Ditulis oleh dint tenk di/pada 20 Februari 2010 PERMASALAHAN EKONOMI MIKRO DAN MAKRO 1. ilmu ekonomi deskriptif,yaitu ilmu ekonomi yang memaparkan secara apa adanya tentang kehidupan ekonomi suatu daerah/Negara pada suatu masa tertentu,misalnya produksi beras di jawa timur tahun 2009,Tingkat harga gula di Indonesia tahun 2009 2. ilmu ekonomi terapan,yaitu bagian ilmu ekonomi yang membahas penerapan teori ekonomi dalam suatu rumah tangga produksi,misalnya ekonomi perbankan,ekonomi perusahaan,ekonomi moneter. 3. teori ekonomi adalah ilmu ekonomi yang menganalisis tentang hubungan antara variabel ekonomi,misalnya pengaruh kenaikan harga BBM terhadap kenaikan harga hidup,pengaruh tingkat pendapatan terhadap pola konsumsi seseorang. TEORI EKONOMI MIKRO Ilmu ekonomi mikro mempelajari ekonomi secar individu,misalnya perilaku konsumen dan produsen. Analisis ekonomi mikro terbagi: 1. teori harga; antara lain membahas tentang proses pembentukan harga, factor-faktor yang mempengaruhi perubahan permintaan dan penawaran, hubungan antara harga permintaan dan penawaran, bentuk-bentuk pasar, konsep-konsep elastisitas permintaan dan penawaran dan sebagainya. 2. teori produksi; antara lain menganalisis tentang masalah biaya produksi,tingkat produksi yang harus di pilih oleh produsen agar tujuan mencapai laba maksimum tecapai 3. teori distribusi; antara lain membahas tentang factor-faktor yang menentukan tingkat upah tenaga kerja, tingkat bunga yang harus di bayar karena penggunaan modal, dan tingkat keuntungan yang diperoleh para pengusaha. TEORI EKONOMI MAKRO Ilmu ekonomi makro mempelajari perilaku masyarakat (Negara/bangsa) dalam memenuhi kebutuhannya(masalah agregat). Awal mula lahirnya ilmu ekonomi makro diawali dengan munculnya buku yang dikarang oleh John Maynard Keynes yang bejudul The General Theory of Employment,interest,and money, yang berisi sebagai berikut´ The General Theory of Employment, Interest and Money´ was written by the British economist John Maynard Keynes. The book, generally considered to be his magnum opus, is largely credited with creating the terminology and shape of modern macroeconomics. Published in February 1936 it sought to bring about a revolution, commonly referred to as the ³Keynesian Revolution´, in the way economists thought ± especially in relation to the proposition that a market economy tends naturally to restore itself to full employment after temporary shocks. Regarded widely as the cornerstone of Keynesian thought, the book challenged the established classical economics and

it is a difficult read for a modern student of economics. self-righting. As a book. Its full meaning and significance continues to be debated even today. but his book provides the theoretical framework within which temporary measures like the New Deal can be justified against the ³Treasury View´ that public borrowing simply crowds out private investment so that government should always balance its annual budget. The General Theory does not treat it as an essentially monetary phenomenon nor suggest that control of the money supply or interest rates is the key remedy for inflation. Although few modern economists would disagree with the need for at least some intervention. the multiplier.introduced important concepts such as the consumption function. and he did not believe governments should run deficits for current consumption. This conflicts both with neoclassical theory and with the experience of pragmatic policy-makers. although it is enlivened by some brilliant rhetorical passages. Keynes himself placed equal emphasis on redistributive taxation and a monetary policy of µcheap money¶ as well as fiscal policy. policies such as labour market flexibility are underpinned by the neoclassical notion of equilibrium in the long run. Contrary to popular belief. including the description of the stock market in Chapter 12 and the concluding chapter 24 on the (rather tentative) policy implications Keynes derived from his theory. incomes policy. as opposed to public investment. Overview Although The General Theory was written in the aftermath of the Great Depression and was taken by many to justify the assumption by government of the responsibility for the achievement and maintenance of full employment. Keynes was by no means the first to advocate public works or deficit spending in a depression. deliver full employment or that full employment is the natural. but he went on in practice to place great emphasis on the reduction of long-term interest rates and the reform of the international monetary system as structural measures needed to encourage both investment and consumption by the private sector. under-employment and under-investment are likely to be the natural state unless active measures are taken. it is for the most part a highly abstract work of theory and by no means a tract on policy. equilibrium state of a monetary economy. its fall from favour was associated with the µstagflation¶ of the 1970s. Furthermore the main Keynesian prescription for inflation. He argues that it is wrong to assume that competitive markets will. not by the price of labour as in neoclassical economics. . One implication of The General Theory is that a lack of competition is not the fundamental problem and measures to reduce unemployment by cutting wages or benefits are not only hard-hearted but ultimately futile. the marginal efficiency of capital and liquidity preference. The central argument of the book is that the level of employment is determined. On the contrary. Although Keynes explicitly addresses inflation. but by the spending of money (aggregate demand). in the long run. The book provides the basis for a longer term commitment to the welfare state but Keynes was by no means a socialist in the usual sense and did not advocate big government for its own sake. Just as the reception of The General Theory was encouraged by the 1930s experience of mass unemployment. has lost credibility. Keynes does not set out a detailed policy program in The General Theory.

shortly before Keynesian economics fell out of fashion). 2. Aspek analisa ekonomi makro: 1.However. For instance. 7. 4. 6. many of the innovations introduced by The General Theory continue to be central to modern macroeconomics. Dalam buku tersebut.´ Buku ini merupakan landasan dari ekonomi makro pada saat ini. Keynes berpendapat bahwa pengangguran dapat terjadi dan berlangsung dalam waktu yang tidak terbatas. President Richard Nixon famously said in 1971 that ³We are all Keynesians now´ (ironically. 3. 5. 8. the idea that recessions reflect inadequate aggregate demand and that Say¶s Law (that supply creates its own demand) does not hold in a monetary economy. a phrase often repeated by Nobel laureate Paul Krugman. pendapatan nasional neraca pambayaran dan kurs valuta asing kesempatan kerja inflasi pengangguran investasi pertumbuhan ekonomi suku bunga perkembangan pasar saham .

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