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Translation in English By Art Perdikis
THE AUTHENTIC CRETAN HISTORY: ORIGIN, MINOAN CIVILIZATION AND WORLD-WIDE CONTRIBUTION OF ANCIENT CRETANS
1. THE ORIGIN, THE NAME AND NATIONALITY OF THE CRETANS THE ORIGIN AND NATIONALITY OF THE CRETANS The ancient poet Homer in the epic “ILIAD” reports that in the “Trojan War” all cities of Crete: Knossos, Gortyna, Lyktos or Lyttos, Lykastos etc. fought on the side of the Achaeans or Argoeans or Danaeans or Panhellenes and the leader of all men from the Cretan cities, that is (all men of Knossos, Gortyna, etc.) or the leader of all nations (city-states) that existed in Crete (= Eteocretans, Kydonians, Achaeans, Pelasgeans and Dorians) was Idomeneas, who was the grandson of Minoas and also one of the top leaders of all Achaeans or Argoeans or Danaeans or Panhellenes: "with Nestor, the magnificent old man of the Panachaeans being the first and followed by Idomeneas..." (Iliad, B 402 - 405). Therefore, Minoas and the residents of Crete during his reign (Kydonians, Eteocretans, Achaeans, etc.) were Greeks/Hellenes, part of the Panhellenes. In addition, the ancient writers clearly report that the Minoans were Greeks, " The first residents of Karpathos were those that campaigned with Minoas, during the period in which he became the first Greek maritime “sea-governor”, (Diodoros Sikeliotis, 5, 54). Specifically according to the ancient writers and historians: Pafsanias (Solar, 1 - 10, Arcadian 8, 3), Thucydides (A, 3 -9), Diodoros (Book 4 and 5), Stravon (Geographics I = 10), Herodotus (Z, 169 - 171), Isocrates (Panathinaikos) and others: 1. Crete was initially inhabited by the so called Idaiae Daktylae or Kouretaes (or Eteocretans in contrast to the Epilydaes, as it will become evident below), and for this reason they were called native (endemic) Cretans. They came to the island from Frygia (=Troy in Asia Minor) and reciprocally from Crete some Cretans went to Frygja (Troy) and for this reason, it is said that, there is a mountain range named "Idae or Idaiae mountains" in Crete and also in Frygja (Troy). 2. Simultaneously with the Idaiae Daktylae or shortly thereafter came to Crete from Arkadia, Peloponnesus (and thus Gortyna of Peloponnesus and Crete) the so called "Kydonians" and for that reason they were also called natives. The cities Kydonia (and thus the name Kydonians), Gortyna and others of Crete and which, according to Plato and Pafsanias were built by the sons of Tegeat Lykaona from Arkadia of
Gortynia in Peloponnesus (and that is precisely so, because it is also depicted in the ancient currencies of these cities). 3. Several generations later, and specifically when Cretheas was king of the Eteocretans, certain sects (races) of Achaeans, Pelasgeans and Dorians under the leadership of Tektamos or Tektafos (the son of Doros who was the son of Hellene and Minoa’s grandfather) left from the Pelasgean Argos (=Thessaly in central mainland Greece) and after several adventurous roamings and expeditions arrived in Crete, which had meanwhile suffered huge desolation, settling on the eastern part of the island. The Dorians settled in the eastern part, the Kydonians in the western, the Eteocretans in the southern part and the remaining others in the interior of the island. The KING MINOAS, COIN OF new inhabitants of Crete were named "Epilydes" KNOSSOS (= epekae, immigrants in contrast to the local inhabitants) and the old "Eteocretans" (= first settlers and therefore genuine, local, endemic). 4. Upon Tektamo’s death, on the throne of the ‘Epilydes Cretans Kingdom’ ascended his son Asterios, who because his wife gave birth to a son separated from her and abducted from the seashores of Phoenicia the daughter of the Phoenician King Agenor of Tyre, the beautiful Europa, who is also mentioned as one of the causes of the “Trojan War”. When Asterios died, his sons Minoas and Sarpidonas quarreled and fought each other as to who will ascend to the kingdom. Minoas won and Sarpidonas with his mutineers having been defeated and chased out of the island by Minoas took refuge in Lykia, Asia Minor and there he built the city Myletos in remembrance of the Cretan city Myletos. According to the Pario Chronicle, Minoas reigned until 1470 B.C., and with the help of his brother Radamanthys, unified and united into a single comprehensive system (in a highly unique way, the institutions of the State for this particular period of time, as we will see below) the natives (Eteocretans and Kydonaeans) with the Epilydes (Achaeans, Pelasgeans and Dorians) Cretans and designating Knossos as the governing city ‘Capital’ (the seat of the in common king of the united Cretan cities). During this period of time Minoas with the help of his brother Radamanthys conceived, designed, organized and created for the first time in world history a maritime martial navy, which he used to drive away from the islands of the Aegean (Cyclades, etc.) the criminal elements and pirates (Kares and Phoenicians) who resided there, and inhabits these islands with permanent settlers that he brought from Crete. Up to that point in time neither marine shipping nor agriculture were known nor had been developed for use, and consequently most of the islands of the Aegean were poor and did not have the capability or means to support permanent residents other than renegades and criminals (mainly pirates). As a result of the maritime martial navy constituted by Mjnoas, he was able to both, become a maritime power and free-up (open-up) the marine corridors, and thus enable the Greeks to commute freely amongst themselves, deal with and practice marine work and related tasks, prosper and gain wealth, establish cities (permanent residence which before could not be created due to the criminal activities of the thieves, renegades and pirates who lived there, such as the Kares, Phoenicians, etc.).
Additionally, because of the newly developed marine capabilities, Minoas was able to establish Cretan (and subsequently Greek) colonies in Sicily, the sea coast of Asia Minor, etc. For all of the above reasons Minoas and Radamanthys were deified, that is to say, after their death they were declared semi gods, sons of god Zeus and judges at Hades (the underworld of the Greeks), something similar to Great Constantine, Apostle Peter, Alexander the Great, etc. 5. Three generations after the death of Minoas the ‘Trojan War’ started (the grandson of Minoas, Idomeneas took part in it). In this war (according to the Pario Chronicle 1228 - 1218 B.C), Cretans, natives and Epilydes, under the leadership of Idomeneas, the grandson of Minoas and one of the largest naval fleets ever assembled in history fought on the side of the Argoeans or Achaeans or Danaeans or Panhellenes and for that reason they were named (the natives: Eteocretans and Kydonians and Epilydes: Achaeans, Dorians and Pelasgoeans) after the end of the war Greeks/Hellenes. Note: 1) When the Epilydes Cretans (=Achaeans, Dorians and Pelasgoeans of Crete) went to the island and found there the natives (= the Kydonians and the Eteocretans or idaiae Daktylae or Kourites) the differentiation of the terms "Greek" and "barbarian" did not yet exist, since that terminology occurred after the “Trojan War”. Thucydides (A, 3 - 9) and many other ancient writers report that before the “Trojan War” the differentiation of “Greeks”’ and “barbarians” did not exist. After the end of the war "Greek" were named all those who participated in the “Trojan War” campaign and "barbarian" those who allied with Troy, and through that action they became another reason or cause for the war. 2) Clearly the Eteocretans and Kydonians racially were the same with the Dorians, Achaeans and Pelasgoeans, and all were part of the Panhellenes and concretely of Pelasgoean origin. Simply stated, the Eteocretans and Kydonians were natives of Crete and the others were not, they came to Crete from Thessaly. That is to say, here we have a similarity to what had also occurred with the Spartans (who were Epilydes, had come to Peloponnesus from Sterea Hellas) and the Arcadians (who were natives of Peloponnesus), and both were Greeks/Hellenes. THE NAME OF THE CRETANS According to the ancient writers Pafsanias (Iliaka), Stravon (Geographics 10), Diodoros (Book 4 and 5), etc., initially the Cretans were named “Idaioi dactylae” or “Couretes”. Couretes (Greek Κουρήτες, is derived from the words Κούροι, κοράσια, επι-κουρώ = Latin curio) etc., were the young Cretan people who nourished (cared for the infant’s upbringing and well being) Zeus and subsequently all Cretans. Consequently the name “Κρήτες” = Cretans, derived from the name C(ou)retans, as it is concluded from mythology. Crete was the daughter of one of the Couretans and wife of Zeus. (For more see the book: “Cretan History”, A. Krassanakis)
KNOSSOS AND OTHERS CITIES OF ANCIENT CRETE Poet Homer in the epic ILIAD (Iliad B 645 – 652, Odyssey t 178 - 183) reports that Crete had 100 or 90 cities, but report only these : Knossos, the capital of Crete, Gortys, Phaestos, Lyctos, Miletos, and Rhytio. Knossos was the capitol, the largest, the most important and the most famous-
glorious city of ancient Crete - in the Minoan civilization. Knossos was built by Minoas, in order to become the seat of the Common (United) Cretan State.
3. KING MINOAS AND THE MINOAN CIVILIZATION (CULTURE) According to the ancient writers: Plato (Laws, Minoas), Plutarch (Lykourgos 4-7, Solon 12 - 20), D. Laertios (Epimenides), Aristotle (Politics B, 1271, 10), Stravon (Geographics I, IV, C 481 - 483,17 - 20), Herodotus (A 65), Isocrates (Panathenaikos) THE CRETAN STATE AND KING MINOAS King Minoas and his brother Radamanthys are the reason that civilization (culture) spread and flourished in Greece. They are the founders, organizers and creators of the Eminent Cretan State, which was copied by all Greeks and thus were civilized, but also the founders and implementers of maritime activities (sea-faring), Cretans whose maritime martial navy drove away the undesirable elements (thieves, renegades, pirates, and others) and opened-up the marine corridors and thus enabling the Greeks to commute by sea, engage in marine activities, to gain wealth and prosper, and to prevail. For this reason they are admired by all Greeks. THE MINOAN CIVILIZATION IS THE FIRST AMONG THE GREEK CULTURES AND THE FIRST CIVILIZATION CREATED IN HUMAN HISTORY When Minoas became king of the Dorian Cretans in the island of Crete with the help of his brother Radamanthys, he united (unified) the cities and races of all Crete (Eteocretans, Kydonians, Pelasgeans, Achaeans and Dorians) into a single, totally comprehensive societal unit, and organized in a highly unusual way for this period in history the institutions of the State, the “Eminent Cretan State” (or "Confederation of the Cretans") which subsequently was copied by all Greeks and thus they became civilized and progressed. Capital (Seat) of the united kingdom for the Cretan State was designated the city of Knossos. The state of the Cretans created by Minoas and Radamanthys was later copied first by the Spartans and shortly thereafter by the Athenians. The Spartans for this purpose sent to Crete the legislator (lawmaker) Lykourgos and reciprocally invited to come to Sparta the lawmaker and poet Thaletas of Knossos. The Athenians for the same purpose also sent to Crete their legislator (lawmaker) Solon and reciprocally invited to come to Athens the Cretan Wiseman, Epimenides. During Minoa’s reign came the Kares and Phoenicians and occupied the islands of the Aegean that up to that time were uninhabited and henceforth committing crimes and pillages against the Greeks. Under these circumstances, Minoas conceives and creates a maritime, martial navy, the first such naval force in the world, and uses it to drive away from the islands of the Aegean the criminal Kares and Phoenicians. As a result of the above-mentioned actions, Minoas becomes master of the seas, frees up the marine corridors and thus enables the Greeks to commute by sea, to trade
amongst themselves, to deal with naval activities and marine type of work, to gain wealth and to establish cities (permanent residence for the people he brought to the islands from Crete, which before could not be done because of the predatory, piratical and criminal activities of the thieves, renegades and pirates who lived there).
THE CRETAN STATE AND MINOAN CIVILIZATION (CRETE CREATES THE FIRST GREAT CIVILIZATION) The first great, important civilization (culture) created on earth was the Minoan. It is said; the first time that a city was conceived, organized and created was in Crete during the reign of King Minoas. Minoas with the help of his brother Radamanthys united and unified into a single, totally comprehensive societal unit the various citystates of Crete (Gortyna, Kydonia, Lykasto, etc.) with capital the city Knossos. They conceived, organized and implemented the institutions of the state, such as (schools, community of property, public mess, laws and the constitution, etc.) for the just governance of the Cretan people. As a result of the state organized by Minoas was the creation of the first civilization in the world, known today as the Minoan Civilization, which subsequently was copied by all Greeks and not only. It is said that during the time period of Minoas were conceived the following: the constitution, the Parliament, the senators and representatives, the laws on the social and political administration, business transactions, tax collectors, etc. Of course because the laws of Minoas were for the first time conforming with the principles “on justice or divine sentiment”, etc., the Minoan laws were declared divine. This is also the reason that Minoas and Radamanthys after their death were deified and declared semi gods, sons of god Zeus and judges at the Hades of the Greeks (something similar to Alexander The Great, Constantine The Great, and others) or, as it was said, that Minoas took the laws directly from god Zeus on mount Dikti (something similar to Moses on mount Sina, etc.). It is worthy to note, that: 1) King Minoas with his brother Radamanthys are the first to conceive, create and implement the correctly just political institutions and laws in Greece. Specifically, they were the first to conceive and enact social institutions (= public mess, community of property, etc. = the ancestor of socialism) and political institutions (= the constitution, parliament, tax collectors and deputies, representatives or senators, etc.) for the right, fair equality and justice before the state, equal treatment before the law and the uniformly common (public) order of governance for all Cretans. 2) The ancient writers Aristotle, Plato, Isocrates and others report that Minoas and his brother Radamanthys were the first to conceive, create and implement democratic political institutions and laws in Greece. Specifically, they were the first to conceive and enact social institutions (= public mess, community of property, etc. = the ancestor of socialism) and political institutions (= the constitution, parliament, tax collectors and deputies, representatives or senators, etc.) for the right, fair
equality and justice before the state, equal treatment before the law and the uniformly common (public) order of governance for all Cretans. Prior to Minoas in all the world each king did whatever pleased him or made laws according to his will and own personal interest, named the leaders of the races, the tribes, the head of state depending upon his own preference and intelligence, which is also the reason that the Greeks did not recognize any other culture worthy to talk about except only the Minoan civilization, and they would say, “everyone not Greek is barbarian”. 3) The Cretan Civilization (Culture) is separated into several historic periods, the most important however are two. The period of time before Minoas with the eminent king Cretan (or Cretheas), and the period of time after Minoas; the culture of this period today is called Minoan Civilization. Simply stated, Evans named all the ancient Cretan culture Minoan from the most famous, world-renowned of its kings, Minoas. For the civilization of Crete before Minoas, the ancient writer Diodoros reports: "The residents, therefore, of Crete say that the most ancient residents in the island were natives, the so-called Eteocretans, whose king Cretas, discovered many very important things in the island that had promising possibilities to improve the social life and welfare of the people…For the Idaiae Daktylae of Crete, legend has it, that they discovered the fire, the use of copper and iron in the country of Apperaiae, the so called Verekynthos, as well as their elaboration and way of treatment. It is said, that one of them Hercules, exceeded all others in fame and that he founded the Olympic Games. As a consequence of the synonym subsequent people thought and theorized that the son of Alkmene established the Olympic Games. (Diodoros, Library Historical 5,64). "The Cretans introduced to humanity several useful things: They were first to assemble the sheep in flocks, tamed and domesticated several species of animals, discovered the apiculture, proposed and implemented the art of hunting, proposed and practiced the art of how to consort with and the harmonious living together between persons (people), but were also first to teach harmony and good conduct in social life activities. The Cretans discovered also the swords, the helmets and the martial dances. Legend has it that to them (Cretans) Rea, wife of Chronos, brought the infant Zeus secretly from his father Chronos to Crete in order to protect and raise (up-bring) him....", (Diodoros Library Historical 5,65).
THE CULTURE BEFORE KING MINOAS AND THE INFLUENCE OF MINOAN CULTURE ON THE OTHER GREEKS The state of the Cretans created by Minoas and Radamanthys was later copied first by the Spartans and shortly thereafter by the Athenians. The Spartans for this purpose sent to Crete the legislator (lawmaker) Lykourgos and reciprocally invited to come to Sparta the lawmaker and poet Thaletas of Knossos. The Athenians for this purpose also sent to Crete their legislator (lawmaker) Solon and reciprocally invited to come to Athens the Cretan Wiseman, Epimenides. Prior to the age of Minoas, in Greece and the rest of the world there did not exist any governing institutions, such as “constitutions, Parliaments, deputies, tax collection methods, state of concern, equal justice under the law, etc.”, but each leader (head of a tribe or tyrant or king) established laws for his people depending upon his own wishes and perception. Each king had in fact whatever wanted and the rest of the
people very little or nothing at all; and, no one dared to voice their opinions or objections, and they were worshipped as gods and many times asked for human sacrifices, unethical and corrupt practices, etc. Indeed, these reasons were also the cause, that: a) The Spartans declared that laws other than those enacted by Minoas were ridiculous and absurd to imitate or copy. b) The Jewish people were saying that if the world does not change, then God will destroy the world. c) The ancient Greeks do not report any other singular, important ancient culture other than the Minoan nor that they were saying "anyone who is not Hellene is barbarian" MYTH AND THE TRUTH ABOUT KING MINOAS AND RADAMANTHYS
The king Minoas, according to Greek Mythology, was sons of Zeus and Europa, daughter of the king of Phoenicia, and adopted son of Cretan king Asterius. According to the ancient writers: Homer, Apollodoros, Diodoros etc, King Minoas and his brother Radamanthys were ingenious legislators (they introduced, organized and implemented the institutions of the Eminent Cretan State), and that after their death were made judges of the underworld (Hades) of the Greeks, and that they were the sons of Zeus and Europa, daughter of the king of Phoenicia and adopted sons (because Europa remarried) of Cretan king Asterios. Contrarily, Herodotus (A, 2 - 5) reports that Persian scholars told him that Minoas and Sarpidonas (Radamanthys is not being mentioned) were not the sons of Zeus, but a Greek king’s, rather Cretan (implying the king of Crete Asterios, son of Tektamos) and Europa, whom he had abducted from Phoenicia. The ancient writers: Diodoros Sikeliotis (Book 1,.94,.5, 78-79), Arrian (Alexander’s Anavasjs 2 29), Stravon (Geographics I, C 481 - 483,.17 - 20) and others report that old legislators and kings, such as the Greek (Cretan) Minoas, the Egyptian Mneyis, the Greek (Macedonian) Alexander the Great and others were claiming that they were sons of god, for obvious and intelligible reasons, that is to say, in order that the people respect the laws or their orders. From their writings it is obvious that because the laws of Minoas and Radamanthys were not according to their personal opinions, as had been done until then by kings, but relative to divine orders (that is to say they were relative to a set of morals and religious sentiment), Minoas and Radamanthys were deified, that is to say, after their death were declared semi gods, sons of god Zeus and judges at Hades (the underworld), something similar to Alexander the Great, Constantine the Great, etc. THE REIGN OF KING MINOAS According to the Parjo Chronicle, biographer Plutarch (Thiseas) and writer Diodoros (4,60 - 61 and 5, 79-80) report that there were two kings with the name Minoas. King Minoas A’, who reigned the year 1210 prior to Diognetos (hence in 1474 B.C.), and king Minoas B’, who reigned the year 1031 prior to Diognetos (hence in 1295
B.C.), while the fall of “Troy” occurred the year 945 prior to Diognetos (hence in 1209 B.C.), which coincides with what has been written by Homer and historian Herodotus. Homer and Herodotus report that Minoas reigned three generations before the ‘Trojan War’, as well as that the grandson of Minoas, Idomeneas participated in this war: "Three generations after the death of Minoas the “Trojan War” started (Herodotus Z, 171). 4. STATED FALSE ACCUSATIONS (UNTRUTHS TOLD ABOUT) MINOAS AND THE MINOAN CRETANS The anti-Greek and those who are envious of Crete say that the Minoan civilization (culture), even though it may have been the first great civilization created, that it was not a Greek creation and that it was destroyed by a tsunami caused by the volcano eruption in Thera (Santorini), which is absolutely false, created due to envy, jealousy, dishonesty and absurdly malicious thinking, because: 1) If Crete had been destroyed by the explosion of the volcano in Thera (Santorini), that event would be considered so huge, significant and important issue that it would have been reported by Poseidonios, the ancient writer who witnessed and described the explosion of the volcano in Thera (Santorini), and which subsequently has been authenticated, verified and recorded by the writer Stravon. Also, Poseidonios reports the following: “Thera established a colony in Kyrene. Between Thera and Therasia flames arose from the sea and this phenomenon continued for four (4) days, in such a horrific, catastrophic way that the entire sea was boiling and was ablaze. The flames gradually and slowly brought to the surface an island that looked like it was formed from a unified red-hot mass and had a perimeter of 12 stages. As soon as this phenomenon ceased, the first people that dared to approach the place were the then sea-farers Rodoeans, who built on the island the sacred temple of Asfalios Poseidon (god of the sea), (Poseidonios, A 14-15 and Stravon’s, Geographics A, III 16). 2) The Minoan Civilization (Culture), as we will see below, not only was not destroyed, but that it was copied by all the other Greeks, who sent experts to Crete to research, study and learn this culture, and who reciprocated by inviting to their own cities experts from Crete to train and teach them. 3) King Minoas and the Cretans during the period of his reign (= Minoan,Minoans), as we will also see further below, were sects (races) of the so called Achaeans or Panhellenes, hence Greeks/Hellenes.
5. THE UNIFICATION OF THE CRETANS AND THE CONFLICT BETWEEN KNOSSOS – GORTYNA The unification of the Cretans was comprised initially by all cities of Crete with Knossos as its capital. Knossos was the largest city of ancient Crete, but not the most ancient. It was built by Minoas, in order to become the Capital (seat) of the Common (United) Cretan State. The most ancient cities of Crete were Kydonia, Katrea and Gortyna. Subsequently there were built others, such as Faistos, Lyktos, etc. Gortyna though (just before the rise of the Romans) quarreled with Knossos and in
order to defeat Knossos allied with the Romans. This action by Gortyna was very advantageous for her (it defeated the Knossoans and destroyed Faistos, Gortyna’s neighbor but ally of Knossos), and it proved to be very disastrous for Knossos and generally for all Hellenism, because in so doing gave the Romans the opportunity to destroy initially Knossos and eventually one-by-one all Greek cities that resisted them. After the destruction of Crete by the Romans, Gortyna became the capital. Subsequently all Cretan cities including Gortyna were radically destroyed by the Sarakians. They were finally liberated by Nikiforos Fokas. 6. THE CRETAN CRETANS) SEA DOMINANCE (THE SEA FARING - SEA GOVERNING
The writers: Thucydides (A, 4 - 8), Plato (Laws D, 706, b), Stravon (Geographics 10), Isocrates (Panathinaikos), Diodoros (Book 5, 84) and others report that Mjnoas was the first Greek to conceive, organize, create and implement a maritime martial naval force and with it pursued and drove out from the Aegean Sea the criminal Kares and Phoenicians, who had conquered and occupied the islands. Thus, the Cretans became the first to control the sea, open the marine corridors and enable the Greeks to deal and work with marine activities, commute and trade amongst all Greeks, further develop their marine capabilities, prosper and gain wealth, Prevail, etc. TODAY ONCE AGAIN THE GREEKS ARE SEAFARING (THALASSOCRATORS) Today the Greek owned merchant fleet (ships under Greek and foreign flag), according to data from the Ministry of Mercantile, once again comprises the first maritime shipping fleet in the world with an estimated (15.5% of the world’s mercantile shipping capacity). (For more see the book: CRETAN HISTORY, A. Krasanakis)