/ n [U] After the accident, the company refused to accept culpability.
eclipse noun ( SUN )
/ɪˈklɪps/ n [C] when the sun disappears from view, either completely or partly, while the moon is moving between it and the Earth, or when the moon becomes darker while the shadow of the Earth moves over it a solar/lunar eclipse On Wednesday there will be a total/partial eclipse of the sun.
• /ˈvɑː.lən.ter.i/ adj
done, made or given willingly, without being forced or paid to do it They chose to take voluntary redundancy. She does voluntary work for the Red Cross two days a week. • describes an organization that is controlled and supported by people who give their time and money to it without being paid, and that exists to help other people The hospital has asked various voluntary organizations to help raise money for the new operating theatre.
voluntarily adverb /ˈvɒl.ən.trəl.i/
vb to begin or commence again recommencement n
/prəˈpaʊnd/ v [T] formal to suggest a theory, belief or opinion for other people to consider It was Ptolemy who propounded the theory that the Earth was at the centre of the universe.
/ˈfɒl.tər / • to lose strength or purpose and stop, or almost stop The dinner party conversation faltered for a moment. /ˈfɑːl.t ̬ɚ/ v [I]
Her friends never faltered in their belief in her.
Nigel's voice faltered and he stopped speaking. • to move awkwardly as if you might fall
The nurse saw him falter and made him lean on her.
/ˈfɒl.tər.ɪŋ/ /ˈfɑːl.t ̬ɚ-/ adj She took a few faltering steps. This legislation is designed to stimulate the faltering economy.
/ˈfɒl.tər.ɪŋ.li/ /ˈfɑːl.t ̬ɚ-/
/ˈpær.ə.bl / ̩ /ˈper-/ n [C] a short simple story which teaches or explains an idea, especially a moral or religious idea
/ˈpɒn .ʃɒn /
/ˈpen.tʃənt/ n [C usually singular] a liking for, an enjoyment of, or a habit of doing something, especially something that other people might not like a penchant for melodrama/skiing/exotic clothes Her penchant for disappearing for days at a time worries her family.
with a vengeance
with great force or extreme energy He's been working with a vengeance over the past few weeks to make up for lost time. Flared trousers are back with a vengeance (= very popular again) this summer.
strapper - byczek strapper - a large and strong and heavyset man; "he was a bull of a man"; "a thick-skinned bruiser ready to give as good as he got" bruiser, bull, Samson adult male, man - an adult person who is male (as opposed to a woman); "there were two women and six men on the bus"
strap 1620, from Scottish and/or nautical variant of strope "loop or strap on a harness" (1357),
probably from O.Fr. estrop "strap," from L. stroppus "strap, band," perhaps from Etruscan, ultimately from Gk. strophos "twisted band," from strephein "to turn" (see strophe). O.E. stropp, Du. strop "halter" also are borrowed from Latin. Slang adj. strapped "short of money" is from 1857, from strap in a now-obsolete sense of "financial credit" (1828). Strapping (adj.) "tall and sturdy," originally applied to women, is from 1657 (cf. whopping, spanking). Straphanger "bus- or subway-rider" first recorded 1905. The verb meaning "to fasten or secure with a strap" is recorded from 1711. Strapless is 1846, of trousers, 1935, of brassieres.
sturdy - mocny, krzepki, wytrzymały buxom adjective
/ˈbʌk.səm/ adj (of a woman) healthy-looking and slightly fat, with large breasts
/əˈpɒs.l / ̩ /-ˈpɑː.sl ̩/ n [C] formal someone who strongly supports a particular belief or political movement an apostle of world peace/liberty
/ˈdʒɪb.ər.ɪʃ/ /-ɚ-/ n [U] disapproving spoken or written words which are nonsense and have no meaning I was so nervous, I just started talking gibberish.
refuse noun b. (as modifier) a refuse collection
/ˈref.juːs/ n [U] formal unwanted waste material, especially material that is regularly thrown away from a house, factory, etc.; rubbish garden/kitchen refuse
chip noun ( PIECE )
/tʃɪp/ n [C] a small piece that has been broken off a larger object, or the mark left on an object
such as a cup, plate, etc. where a small piece has been broken off it
wood chips Polly fell and knocked a chip out of her front tooth. This mug's got a chip in it/out of it.
refuse chips annihilate verb /əˈnaɪ.ə.leɪt/ v [T]
• to destroy completely so that nothing is left a city annihilated by an atomic bomb • informal to defeat completely He was annihilated in the finals of the competition.
/əˌnaɪ.əˈleɪ.ʃən/ n [U] During the Cold War the threat of nuclear annihilation was always on people's minds.
informal The opposition party's candidate suffered annihilation (= complete defeat) at the polls.
cloud shrouding his eyrie (crowd) - half-smothered - "Are you up?" asked the voice I expected to hear, viz., my master's. - thunderbolt fast prostrating his strength - Pilot (pylon) - there have been teeth here! - articles (artics)
next time: We shall get you off cannily, Dick
thunderbolt noun ( THUNDER )
/ˈθʌn.də.bəʊlt/ /-dɚ.boʊlt/ n [C] a flash of lightning and the sound of thunder together
/prɒsˈtreɪt/ /ˈprɑː.streɪt/ v prostrate yourself to lie with the face down and arms stretched out, especially in obedience or worship
/prɒsˈtreɪ.ʃən/ /prɑːˈstreɪ-/ n [C or U]
/ɪnˈdel.ɪ.bl / adj ̩ • describes a mark or substance that is impossible to remove by washing or in any other way indelible ink The blood had left an indelible mark on her shirt. •
[before noun] Indelible memories or actions are impossible to forget, or have a
permanent influence or effect
I have an indelible memory of that meeting with Anastasia. In his twenty years working for the company, Joe Pearson made an indelible impression on it.
dandle verb - kołysać na kolanach
/ˈdæn.dl / v [T] old-fashioned ̩
to hold a baby or child on your knee and move it up and down in a playful way
dabble verb ( MOVE IN WATER ) - zanurzać (ręce, nogi) w wodzie
/ˈdæb.l / v ̩ [T] to put part of your body, such as your hand or foot, into the water of a pool or
stream, etc. and move it about
• /ˌɪt ̬.əˈreɪ-/ n [C or U]
formal the process of doing something again and again, usually to improve it, or one of the times you do it the repetition and iteration that goes on in designing something The software is on its fifth iteration. • specialized an amount that you get when you use a mathematical rule several times
crepe noun ( CLOTH )
(UK also crêpe , crape) /kreɪp/[U] thin cloth with a wrinkled (= having small, thin folds) surface
a black crepe dress a crepe jacket
bay noun ( HORSE )
/beɪ/ n [C]
a brown horse
in one's right mind Fig. sane; rational and sensible. (Often in the negative.) That was a stupid thing to do. You're not in your right mind. You can't be in your right mind! That sounds crazy!
/gɔːz/ • [U] a very thin light cloth, used to make clothing, to cover cuts and to separate solids from liquids, etc a gauze skirt /gɑːz/ n
a piece of sterile gauze
• [C or U] a material like a net formed by wires crossing over each other wire gauze
azure adjective noun
/ˈæʒ.ər /, /ˈæz.jʊər /
/-ɚ/ adj n [U]
(having) the bright blue colour of the sky on a sunny day The once azure skies of Athens have been ruined by atmospheric pollution.
/ɪˈkwɪv.ə.kəl/ adj formal not clear and seeming to have two opposing meanings, or confusing and able to be understood in two different ways His words to the press were deliberately equivocal - he didn't deny the reports but neither did he confirm them. Opposite: unequivocal
cue noun ( STICK )
/kjuː/ n [C]
a long thin wooden pole with a small piece of leather at one end, which is used for hitting the ball in games such as billiards or snooker
hoard noun - zapasy, zasoby
/hɔːrd/ n [C] a large amount of something that someone has saved and hidden We found a
huge hoard of tinned food in the basement.
twang noun ( VOICE ) - mówienie przez nos
/twæŋ/ n [C usually singular] a quality of the human voice, produced by air passing out through the nose as you speak
a nasal/southern twang
ludicrous adjective /ˈluː.dɪ.krəs/ adj
stupid or unreasonable and deserving to be laughed at a ludicrous idea/suggestion He looked ludicrous in that suit!
/ˈluː.dɪ.krə.sli/ adv It's a beautiful dress, but it's ludicrously (= unreasonably) expensive.
/ˈluː.dɪ.krə.snəs/ n [U]
/skaʊl/ v [I] to look at someone or something with a very annoyed expression The boy scowled at her and reluctantly followed her back into school.
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