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I. COMBINING LIKE TERMS - When terms of a polynomial have the same variables raised to the same powers, the terms are called like terms. Like terms can be combined to make the polynomial easier to deal with. Example: Combine like terms in the following equation: 3x2 - 4y + 2x2 Solution: Rearrange the terms so it is easier to deal with, then combine like terms. Practice: Combine like terms in the following equations: 1. 5y3 + 3y2 - 4y3 -7y2 +2y - 4y 2. 21x5 - 4x2 + 2y3 - 5y -6x5 + 4y3 -11 3. 7 - 5z - 4z2 + 6x - 5x4 + 4z2 -7x +5x4 - 9z + 18 4. 121 - 62xy2 + 14x2 - 6y2 +98xy2 +3y2 -2x2 +144

II. MULTIPLICATION OF POLYNOMIALS - the most important polynomial multiplication is the multiplication of binomials. Use the FOIL method to remember the steps. Example: Multiply (3xy + 2x)(x2 + 2xy2). Simplify the answer. Solution: Multiply the first terms of each binomial. (F) Multiply the outside terms of each binomial. (O) Multiply the inside terms of each binomial. (I) Multiply the last terms of each binomial. (L) Combine like terms if possible to get a simplified answer.

Combine like terms if possible to simplify the final answer: Practice: Multiply the following: 1. FACTORING . (3x + 2y)3 III.8.Example 2: Multiply (A + B)3 Solution: Rewrite so you can actually multiply it out.1)3 4. 12x2 + 6x . so pull it out and write each term as a product of factors. (x + 2)3 3. When factoring look for common factors.3 3. Solution: 4 is the common factor. (A + B)(A + B)(A + B) Multiply the first two binomials together and combine like terms You now have a binomial and a trinomial to multiply together. 8xy + 2y2 . Example: Factor out a common factor of 4y2 . Practice: Factor the following: 1. (x .is the reverse of multiplication.18x2 SPECIAL CASE: FACTORING A DIFFERENCE OF SQUARES . 81x3 . (2y . (A + B) (A2 + 2AB + B2) Multiply the first term of the binomial by each term in the trinomial and then multiply the last term of the binomial by each term in the trinomial. and write each term as a product of factors.y)3 2. 6x3 + 3 2.4x2y 4.

25z2 . FACTORING TRINOMIALS .PRACTICE IT ALL!! Multiply: 1. 4pq + 40 q2p3 . x2y2 .4 REVIEW . you will come across a situation where both terms of a binomial are squares of another number. (x + 3)(x .16 3. so you don't have to factor the binomial: A2 .B) Example: Factor y2 . 4x2 . this binomial fits the difference of squares formula. 49 . 81z4 . (2x + 3)3 3. k2 .2) Practice: Factor the following: 1.6) 4.4)2 Factor: 1.44qp 4.5x +4)(x2 . (2x2 .100 9. and 4 is the square of 2.49 5.64x2 7.Sometimes.1 8. not a SUM of squares! y2 . 49 .4) 2.9 2.16 3. (x . Solution: Since y2 is the square of y.4 = (y + 2)(y . (x2 is the square of x and 9 is the square of 3. y4 .36 4.4. such as (x2 .) There is a special formula for this situation. 15x2 + -50x + -10 5. 9x2 . 25h4 + -1 10.25 6.is essentially the opposite of the FOIL method! Recall that we .9).B2 = (A + B)(A . p2 . 36y3 + 9y2 IV. 28xy2 + 14 x2y -21 2. ** Notice it only works with a DIFFERENCE. y2 .25p2 6.

Identify all factors of this product: 1 x 16 2 x 8 4 x 4 Step 5: Look at the coefficient of the middle term of the trinomial (here it’s 10) and determine which pair of factors from step 4 ADD to 10.can use FOIL to multiply two binomials (2k + 7)(3k .70 Now we will learn how to work backwards and factor a trinomial into it’s two binomials: Example: Factor 16 + m2 + 10m Step 1: Write the terms in order of the variable's exponent: Step 2: Write two brackets side by side: (m ) (m m2 + 10m + 16 ) with m’s to start each one )(m + ) Step 3: Since all terms of the trinomial are positive.20k + 21k . x2 + 8x + 16 . 99 + x2 + 20x 6. 10x + x2 + 25 5. x2 +12x + 20 2.70 = 6k2 + k . 19x + x2 + 84 7. x2 + 10x + 24 5. write + signs after the m’s: (m + Step 4: Identify the coefficients of the first and last terms of the trinomial (here it’s 1 and 16) and find their product (1 x 16 = 16). Step 6: Fill in the brackets with your two numbers: (m + 2)(m + 8) and check your solution Example 2: Factor 10x + x2 + 21 Example 3: Factor 20 + x2 + 9x Practice: Factor each trinomial: 1. x2 + 16x + 64 4. Obviously it’s 2 and 8. x2 + 2x + 1 3.10) to give us a final trinomial: 6k2 .

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