INTRODUCTION TO LOGIC GS 2002
Introduction to Logic is a study of applications of reasoning, fallacy, syllogism, the Deductive Method, the Inductive Method, proof and its values. Logic is an analytical and critical study of reasoning procedures in both deductive or syllogistic and inductive methods in order to objectify or concretize meaningfulness of any kind of informative expression for convincing one’s self and others through logical structure without any confusion. Course Objectives - to enable students to: • Know and understand radical meaning and function of linguistic means in English language form; • Know how to use linguistic means appropriately; • Differentiate argument forms from those of non-argument; • Know and conceptualize the relationship of rational procedures among mental, logical and grammatical sources as well as the origin of each source; • Know how to Justify valid and invalid status of arguments according to logical principles; and • Apply logical principles for an appropriate decision making in each particular case and situation.
Basic Understanding of Logic
Objectives • Students know contextual definition of Logic. • Students know a structural format of logical information. • Students can distinguish argumentative information from nonargumentative one.
What is Logic?
Etymological Meaning: Λογος (gr.) Logos, word, saying, speech, discourse (communicative means) Practical Meaning: - The science which investigates the principle governing correct or reliable inference - The system or principles of reasoning applicable to any branch of knowledge or study - A particular method of reasoning or argumentation
Meaning from Academic Views
Aristotle: The study of the thought for which words are signs; it is an attempt to get truth by analysis of the thought that reflects our apprehension or understanding of the nature of things according to personal viewpoint under a theoretical support. -The study of reasoning processes and structures which focus on a firm conviction of a person. That conviction is supported by at least one reference expected as truth. Its lingual details expressed can be identified as an argument. External Components of Logical information
A conviction derived from at least one true reference Matthew can register 7 subjects
-Any two persons who contradict each other cannot both be lying. There must be a claim that the evidence supports something.
Components of argumentative expression
1. or its orbit is not perpendicular to that of the other planets. A tenth planet is not responsible for the death of the dinosaurs. then its orbit is perpendicular to that of the other planets. So no Republicans are big spenders. a tenth planet does not exist. Conclusion: Ex. They cannot both be lying. then its orbit is perpendicular to that of the other planets. Matthew earns GPA higher than 3.5. since all big spenders are Democrats. (Opinion Presentation) -Since Seub Nakasathian was deeply concerned with forest and wild animal protection. So no Republicans are big spenders. Either a tenth planet is responsible for the death of the dinosaurs. Non-argumentative information -Don’t rely on strangers. A tenth planet is not not responsible for the death of the dinosaurs. If a student earns GPA higher than 3. or its orbit is not perpendicular to that of the other planets.5. The first and the third natives contradict each other. Therefore. So the first and the third natives cannot both be lying. At least one of the statements in the details must present evidence If a tenth planet exists. All big spenders are Democrats. -No any Republican is a Democrat. They may hurt you! (Warning) -I Think people who have authentic culture. as ours are able to improve our lifestyles for enhancing qualities of life within horrible economic crisis by merchandizing raw materials of agricultural products. (Explanation)
. -No any Republican is a Democrat. he can register 7 subjects. -Any two persons who contradict each other cannot both be lying. he sacrificed his life by committing suicide as the external evidence for remarking his intention as the real protector for forest and wild animals. Therefore. since they contradict each other.2 |Page
Argumentative Components Premise: A set of information that is used to support one’s conviction Ex. -If a tenth planet exists. a tenth planet does not exist. Either a tenth planet is responsible for the death of the dinosaurs. 2.
since. Thus. Accordingly. Wherefore. on account of. due to.3 |Page
Premise Indicators: As. seeing that. It entails that. etc. It must be that. for the reason that. Hence. etc. may be inferred from. owing to. because. Whence. We may conclude.Certainty . It follows that. Consequently.
The Approach of Logicalization
. Conclusion Indicators: Therefore. It implies that. for. follow(s) from. We may infer. So. given that.as indicated by. in that. As a result.Truthfulness
Modified Issues in Logical Pattern
Word Sentence Paragraph Chapter Book (s) (s) (s) (s) (s) Term Proposition Argument Article Text
. Therefore. whoever receives HBO has a decoder.4 |Page
Check Validation status of the argument
Television viewers cannot receive scrambled signals unless they have a decoder. Whoever receives HBO receives scrambled signals.
Classic Period -Aristotle: Father of Logic • Syllogistic Logic concerning ‘term’ • The art of constructing persuasive arguments • Techniques for refuting the arguments of others Chrysippus Proposition • A proposition is either true or false. •
History of Logic
1. But the term “those who pose an immediate threat to the lives of others” in major premise is undistributed while in conclusion is distributed. • Some kindergarten children are not those who pose an immediate threat to the lives of others. 2.5 |Page
We can conclude that not all kindergarten children pose an immediate threat to the lives of others because AIDS victims are only those who pose an immediate threat to the lives of others. In addition. Factually. • Deterministic rules of truth and falsity of a compound proposition. This syllogism is invalid because it violates the Five Rules which claims that the term that is distributed in conclusion must be also distributed in premise as well. its conclusion must also be negative. every premise of this syllogism is positive. and it is true that there are kindergarten children are AIDS victims.
All AIDS victims are those who pose an immediate threat to the lives of others. Middle Period (1) -Peter Aberlard (1079-1142)
. it implicitly violates the fifth rule which claims that if one premise is negative. • Some kindergarten children are AIDS victims. but the conclusion in this syllogism is negative which should imply that there must be one negative premise.
Contemporary Period -Kurt Goedel (1906-1978) Formalization of Logical Systems
Term and Its Applications
. belief. -Conductor of an exhaustive study of forms of valid and invalid syllogisms. -Gottlob Frege Modern Mathematical Logic 4. Modern Period -John Stuart Mill Inductive Argument: A logical argument that requires experiences as its references.6 |Page
The inventor of the theory of universals that traced the universal character of general terms to concepts in the mind rather than to natures existing outside the mind. necessity. -Contributor to the development of the concept of meta-language -Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz (1646-1716) -The Father of Symbolic Logic 3. and doubt. -William of Occam (1285-1349) Model Logic -A kind of Logic that involves such notions as possibility.
undistributed but not both. Distribution status is a particular meaningfulness of information dependent to intention of its composer which clarifies to a particular scope of numbers of things either all. distributed or some. Distributed term The expression that signifies to all entities being mentioned Undistributed term The expression that signifies to some entities being mentioned
Two Types of Term
Types of Term
• • Distribution status is the indicator to identify a particular type of a term.
Distribution of term
Literal expressions A bird The bird Birds in the sky Many birds in the sky Every bird in the sky Each bird in the sky Few birds in the sky Most birds in the sky Certain birds in forests Figurative imagination All birds All things identical to “the bird” All/some Birds in the sky Some birds in the sky All birds in the sky All birds in the sky Some birds in the sky Some birds in the sky Some birds in forests
Functions of Term in Proposition
A component of a proposition .Predicate term 1. Subject Term The term which human mind primary selects to give a category Position: At the front part of a sentential proposition before its copula Quantitative indicator: All or Some 2. Predicate Term The term which human mind selects to be the category of the subject one Position At the back part of a sentential proposition after its copula
.Subject term .
Characters of Predicate Term
Distributed Term Meaning of such a term expanses to every entity that term signifies Indicator: negative copula Undistributed Term Meaning of such a term expanses to some entities that term signifies. A copula is an expressed form of a judgment.
An internal consideration of human mind whether the first selected apprehension participates in the second selected one or not. 2. Middle Term: The term that appears in only premise part. in logical view.
PROPOSITION AND APPLICATIONS
General Views about Proposition A proposition is a logical expression which clarifies that a subject term is included in or excluded from a predicated term. The primary source of proposition is a judgment. Major Term: The predicate term of conclusion and a term in first premise. A copula. is a lingual means which clarifies a relational status between a subject term and predicate term dependent to a decision of its composer to claim either that a subject term is a member of a predicate term or not. 3. A judgment appears whenever an intention of participation of two terms is initiated. if it is observed in linguistics. Function of Term in Deductive Argument 1. in either a positive or negative form but not both in present simple form. Indicator: positive copula
A copula. Minor Term: The subject term of conclusion and a term of the second premise. is a verb to be in a present simple form of positive or negative format dependent to its subject.
. “O” Type Main Idea Some entities of subject term are excluded from predicate term. “I” Type Main Idea Some entities of subject term are included in predicate term. 2. 4. “A” Type Main Idea All entities of subject term are included in predicate term totally. 3.10 | P a g e
Imaginative Judgment and proposition
Types of Proposition
1. “E” Type Main Idea All entities of subject term are excluded from predicate term totally.
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Ordinary Statement And Transformation
Transformation The process of revealing in concrete literal expression of the judgment formed by human intention under a grammatical rule for claiming the participation status between the first and the second selected terms objectively.
Assignment of meaning to a word for the first time.1 The ruthless murdering of innocent human being Or 5.
Ordinary sentence and Transformation
• Literal display of a judgment in a logical proposition
.The description of viewing or conceiving entities that suggests deductive consequences.2 A safe and established surgical procedure whereby a woman is relieved of an unwanted burden.of the context within which the term is to be employed.
Types of Definition
1. EX. Ex. Offspring from Female Lion + male tiger = liger or tigon 2. Ex. Precising Definition The meaning assigned to be appropriate and legitimate . Heat means the energy associated with the random motion of the molecules of a substance 5. Theoretical Definition . Persuasive definition .15 | P a g e
Definition: A group of words that assigns a meaning to some words. Lexical definition . Bank = Financial Institution Or The slope bordering the river 3.A description that engenders a favorable or unfavorable attitude toward what is denoted by the word to be defined Ex. A moment of death = The moment the brain stops functioning.Meaningful report of the word described in a language in order to eliminate the ambiguity of meaningfulness which may occur if one of the meanings were to be confused with another. Abortion 5. as measured by an electroencephalograph. The ambiguity of meaning is controlled by contextualization of terminological usage. and whatever else would be entailed by acceptance of a theory governing these entities. 2. The objective literal determination of extensional meaning that describes the members of the class that intentional expression denotes. The objective literal determination of intensional meaning that describes the qualities or attributes the intentional expression connotes. Stipulative definition . Term 1. 4. Ex. further investigation.