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Moss Name________________________
Grammar Packet
Parts of Speech

A noun is the name of a person, a place, a thing or an idea.

Person Place Thing Idea

girl school pencil love

boy home jacket hope

teacher store dog greed

There are many classes of nouns: proper (Mr. Gildea), common (lake),
concrete (street), abstract (happiness), compound (parking lot), and
collective (flock; choir; cluster).


A pronoun is used in place of a noun in a sentence; it may take the place

of the name of a person, a place, thing or idea.

Personal Pronouns (Subject, Possessive, Object):

1st person: I, my, mine, me /we, our, ours, us
2 person: you, your, yours, you
3rd person: he, she, it, his, her, hers, its, him, her, it/ they, their, theirs,

Intensive and Reflexive:

myself, yourself, himself, herself, itself, ourselves, yourselves,
what, who, whom, whose, which, that

all, another, any, anybody, anyone, anything, both, each, each one,
either, everybody, everyone, everything, few, many, most, much,
neither, nobody, none, no one, nothing, one, other, several, some,
somebody, someone, something, such

who, whose, whom, which, what

this, that, these, those


A verb can tell what action someone or something is doing. A verb can
also express a state of being.

Action State of Being

run jump am is

sit ask are was

think talk were

Linking verbs: is, as, was, were, am, been, being, smell, look, taste,
feel, appear, seem, become

Helping verbs: has, had, and have; do, does, and did; is, are, was and

An adjective describes a noun or a pronoun. An adjective tells what

kind, how many, or which one.

What Kind How many Which One

happy more this

brave two that

The words a, an, and the belong to a special group of adjectives called
articles. An article can be used before a noun in a sentence.

a an the

a dog an apple the boy

a rabbit an ant the bird

There are many special kinds of adjectives: compound (low-powered),

demonstrative (those, these), indefinite (few, some), predicate,
comparative (taller, more helpful), superlative (largest, most happy).

An adverb describes a verb, adjective, or another adverb. An adverb tells

time, place, manner and to what degree.

Types of adverbs:

Adverbs of time tell when, how often, or how long

Ex: often, never

Adverbs of place tell where, to where, or from where

Ex: outside, left

Adverbs of manner tell how something is done

Ex: precisely, well

Adverbs of degree tell how much or how little

Ex: partly, barely


An interjection expresses strong feeling or emotion. An interjection can

be a single word or a phrase. Commas or exclamation points separate
interjections from the rest of the sentence.

Help! Oh, no! Ouch!

Ugh! Whew! Ah!

My goodness! Look out! Oh dear!


Prepositions are words that show position or direction and introduce

prepositional phrases.

aboard about above across after against

along amid among around at before

behind below beneath beside between beyond

but by down during except for

from in into like near of

off on over past since through

throughout to toward under underneath until

unto up upon with within without


A conjunction joins together single words or groups of words in a


Coordinating Conjunctions: and, but, or, nor, for, so, yet

Correlative Conjunctions: either/or, neither/nor, not only/but also,

both/and, whether/or, as/so

Subordinating Conjunctions: after, although, as, as if, as long as,

as though, because, before, if, in order that, provided that, since, so,
so that, though, unless, until, when, where, whereas, while

Add commas where needed and the write the appropriate end mark.

1. Mrs. Burns my sixth grade teacher just got married

2. Jeffrey does not play baseball tennis or hockey
3. Sandy did Sue move to Phoenix Arizona
4. Write to Harold Fox 950 Ridley Avenue Folsom Pennsylvania 19033 for more information
5. When Arlene first entered the contest did she have any hope of winning
6. Roberta has such a playful friendly puppy
7. Well I never saw two people do the dishes so quickly
8. The peas not the lima beans should have been picked
9. Ida and Lee however are the two best science students
10. I was born on September 3 1974 in a small town

Although there may seem to be many uses for the comma, there are basically only two. Commas
are used to separate items and to enclose items.

Commas that Separate:

Commas are used to prevent confusion and to keep items from running into one another. What
follows are some specific rules for commas that are used to separate items.

Items in a series. Three or more similar items together form a series. A series can be composed
of words, phrases or clauses.

Use commas to separate items in a series.

WORDS Blackberries, raspberries, and strawberries are all members of the rose
family. (nouns)
Anita will sing, dance, or tell jokes. (verbs)
We were tired, dirty, and wet. (adjectives)

PHRASES The cat could be in the closet, under the bed, or behind the couch.

CLAUSES We don’t know when we are leaving, where we are going, or what we
should take.

[When a conjunction (and, but, or, nor, for, so, yet) connects the last two items in a series, some
writers omit the last comma]
Exercise 1: Add commas to the following sentences where needed. If the sentence does not need
any commas, write “C” in the margin before the sentence.

1. The longest known sentence ever written contains 823 words 93 commas 51 semicolons and 4

2. Among the strangest names of towns in the United States are Accident Soso Helper and

3. Could you tell me when the library opens where it is and how I can get there?

4. The H in 4-H Club stands for head heart hands and health.

5. Tadpoles develop hind legs first grow front legs next and finally lose their tails.

6. Two Adamses two Harrisons and two Roosevelts have been president.

7. A minuet is slow stately and dignified.

8. Interstate 95 goes from New England around Washington D.C. and into Florida.

9. How did you get your jacket shoes socks and slacks so muddy?

10. Did you know that harvesting machines reap the grain thresh it and clean it?

Adjectives before a noun. If a conjunction is missing before two adjectives that come before a
noun, a comma is sometimes used to take its place.

Example: The rabbits disappeared into the tall, dry grass.

There is a test that can help you decide if a comma is needed between two adjectives. If the
sentence reads sensibly well by substituting the word “and” between the adjectives, a comma is

COMMA NEEDED Today was a damp, dismal day. [A damp and dismal day reads

COMMA NOT Today was a damp spring day. [A damp and spring day does not
NEEDED read well.]

Exercise 2: Using commas with adjectives. Add commas where needed. If a sentence does not
need any commas, write “C” in the margin.

1. Zip is the biggest strongest dog on the block.

2. Some cacti produce beautiful delicate flowers.
3. My mother just bought a musical German clock.
4. My uncle’s house is surrounded by small green shrubs.
5. My father couldn’t read the torn wet newspaper.
6. The loud piercing alarm awoke us.
7. The bright clear colors of the old photograph were amazing.
8. The large white house on Baker Street has been sold.
9. Mr. Roberts is the tall dignified man in the blue suit.
10. Jeanne carved the large orange pumpkin for Halloween.

Compound Sentences. A comma is usually used to separate the independent clauses in a

compound sentence.

A coordinating conjunction most often combines a compound sentence.

Coordinating Conjunctions: and but or nor for so yet

Notice in the following examples that the comma comes before the conjunction.

Don’t tease the dog, or it may bite you.

I play the flute, and my sister plays the cello.

A comma is not needed in a very short compound sentence.

Otis left but I stayed.

Exercise 3: Add the commas where needed. If a sentence does not need a comma, write “C” in
the margin.

1. Most animals remain on land but a few are equipped for gliding.
2. Terry caught the fish and Bryan cooked them.
3. The squirrel ran up the house and darted across the roof.
4. Palm trees are desert trees but they have been transplanted to other areas.
5. The gorilla looks fierce but it is a rather gentle animal.
6. Gourds are hard-shelled and may be used as cups.
7. You wash and I’ll dry.
8. A schooner has at least two masts but a sloop has one.
9. The skink looks like a snake but has very tiny legs.
10. Either the rain soaked the mats or someone spilled water on them.
Introductory Elements. Some words, phrases, and clauses at the beginning of a sentence need
to be separated from the rest of the sentence by a comma.

WORDS No, I cannot attend the meeting. [Other words include now, oh,
why, or yes.]

PREPOSITIONAL After the earthquake in town, we all helped each other.

PHRASE [A comma comes after two or more prepositional phrases or a
single phrase of four or more words. A comma does not come after
a short prepositional phrase. Also, a comma does not come after a
phrase or phrases that are followed by a verb.]

PARTICIPIAL Hearing the noise outside, I rushed to the window.


ADVERB As Toby walked closer, the snake hissed at him.


OTHERS In room 47, 35 students were studying.

In the road, blocks of wood were a traffic hazard. [Although these
are both prepositional phrases, the commas in these sentences
prevent the reader from becoming confused.]

Exercise 4: Add commas where needed. If a sentence does not need a comma, write “C” in the

1. Above a glider soared gracefully.

2. If ten inches of snow was melted it would yield about an inch of water.
3. Yes that is a wonderful idea.
4. Before the final exam I studied all my old tests.
5. Deciding the trail was too steep the hikers turned back.
6. After practice in the gym we will meet in room 3B.
7. No announcement was made prior to the meeting.
8. In 1776 54 delegates signed the Declaration of Independence in Philadelphia.
9. After dinner I will meet you at the library.
10. From above the clouds the pilot could see the eye of the hurricane.
Commas that Enclose:
Some expressions interrupt the flow of a sentence. These expressions generally add information
that is not needed to understand the main idea of a sentence. If one of these interrupters comes in
the middle of a sentence, a comma is placed before and after the expression to set it off.

Example: The movie, to tell the truth, was rather boring.

Sometimes an interrupting expression comes at the beginning or the end of a sentence. When an
interrupter appears in one of these places, only one comma is needed to separate it from the rest
of the sentence.

Examples: To tell the truth, the movie was rather boring.

The movie was rather boring, to tell the truth.

Direct Address. Names, titles, or words that are used to address someone are set off by commas.
These expressions are called nouns of direct address.

Examples: Norm, may I borrow your camera?

Your essay, Marc, was excellent.
Have you had dinner, Penny?

Exercise 5. Add commas where needed to the following sentences.

1. What’s for dinner tonight Mom?

2. Ladies and gentlemen please be seated.
3. Yes Thomas you may work with Flora.
4. I had a wonderful time my friend.
5. Could you tell me Ms. Rann if Dr. Saltus is in?
6. Of course Margaret you can join us.
7. I’ll give you the list Tim at Saturday’s meeting.
8. Perhaps the next bus will be less crowded Mary.
9. Joan did I leave my books at your house?
10. In ten minutes class you should put your tests on the desk.

Exercise 6. Write a sentence for each of the directions that follow.

1. Include direct address at the beginning of the sentence.

2. Include direct address in the middle of the sentence.

3. Include direct address at the end of the sentence.

Parenthetical Expressions. A parenthetical expression provides additional information or
related ideas. It is related only loosely to the rest of the sentence. The word or words that make
up a parenthetical expression could be removed without changing the meaning of the sentence.
Use commas to enclose parenthetical expressions.

Common Parenthetical Expressions

after all for instance of course at any rate

on the contrary by the way generally speaking moreover
on the other hand in fact in my opinion nevertheless
for example however consequently to tell the truth
I believe I guess I hope I know

By the way, did you buy a newspaper?

The movie, in my opinion, was very realistic.
We’ll attend the meeting, I guess.
John, on the other hand, can come with us.

Other expressions, as well, can be used as parenthetical expressions.

Ben Franklin, we are told, taught himself three different languages.

According to the article, only three percent of Norway is under cultivation.
Dolphins, it is known, communicate with each other.

Contrasting expressions, which usually begin with not, are also considered parenthetical

Nashville, not Knoxville, is the capital of Tennessee.

East St. Louis is in Illinois, not in Missouri.
Marie, not Paul, is president of our class.

Exercise 7. Add commas to the following sentences where needed.

1. A fly’s taste buds surprisingly enough are located in its feet.

2. Ostriches for instance have wings but cannot fly.
3. Eighty degrees I suppose is too hot for you.
4. Banana oil is derived from potatoes or beets not from bananas.
5. The movie after all won an Academy Award.
6. Jefferson was the third president not the second.
7. The witch-hazel plant blooms only in cold months.
8. The book in my opinion was the best I have ever read.
9. Nina like her two brothers is good in math.
10. On the other hand palm trees live up to 100 years.

Appositives. An appositive with its modifiers identifies or explains a noun or pronoun. Use
commas to enclose most appositives and their modifiers.

The old firehouse, a town landmark, is being restored.

Notice in the following examples that an appositive can come in the middle or at the end of a
sentence. If an appositive comes in the middle of a sentence, two commas are needed to enclose

Aerobics, a type of exercise, is fun to do.

Hanna received a wonderful present, a down vest.

Commas are not used if an appositive identifies a person or thing by telling which one or ones.
Usually these appositives are names or have no modifiers.

My sister Barbara will travel to Ohio with me.

The book Oliver Twist was written by Charles Dickens.
We students want more time on the computers.

Exercise 8. Add commas where needed. If a sentence does not need any commas, write “C” in
the margin.

1. Antarctica a large mass of land wasn’t really explored until the twentieth century.
2. The name Caroline means “strong.”
3. Carmel one of the oldest towns in California was founded as a Spanish mission.
4. Zachary Taylor the twelfth president never voted in his life.
5. Have you ever visited Columbia the capital of South Carolina?
6. Francisco Coronado a Spanish explorer brought the first horse to America in 1540.
7. The novelist Rudyard Kipling wrote Kim.
8. Hind the official language of India is spoken by only 35 percent of the population.
9. Alvin Parker once flew a glider plane without a motor 644 miles.
10. I just bought a new thesaurus a most useful reference book.

Nonessential elements. Sometimes a participial phrase or clause is not essential to the meaning
of a sentence. Use commas to set off nonessential participial phrases and nonessential clauses.

A participial phrase or clause is nonessential if it provides unnecessary information.

NONESSENTIAL Homing pigeons, used as messengers, fly at a speed of 30 miles an hour.
[participial phrase]

NONESSENTIAL Three inches is the annual rainfall in Yuma, Arizona, which is in the
southwestern part of the state. [clause]

If the participial phrase or clause is essential to the meaning of the sentence, commas are not
used. Essential phrases and clauses usually identify a person or thing and answer the question
which one? Adjective clauses that begin with that are always essential.

ESSENTIAL We enjoyed the film playing at the Plaza. [participial phrase]

ESSENTIAL The runner who crossed the finish line second is my sister. [clause]

ESSENTIAL The house that has stood for years on the corner of Elm and Park will
be torn down. [clause]

Note: Nonessential and essential elements are also called nonrestrictive and restrictive.

Exercise 9. Add commas where needed. If the sentence does not need any commas, write “C” in
the margin.

1. Home-grown vegetables that are not properly canned can cause botulism.
2. We saw two bear cubs hiding in a hollow tree.
3. The prong horn antelope living only in North America has no close relatives.
4. A sport that many Scots enjoy is curling.
5. Curling which resembles bowling is played on ice.
6. Huskies warmed by their thick coats can sleep in the snow.
7. Ogunquite which is on the ocean is a resort town in southern Maine.
8. Where is the watch that Dad gave you for your birthday?
9. Mount McKinley located near the Arctic Circle may well be the world’s coldest mountain.
10. A book that I enjoy reading is David Copperfield.
11. Samuel Houston for whom the city of Houston was named was a frontier hero.
There are some comma rules that you have been using for so many years now that they probably
are automatic. For example:

Dates and addresses. For clarity, commas are used to separate the elements in a date or an
address from each other.

DATE On Tuesday, March 3, 1985, my sister was born.

ADDRESS I have lived at 29 Bank Street, Long Beach, California, for ten years.
Subject-Verb Agreement


Errors in subject-verb agreement are among the most common grammatical mistakes made in
students’ writing. We commonly make errors in subject-verb agreement when we speak, but it is
important to correct these errors when we write. After learning a few rules in subject-verb
agreement, you should be able to more effectively edit and correct many of the errors in your
own writing. Good usage of language means choosing different kinds of language for different
situations. Remember that for most writing assignments in high school and college, such as
exams and essay assignments, formal usage is required. That is why it is important to become
aware of the rules—to make your writing as effective as you can make it.

The underlying principle behind subject-verb agreement is that singular subjects should be
matched with, or agree with, singular verbs and that plural subjects should be matched with, or
agree with, plural verbs. The following sets of rules and practice sentences should help you to
recognize how to use correct subject-verb agreement.

Rule #1: A verb agrees with the subject, not with the complement. (A complement, which
follows a linking verb, is a word that refers to the same person or thing as the subject of the

Example: Our main problem is high prices. (The subject “problem” is singular and
requires a singular verb, “is”.)

Example: High prices are our main problem. (The subject “prices” is plural and requires
a plural verb, “are”.)

Rule #2: Prepositional phrases have no effect on a verb.

Example: A woman with four children lives in that house. (The subject “woman” is
singular and agrees with the singular verb “lives”.)

Rule #3: The following indefinite pronouns are singular and require singular verbs.

anybody; anyone; anything; another; each; each one, either; everybody; everyone;
everything; nobody; no one; neither; one; other; somebody; someone; something.

Examples: Everybody likes you.

Each of these jobs pays the minimum wage.
Rule #4: When “each,” “every,” or “any” is used as an adjective, the subject it modifies requires
a singular verb.

Examples: Every automobile and motorcycle needs license plates.

Each café and restaurant is inspected by the Board of Health.

(Notice that the adjectives “every” and “each” make the verbs in the
sentences singular even though each sentence has more than one subject.)

Practice sentences for Rules #1-4

Directions: Circle the verb that correctly completes each sentence.

1. Each of Mary’s dresses (is, are) washable.

2. Any soldier, sailor, and airman with an honorable discharge (has, have) various benefits.

3. The result of his actions (was, were) an award of bravery.

4. Anything in the store windows (is, are) available at a discount.

5. The hotel’s only modern feature (is, are) electric lights.

6. Everybody in the front three rows (get, gets) to come on stage.

Rule #5: Two subjects joined by the conjunction “and” are plural and require a plural verb.

Example: Maine and Idaho both grow large amounts of potatoes.

Rule #6: Two singular subjects joined by the conjunctions “or” or “nor” are singular and require
a singular verb.

Examples: Soup or salad is included with your meal.

Neither the supermarket nor the drugstore sells nails.

Rule #7: If both a singular and a plural subject are joined by “or” or “nor,” the subject that is
closer to the verb determines whether the verb is singular or plural.

Examples: Either traveler’s checks or a credit card is accepted at this hotel.

Either a credit card or traveler’s checks are accepted at this hotel.
Practice sentences for Rules #5-7
Directions: Circle the verb that correctly completes each sentence.

1. The rhythm of the song and its lyrics (was, were) very appealing.

2. Neither Jane nor Mary (like, likes) the end of the movie.

3. Neither Mike or his uncles (has, have) the car keys.

4. Movies and television (take, takes) up all his spare time.

5. Chicken stock or water (is, are) used to boil the beans.

Rule #8: Some verbs, though plural in form, are singular in meaning and therefore require a
singular verb. Such words include news, mathematics, physics, economics, mumps, and measles.

Examples: Mathematics is a required subject for engineering majors.

Mumps makes it difficult to swallow.

Rule #9: A unit of time, weight, measurement, or money usually requires a singular verb
because the entire amount is thought of as a single unit.

Examples: Two hours was not long enough for that test.
Fifty dollars seems a reasonable price for that jacket.
Four ounces of chocolate is needed for this recipe.

Rule #10: Collective nouns usually require singular verbs. A collective noun is a word that is
singular in form but that refers to a group of people or things. Some common collective nouns
are words such as group, team, family, class, crowd, and committee.

Examples: The team practices every afternoon.

The crowd has been very noisy.

Rule #11: In questions and in statements with “there” or “here,” the subject of the sentence
follows the verb. The words “there” and “here,” as well as interrogatives such as “where,”
“when,” and “how,” are never the subject of the sentence.

Examples: There are many amusement parks in southern California.

Here are your keys.
Where was your wallet?
When does your plane leave?
How have your children been?
Practice sentences for Rules #8-11
Directions: Circle the verb that correctly completes each sentence.

1. Mumps (makes, make) swallowing difficult.

2. The committee (has, have) agreed to adjourn until tomorrow.

3. Nine hundred calories a day (is, are) the minimum suggested for most diets.

4. Two cups of uncooked rice (feeds, feed) four people.

5. The entire family (gathers, gather) every summer for a reunion.

6. There (is, are) three rooms on the top floor.




There are two kinds of clauses, independent and dependent (also referred to as subordinate).
Independent clauses can stand alone as complete sentences. However, a dependent clause must
be attached to, or depend upon, an independent clause in order to form a grammatically complete
sentence. Notice that each of the following dependent clauses contains a subject and a verb but
does not express a complete thought.

As the movie ended…

When you graduate from high school…

If you inherit a million dollars…

These clauses seem incomplete because they are actually only a part of a sentence. Right now,
make each one complete by adding an independent clause.

There are different types of dependent clauses. The type shown above is called an adverb clause,
which is used by the writer to show the relationship between two ideas expressed in a sentence.
The relationships are of the following types:

Time: after, as, before, since, until, when, whenever, while

Cause or Reason: as, because, since, whereas

Purpose or Result: that, in order that, so that

Condition: although, even though, though, while, provided that, unless, if

The series of words listed above are called subordinating conjunctions. They begin adverb

Exercise I. Directions: Circle the subordinating conjunction in each of the following sentences
then underline the adverb clause.

1. If I have enough money, I’ll buy a new car.

2. Because Paul lifts weights, he is very muscular.

3. I waited at the airport for two hours until the plane arrived.
4. Some people left the stadium before the game ended.

5. He spoke loudly so that everyone could hear him.

Exercise II. Directions: Notice where a comma is added in two of the sentences in Part I. If the
dependent clause is the first clause in the sentence, it is followed by a comma. If the independent
clause is the first clause in the sentence, no comma is needed.

Correctly punctuate the following sentences that contain adverb clauses. (Note: Circle the
subordinating conjunction and underline the adverb clause first.)

1. When you finish the test you may leave.

2. Before the game began the crowd sang the national anthem.

3. I usually read the paper while I eat breakfast.

4. If you like mysteries you should read the novels of Agatha Christie.

5. Whenever we have a picnic we always eat potato salad.

Exercise III. Directions: Subordinate the following sentences by using adverb clauses.

1. The car had a powerful engine. It won first place in the contest.

2. Theodore Roosevelt was unhealthy as a boy. He led a very active outdoor life.

3. The committee members could not agree. The president made the decision.

4. You should make up your mind. You have studied all the evidence.

5. He wanted to graduate in January. He could join the Navy.

Exercise IV. Directions: Write three of your own sentences that contain adverb clauses. Circle
the subordinating conjunction in each sentence and underline the adverb clause. Also, use a
different subordinating conjunction in each sentence. Be sure to add commas where needed.






There are two kinds of clauses, independent and dependent (also referred to as subordinate).
Independent clauses can stand alone as complete sentences. However, a dependent clause must
be attached to, or depend upon, an independent clauses in order to form a grammatically
complete sentence.
One type of dependent clause is the adjective clause. An adjective clause always follows
a noun or pronoun it modifies. The words that most frequently introduce adjective clauses are
called relative pronouns. See the list of relative pronouns below:

that who whose

which whom

In addition to relative pronouns, the adverbs “when” and “where” are sometimes used to
introduce adjective clauses.

See the underlined adjective clauses in the sample sentences below. Circle the relative
pronoun or adverb that begins each adjective clause.

Examples: 1. The book that I need is not in the library.

2. Canada, which is a bilingual country, uses both English and French as

official languages.

3. This is the place where I found it.

Sometimes an adjective clause is set off by commas and sometimes it is not. If the clause
is needed to identify the word modified, no commas are used (see first and third examples
above). It is called an essential clause because it is necessary for understanding the meaning of
the sentence.
If the adjective clause merely adds information that is not essential, it is called a
nonessential clause, and commas are used (see second example above). There is one exception to
the comma rule, however. When the relative pronoun “that” is used to introduce an adjective
clause, the clause is always essential and does not need any commas.

Exercise I. Directions: Read the following sentences and decide which of the underlined
adjective clauses are essential and which are nonessential. Punctuate as needed.

1. All students who hold activity tickets will be admitted without charge.

2. Dwight D. Eisenhower who was a great general became President.

3. This book which I have read many times tells an exciting story.

4. The book that I need is in the library.

5. No one liked the records which John brought.

6. Coffee which is a stimulant is not usually served to young children.

Exercise II. Directions: Underline the adjective clauses in the following sentences and circle the
relative pronouns. Punctuate as needed.

1. Of my three sisters the one whom is blonde looks best in blue.

2. The countries that I visited on my trip included England and France.

3. Basketball which was invented in the United States in 1891 is now played throughout the

4. At the community meeting the woman whose house burned down yesterday thanked her
neighbors for their assistance.

5. The new Life magazine which I bought yesterday is on the kitchen table.

Exercise III. Directions: Combine the following pairs of sentences into one sentence,
subordinating one idea in an adjective clause. Begin the adjective clause with a relative pronoun
(who, whose, whom, which, that) or an adverb (where, when). Be sure to punctuate correctly.

Example: Mary has won many medals at districts. She is a fine runner.

Subordinated sentence: Mary, who is a fine runner, has won many medals at districts.
1. Rhododendrons are beautiful plants. They like an acid soil.

2. A somber cloud hung over the area. An atomic bomb had just exploded there.

3. Mr. Johnson mentioned several books. He knew I would enjoy them.

4. The jet plane followed Lindbergh’s route. It has just zoomed across the Atlantic Ocean.

5. James McNeil Whistler was world renowned for his wit. He was an American artist.

6. The ancient world knew many secrets. These secrets are unknown to us today.

Exercise IV. Directions: Write three of your own sentences that contain adjective clauses. Be
sure to add commas where needed. (Try to use at least three different relative pronouns or the
adverb “where” or “when” to begin your adjective clauses.)



Sentence Types

Simple and Compound Sentences

Note: An independent clause presents a complete thought and can stand alone as a sentence; a
dependent clause (also called a subordinate clause) does not present a complete thought and
cannot stand alone as a sentence.

A simple sentence contains one independent clause.

John walked into the center of town.

The train whistled to the passengers.
The doctor is in.
A compound sentence, on the other hand, contains two independent clauses which are closely
related. A conjunction usually joins the two clauses (they can be combined using a semi-colon as
well). Remember to put a comma after the first clause and before the conjunction that joins the
two clauses, or a semi-colon between the two independent clauses.

The team played hard, and they won the game easily.
Soccer is a low-scoring game, but it is very exciting.
The forward kicked the ball, and the goalie grabbed it.

In the following sentences, identify simple sentences (S) and compound sentences (C) by writing
an S or C in each blank.

____ 1. The Chartres Cathedral is a masterpiece of Gothic architecture, and it has become a
famous landmark.

____ 2. The city of Paris is located on the Seine River.

____ 3. The Declaration of Independence was signed in 1776, and the representatives of all 13
colonies signed it.

____ 4. The Pentagon is a building located in Washington, D.C.

____ 5. A fire in 1194 destroyed most of the cathedral, but it was rebuilt between 1194 and 1230.

____ 6. The Sears Tower is one of the tallest buildings, and it is located in Chicago.

____ 7. I feel too sick to watch TV; I feel too sick to eat.

____ 8. The Kennedy Space Center is run by NASA.

____ 9. The Twin Towers once stood in Manhattan.

____ 10. My teeth and my eyes hurt.

 Write a couple examples of each type of sentence:





Complex Sentences

A complex sentence contains one independent clause and one or more dependent clauses.

(In the following sentences, the independent clauses are underlined once; the dependent, twice.)

The fish jumped over the dam when the wave crested.

If you go to the store, buy me a candy bar.

The carpenter who built this house is my brother.

In the following complex sentences, underline the independent clauses once and the dependent
clauses twice.

1. The astronauts left the vehicle when the solar panel failed.

2. The United States became serious about space exploration when the Soviet Union launched

Sputnik 1.

3. If there is life on the moon, humans have not succeeded in finding it.

4. When a spacecraft is put in orbit, many people share the credit.

5. John Glenn, who was the first American to orbit the Earth, became a senator in Ohio.
6. The Apollo program had a lunar module that was capable of landing on the moon and

returning to the main vehicle.

7. The Sputnik 1, which was launched in 1957, was the first artificial satellite.

8. When Neil Armstrong stepped onto the lunar surface, he was fulfilling a promise he made by

President Kennedy earlier in the decade.

9. The United States launched the space shuttle Columbia, which was the first reusable manned


10. The Challenger, which had seven astronauts on board, exploded in midair.

11. Because this disaster was so devastating, all missions were temporarily stopped.

 Write three complex sentences which tell about your experience in elementary school.




Compound-Complex Sentences

A compound-complex sentence contains two or more independent clauses and at least one
dependent clause.

(In the following sentences, the independent clauses are underlined once; the dependent, twice.)

When the game was over, Seth took the ball, and Larry threw it into the stands.

I have the flu, and because I need to get well soon, I won’t think about school just yet.
In these compound/complex sentences, underline the independent clauses once and the
dependent clauses twice.

1. If you have a solution, let us know, and we will try it.

2. Because Trudy had studied previous chess matches, she was able to play brilliantly, and she

beat Sid soundly.

3. When we get to the park, Bill will put up the tent, and Carl will start the fire.

4. Though the steak was not fully cooked, Judy cut it, and Ned ate it.

5. Wendell had never gone to college, and he worked at the factory until he won a scholarship.

6. The food was free, and the people who came enjoyed it.

7. Though it was brand new, the stereo would not play, and it destroyed my tape.

8. Because Jenny broke her arm, she could not play in the concert, and the orchestra sounded


9. Sara suggested the movie, and Elliot and Michael agreed when they heard her choice.

10. Steven went back to Florida where he opened a law firm, but it was not a financial success.

11. The enraged inventor sued the company, but when he finally won his case, he was in debt.

 Write three compound-complex sentences which tell about your family and friends.




1. Use an apostrophe and add –s for the possessive form of a singular indefinite pronoun.

Everybody’s problem
Each other’s parents
One’s record

*Do NOT use an apostrophe with other possessive pronouns:

-its owner
-whose talents
-the bike is theirs

2. Use an apostrophe and add –s to form the possessive of a singular noun, even one that
ends in s.

The woman’s briefcase
The class’s election
San Francisco’s earthquake

-Isis’ temple
-Jesus’ teachings
-for appearance’ sake (ends in an “ess” sound)

3. Use an apostrophe alone to form the possessive of a plural noun that ends in s.

the Joneses’ shore house
the Greens’ boat

4. Use an apostrophe and add –s to form the possessive of a plural noun that does not
end in s.

women’s clubs
men’s clothing
children’s toys
5. Put only the last word of a compound noun in the possessive form.

my sister-in-law’s office
the chief-of-staff’s directive
an attorney general’s job

6. If two or more persons (or partners in a company) possess something jointly, use
the possessive form for the last person named

Barbara and Andy’s children
Abbot and Costello’s routines
Johnson and Johnson’s baby-care products

7. If two or more persons (or companies) possesses an item (or items) individually,
put each one’s name in the possessive form.

Tina Turner’s and Rolling Stones’ songs
Chrysler’s and the American Motor Company’s cars
Fred’s, Lucinda’s, and Nan’s coats

8. Use a possessive form to express amounts of money or time that modify a noun.
However, the modifier can also be expressed as a hyphenated adjective. In that case, no
possessive form is used.

Ex: (Hyphenated adjective)

one dollar’s increase but a one-dollar increase
five minutes’ drive a five-minute drive
ten days’ wait a ten-day wait

9. Use an apostrophe in place of letters that are omitted in contractions.

Don’t = do not Shouldn’t = should not
Can’t = cannot/ can not You’re = you are
Won’t = will not Isn’t = is not
I’m = I am who’s = who is or who has
You’d = you had or you would *It’s = it is
10. Use an apostrophe in place of omitted numerals of a year.

the class of ’99
the ’96 presidential campaign

11. Do not use an apostrophe to form the plural of an abbreviation or a number.

PhDs 1990s
VCRs SAT score in the 1400s

Examples. Rewrite each item, correcting errors in the use of the apostrophe.

- That was one of Jerry Lewis’ films, wasnt it?

- This pen is mine; that one is your’s.

- The visitors from Jamaica were able to attend one of Congress’ sessions.

- Were you invited to the Harrisses’s New Years’ Eve party?

- Thats one of my mother-in-laws’ hats.

- “I Am a Rock” is one of Simon’s and Garfunkel’s songs.

- Robert faced ten days’ anxiety when he planted the pumpkin seeds.

- Matts birthday is almost a year after Jans’, but they both belong to the class of 0’0.

- These children were all winner’s in the national childrens’ art contest.

- Id have thought you’d be glad wer’e all going to the mall with you.

- Its raining outside, but Bills’ dog Boston rolled around in the grass.