ƍƂƋƆƅƐƎƊƂ ƏƂƋƐƕƓƔƈ

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ƋƂƌƙƓ ƈƌƉƂƔƆ ƓƔƈ ƉƆƓƓƂƌƐƎƊƋƈ !

ƉƆƓƓƂƌƐƎƊƋƈ, ƈ ƑƒƙƔƆƕƐƕƓƂ ƔƈƓ ƍƂƋƆƅƐƎƊƂƓ
ƋƂƊ ƈ ƓƕƍƑƒƙƔƆƕƐƕƓƂ ƔƈƓ ƆƌƌƂƅƂƓ

ƌƥƵƪƼƲ ƑƽƱƣƯƲ

ƉƆƓƓƂƌƐƎƊƋƈ ² Ƒƌ. ƂƒƊƓƔƐƔƆƌƐƕƓ

[ Ɛ ƈƱƼƤƯƴƯƲ (ƢƫƝưƥ ƥƤƜƶƩơ Ƃ, 57- 58 ƪơƩ ƈ 43)
ơƭơƶƝƱƥƩ ƼƴƩ ƯƩ ƍơƪƥƤƼƭƥƲ ƥƟƭơƩ ƅƹƱƩƪƞƲ
ƪơƴơƣƹƣƞƲ ƪơƩ ƟƤƩƯƵ ƣƝƭƯƵƲ Ƭƥ ƴƯƵƲ ƓươƱƴƩƜƴƥƲ, ƴƯƵƲ
ƋƯƱƟƭƨƩƯƵƲ ƪ.ơ.
[ ƂƭơƶƝƱƥƩ ƥưƟƳƧƲ ƼƴƩ ƯƩ ƅƹƱƩƥƟƲ , ưƯƵ ƳƴƧƭ ƑƟƭƤƯ
ƫƝƣƯƭƴơƭ ƫƝƥƩ ƍơƪƥƤƭƯƟ, ƥƟƭơƩ ƴƯ ưƱƾƴƯ ƶƽƫƯ ưƯƵ
ơưƯƪƼưƧƪƥ ơưƼ ƴƯƵƲ ƢƜƱƢơƱƯƵƲ ƑƥƫơƳƣƯƽƲ ƪơƩ
ơưƯƴƝƫƥƳƥ ƮƝƷƹƱƯ ƝƨƭƯƲ, ƴƯ ƆƫƫƧƭƩƪƼ ƪơƩ ƬƥƴƜ
ưƱƯƳƷƾƱƧƳơƭ Ƴ· ơƵƴƼ ƼƫƯƩ ƯƩ ƑƥƫơƳƣƯƟ: ƯƩ ŽƹƭƥƲ ƞ
ƂƨƧƭơƟƯƩ, ƯƩ ƂƩƯƫƥƟƲ ƞ ƉƥƳƳơƫƯƟ ƪ.,ơ., ƪơƨƾƲ ƪơƩ
ƬƥƱƩƪƯƟ ƜƫƫƯƩ ƢƜƱƢơƱƯƩ.

[ Ɛ ƓƴƱƜƢƹƭơƲ ơƭơƶƝƱƥƩ ƼƴƩ Ƨ ƍơƪƥƤƯƭƟơ ƥƟƭơƩ
ƆƫƫƜƤơ ƪơƩ ƯƩ ƍơƪƥƤƼƭƥƲ ŻƫƫƧƭƥƲ, ưƱƢ:
[ «ƆƳƴƟƭ Ƭƥ ƯƵƭ ƆƫƫƜƲ ƪơƩ Ƨ ƍơƪƥƤƯƭƟơ, ƭƵƭƟ
ƬƝƭƴƯƩ ƴƧ ƶƽƳƥƩ ƴƹƭ ƴƼưƹƭ ơƪƯƫƯƵƨƯƽƭƴƥƲ
ƪơƩ ƴƹ ƳƷƞƬơƴƩ ƷƹƱƟƲ ƝƣƭƹƬƥƭ ơưƼ ƴƧƲ ƜƫƫƧƲ
ƆƫƫƜƤƯƲ ƴƜƮơƩ ƪơƩ ƳƵƭƜƸơƩ ưƱƯƲ ƼƬƯƱƯƭ ơƵƴƞƲ
ƉƱƜƪƧƲ« » (ƓƴƱƜƢƹƭ ƄƥƹƣƱơƶƩƪƜ, 7)

[ ƆưƟƳƧƲ Ư ƈƳƟƯƤƯƲ (ƋơƴƜƫƯƣƯƲ ƄƵƭơƩƪƾƭ ƞ ƈƯƟơƩ 1 - 6)
ơƭơƶƝƱƥƩ ƼƴƩ Ư ƄƱơƩƪƼƲ ƞ ŻƫƫƧƭơƲ, Ư ƍƜƣƭƧƲ ƪơƩ Ư
ƍơƪƧƤƾƭ ƥƟƭơƩ ƬƩơ ƯƩƪƯƣƝƭƥƩơ, ơƤƝƫƶƩơ, ươƩƤƩƜ ƴƯƵ
ƅƟơ ƪơƩ ƴƧƲ ƑơƭƤƾƱơƲ, ƪƼƱƧƲ ƴƯƵ ƅƥƵƪơƫƟƹƭơ.
[ ƆƪƴƼƲ ơƵƴƯƽ ƯƩ ƟƤƩƯƩ ƯƩ ơƱƷơƟƯƩ ƍơƪƥƤƼƭƥƲ
ƵưƥƱƧƶơƭƥƵƼƭƴƯƵƳơƭ ƼƴƩ ƞƳơƭ ŻƫƫƧƭƥƲ, ưƱƢ ư.Ʒ.
ƼƴƩ o ơƭƴƩƢơƳƩƫƝơƲ (ƪơƩ ƬƥƴƝưƥƩƴơ ƢơƳƩƫƩƜƲ) ƴƧƲ
ƍơƪƥƤƯƭƟơƲ ƂƬƽƭƴơƲ ƤƩơƬƧƭƽƥƩ ƳƴƯ ƢơƳƩƫƩƜ ƴƧƲ
ƑƥƱƳƟơƲ ƖơƱƭơƢƜƦƯ ƴơ ƥƮƞƲ: «ưƱƯƲ Ƥƥ ƪơƟ ƢơƳƩƫƝƩ ƴƹ
ưƝƬƸơƭƴƩ ơươƣƣƥƟƫƧƴƥ ƾƲ ƜƭƞƱ ƆƫƫƧƭ, ƍơƪƥƤƼƭƹƭ
ƽươƱƷƯƲ, ƥƽ ƵƬƝơƲ ƥƤƝƮơƴƯ ƪơƩ ƴƱơưƝƦƧ ƪơƩ ƪƯƟƴƧ»« .

[ ƐƬƯƟƹƲ Ư ƢơƳƩƫƩƜƲ ƴƧƲ ƍơƪƥƤƯƭƟơƲ
ƂƫƝƮơƭƤƱƯƲ Ƃ· ƫƝƥƩ ƳƴƯƵƲ ƂƨƧƭơƟƯƵƲ:
[ «ŹƭƤƱƥƲ ƂƨƧƭơƟƯƩ « .. ƅƥƭ ƨơ Ɲƫƥƣơ ơƵƴƜ ƴơ
ƫƼƣƩơ, ơƭ Ƥƥƭ ƶƱƼƭƴƩƦơ ƵưƥƱƢƯƫƩƪƜ ƣƩơ ƼƫƧ
ƴƧƭ ƆƫƫƜƤơ ƥƭ ƣƝƭƥƩ, ƣƩơƴƟ ƪơƩ ƥƣƾ ƥƟƬơƩ
ŻƫƫƧƭơƲ ơưƼ ươƫơƩƜ ƪơƩ Ƥƥ ƢơƳƴƜ Ƨ ƸƵƷƞ ƬƯƵ
ƭơ ƢƫƝưƹ ƴƧƭ ƆƫƫƜƤơ ƵưƯƤƯƵƫƹƬƝƭƧ ơƭƴƟ
ƥƫƥƵƨƝƱơƲ« » (ƈƱƼƤƯƴƯƵ ƊƳƴƯƱƟơ, ƢƩƢƫƟƯ Ɖ·, 45).

ŹưƯƸƧ ƉƥƳƳơƫƯƭƟƪƧƲ ơưƼ
ƴƯ ƉƥƱƬơƺƪƼ ƪƼƫưƯ

( ƓƴƧƭ ƥưƩƳƴƯƫƞ ơƵƴƞ Ư ƟƤƩƯƲ Ư ƍ. ƂƫƝƮơƭƤƱƯƲ ơƭơƶƝƱƥƩ
ưƯƩƯƲ ƥƟƭơƩ, ƴƩ ƥƨƭƩƪƼƴƧƴơƲ ƥƟƭơƩ ơƵƴƼƲ ƪơƩ Ư ƳƴƱơƴƼƲ
ƴƯƵ ƪơƩ ƣƩơ ưƯƩơ ơƩƴƟơ ƥƪƳƴƱơƴƥƽƥƩ ƥƭơƭƴƟƯƭ ƴƹƭ
ƑƥƱƳƾƭ ƪơƩ ƴƹƭ ƳƵƬƬƜƷƹƭ ƴƯƵƲ)

« ..ƐƩ ưƱƼƣƯƭƯƟ ƳơƲ ƞƱƨơƭ ƳƴƧƭ ƍơƪƥƤƯƭƟơ ƪơƩ ƳƴƧƭ
ƵưƼƫƯƩưƧ ƆƫƫƜƤơ ƪơƩ ƬơƲ ưƱƯƪơƫƝƳơƴƥ ƬƥƣƜƫƥƲ
ƳƵƬƶƯƱƝƲ, ƷƹƱƟƲ ƭơ ƝƷƯƵƭ ƪƜƭƥƩ ƪơƭƥƟƲ ơưƼ ƥƬƜƲ
ƪơƭƝƭơ ƪơƪƼ. ƔƾƱơ ưƯƵ ƥƣƾ ƝƣƩƭơ ƢơƳƩƫƩƜƲ ƴƹƭ
Ɔƫƫƞƭƹƭ, ưƝƱơƳơ ƳƴƧƭ ƂƳƟơ, ƣƩơ ƭơ ƥƪƤƩƪƧƨƾ ƴƩƲ
ƤƩƪƝƲ ƳơƲ ơƤƩƪƟƥƲ« . ƆƮƜƫƫƯƵ, ƢƯƧƨƞƳơƴƥ ƴƯƵƲ
ƑƥƱƟƭƨƩƯƵƲ ưƯƵ ơƤƩƪƯƽƳơƭ ƴƯƭ ươƴƝƱơ ƬƯƵ ƪơƩ Ư
ƀƷƯƲ ƝƳƴƥƩƫƥ ƳƴƱơƴƼ ƳƴƧ ƉƱƜƪƧ ưƯƵ ƴƧƭ ƪơƴƥƟƷơƬƥ
ƥƬƥƟƲ. Ɛ ươƴƝƱơƲ ƬƯƵ ƤƯƫƯƶƯƭƞƨƧƪƥ Ƭƥ
ƳƵƭƹƬƯƳƟơ ưƯƵ ƯƱƣơƭƾƳơƴƥ ƥƳƥƟƲ, ƼưƹƲ ƯƩ ƟƤƩƯƩ
ƤƩơƤƾƳơƴƥ Ƭƥ ƥưƩƳƴƯƫƝƲ ƳơƲ ƳŷƼƫƯ ƴƯƭ ƪƼƳƬƯ « «
ƆƪƳƴƱƜƴƥƵƳơ ƫƯƩưƼƭ ƥƭơƭƴƟƯƭ ƳƯƵ, ƥưƥƩƤƞ ƥƳƽ
ƮƥƪƟƭƧƳƥƲ ƴƧƭ ƝƷƨƱơ« .» (ƂƱƱƩơƭƼƲ ƃ 14, 4).

ƍƆƄƂƓ ƂƌƆƏƂƎƅƒƐƓ, ƉƆƓƓƂƌƐƎƊƋƈ

ƍƆƄƂƓ ƂƌƆƏƂƎƅƒƐƓ, ƉƆƓƓƂƌƐƎƊƋƈ!

ƍơƪƥƤƯƭƩƪƞ ƶƜƫơƣƣơ Ƭƥ ƴƯ ƍ. ƂƫƝƮơƭƤƱƯ ƪơƢƜƫơ ƳƴƯ ƃƯƵƪƥƶƜƫơ
ƫƥưƴƯƬƝƱƥƩơ ơưƼ ƴƯ ƜƣơƫƬơ

ƆưƟƳƧƲ Ư ƑƯƫƽƢƩƯƲ ơƭơƶƝƱƥƩ ƼƴƩ ƯƩ ƍơƪƥƤƼƭƥƲ ƞƳơƭ ƯƩ
ưƱƯƳƴƜƴƥƲ ƴƹƭ Ɔƫƫƞƭƹƭ Ƴƴơ ƢƼƱƥƩơ ƳƽƭƯƱƜ ƴƯƵƲ:
"TƟƭƯƲ ƪơƟ ưƧƫƟƪƧƲ ƤƥƩ ƴƩƬƞƲ ơƮƩƯƽƳƨơƩ MơƪƥƤƼƭơƲ, ƯƩ
ƴƼƭ ưƫƥƟƹ ƴƯƵ ƢƟƯƵ ƷƱƼƭƯƭ ƯƵ ươƽƯƭƴơƩ
ƤƩơƣƹƭƩƦƼƬƥƭƯƩ ưƱƼƲ ƴƯƽƲ ƢơƱƢƜƱƯƵƲ ƵưƝƱ ƴƧƲ ƴƹƭ
Eƫƫƞƭƹƭ ơƳƶơƫƥƟơƲ; ƼƴƩ ƣƜƱ ƥƩ ưƯƴ·ơƭ ƥƭ ƬƥƣƜƫƯƩƲ Ƨƭ
ƪƩƭƤƽƭƯƩƲ ƴƜ ƪơƴƜ ƴƯƽƲ EƫƫƧƭơƲ, ƥƩ Ƭƞ MơƪƥƤƼƭơƲ
ƥƟƷƯƬƥƭ ưƱƼƶƱơƣƬơ ƪơƟ ƴƜƲ ƴƹƭ ươƱƜ ƴƯƽƴƯƩƲ
ƢơƳƩƫƝƹƭ ƶƩƫƯƴƩƬƟơƲ, ƴƟƲ ƯƵ ƣƩƭƾƳƪƥƩ;« (ƑƯƫƽƢƩƯƲ IX
35,2)

ƉƆƓƓƂƌƐƎƊƋƈ ² ƂƄƊƂ ƓƐƖƊƂ

[ Ɛ ƓƴƱƜƢƹƭơƲ ơƭơƶƝƱƥƩ ƼƴƩ Ư ƋƜƳƳơƭƤƱƯƲ ƴƯ 316 ư.Ɨ.
ƪơƴƜƱƣƧƳƥ ƴƯƵƲ ƯƩƪƩƳƬƯƽƲ ƳƴƯ ƉƥƱƬơƺƪƼ ƪƼƫưƯ ƪơƩ Ƭƥ
ƳƵƭƯƩƪƩƳƬƼ ƟƤƱƵƳƥ ƭƝơ ưƼƫƧ ƳƴƧƭ ƯưƯƟơ ƝƤƹƳƥ ƴƯ ƼƭƯƬơ ƴƧƲ
ƣƵƭơƟƪơƲ ƴƯƵ, ƴƧƲ ƉƥƳƳơƫƯƭƟƪƧƲ, Ƨ ƯưƯƟơ ƞƴơƭ ƪƼƱƧ ƴƯƵ
ƖƩƫƟưưƯƵ ƃ ƪơƩ ƥƴƥƱƯƨơƫƞ ơƤƥƫƶƞ ƴƯƵ ƍ. ƂƫƝƮơƭƤƱƯƵ.
[ Ɛ Ɠƴ. ƃƵƦƜƭƴƩƯƲ ơƭơƶƝƱƥƩ ƼƴƩ Ư ƩƤƱƵƴƞƲ ƴƧƲ ƉƥƳƳơƫƯƭƟƪƧƲ ƥƟƭơƩ
Ư ƖƟƫƩưưƯƲ ƃ· , ƬơƱƴƵƱƟơ ƴƧƭ ƯưƯƟơ ưƩƳƴƯưƯƩƥƟ:
[ ơ) ƨƱơƽƳƬơ ƢƜƳƧƲ ơƱƷơƟƯƵ ơƭƤƱƩƜƭƴơ ưƯƵ ƶƵƫƜƳƳƥƴơƩ ƳƴƯ
ƍƯƵƳƥƟƯ ƉƥƳƳơƫƯƭƟƪƧƲ ƪơƩ ơƭơƶƝƱƥƩ «ƉƆƓƓƂƌƐƎƊƋƈƎ
ƖƊƌƊƑƑƐƕ ƃƂƓƊƌƊƓƓƂƎ»,
[ Ƣ) Ƨ ƥƴƵƬƯƫƯƣƟơ ƴƧƲ ƯƭƯƬơƳƟơƲ «ƉƥƳƳơƫƯƭƟƪƧ ƞ
ƉƥƳƳơƫƯƭƩƪƥƟơ (ƓƴƱƜƢƹƭ 7,4)» = « Ƨ ƪơƴƜ ƴƹƭ ƉƥƳƳơƫƾƭ
ƭƟƪƧ».

[ Ɛ ƖƟƫƩưưƯƲ ƃ·, ƹƲ ƣƭƹƳƴƼ, ƭƟƪƧƳƥ ƪơƴƜ ƴƧ ƤƩƜƱƪƥƩơ ƴƯƵ Ƅ'
ƊƥƱƯƽ ƑƯƫƝƬƯƵ (355-352 ư.Ɨ.) ƴƯ ƳƴƱơƴƼ ƴƹƭ ƉƥƳƳơƫƾƭ ƪơƩ
ƳƵƭƜƬơ ƥƟƷƥ ƬƩơ ƪƼƱƧ (ƥƴƥƱƯƨơƫƞ ơƤƥƫƶƞ ƴƯƵ ƍ. ƂƫƝƮơƭƤƱƯƵ
ƪơƩ ƣƵƭơƟƪơ ƴƯƵ ƋƜƳƳơƭƤƱƯƵ) ưƯƵ ƴƧƭ Ɲƫƥƣơƭ ƉƥƳƳơƫƯƭƟƪƧ,
ƼƭƯƬơ ưƯƵ ƴƧƲ ƤƼƨƧƪƥ, ưƱƯƶơƭƾƲ, ƫƼƣƹ ƴƧƲ ƭƟƪƧƲ ƴƯƵ ươƴƝƱơ
ƴƧƲ ƥưƟ ƴƹƭ ƉƥƳƳơƫƾƭ.
[ ƆưƯƬƝƭƹƲ Ƨ ưƼƫƧ ƴƧƲ ƉƥƳƳơƫƯƭƟƪƧƲ, ƳƽƬƶƹƭơ ƪơƩ Ƭƥ ƴƩƲ ƤƵƯ
ƬơƱƴƵƱƟƥƲ,
[ ƪƴƟƳƴƧƪƥ (ƩƤƱƽƨƧƪƥ) ƥưƟ ƥưƯƷƞƲ ƴƧƲ ƪƼƱƧƲ ƴƯƵ ƖƩƫƟưưƯƵ ƃ·,
ƴƧƲ ƉƥƳƳơƫƯƭƟƪƧƲ, ƪơƩ ƳƵƣƪƥƪƱƩƬƝƭơ ƬƥƴƜ ƴƧ ƭƟƪƧ ƴƹƭ
ƍơƪƥƤƼƭƹƭ ƥưƟ ƴƹƭ ƉƥƳƳơƫƾƭ, ƪƜưƯƵ ƬƥƴơƮƽ 352 - 316 ư.Ɨ.

ƈ ƢƜƳƧ ƴƯƵ ơƱƷơƟƯƵ ơƭƤƱƩƜƭƴơ, Ƨ ƯưƯƟơ ơƭơƶƝƱƥƩ
«ƉƥƳƳơƫƯƭƟƪƧ, ƖƩƫƟưưƯƵ ƢơƳƟƫƩƳƳơ».

Ƅ· ƓƙƍƂ ƓƔƒƂƔƐƕ

[ Ɛ ơƱƷơƟƯƲ ƩƳƴƯƱƩƪƼƲ ƂƱƱƩơƭƼƲ ơƭơƶƝƱƥƩ: «ƆƪƥƟ (ƳƴƧƭ ƊƭƤƟơ)
ƥƟƤơƭ (ƯƩ ƭơƽƴƥƲ ƴƯƵƲ ƎƝơƱƷƯƵ) ƪƜưƯƩƯƭ ưƯƵ ƶƯƱƯƽƳƥ
ƆƫƫƧƭƩƪƞ ƷƫơƬƽƤơ, ƶƥƱƼƴơƭ ƼưƹƲ ƯƩ ŻƫƫƧƭƥƲ ƪơƩ ƬƩƫƯƽƳƥ
ƆƫƫƧƭƩƪƜ. ƐƩ ưƱƾƴƯƩ ưƯƵ ƴƯƭ ƥƟƤơƭ ƫƝƭƥ ƼƴƩ ƝƢơƫơƭ ƴơ
ƪƫƜƬơƴơ. ƔƼƳƯ ơƭơưƜƭƴƥƷƯ ƴƯƵƲ ƶƜƭƧƪƥ, ƬƥƴƜ ơưƼ ƴƼƳƥƲ
ƳƵƬƶƯƱƝƲ, ƭơ ơƭƴƩƪƱƽƳƯƵƭ Ɲƭơ ŻƫƫƧƭơ ƪơƩ ƭơ ơƪƯƽƳƯƵƭ ƴƧƭ
ƆƫƫƧƭƩƪƞ ƣƫƾƳƳơ. ƔƯƭ ƱƾƴƧƳơƭ ơưƼ ưƯƽ ƝƱƷƥƴơƩ ƪơƩ ưƯƩƯƲ
ƥƟƭơƩ. ƔƯƵƲ ƥƟưƥ ƼƴƩ ƥƟƷƥ ƶƽƣƥƩ ơưƼ ƴƯ ƳƴƱơƴƼưƥƤƯ ƴƯƵ
ƂƫƝƮơƭƤƱƯƵ ƪơƩ ƼƴƩ ƴƯ ƳƴƱơƴƼưƥƤƯ ƪơƩ Ư ƟƤƩƯƲ Ư ƂƫƝƮơƭƤƱƯƲ
Ƥƥƭ ƥƟƭơƩ ƬơƪƱƩƜ. ƗƥƩƱƯƪƱƯƴƾƭƴơƲ ƪơƩ ƶƹƭƜƦƯƭƴơƲ ưƞƣơƭ
ƳƴƯƭ ƎƝơƱƷƯ « (ƂƱƱƩơƭƼƲ, ƊƭƤƩƪƞ, 4,33, ƳƥƫƟƤơ 195)

[ Ɛ ơƱƷơƟƯƲ ƩƳƴƯƱƩƪƼƲ ƂƱƱƩơƭƼƲ ơƭơƶƝƱƥƩ: «ƆƪƥƟ (ƳƴƧƭ ƊƭƤƟơ)
ƥƟƤơƭ (ƯƩ ƭơƽƴƥƲ ƴƯƵƲ ƎƝơƱƷƯƵ) ƪƜưƯƩƯƭ ưƯƵ ƶƯƱƯƽƳƥ
ƆƫƫƧƭƩƪƞ ƷƫơƬƽƤơ, ƶƥƱƼƴơƭ ƼưƹƲ ƯƩ ŻƫƫƧƭƥƲ ƪơƩ ƬƩƫƯƽƳƥ
ƆƫƫƧƭƩƪƜ. ƐƩ ưƱƾƴƯƩ ưƯƵ ƴƯƭ ƥƟƤơƭ ƫƝƭƥ ƼƴƩ ƝƢơƫơƭ ƴơ ƪƫƜƬơƴơ.
ƔƼƳƯ ơƭơưƜƭƴƥƷƯ ƴƯƵƲ ƶƜƭƧƪƥ, ƬƥƴƜ ơưƼ ƴƼƳƥƲ ƳƵƬƶƯƱƝƲ, ƭơ
ơƭƴƩƪƱƽƳƯƵƭ Ɲƭơ ŻƫƫƧƭơ ƪơƩ ƭơ ơƪƯƽƳƯƵƭ ƴƧƭ ƆƫƫƧƭƩƪƞ
ƣƫƾƳƳơ. ƔƯƭ ƱƾƴƧƳơƭ ơưƼ ưƯƽ ƝƱƷƥƴơƩ ƪơƩ ưƯƩƯƲ ƥƟƭơƩ. ƔƯƵƲ
ƥƟưƥ ƼƴƩ ƥƟƷƥ ƶƽƣƥƩ ơưƼ ƴƯ ƳƴƱơƴƼưƥƤƯ ƴƯƵ ƂƫƝƮơƭƤƱƯƵ ƪơƩ ƼƴƩ
ƴƯ ƳƴƱơƴƼưƥƤƯ ƪơƩ Ư ƟƤƩƯƲ Ư ƂƫƝƮơƭƤƱƯƲ Ƥƥƭ ƥƟƭơƩ ƬơƪƱƩƜ.
ƗƥƩƱƯƪƱƯƴƾƭƴơƲ ƪơƩ ƶƹƭƜƦƯƭƴơƲ ưƞƣơƭ ƳƴƯƭ ƎƝơƱƷƯ «
(ƂƱƱƩơƭƼƲ, ƊƭƤƩƪƞ, 4,33, ƳƥƫƟƤơ 195)
[ Ɛ ƒƹƬơƟƯƲ ƩƳƴƯƱƩƪƼƲ ƌƟƢƩƯƲ ơƭơƶƝƱƥƩ: «« ƯƩ ƂƩƴƹƫƯƟ, ƯƩ
ƂƪơƱƭơƭƯƟ ƪơƩ ƯƩ ƍơƪƥƤƼƭƥƲ, ƜƭƤƱƥƲ ƯƬƯƟơƲ ƣƫƾƳƳƧƲ,
ƥƭƹƬƝƭƯƩ ƞ ƷƹƱƩƳƬƝƭƯƩ ƫƼƣƹ ơƳƞƬơƭƴƹƭ ơƩƴƩƾƭ ƯƩ ƯưƯƟƥƲ
ƥƬƶơƭƟƦƯƭƴơƩ ơưƼ ƪơƩƱƯƽ ƥƩƲ ƪơƩƱƼƭ« » (ƌƟƢƩƯƲ, ƊƳƴƯƱƟơ ƴƧƲ
ƒƾƬƧƲ, ƢƩƢƫƟƯƭ ƗƗƗ ươƱ. ƗƗƊƗ
[ ƂƤƩƜƸƥƵƳƴƯƩ ƬƜƱƴƵƱƥƲ ƥƟƭơƩ ƪơƩ ƴơ ƍơƪƥƤƯƭƩƪƜ ƭƯƬƟƳƬơƴơ, ƴơ
ƯưƯƟơ ƥƟƭơƩ Ƴƥ ƥƫƫƧƭƩƪƞ ƣƱơƶƞ, ƥƫƫƧƭƩƪƞ ƣƫƾƳƳơ ƪƫư

ƋơƬƜƱơ, ƂƸƟƤơ ƄơƫƝƱƩƯƵ, 4ƯƲ ơƩ. Ƭ.Ɨ

[ Ɛ ƖƟƫƩưưƯƲ ƃ· , 359 ² 336 ư.Ɨ., Ư ươƴƝƱơƲ ƴƯƵ Ƭ. ƂƫƝƮơƭƤƱƯƵ,
ƥƫƥƵƨƝƱƹƳƥ ƴƯƵƲ ƍơƪƥƤƼƭƥƲ ơưƼ ƴƯƵƲ ƊƫƫƵƱƩƯƽƲ ƪơƩ ƳƴƧ
ƳƵƭƝƷƥƩơ Ɲƪơƭƥ ƬƥƣƜƫƧ ƪơƩ ƪƵƱƟơ ƴƧ ƍơƪƥƤƯƭƟơ.
[ ŽƤƱƵƳƥ ƣƩơ ưƱƾƴƧ ƶƯƱƜ ƳƴƯƭ ƊƳƨƬƼ ƴƧƲ ƋƯƱƟƭƨƯƵ ƴƯ
ƓƵƬƢƯƽƫƩƯ ƴƹƭ Ɔƫƫƞƭƹƭ ƪơƩ ƫƼƣƹ ƴƧƲ ƩƪơƭƼƴƧƴƜƲ ƴƯƵ ơƪƼƬƧ
ƪơƩ ƯƩ ƵưƼƫƯƩưƯƩ ŻƫƫƧƭƥƲ ƴƯ ơƭơƪƞƱƵƮơƭ ƧƣƥƬƼƭơ ƴƯƵƲ, ưƱƢ:
[ «ƑơƱơƫơƢƾƭ (Ư ƢơƳƩƫƥƽƲ ƖƟƫƩưưƯƲ ƴƯƵ ƂƬƽƭƴơ) ƴƧƭ
ƍơƪƥƤƯƭƟơƭ ƤƯƵƫƥƵƯƵƳơƭ ƊƫƫƵƱƩƥƟƲ ưƯƫƫƾƭ ƪơƩ ƬƥƣƜƫƹƭ
ƥƨƭƾƭ ƪơƩ ưƼƫƥƹƭ ƪƵƱƟơƭ ƥưƯƟƧƳƥ ƪơƩ Ɲƭƥƪơ ƴƯƩƲ ơƵƴƯƽ
ƩƪơƭƼƴƧƴơƲ ƪơƩ ƬƼƭƯ ƧƣƥƬƾƭ ƴƧƲ ƆƫƫƜƤƯƲ ơƭƝƫơƢƥ»
(ƅƩƼƤƹƱƯƲ 16.1)

[ ƔƯ ƷƥƩƬƾƭơ ƴƯƵ 338 /337 Ƒ.Ɨ. , ƬƥƴƜ ƴƧ ƬƜƷƧ ƴƧƲ
ƗơƩƱƾƭƩơƲ, Ư ƢơƳƩƫƩƜƲ ƴƧƲ ƍơƪƥƤƯƭƟơƲ ƖƟƫƩưưƯƲ ƃ·
ƪơƫƥƟ ƴƯƵƲ ƭƼƴƩƯƵƲ ŻƫƫƧƭƥƲ ƳƴƯƭ ƊƳƨƬƼ ƴƧƲ ƋƯƱƟƭƨƯƵ
ƪơƩ ƴƯƵƲ ƦƧƴƜ ơưƼ ƴƧ ƬƩơ ƭơ ưƜƸƯƵƭ ƴƩƲ ƬƥƴơƮƽ ƴƯƵƲ
ưƯƫƝƬƯƵƲ ƪơƩ ơưƼ ƴƧƭ ƜƫƫƧ ƭơ ƥƭƾƳƯƵƭ ƴƩƲ
ƳƴƱơƴƩƹƴƩƪƝƲ ƴƯƵƲ ƤƵƭƜƬƥƩƲ Ƭƥ ơƵƴƼƭ ƥưƩƪƥƶơƫƞƲ,
ƾƳƴƥ ƭơ ơƭƴƩƬƥƴƹưƟƳƯƵƭ ƴƯƵƲ ƑƝƱƳƥƲ, ƯƩ ƯưƯƟƯƩ
ươƱƜ ƴƩƲ ƞƴƴƥƲ ƴƯƵƲ ƳƴƯ ƍơƱơƨƾƭơ, ƓơƫơƬƟƭơ ƪ.ƫư.
ƳƵƭƝƷƩƦơƭ ƪơƩ ơƭơƪơƴƥƽƯƭƴơƭ Ƴƴơ ƥƫƫƧƭƩƪƜ
ưƱƜƣƬơƴơ.

ƑƆƌƌƂ, ƑƒƙƔƈ ƑƒƙƔƆƕƐƕƓƂ ƍƂƋƆƅƐƎƊƂƓ

ƑƆƌƌƂ, ƌƆƑƔƐƍƆƒƆƊƂ ƘƊƖƈƅƙƔƐƕ

ƃƆƒƄƊƎƂ, ƔƂƖƐƓ ƖƊƌƊƑƑƐƕ ƃ·

ƃƆƒƄƊƎƂ, ƌƆƑƔƐƍƆƒƆƊƂ ƔƐƊƗƐƄƒƂƖƊƂƓ

ƃƆƒƄƊƎƂ, ƌƂƒƎƂƋƂ ƍƆ ƂƓƔƆƒƊ ƅƙƒƊƆƙƎ

ƎƼƬƩƳƬơ ƍ. ƂƫƝƮơƭƤƱƯƵ, 356 ² 323 ư.Ɨ.

[ ƍƥƴƜ ƴƧƭ ƟƤƱƵƳƧ ƴƧƲ ƑơƭƥƫƫƞƭƩơƲ ƳƵƬƬơƷƟơƲ ơưƼ ƴƯ ƖƟƫƩưưƯ,
ƯƩ ƑƝƱƳƥƲ ƝƢơƫơƭ ơƭƨƱƾưƯƵƲ ƴƯƵƲ ƪơƩ ƴƯƭ ƤƯƫƯƶƼƭƧƳơƭ,
ƾƳƴƥ ƭơ ƬƧ ƣƟƭƥƩ Ƨ ƆƫƫƜƤơ ƬƥƣƜƫƧ ƤƽƭơƬƧ.
[ ƂƪƯƫƯƽƨƹƲ ƴƧƭ ƧƣƥƬƯƭƟơ ƴƧƲ ƍơƪƥƤƯƭƟơƲ ơƭơƫơƬƢƜƭƥƩ Ư ƣƩƯƲ
ƴƯƵ ƂƫƝƮơƭƤƱƯƲ Ƅ·, Ư ƬƥƴƝưƥƩƴơ ƍƝƣơƲ ƂƫƝƮơƭƤƱƯƲ, Ư ƯưƯƟƯƲ
ƳƵƣƪơƫƥƟ ƴƯ ƓƵƬƢƯƽƫƩƯ ƴƹƭ Ɔƫƫƞƭƹƭ ƳƴƧƭ ƋƼƱƩƭƨƯ ưƯƵ ƥƟƷƥ
ƩƤƱƽƳƥƩ Ư ươƴƝƱơƲ ƴƯƵ ƪơƩ ƦƧƴƜ ƭơ ƥƪƳƴƱơƴƥƽƳƥƩ ơƬƝƳƹƲ
ƳƴƧƭ ƂƳƟơ ƼƷƩ ƬƼƭƯ ƣƩơ ƭơ ƴƩƬƹƱƞƳƥƩ ƴƯƵƲ ƑƝƱƳƥƲ ƣƩơ ƴƧ
ƤƯƫƯƶƯƭƟơ ƴƯƵ ươƴƝƱơ ƴƯƵ, ơƫƫƜ ƪơƩ ƣƩơ ƭơ ƤƩơƫƽƳƥƩ ƴƯ
ƪƱƜƴƯƲ, ƾƳƴƥ ƭơ ưƜƸƯƵƭ ƭơ ƥƪƳƴƱơƴƥƽƯƵƭ ƥƭơƭƴƟƯƭ ƴƹƭ
Ɔƫƫƞƭƹƭ., ưƱƢ: «ƆƩƲ Ƥƥ ƴƯƭ ƊƳƨƬƯƭ ƴƹƭ Ɔƫƫƞƭƹƭ ƳƵƫƫƥƣƝƭƴƹƭ,
ƪơƩ ƸƧƶƩƳơƬƝƭƹƭ ƥưƟ ƑƝƱƳơƲ Ƭƥƴ· ƂƫƝƮơƭƤƱƯƵ ƳƴƱơƴƥƽƥƩƭ,
ƧƣƥƬƾƭ ơƭƧƣƯƱƥƽƨƧ» ( ƑƫƯƵƴƜƱƷƯƵ, ƂƫƝƮơƭƤƱƯƲ 14)

«žƴơƭ ơƭƝƫơƢƥ ƴƧ ƢơƳƩƫƥƟơ Ư ƂƫƝƮơƭƤƱƯƲ, ƹƲ ƣƩƯƲ ƴƯƵ
ƤƯƫƯƶƯƭƧƬƝƭƯƵ ƖƩƫƟưưƯƵ, ưƞƣƥ ƳƴƧƭ ƑƥƫƯưƼƭƭƧƳƯ.
żƴơƭ ƴƼƴƥ ưƥƱƟưƯƵ ƥƟƪƯƳƩ ƥƴƾƭ. ƆƪƥƟ ƳƵƣƪƝƭƴƱƹƳƥ ƴƯƵƲ
ƑƥƫƯưƯƭƭƧƳƟƯƵƲ ƪơƩ ƴƯƵƲ ƦƞƴƧƳƥ ƴƧƭ ơƱƷƧƣƟơ ƴƧƲ
ƥƪƳƴƱơƴƥƟơƲ ƪơƴƜ ƴƹƭ ƑƥƱƳƾƭ, ƬƩơ ƪơƩ ƴƧƭ ƥƟƷơƭ ƞƤƧ
ơƭơƨƝƳƥƩ ƳƴƯƭ ƖƟƫƩưưƯ. žƫƯƩ ƳƵƬƶƾƭƧƳơƭ, ƥƪƴƼƲ ơưƼ
ƴƯƵƲ ƓươƱƴƩƜƴƥƲ, ưƯƵ ơưƜƭƴƧƳơƭ ƼƴƩ Ƨ ươƱƜƤƯƳƧ ƴƯƵƲ
ƥưƩƢƜƫƥƩ ƼƷƩ ƭơ ơƪƯƫƯƵƨƯƽƭ, ơƫƫƜ ƭơ ƪơƨƯƤƧƣƯƽƭ
ƜƫƫƯƵƲ« ..» (ƂƱƱƩơƭƯƽ, ƂƫƥƮƜƭƤƱƯƵ ƂƭƜƢơƳƧƲ Ƃ 1)

ƂƌƆƏƂƎƅƒƆƊƂ ƂƊƄƕƑƔƐƕ,
ŹƣơƫƬơ ƴƯƵ ƍ. ƂƫƥƮƜƭƤƱƯƵ, ƩƤƱƵƴƞ ƴƧƲ ưƼƫƧƲ.

ƂƌƆƏƂƎƅƒƆƊƂ ƂƊƄƕƑƔƐƕ,
ŹƣơƫƬơ ƴƯƵ ƍ. ƂƫƥƮƜƭƤƱƯƵ, ƩƤƱƵƴƞ ƴƧƲ ưƼƫƧƲ.

ƌƯƵƮƯƱ ƂƩƣƽưƴƯƵ,
Ɛ ƂƫƝƮơƭƤƱƯƲ ƪơƩ Ư ŹƬƬƯƭ

[ ƐƩ ơƱƷơƟƯƩ ƳƵƣƣƱơƶƥƟƲ: ƂƱƱƩơƭƼƲ (ƃ 14, 4), ƑƫƯƽƴơƱƷƯƲ
(«ƂƫƝƮơƭƤƱƯƲ» 34 ² 47 ƪơƩ «ƑƥƱƟ ƴƧƲ ƂƫƥƮƜƭƤƱƯƵ ƔƽƷƧƲ ƞ ƂƱƥƴƞƲ»
Ƃ, 3 ² 7, 328-329 ), ƂƣƟơ ƣƱơƶƞ (ƍơƪƪơƢơƟƹƭ, Ƌƥƶ. 1), ƈƱƼƤƯƴƯƲ
(Ɔ 17-22), ƑƯƫƽƢƩƯƲ (IX 35,2) ƪ.ơ., ơƭơƶƝƱƯƵƭ ƼƴƩ Ư ƬƥƣơƲ
ƂƫƝƮơƭƤƱƯƲ ƮƥƪƟƭƧƳƥ ƴƧƭ ƥƪƳƴƱơƴƥƟơ ƴƯƵ ƳƴƧƭ ƂƳƟơ, ƹƲ
ƧƣƥƬƼƭơƲ Ƽƫƹƭ ƴƹƭ Ɔƫƫƞƭƹƭ , ưƫƧƭ ƴƹƭ ƓươƱƴƩơƴƾƭ, ƣƩơ ƭơ
ƵƫƯưƯƩƞƳƥƩ ƴƩƲ ơưƯƶƜƳƥƩƲ ƴƯƵ ƓƵƭƥƤƱƟƯƵ ƴƯƵƲ ưƯƵ ƥƟƷƥ ƣƟƭƥƩ
ƫƟƣƯ ưƩƯ ưƱƩƭ ƳƴƧƭ ƋƼƱƩƭƨƯ.
[ ƐƩ ơưƯƶƜƳƥƩƲ ƴƯƵ ƓƵƭƥƤƱƟƯƵ ƥƪƥƟƭƯƵ ƞƴơƭ ƭơ ƥƭƾƳƯƵƭ ƴơ
ƳƴƱơƴƥƽƬơƴƜ ƴƯƵƲ ƼƫƥƲ ƯƩ ƆƫƫƧƭƩƪƝƲ ưƼƫƥƩƲ-ƪƱƜƴƧ ƪơƩ ƭơ
ƥƪƳƴƱơƴƥƽƳƯƵƭ ƥƭơƭƴƟƯƭ ƴƹƭ ƑƥƱƳƾƭ ưƱƯƪƥƩƬƝƭƯƵ ƭơ
ƤƩơƫƽƳƯƵƭ ƴƯ ƪƱƜƴƯƲ ƴƯƵƲ ƪơƩ ƝƴƳƩ ƭơ ưƜƸƯƵƭ ƭơ ƪƜƭƯƵƭ
ƥƪƳƴƱơƴƥƟƥƲ ƥƭơƭƴƟƯƭ ƴƯƵƲ ƞ ƭơ ƤƩƯƱƣơƭƾƭƯƵƭ ƤƯƫƯƶƯƭƟƥƲ
Ɔƫƫƞƭƹƭ, ƼưƹƲ ƥƟƷơƭ ƪƜƭƥƩ ưƩƯ ưƱƩƭ Ƭƥ ƴƯƵƲ ƅơƱƥƟƯ, ƏƝƱƮƧ ƪ.ơ.

ƖƴƜƭƯƭƴơƲ Ư Ƭ. ƂƫƝƮơƭƤƱƯƲ ƳƴƧƭ ƂƳƟơ ƢƱƞƪƥ ƥƪƥƟ Ɲƭơ ƪƼƳƬƯ Ƭƥ
ơƭƞƬƥƱơ ơƪƼƬƧ ƞƨƧ ƪơƩ ƝƨƩƬơ , ƼưƹƲ ƣƩƯƵƲ ƭơ ươƭƴƱƥƽƯƭƴơƩ
ơƪƼƬƧ ƪơƩ ƴƩƲ ƬƜƭƥƲ ƴƯƵƲ, ơƭƨƱƾưƯƵƲ ƭơ ƴƱƾƭƥ ƜƫƫƯƵƲ
ơƭƨƱƾưƯƵƲ, ƶƽƫơƱƷƯƵƲ ƪơƩ ƢơƳƩƫƩƜƤƥƲ ưƯƵ ƦƧƴƯƽƳơƭ ơƪƼƬƧ
ƪơƩ ơƭƨƱƹưƯƨƵƳƟƥƲ, ƢơƳƩƫƩƜƤƥƲ ưƯƵ ƞƨƥƫơƭ ƭơ
ƴƯƵƲ ưƱƯƳƪƵƭƯƽƭƥ ƹƲ ƨƥƯƽƲ ƪƫư. ƑƱƯ ơƵƴƞƲ ƴƧƲ ƪơƴƜƳƴơƳƧƲ Ư
ƂƫƝƮơƭƤƱƯƲ ơƭƴƟ ƭơ ƪơƴơƪƴƜ ƪơƩ ƭơ ƴƩƬƹƱƥƟ ƜƱƷƩƳƥ ơưƼ ƴƧ ƬƩơ
ƭơ ơưƥƫƥƵƨƥƱƾƭƥƩ ƪơƩ ƭơ ƪơƴơƫƽƥƩ ƴƵƱƱƧƭƩƪƜ ƪơƨƥƳƴƾƴơ
(ƤƧƫơƤƞ ƭơ ƥƫƥƵƨƥƱƾƭƥƩ ƴƯƵƲ ƫơƯƽƲ ơưƼ ƴƯƵƲ ƪơƴơƪƴƧƴƝƲ
ƑƝƱƳƥƲ, ƪơƨƾƲ ƪơƩ ơưƼ ƴƯƵƲ ƴƵƱƜƭƭƯƵƲ ưƯƵ ƯƩ ƑƝƱƳƥƲ ƥƟƷơƭ
ƪơƴƜ ƴƼưƯƵƲ ƯƱƟƳƥƩ) ƪơƩ ơưƼ ƴƧƭ ƜƫƫƧ ƭơ ưƯƫƥƬƜ ƴƯƭ
ơưƯƫƟƴƩƳƴƯ ƪơƩ ƨƧƱƩƾƤƧ ƴƱƼưƯ ƦƹƞƲ ưƯƵ ƵưƞƱƷƥ ƥƪƥƟ, Ƭƥ ƴƯ
ƭơ ƪƴƟƦƥƩ ưƼƫƥƩƲ Ƭƥ ƥƫƫƧƭƩƪƜ ưƱƼƴƵươ, ƤƧƫ. ƭơ ƥưƩƢƜƫƥƩ ƯƩ
ƜƭƨƱƹưƯƩ ƭơ ƬơƨơƟƭƯƵƭ ƣƱƜƬƬơƴơ, ƭơ ƦƯƵƭ ƥƫƥƽƨƥƱƯƩ, ƭơ
ƵưƜƱƷƥƩ ƤƩƪơƩƯƳƽƭƧ ƪơƩ ƩƳƯưƯƫƩƴƥƟơ ƪƫư. ƢƯƧƨƯƽƬƥƭƯƲ
ƳŷơƵƴƼ ƪơƩ ơưƼ ƴƯƵƲ ƟƤƩƯƵƲ ƴƯƵƲ ƭƴƼưƩƯƵƲ ƪơƴƯƟƪƯƵƲ.

ƂƵƴƼƲ ƞƴơƭ ƪơƩ Ư ƫƼƣƯƲ ưƯƵ Ư ƂƫƝƮơƭƤƱƯƲ ơƭơƪƧƱƽƷƨƧƪƥ
ƬƝƣơƲ ƪơƩ ƣƩƯƲ ƴƯƵ ƉƥƯƽ (ƴƯƵ ƉƥƯƽ ƅƟơ ƣƩơ ƴƯƵƲ ŻƫƫƧƭƥƲ ƞ ƴƯƵ
ƨƥƯƽ ŹƬƬƹƭ ƣƩơ ƴƯƵƲ ƬƧ ŻƫƫƧƭƥƲ) ƪơƩ ơưƼ ƴƯƵƲ ŻƫƫƧƭƥƲ ƪơƩ
ơưƼ ƴƯƵƲ ƭƴƼưƩƯƵƲ (ƍ. ƂƳƟơ, ƍƥƳƯưƯƴơƬƟơ, ƊƭƤƟơ, ƂƟƣƵưƴƯ ƪƫư).
ƈ ƶƩƫƯƳƯƶƟơ ƴƯƵ ƍ. ƂƫƝƮơƭƤƱƯƵ ƞƴơƭ: ƅƥƭ ơƭƴƩƬƥƴƹưƟƦƯƵƬƥ
ƴƯƵƲ ŻƫƫƧƭƥƲ ƹƲ ƶƟƫƯƵƲ ƪơƩ ƳƵƣƣƥƭƥƟƲ ƥƭƾ ƴƯƵƲ ƜƫƫƯƵƲ
ƫơƯƽƲ Ƴơƭ ƭơ ƥƟƭơƩ Ʀƾơ ƞ ƶƵƴƜ, ơƫƫƜ ƼƫƯƵƲ ƟƤƩơ, ƣƩơƴƟ ƼƫƯƩ ƯƩ
ƫơƯƟ ƥƟƭơƩ ơƤƝƫƶƩơ, ƟƳƯƩ ƬƥƴơƮƽ ƴƯƵƲ ƪơƩ ƳƵƭƥưƾƲ ưƱƝưƥƩ ƭơ
ƦƞƳƯƵƭ ƬơƦƟ ƥƩƱƧƭƩƪƜ ƪơƩ ƤƟƪơƩơ. ƓƵƣƣƥƭƥƟƲ ƬơƲ ƥƟƭơƩ ƼƫƯƩ ƯƩ
ƪơƫƯƟ ƪơƩ ƮƝƭƯƩ ƞ ƥƷƨƱƯƟ ƼƫƯƩ ƯƩ ƪơƪƯƟ ƜƭƨƱƹưƯƩ. ƆƫƫƧƭƩƪƼ
ưƱƝưƥƩ ƭơ ƥƟƭơƩ ƪƜƨƥ ƴƩ ƴƯ ƥƭƜƱƥƴƯ ƪơƩ ƢƜƱƢơƱƯ ƪƜƨƥ ƴƩ ƴƯ ƬƧ
ƥƭƜƱƥƴƯ. ƍƥ ƴơ Ƽưƫơ ƥƮơƭơƣƪƜƦƯƵƬƥ ƭơ ưƥƩƳƨƯƽƭ ƼƳƯƩ Ƥƥƭ
ƬưƯƱƯƽƭ ƭơ ưƥƩƳƨƯƽƭ ƤƩơ ƴƯƵ ƫƼƣƯƵ ƪ.ơ.
ƔƯ ƝƱƣƯ ƴƯƵ ƍ. ƂƫƥƮƜƭƤƱƯƵ ƪơƩ ƴƹƭ ƝƭƤƯƮƹƭ ƤƩơƤƼƷƹƭ ƴƯƵ
ƳƷƯƫƩƜƳƴƧƪƥ ƥƵƬƥƭƾƲ ơƪƼƬƧ ƪơƩ ơưƼ ƴƧƭ ƂƣƟơ ƄƱơƶƞ.

Ɛ ƑƫƯƽƴơƱƷƯƲ, ƳƷƥƴƩƪƜ Ƭƥ ƴƯƭ ƂƫƝƮơƭƤƱƯ ƪơƩ ƴƯ ƝƱƣƯ ƴƯƵ,
ơƭơƶƝƱƥƩ:
}

Ɛ ƂƫƝƮơƭƤƱƯƲ ơƭƴƟƨƥƴơ, ƟƤƱƵƳƥ ưƥƱƩƳƳƼƴƥƱƥƲ ơưƼ ƥƢƤƯƬƞƭƴơ
ưƼƫƥƩƲ ƬƝƳơ ƳƴƩƲ ƢƜƱƢơƱƥƲ ƷƾƱƥƲ, ƪơƩ ƤƩƝƳưƥƩƱƥ Ƴƥ ƼƫƧ ƴƧƭ
ƂƳƟơ ƴơ ƆƫƫƧƭƩƪƜ (ƣƱƜƬƬơƴơ ƪơƩ ơƮƩƾƬơƴơ), ƭƩƪƾƭƴơƲ ƴƯƭ
ơưƯƫƟƴƩƳƴƯ ƪơƩ ƨƧƱƩƾƤƧ ƴƱƼưƯ ƦƹƞƲ ..., ơƫƫƜ ƥƪƥƟƭƯƲ ưƯƵ
ƝƤƹƳƥ ƳƴƧ ƨƥƹƱƟơ ƴƧƭ ƝƬưƱơƪƴƧ ƬƯƱƶƞ ƴƧƲ ƞƴơƭ Ư
ƂƫƝƮơƭƤƱƯƲ. ƂƵƴƼƲ ƤƧƫơƤƞ Ƥƥƭ ơƪƯƫƯƽƨƧƳƥ ƴƧ ƳƵƬƢƯƵƫƞ ƴƯƵ
ƂƱƩƳƴƯƴƝƫƧ ƭơ ƳƵƬưƥƱƩƫƧƶƨƥƟ ƳƴƯƵƲ ŻƫƫƧƭƥƲ Ƴơƭ ƭơ ƞƴơƭ
ƧƣƝƴƧƲ ƴƯƵƲ ƪơƩ ƳƴƯƵƲ ƢƜƱƢơƱƯƵƲ Ƴơƭ ƭơ ƞƴơƭ ơưƼƫƵƴƯƲ
ƪƽƱƩƼƲ ƴƯƵƲ ƪơƩ ƭơ ơƭƴƩƬƥƴƹưƟƦƥƩ ƴƯƵƲ ŻƫƫƧƭƥƲ ƹƲ ƶƟƫƯƵƲ ƪơƩ
ƳƵƣƣƥƭƥƟƲ ƴƯƵƲ ƥƭƾ ƴƯƵƲ ƜƫƫƯƵƲ ƫơƯƽƲ Ƴơƭ ƭơ ƞƴơƭ Ʀƾơ ƞ
ƶƵƴƜ. Ƃƭ ƥƭƥƱƣƯƽƳƥ ƪơƴ· ơƵƴƼ ƴƯƭ ƴƱƼưƯ, ƨơ ƣƝƬƩƦƥ ƴƧƭ
ƧƣƥƬƯƭƟơ ƴƯƵ Ƭƥ ơƭơƱƟƨƬƧƴƯƵƲ ưƯƫƝƬƯƵƲ, ƥƮƯƱƟƥƲ ƪơƩ
ƵưƯƭƯƬƥƵƴƩƪƝƲ ƳƴƜƳƥƩƲ ..

«ƆƪƥƟƭƯƲ ơƭƴƟƨƥƴơ, ưƟƳƴƥƵƥ ƼƴƩ ƞƱƨƥ ƹƲ ƪƯƩƭƼƲ
ƉƥƼƳƴơƫƴƯƲ ƳƵƬƶƩƫƩƹƴƞƲ ƪơƩ ƥƩƱƧƭƯưƯƩƼƲ ƣƩơ
ƼƫƯ ƴƯƭ ƪƼƳƬƯ, ƪơƩ ƣƩơ ƴƯƽƴƯ ƥƮơƭƜƣƪơƦƥ ƤƩơ
ƴƹƭ Ƽưƫƹƭ ƼƳƯƵƲ Ƥƥƭ ƬưƯƱƯƽƳƥ ƭơ ưƥƟƳƥƩ ƤƩơ
ƴƯƵ ƫƼƣƯƵ ƭơ ƥƭƹƨƯƽƭ ƬơƦƟ ƴƯƵ, ƪơƩ ƳƵƭƝƭƹƳƥ
Ƴƥ ƥƭƩơƟƯ ƳƾƬơ ƴƯƵƲ ơƭƨƱƾưƯƵƲ ơưƼ ƴƯƵƲ
ƤƩƜƶƯƱƯƵƲ ƴƼưƯƵƲ, ƥƭƾƭƯƭƴơƲ ƪơƩ
ơƭơƬƥƩƣƭƽƯƭƴơƲ Ƴơƭ Ƴƥ ƪƽưƥƫƫƯ ƶƩƫƟơƲ ƴƯƵƲ
ƴƱƼưƯƵƲ ƦƹƞƲ, ƴơ ƞƨƧ, ƴƯƵƲ ƣƜƬƯƵƲ ƪơƩ ƴƩƲ
ƳƵƭƞƨƥƩƝƲ ƴƯƵƲ.

žƱƩƳƥ Ƴƥ ƼƫƯƵƲ ƭơ ƨƥƹƱƯƽƭ ươƴƱƟƤơ ƴƯƵƲ ƴƧƭ ƯƩƪƯƵƬƝƭƧ,
ơƪƱƼưƯƫƞ ƴƯƵƲ ƴƯ ƳƴƱơƴƼưƥƤƼ ƴƯƵ, ƳƵƣƣƥƭƩƪƯƽƲ ƴƯƵƲ ƼƫƯƵƲ
ƴƯƵƲ ƪơƫƯƽƲ ơƭƨƱƾưƯƵƲ ƪơƩ ƮƝƭƯƵƲ ƴƯƵƲ ƪơƪƯƽƲ. ƅƥƭ ƴƯƵƲ
ƜƶƧƳƥ ƭơ ƤƩơƪƱƟƭƯƵƭ ơƭƜƬƥƳơ Ƴƥ ŻƫƫƧƭƥƲ ƪơƩ ƢƜƱƢơƱƯƵƲ Ƭƥ
ƢƜƳƧ ƴƧ ƷƫơƬƽƤơ ƪơƩ ƴƧƭ ưƝƫƴƧ, ƴƯ ƳươƨƟ ƞ ƴƯƭ ƬơƭƤƽơ, ơƫƫƜ
ƼƱƩƳƥ ƭơ ƤƩơưƩƳƴƾƭƥƴơƩ ƴƯ ƆƫƫƧƭƩƪƼ ƳƴƯƩƷƥƟƯ ơưƼ ƴƧƭ ơƱƥƴƞ
ƴƯƵ ƪơƩ ƴƯ ƢơƱƢơƱƩƪƼ ơưƼ ƴƧ ƶơƵƫƼƴƧƴƜ ƴƯƵ, «ƴƯ Ƭƥƭ
ƆƫƫƧƭƩƪƼƭ ơƱƥƴƞƭ ƴƯ Ƥƥ ƢƜƱƢơƱƯƭ ƪơƪƟơƭ ƴƥƪƬơƟƱƥƳƨơƩ» , ƥƭƾ
ƴơ ƥƭƤƽƬơƴơ, ƴơ ƶơƣƧƴƜ, ƯƩ ƣƜƬƯƩ ƪơƩ Ư ƴƱƼưƯƲ ƦƹƞƲ
ƨƥƹƱƯƽƭƴơƭ ƪƯƩƭƜ ƣƩơ ƼƫƯƵƲ, ơƭơƬƥƬƥƩƣƬƝƭơ Ƴƥ ƥƭƩơƟƯ
ƳƽƭƯƫƯ Ƭƥ ƴƯƵƲ ƤƥƳƬƯƽƲ ƴƯƵ ơƟƬơƴƯƲ ƪơƩ ƴƧƲ ƴƥƪƭƯưƯƩƟơƲ.
(ƑƫƯƵƴƜƱƷƯƵ ƑƥƱƟ ƴƧƲ ƂƫƥƮƜƭƤƱƯƵ ƔƽƷƧƲ ƞ ƂƱƥƴƞƲ, Ƃ, 3 ²
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