Augmented reality (AR) is a term for a live direct or indirect view of a physical realworld environment whose elements are augmented

by virtual computer-generated sensory input such as sound or graphics. It is related to a more general concept called mediated reality in which a view of reality is modified (possibly even diminished rather than augmented) by a computer. As a result, the technology functions by enhancing one’s current perception of reality. Augmented reality research explores the application of computer-generated imagery in live-video streams as a way to expand the real-world. Advanced research includes use of head-mounted displays and virtual retinal displays for visualization purposes, and construction of controlled environments containing any number of sensors and actuators. There are two commonly accepted definitions of Augmented Reality today. One was given by Ronald Azuma in 1997 [2]. Azuma's definition says that Augmented Reality
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combines real and virtual is interactive in real time is registered in 3D

Additionally Paul Milgram and Fumio Kishino defined Milgram's Reality-Virtuality Continuum in 1994 [3]. They describe a continuum that spans from the real environment to a pure virtual environment. In between there are Augmented Reality (closer to the real environment) and Augmented Virtuality (is closer to the virtual environment).

Milgram's Continuum

his continuum has been extended into a two-dimensional plane of "Virtuality" and "Mediality"[4]. Taxonomy of Reality, Virtuality, Mediality. The origin R denotes unmodified reality. A continuum across the Virtuality axis V includes reality augmented with graphics (Augmented Reality), as well as graphics augmented by reality (Augmented Virtuality). However, the taxonomy also includes modification of reality or virtuality or any combination of these. The modification is denoted by moving up the mediality axis. Further up this axis, for example, we can find mediated reality, mediated virtuality, or any combination of these. Further up and to the right we have virtual worlds that are responsive to a severely modified version of reality. (at right) Mediated reality generalizes the concepts of mixed reality, etc.. It includes the virtuality reality continuum (mixing) but also, in addition to additive effects, also includes multiplicative effects (modulation) of (sometimes deliberately) diminished reality. Moreover, it considers, more generally, that reality may be modified in various ways. The mediated reality framework describes devices that deliberately modify reality, as well as devices that accidentally modify it.

maps. In August 2009. Head-up displays or personal display glasses in automobiles can be used to provide navigation hints and traffic information. at the 2008 LA Auto Show. ecology. and collaboratively modify and analyze. too. showed several versions of the vehicle[13]. AR can be used to display an interactive analysis of terrain characteristics. [15][16] AR can include images of hidden objects. and geology. interactive three-dimensional maps. Industrial Applications: AR can be used to compare the data of digital mock-ups with physical mock-ups for efficiently finding discrepancies between the two sources. Prospecting: In the fields of hydrology. It can further be employed to safeguard digital data in combination with existing real prototypes. Examples include a virtual X-ray view based on prior tomography or on real time images from ultrasound and microconfocal probes[17] or open NMR devices. Nissan unveiled the concept vehicle Cube and presented visitors with a brochure which. Support with complex tasks: Complex tasks such as assembly. the term augmented reality has been blurred a bit due to the increased interest of the general public in AR. which can be particularly effective for medical diagnostics or surgery. These types of displays can be useful for airplane pilots.[14] In 2010 Walt Disney used mobile augmented reality to connect a movie experience to outdoor advertising. For example. Military and emergency services: AR can be applied to military and emergency services as wearable systems to provide information such as instructions.discrepancies Best Buy ran a circular with an augmented reality code that allowed users with a webcam to interact with the product in 3D. Head-up displays are currently used in fighter jets as one of the first AR applications. and fire cells.More recently.[citation needed] . and thus save or minimize the building of real prototypes and improve the quality of the final product. including eye pointing. These include full interactivity. Current applications Advertising: Marketers started to use AR to promote products via interactive AR applications. Outdoor navigation can be augmented for military operations or disaster management. maintenance. Navigation devices: AR can augment the effectiveness of navigation devices for a variety of applications. building navigation can be enhanced for the purpose of maintaining industrial plants. and surgery can be simplified by inserting additional information into the field of view. For example. enemy locations. when held against a webcam. Users could use. labels can be displayed on parts of a system to clarify operating instructions for a mechanic who is performing maintenance on the system. For example.See also Mixed reality. A doctor could observe the fetus inside the mother's womb [18].

theme park attractions (such as Cadbury World). etc.[20] Sightseeing: Models may be created to include labels or text related to the objects/places visited. drawing.Art: AR can be incorporated into artistic applications that allow artists to create art in real time over reality such as painting. Entertainment and education: AR can be used in the fields of entertainment and education to create virtual objects in museums and exhibitions. buildings. draw again. games (such as ARQuake) and books[23]. who became paralyzed.[24] Sydney band Lost Valentinos launched the world's first interactive AR music video on 16 October 2009. modeling. Also see Mixed reality. Music: Pop group Duran Duran included interactive AR projections into their stage show during their 2000 Pop Trash concert tour. OpenFrameworks and the Graffiti Research Lab to help a graffiti artist.[21] Collaboration: AR can help facilitate collaboration among distributed team members via conferences with real and virtual participants. where users could print out 5 markers representing a pre-recorded performance from each band member which they could interact with live and in real-time via their computer webcam and record as their own unique music video clips to share . or even landscapes as they previously existed. One such example of this phenomenon is called Eyewriter that was developed in 2009 by Zachary Lieberman and a group formed by members of Free Art and Technology (FAT). users can rebuild ruins.[19] Architecture: AR can be employed to simulate planned construction projects. The Hand of God is a good example of a collaboration system [22] Also see Mixed reality. With AR.

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