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Absenteeism is the total man shifts lost because of absences as a percentage of the total
number of man shifts schedule to work. it signifies the absence of an employee from work when
he is scheduled to be at work, it is unauthorized, unexplained, avoidable and willful absence
from work. Almost every type of organized setup such as private and government offices as
well as factories have the signs of deteriorating conditions of organization is high rate of


 To find out the Socio – Economic background of absenteeism.

 To find out how far personal factors are responsible for absenteeism.
 To find out how far financial background of workers is responsible for absenteeism.
 To the out the influence of other factors which are responsible for absenteeism.
 To find out the rate of absenteeism among workers with reference to those factors of
absenteeism that is controllable by the management.

Primary data: the data regarding absenteeism is collected by giving questionnaire.
To the employees and the opinions of interpretational and analyzed.
Secondary data: the data is collected by Annual reports journals of the company.

Absenteeism is a universal problem. The study confines more on the permanent employees and
also it covers 11 the major aspects of absenteeism.


 The subject selected of the study is very small and no effective generalization could be
 The reasons behind the absenteeism are more and it effects while collection of the data.

The human resources are the most important assets of an organization. The success or
failure of an organization is largely dependent on the caliber of the people working therein.
Without positive and creative contributions from people, organizations cannot progress and
prosper. In order to achieve the goals or the activities of an organization, therefore, they need to
recruit people with requisite skills, qualifications and experience. While doing so, they have to
keep the present as well as the future requirements of the organization in mind.

Human Resource Management (HRM) is concerned with the people dimensions in

management. HRM is the term increasingly used to refer to the philosophy, Policies, procedures
and practices relating to the management of people within organizations. Since every
organization is made up of people, acquiring their services, developing their skills, motivating
them to higher levels of performance and ensuring that they continue to maintain their
commitment to the organization are essential to achieving organizational objectives. Those
organizations that are able to acquire develop, stimulate and keep outstanding workers will be
both effective and efficient.

HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT (HRM) is an approach to the Management of people

based on your fundamental principles

1. Human resources are the most important assets an organization has and their
effective management in the key to in success.

2. This success in most likely to the achieved if the personnel policies and
procedures of the Enterprise are closely linked with, and make a major contribution to the
achievement of corporate objectives and strategies plans.

3. The Corporate culture and the values, organizational climate and managerial
behavior that emanate from that culture will exert a major influence on the achievement
of excellence.
4. HRM is concerned with integration-getting all the member of the organization
involved and working together with a sense of common purpose.

In its essence, HRM is the quantitative improvement of human beings who are considered
the most valuable assets of an organization the sources, resources, and end user, of all products
and services. But it is much more than its parent disciplines, viz. personnel management and
behavioral science. HRM is also more comprehensive and deep-rooted than training and
development. Its approach is multi-disciplinary from the beginning to the end. It is a scientific
process of continuously enabling the employees to improve their competency and capability to
play their present as well as future expected roles so that the goals of the organization are
achieved more fully and at the same time the needs of the approach of HRM is to perceive the
organization in its totality. Its emphasis is not only on production and productivity but also on
the quality of life. It seeks to achieve the fullest development of human resources and the fullest
possible Socio-Economic development.


According to lvancevich and Glucck – “Human resource management is the function

performed in organization that facilitates the most effective use of people (Employees) to
achieve organizational and individual goals”

According to Dale Joder – “The management of human resources is viewed as a system

in which participants seeks to attain both individual and group goals”

Byars and Rue define HRM as – “Human resource management encompasses those
activities designed to provide for and co-ordinate the Human resource of an organization”

According to Flippo – Human resource management is – “the planning, organizing,

directing and controlling of the procurement, development, compensation, integration,
maintenance and reproduction of human resources to the end that individual, organizational and
societal objectives are accomplished”
According to National institute of Personnel Management of India – “Personal
Management is that part of management concerned with people at work and with their
relationships within the organization. It seeks to bring men and women who make up an
enterprise, enabling each to make his/her own best contribution to its success both as an
individual and as a member of a working group.


On the analysis of definitions of HRM the following factors of HRM can be identified.

1. People Oriented: HRM is concerned with employees both as individuals and as group in
attaining goals. It is also concerned with behaviour, emotional and social aspects of
Personnel. It is the process of bringing people and organization together so that the goals
of each are met.

2. Comprehensive Function: Human resource Management covers all levels and

categories of employees. It applies to workers, supervisors, officer, manager, and other
types of Personnel. It covers both organized and unorganized employees. It applies to
the employees in all types of organizations in the world.

3. Individual – Oriented: Under HRM, every employee is considered as an individual so

as to provide services and programmes to facilitate employee satisfaction and growth.
Other words it is concerned with the development of human resources i.e., knowledge,
capability, skill potentialities and attaining and achieving employee.

4. Continuous Function: HRM is a continuous and never ending process. According of

George R Terry – “it cannot be turned on an off like water from a faucet: it cannot be
practiced only one hour each day or one day each week. Personnel management requires
a constant alertness and awareness of human relations and their importance in everyday
5. A Staff Function: HRM is a responsibility of all line manager and a function of staff
Managers in an organization. HR managers do not manufacture or sell goods but they do
contribute to the success and growth of an organization by advising the operating
departments on personnel matters.

6. Pervasive Function: HRM is the Central sub function of and it permeates all types of
functional Management viz., production Management, Marketing Management and
Financial Management. Each and Energy Manager is involved with human resource
functions. It is a responsibility of all line managers and a function of staff managers in an

7. Challenging Function: Managing of HR is a challenging Job due to the dynamic nature

of people. HRM aims at securing unreferred co-operation from all employees in order to
attain predetermined goals. HRM aims at assuring unreferred co-operation from all
employees in order to attain predetermined goals.

8. Development-Oriented: Individual Employee goals consists of jet satisfaction, job

security, high salary, attractive fringe benefits, challenging etc. HRM is concerned with
developing potential of employees, so that maximum satisfaction from their work and
give their best efforts to the organization.


HRM is a process consisting of four functions

(i) Acquisition of HR
(ii) Development of HR
(iii) Motivation of HR
(iv)Maintenance of HR

(i) Acquisition Function: Acquisition process is concerned with securing and employing
the people possessing required kind and level of human resources necessary to achieve
the organizational objectives. The acquisition function begins with planning. It also
covers the functions such as Job analysis, HR planning, recruitment, selection, placement,
induction & internal mobility.

(ii) Development function: Development function is the process of improving, molding and
changing the skills, knowledge, creative ability, aptitude and values. The development
function can be viewed along three dimensions.

(a) Employee training – Training is the process of imparting the Employees the
technical and operating skills and knowledge. It also includes changing of
attitudes among workers.

(b) Management development – Management development is primarily concerned

with knowledge acquisition of the entrancement of the executive’s conceptual
abilities. It is the process of designing and conducting suitable executives
development programmes so as to develop the managerial and human relations
skill of employees.

(c) Career development – Career development is the continual effort to match long-
term individual and organizational needs. When human resources have been
developed effectively, one can expect to have competent employees with up-to-
dates skills and knowledge.

(iii) Motivation Function: The motivation function begins with the recognition that
individuals are unique and that motivation techniques must reflect the needs of each
individual. It is an area of management in integrating people into work situation is a way
that motivates them to work together productively, co-operatively and with economic,
psychological and social satisfaction.

(iv) Maintenance Functions: The maintenance function is concerned with providing those
working conditions that employees believe are necessary in order to maintain their
commitment to the organization. The objective of the maintenance function is to retain
people who are performing at high levels. This requires that the organization provide safe
and healthful working conditions and satisfactory labor relations. If these activities are
performed effectively. WE can expect to have competent employees who are committed
to the organization and satisfied with their Jobs.


Objectives are predetermined goals to which individual or group activity in an

organization is directed. Objectives of HRM are influenced by organizational objectives and
individual and social goals. Every organization has some objectives and every part of it should
contribute directly or indirectly to the attainment of desired objectives. Objectives determine the
character of an organization and serve as the basis for voluntary co-operation and co-ordination
among employees. Objectives also provide benchmarks or standards of evaluating –

The primary aims of HRM is promotion of effectiveness of the people employed with the
organization with performance of their allotted duties by the substitution of co-operation in the
common task in the place of the suspicious and hostility which have so long been characteristic
of relations between employees and employers.

Objectives of HRM are derived from the basic objectives of an organization. In order to
achieve organizational objectives integration of employers interest and employee interest is
necessary. In this light the objectives of HRM may be summarized as follows:

1. To improve the service rendered by the enterprise to society through building better
employee morale, which leads to more efficient individual & group performance. Thus,
HRM seeks to manage change to the mutual advantage of individuals groups the
organization & the society.

2. To establish in the mind of those associated with the Enterprise - employees.

Shareholders, Creditors, Customers and the public at large the fact that the enterprise is
rendering the best service of which it is capable and distributing the benefits divined from
their fairly and contributory to the of the enterprise.

3. To create and an able and motivated works once, to accomplish the basic organizational

4. To recognize and individual and group needs by providing adequate and equitable,
wages incentives employee benefits, social security challenging work, prestige,
recognition, security, status etc. thus an organization can identify and satisfy , individual
and group goals by offering appropriate monetary. And non- monetary incentives.

5. To employee the skills and knowledge of employees Efficiently Effectively, i.e, To

utilize HR effectively in the achievement organizational goods.

6. To strengthen and appreciate the human assets continuous by providing training and
development helps the organization attain its goals by providing well trained and well
motivated employees.

7. To maintain high employee morale and sound human relation by sustaining and
improving the ravenous conditions and facilities.

8. To enhance job satisfaction and self – actualization of employees by encouraging and

assisting every employee to realize his full potential.

9. To recognize and satisfy individual needs and group goods by offering appropriate
monetary and non – monetary incentives.

10. To develop and maintain a quality of work life (QWL) which makes employment
in organization a desirable personal and social situation.

Maximum individual development, developing desirable working relationship and effective

centralization of Human resource are the primary goals of HRM. Management has to create
conductive Environment and provide necessary prerequisites for the attainment of the
objectives of HRM.


Human resources, along with financial and material resource Contribute to the production
of goods & Services in an organization. Physical and monetary resources, by themselves, cannot
improve efficiency or contribute to an increased rate of return on investment. It is through the
combined and concentrated efforts of people that monetary, material resources are harnessed to
achieve organizational goals. But these efforts. Attitudes and skills have to be sharpened form
time to time to optimize the effectiveness of HR and to enable them to meet greater challenges.
This is where HRM plays a cultural role.

The significance of HRM can be discussed at four levels.

 Corporate level
 Professional
 Social and
 National


Good human resource practices can help in attracting and retaining the best people in the
organization. Planning alerts the company to the types of people it will need in short, medium
and long run. HRM can help an enterprise in achieving its goals more efficiently and effectively
in the following ways.

 Attracting and retaining talent through effective human resource planning.

Recruitment, Selection, compensation and promotion Policies.
 Developing the necessary skills and right attitudes among the employees trough
 Securing willing co-operation of employees through motivation.
 Utilizing effectively the available human resource.

Effective Management of human resources helps to improve the quality of work life. It
contributes to professional growth in the following ways.

 Providing maximum opportunities of personal development of each employee.

 Allocating work property and scientifically.
 Maintaining healthy relationships between individual and groups in the organization.


Sound HRM has a great significance for the Society. The society as a whole, is the major
beneficiary of good human resource practices.

 Employment opportunities multiply.

 Scarce talents are put to best use.
 Organizations that pay and treat people well, always race ahead of other and deliver
excellent results.
 Maintain a balance blw the jobs Available and job seekers in terms of numbers.
Qualification, need and aptitudes.
 Provides suitable employment that provides soul and psychological satisfaction to people


Human resources and their management play a vital role in the development of a nation.
There are wide differences in development between countries with similar resources due to
differences in the quality their people. Counties are under development in a country depends
primary on the skills, attitudes and values of its human resources. Effective management of HR
help. To speed up the process of economic growth when inn turn leads to higher standards of
living and fuller employment


The overall aim of HRD is to see that the organization has the quality of people it needs
to attain its goal for improved performance and growth. This, aim is achieved by ensuring as for
as possible that everyone in the organization has the knowledge and skills and reaches the level
of competence required to carry out their work effectively that the performance of individuals
and teams is subject to continuous improvement and that people are developed in a way that
maximizes their potential for growth and promotion.


HRD should begin with HR Plans of organizations of HR Plans deal with analysis,
forecasting and identifying the organizational need for human resource. Also HR planning
allows anticipating the management of people through the organization due to retirement
promotion and transfers. It will be needed by the organization into future. A development
necessary to have people with those abilities on hand when needed. The following figure shows
HRD processes in the organization.

Abilities and capabilities necessary

to carry out the plans

Succession planning

Development needs assessment

Developmental planning

Evaluation or Development success

Organization Developmental approaches Individual


If the HRD system is designed in any organizations as described above, it is expected to

have following out comes.

 People in the organization become more competent.

 People understand their roles better.

 People become more commitment to their jobs.

 People develop greater trust and respect for each other.

 It produces synergy effect, because of grater collaborations and team work, made
available With HRD system

 People become more prone to risk taking and pro- active in their orientation.

 Lot of useful and objective data on employees are generated which facilitates
human resources planning.

The net result of above out comes, is that the organization achieves new high in terms of
productivity. Cost, growth, Diversification, profits and public image.


 HRD system should help the company to increase enabling capabilities which include
development of human resources in all aspects organizational health, improvement in
problem slowing capabilities, diagnostic skill capabilities to support all other systems in
the company.

 It should help individual to recognizes their potential and help them contribute their best
to wards, the various organization thus on expected to perform.

 It should help to maximize individual autonomy through increased responsibility.

 It should facilitate decentralization through delegation and shared responsibility.

 It should facilitate participative decision - making.

 It should attempt to balance the current organizational culture with changing culture.

 There should be balance b/w differentiation and integration.

 There should be balance b/w specialization of the function with its diffusion into the

 HRD system should ensure responsibility for the function.

 It should build upon feedback and reinforcement mechanisms.


In the early 1970’s the concept of HRD first began to be recognized by some
organizations is India. A large number of organizations in the country, later on, have begun to
display an interest in HRD; while some organizations appeared to have simply relabeled there
personnel departments as HRD department or HROI department to keep up with the fashions of
the times, there are some which same to have done consider able work in setting up HRD

Larson and Toubro gets credit, as first co., to introduce HRD in India (in 1974) develop and to
implement various systems of the co. Created HRD department, to identify develop and to
implement various systems of develop employees in addition to training which was the only
activity so far done by personal department. Followed by L & T, to name, the following are
organizations which introduced HRD.


 State Bank of India

 BHEL in 1980
 Bharat Aluminium Co- Ltd.
 Bharat Earth Movers Ltd.
 Bank of Baroda
 Hindustan petroleum Co- Ltd.
 Indian petrol Chemical Corporation Ltd.,
 SAIL , etc.,


 L&T
 Associated cement Co- Ltd.,
 Crompton greaves Ltd.
 Dunlop Indian Ltd.,
 Hindustan lever Ltd.,
 Indian Rayon
 Sundaram Clayton
 Voltas Ltd.,
 T V S Iyengar & Sons, Etc.

At the government of India level for the first time, in 1986, duting the tenure of late Sri. Rajiv
Gandhi a ministry for HRD was created, with the modification of education ministry into HRD

In the Rajiv Gandhi’s Cabinet, Sri. P. V. Narasimha Rao held, HRD portfolio, for some period,
then in 1989 Sri Shivashanker in 1989 Sri Ramalingam pande. Like – wise in 1992 Sri Arjun
Singh, in 1994 Sri Madava Rao Scidia and now in 1996 Sri.S. R. Bommai holding HRD
Government of India in general and HRD ministry in particular, making policies at different
levels giving a lot of importance to Human Resource. In this regard they are revamping changes
levels of education being imparted from primary level of university education, besides, taking up
literary programme to achieve 100 percent literacy of the population.

In India, HRD is very much needed because India is a vast country with various colorful
diversity of people (any organization in India will have, naturally an association of all these
people). It is extremely difficult to assess the value of people of India, due to the rapid changes in
education system, technologies and marketing conditions. However carefully designed and
managing fully implemented HRD System would let the organization to have substantial gains.

Suggestions to Make HRD Effective In Indian Organizations

 There should be an explicit corporate policy on human resource.

 The top head must have full belief in the value of its employees as his greatest resources.

 H.R.D. Needs of an organization should be seriously examined and an action plan for
HRD should be prepared.

 HRD departments should be headed by competent persons and should be placed close to
the chief executive on the organization chart.

 Conducive climate, essential for the success of all HRD efforts, should be developed.

 Heads of various departments which are dealing with HRD efforts should be encouraged
to share their experience and develop professionally.

Global Head is a HR Consulting firm based at Mysore - Karnataka. It is founded by QHR

(Qualitative Human Resources) pool. Global head is driven not by skilled artisans as much as by
the “thinking people”.

Global Head is bunch talented dynamic young professionals. Who are effectively operating
recruitment to meet our client’s expectations, we provide innovative work force & solutions to
companies of all sizes to meet the challenges of current changing business environment, It has
right mix of resources to help companies to maximize the efficiency and productivity of their
workforce through our wide array of services and e-capabilities.

Global Head are proud to say that we have the ability to source the right person and attract them
towards the client and possession of the professional skills and technical capabilities.

It is assure his clients satisfactory services in terms of Quality, Deliverance and Cost
optimization and at the same time it ensure our clients, the right candidates aptly fitting into their
culture & key parameters. To the candidates the opportunity to work with respective clients with
their qualification, experience and potential.
Its venture is to help our clients in order to locate the right resource at the right place at the right
time to build the workforce more valuable.

GH has in-house data of active resumes which are continuously update and augment by us.
• Data base
• Networking
• Head Hunting
• Portal Networking
• Referrals
• Huge local Resource Network

Its vision forever – Having a positive “Can Do” Mentality, anxious to find ways round obstacles
and willing to utilize all the available resources in a very efficient manner to accomplish the
objective of rendering satisfactory recruitment service.


• To Provide quality service on time

• Respond aggressively to client’s needs
• Keep on upgrading quality, skills and knowledge
• Learning as life – long process
• To be partner with clients
• Focus on effective recruitment in short time frame
• Keep on adding value through effective recruitment process


• GH is positive and driver of positive change.

• Global head is clients focused and result oriented
• Achievement oriented
• Meet challenges concerned with fulfilling clients’ needs thereby increasing their satisfaction

• Its work aggressively and firmly with clients to determine their actual need regarding
qualifications and skills.
• Its take steps to solve clients immediate and long-term business goals. It listen to their
distinctive situation and It is work to place the people who have the skills and experience as
per clients’ needs.
• It is swiftly respond to clients’ needs, offer research base solutions, honest feedback with


Having said that "Our Customers/Clients are part sole of our business": It enhance joint
venture to solve client's immediate and long-term business task. We act according to client's
requisitions and demands as per their best practice to find proper solutions.

It is manage the entire Recruitment needs of the Client, address hiring initiatives providing best
sourcing strategies to stay competitive.

Work strictly with the Hiring Manager, analyze hiring needs, do job profiling, devise strategies
and selection procedures.

Provide ready made solutions to make more efficient recruitment process, decrease joining time
and enable business focus for the clients.

Having said that we concentrate on IT meantime we give ample concentration on Pharma

Industry and we do have required resource towards attaining the Bio Technology’s whole
recruitment process…

Provide a web based recruitment solution for managing applicant data, tracking, screening, and
scheduling and closure status.

• Job profiling
• Search and Sourcing Methodologies
• Screening, Short listing, Scheduling Services
• Pre and post follow up with both parties
• Promoting Client’s brand as well as marketing vacancies


Global Head proud to say that we are more competent as we

• Maintain focus
• Measure and align performance
• Facilitates change

Its expertise is spread across the following domains

• IT/ Information Technology

• Telecom
• Pharma / Bio Technology
• Embedded
• Banking and insurance
• Logistics
• Stock broking
• Shares
• Retail
• Automobile

IT & Telecom

• Huawei Techonologies
• Alcatel-Lucent
• ITC Infotech
• HCLTechnologies
• 3i Infotech
• Patni Computer Systems
• Zensar Technologies
• Polaris Software
• Fidelity National Information Service
• Supervalu Services
• Datamatics Software Service
• Tes BV
• R Systems
• Infinite Computer Systems
• Procsys
• Newgen Software
• Ionnor Solution Pvt. Ltd.
• Tavant Technologies
• Aspire communications
• Brainwave Technologies
• Nous Infosystems
• HMS Systems Pvt. Ltd. ( INDIA )
• KPIT Cummins
• Veriton Software
• Iteam Software

• Ranbaxy Laboratories Ltd
• Torrent Pharmaceutical
• Merck India Pvt Ltd
• Jubilant
• Accenture - Healthcare
Non IT

• Iflex Teleservices
• Hello Mysore
• Raman Fibre Pvt Ltd

BPO/Call Centers

• Infosys BPO
• Wipro BPO
• Call 2 Connect
• Infotech Enterprises Group
• First Source
• HTMT (Mysore)


• ITC Infotech (Medical, Pharma, Consumer)

• Nestle India Pvt. Ltd.
• JTI India Ltd
• Britannia Industries Ltd.

• Volvo India
• J.K Tyres
• Bajaj Auto limited
• Maruti Udyog Ltd


• Continuous learning
• Thinking and applied resourcefulness
• Clients focus
• Relationship management
• Influencing skills
• Commitment Excellence
• Execution effectiveness


It is commit to continuous improvement and change by the application of self managed learning
techniques, supplemented where appropriate by deliberate planned exposure to learning sources.


Development of convincing, business focused action plans and the deployment of

intuitive/creative thinking to generate innovative solutions and proactively seize opportunities.


Concern for the perceptions of the clients’ and a willingness to solicit and act upon “Clients’
feedback as one of the foundation of ours for performance improvement

Ability to develop effective relationship with clients’ as well as candidates, ability to leverage
difference in thinking styles


The ability to transmit information to candidates, persuasively and cogently, the display of
listening, and comprehension skill


Ability to constantly raise quality, standards and exceed them


Ability to consistently deliver on time on commitments to clients


 Genius Consultants ltd

 Ma foi management Consultants ltd
 Adecco India
 Manpower consulting
 ABC consultants
 Lance soft


 To find out the various cause for absenteeism

 To identify the rate of absenteeism of “worker”.

 To maintain and improve overall performance of employee.

 To bring down the excess labour cost due to absenteeism.

 To study the various measures adopted by the organization.

 To provide suggestions in the form of solutions to reduce the rate of absenteeism.


The present study is confined only to the absenteeism at Global Head HR Consulting
Mysore. This study is exclusively conducted to evaluate the existing practice, procedure and
system at Global Head HR Consulting Mysore. It certainly helps in reducing the percentage of
absenteeism at this company.

The findings of the project has helped to find out certain aspects, in the Leave
Management System, where further improvement in reducing absenteeism, may be considered
by the management.

This study has given a reasonable exposure. This informs about the direct elements such
as present method of absent and allotment of work to others. The indirect elements such as
operations/smooth functioning etc., which indirectly influence the quality, also play a major role
in Leave Management System.

This study has provided certain actions for the management against the findings. The
study is considered to bring awareness among employees against the frequent absenteeism. It
motivates the morale of the employees and helps in improving their performance.

The research reveals that one of the major problems is absenteeism in our industry.
Absenteeism hinders planning, production, efficiency and functioning of the organization. In fact
high rates of absenteeism affect an organization state of health and also supervisory and
managerial effectiveness.


The Design of the study is the conceptual within which research/ study in conducted; it
constitutes the blue print for the collection, measurement and analysis of Data.


“A case Study of Employee Absenteeism at Global Head HR Consulting”


The sources of data for the purpose of study were both primary and secondary. Primary
data was collected through questionnaire which was mainly close-ended questionnaire and
discussion with workers whereas secondary data was collected from records maintained by
personal department and time office. Percentage method is used for the analysis of data and bar
graphs are used to present that data.

Primary data which includes

i. Collection of data through personal interviews and personal interaction with concerned
sectional / departmental heads in the Company.

ii. Collecting information from the informants through questionnaires.

iii. Informal discussion with employees and staff of the Company.

iv. Discussion with friends.

v. Actual observations of realistic activities in the workplace.

Secondary Data includes

Collection of data through books, study reports, data received from the company.


 The workers may not give frank response to certain questions.

 The workers were busy with their work therefore they could not give enough time for the

 The personal biases of the respondents might have entered into their response.

 All the Analysis & interpretation is made out of information furnished by the data collected
both primary & secondary.

 Secondary Data is limited

 Some of the respondents give no answer to the questions which may affect the analysis.
 Respondents were reluctant to disclose complete and correct information.




Absenteeism is a serious workplace problem and an expensive occurrence for both

employers and employees seemingly unpredictable in nature. A satisfactory level of attendance
by employees at work is necessary to allow the achievement of objectives and targets by a

Employee Absenteeism is the absence of an employee from work. It is a major problem faced by
almost all employers of today. Employees are absent from work and thus the work suffers.
Absenteeism of employees from work leads to back logs, piling of work and thus work delay.

Absenteeism has been one of the major Labor problems faced by the industries. The rate of
absenteeism differs from department to department. For calculating the rate of absenteeism, two
factors are taken into consideration- The number of persons scheduled to work and the number
actually present. A Worker who reports for any part of shift is to be considered present.

Any employee may stay away from work if he/she has taken leave, to which he/she is entitled, or
on the ground of sickness or some accident, or without an previous sanction of leave. Thus
absence may be authorized, unauthorized willful or caused by circumstances beyond one’s

The term labor is used in many different ways. Sometimes, it is used as synonymous with
“the civilian labor force” Such a definition lumps together in the same category the banker and
the ditchdingger, the independent storekeeper and the president of United States steel
corporation. This heterogeneous group has one common characteristics namely. That is members
work for living. In this respect, they are distinct form other groups in the population.

On the other hand, the term labour is sometimes used to refer to much more limited groups. For
example. When we refer to “Skilled Labour”, we normally mean skilled craftsmen who work for
hire for others and who are neither white – Collar workers nor professional personnel. This
definition excludes both the typist in the office and doctor in the hospital although both may
work for hire and have highly developed skills. Similarly, if one reads that ‘Labour’ opposes the
use of the injection as a strike breaking weapon, it is likely that the term is intended to apply to
limited group of men and women, skilled and unskilled, white collar and non- white collar, who
are either members of unions or are in group which lend themselves to union organization . The
term Labour, therefore may have various meanings and scope, depending upon the context in
which it is used.


In order to understand that nature of the Labour market in our economy and the factors
which contribute to the development of trade unions. One must understand who provides the jobs
for our labor force. Today, most people work for someone else, whether it is and large farm
operator, a giant industrial corporation, a government agency, or the corner drugstore self-
employment has continually declined as a source of work.


Different authorities have variously defined absenteeism

It refers to workers absence from their regular task when he is normally schedule to work.
According to Webster’s dictionary “Absenteeism is the practice or habit of being an absentee and
an absentee is one who habitually stays away from work.”

R.C Sexena defines absenteeism as the “Total man shifts lost, because of absence expressed on a
percentage of the total number man shift scheduled”.
According to Richard. M. Jones,” Absenteeism is the manifestation of a decision by an employee
not to present himself at his place of work at a time when it is planned by management that he
should be in attendance and when he has been notified of such expectation”.

According to Labour Bureau of Shimla: - Absenteeism is the total man shifts lost because of
absence as percentage of total number of man shifts scheduled to work.

According to the Angus, “absenteeism is related to new values and norms which are developing
among the work – force as a result of technological developments, work and leisure are now
cherished by the worker and these he wants to enjoy along with monetary benefits he gets for his

According to the K N Vaid, “an absence is the failure of an employee to report for work when is
scheduled to work”.

Some other definitions for absenteeism are as follows

A definition of "absence" must be established. For the purpose of this column, an absence refers
to time an employee is not on the job during scheduled working hours, except for a granted leave
of absence, holiday or vacation time.

In other words, it signifies the absence of an employee from work when he/she is scheduled to be
at work. Any employee may stay away from work if he/she has taken leave to which he/she is
entitled or on ground of sickness or some accident or without any previous sanction of leave.
Thus absence may be authorised or unauthorised, wilful or caused by circumstances beyond
one’s control.

Efficiency of Labour is an important factor both for industrial development and progress
and for improving export potentiality. Generally Labour is efficient, competitive power of Indian
industries must be adversely affected in the international market. Even internally, high costs lead
to high prices which restrict demand and react unfavorably on volume of production.

There is a commonly prevalent idea that India Labour is combatively less efficient. There are
certain factors which at present tend to make the efficiency of an Indian Labour low. There is no
reason to believe that any radical or climatic causes underline such lack of efficiency. If
appropriate steps are taken there is no reason why Indian labour should no be as efficient as
labour is the most industrially advanced countries of be very expensive. A survey of companies
made by the Bensen laboratories of Pittsburg showed that the average annual cost of absenteeism
was $ 56.02 for every employee on the pay roll. Thus for a company with 100 employees the
cost would be $ 5600 a year; for a company with 1000 employees the cost would be $ 56,000 a

This clearly indicates the magnitude of the cost of absenteeism.


For calculating the rate of absenteeism we require the number of people scheduled to
work and number of people actually present. Absenteeism can be find out of absence rate
For Example:

a) Average number of employees in work force : 100

b) Number of available workdays during period : 20
c) Total number of available workdays (a x b) : 2,000
d) Total number of lost days due to absences during the period : 93
e) Absenteeism percent (d [divided by] c) x 100 : 4.65%

Calculation of absenteeism differs from industry to industry. In a cotton textile mill

Bombay, if a worker is absent and a substitute is taken in his place, as far as the permanent
worker is concerned, he is treated as absent. But mills in the Ahmadabad, if a substitute is taken
in place of a permanent work who is absent, he is not treated as a absent, from work for
calculating the rate of absenteeism.

In some industries, if a worker absents himself continuously for four or five day it will be treated
as one absence. Successive absence by the same worker were counted as new absence, only if
the worker returned to work for one full day, before he absents again. If he has worked less than
one day, his absence is treated as continuous in calculation of absence frequency.

Since absenteeism is a major barometer of employee morale, absenteeism above 5 percent has to
be considered as very serious (across most industries 3 percent is considered standard).

Different factories or industries may adopt different methods of calculating absenteeism. Any
way it is better to have a uniform formula to enable a common and comparable basis for
measuring absenteeism in various industries or factories.

It has been observed that the phenomenon of absenteeism does not exit only in Indian
industries it is a universal fact. The difference is only in terms of magnitude. The rate of
absenteeism varies from 7% to nearly 30%. In some occupations it has raised to the abnormal
level of 40% some reasons. The extent of absenteeism may differ from industry to industry,
place to place and occupation to occupation. It may also differ according to the make – up of the
work force. Absenteeism may be extensive in a particular department of an industry or a

In U.S.A it has been observed that curiously enough, the extent of absenteeism is greater
among women then men. Young men are generally found to be absent for reasons, including rest.
And sense of irresponsibility in some cases, absenteeism of particular workers is due to reasons
connected with the job, a worker for example, may be absent because he/she does not like
his/her job for some reasons, or because he/she has unsatisfactory relations with his/her
supervisors or with other employers. Absenteeism may also be due to sickness, real or feigned.

Absenteeism in Indian industry is not a new phenomenon. The royal commission on

labour reported that high absenteeism prevails among industrial labour mainly due to their rural
orientation since then a number of individual researches have investigated the problem and have
pointed out that absenteeism in our industries varies from 7% to 5% . its incidents is very high in
plantations and in mines and it is higher in northern India that in southern India.


Absenteeism is a universal phenomenon. Hence, absenteeism prevails among industrial

labour mainly due to their rural orientation. Even today the reason stated by commission is
relevant. On the basis of studies undertaken certain observations may be made:

a) The rate of absenteeism is lowest on payday; it increases considerably on the days following
the payment of wages and bonus. The level of absenteeism is comparatively high
immediately after payday. When worker either feel like having a good time or in some other
cases return home to their villages family and after a holiday, has also been found to be
higher than that on normal days.

b) Absenteeism is generally high workers below 25 years of age and those above 40. “The
younger employees are not regular and punctual”. Presumably because of the employment of
a large no. of new comers among the younger age groups, while the older people are not able
to withstand the strenuous nature of the work.

c) The percentage of absenteeism is higher in the night shift than in the day shift. This is so
because workers in the night shift experience great discomfort and uneasiness in the course
of their work than they do during day time.

d) Absenteeism in India is seasonal in character. It is the highest during March-April-May,

when land has to be prepared for monsoon, sowing and also in harvest season (Sept-Oct)
when the rate goes as high as 40%.


The Royal Commission Labour observed that high absenteeism among Indian labour is
due to rural orientation and their frequent urge for rural exodus. According to Acharaya “In
modern industrial establishment the incidence of industrial fatigue, mal nutrition and bad
working conditions aggravate that feeling for change among industrial worker and some time
impel them to visit their village home frequently for rest and relaxation.”

The phenomenon of absenteeism has been explained in various ways. According to one line of
thought, absenteeism is due to a lock of “commitment” one the part of the workforce. The degree
of commitment varies with the degree of a country’s industrial growth or maturity, absenteeism
is inversely related to industrial” development.

The causes for absenteeism are many; JUCIVS MICEL J. has described causes and effects of
absenteeism as follows.

To attribute absenteeism is given case of illness for example, many results in overlooking the
fact that incorrect job placement may have led first to boredom than to fatigue and to physical



In factory the worker finds caught within factory walls, he is bewildered by heavy traffic,
by strangers speaking different and subjected to strict discipline and is ordered by complete
strangers to do things which he cannot understand. As a result he is under constant strain, which
cause him serious distress and impairs his efficiency. All these factors tend to persuade him to
maintain his contacts with village.


Social and religious ceremonies divert workers from workers to social activities. In large
number of cases incidence of absenteeism due to religious ceremonies is more than due to any
other reason.


It is common among all Indian workers regarding the housing difficulties almost 95% of
the houses occupied by industrial workers in India are unsatisfactory for healthful habitation.
Which naturally Leeds to bad health conditions and which leads to consequence ill health.
Which makes the workers frequently visit o their village to get relief from unhealthy
surroundings. Workers also experience housing difficulties. Around 95% of housing occupied by
industrial workers in India is unsatisfactory for healthful habitations. This leads to loss the
interest in work.

Low wages compel a worker to seek some part time job to earn some side income. This
often result inconstant fatigue, which compels to remain absent for next day.


Irritating and intolerable working conditions exist in a factory. Heat, moisture, noise,
vibration, bad lighting, dust fumes and overcrowding all these affect the workers health causing
him to remain absent from work a long time.


High rate absenteeism is also due to lack of adequate welfare facilities Welfare activities
include clean drinking water, canteen, room shelter, rest rooms, washing and bathing facilities,
first aid appliances etc.


Some of the habitual drunkards spend whole of their salary during first week of each
month for drinking purpose. Therefore 2 or 3 weeks after getting their salary absent themselves
from their work.


All those workers who undergo financial hardships usually borrow money lenders at
interest rate which are very high, which often cumulates to more than 11 – 12 times their actual
salaries. To avoid the moneylenders they usually absent themselves from work because they are
unable to return the money in stipulated time.


Due to favoritism and nepotism which are in the industry the workers generally become
frustrated. This also results in low efficiency, low productivity, unfavourable relationship
between employee and supervisor, which in turn leads to long period of absenteeism.


Negligence on part of the employee to provide leave facility compel the worker to fall
back on ESI leave. They are entitled to 50 days leave on half on pay. Instead of going without
pay the worker avail themselves of ESI facility. Negligence on the part on the employer to
provide adequate leave facilities compels the workers avail themselves of the ESI facility
supervisor with a work oriented rather than more oriented approach are also factors, which
compels workers to absent themselves. Certificate rather than avail of leave on bonofied ground.


This is another problem by most of the workers. If the workers are provided with few
overtime facility next day there may be chances of them, not being in the factory. This may be
because either he has earned two days salary in one day itself or he is tired and needs a rest.

After the general causes of absenteeism the different causes can be grouped under the main
heading and discussed thoroughly.

Just as illness and accidents that occur at work, may be due to conditions related to
personnel problem so also illness and accidents outside work may be directly related to problems
connected with the job or with housing the transportation difficulties. Sickness and accidents
make up the major proportion of the causes for absenteeism. Absenteeism is also attributed to
family members, home responsibilities, indebtedness, laziness, gambling, excessive of taking
care of such family affairs as visits to the doctor, shopping attending to legal and banking
matters, attending to legal and banking matters, attending to the schooling children etc.
Especially if the employees hours of work are not sufficiently flexible to permit care of these
matters, during regular professional office hours of work are not sufficiently flexible to permit
taking care of these matters during regular professional office hours these could cause
absenteeism. Due to large families or unplanned living the worker may take loans form
unscrupulous moneylenders. Invariably due to fear of creditors, he will stay away form work
just after the payday. The employed age are tend to be absent due to their social obligation to
family in a view of cultural background, the worker tend to absent due to social and religious
functions like weddings, birth and funeral ceremonies et. Occasionally, the worker is forced to
be away form worker attend the community obligation such as court appearance etc. Many
studies have revealed that the absenteeism rate goes to the peak level in the month of May and
June during which period the schools and colleges re- open when the parent will have to admit
their children. The lack of seats in the institution cause anxiety in the minds of the parents who
have an alternative other than to absent form their children.


The organization also contrabass to the absenteeism rate. The environment factors such
as excessive humidity, bad ventilation, improper lighting, lack of adequate drinking water
supply, high noise level, occupational hazards that lead to industrial accidents etc. Are some of
the other causes for absenteeism. Improper selection and placement inadequate training program
and supervision, ineffective grievance procedure, lack of term lenient policy of management
freely granting leave non- attractive scheme etc., improper production planning resulting fin
insufficient or irregularity in the supply of raw materials, machinery and equipment, proper
scheduling and routine of work, temporary and periodic breakdown of machinery etc., also
discourage workers from putting in regular attendance. The natures of the work necessitating the
working of overtime frequently have their effect on attendance lack of welfare amenities such as
canteen, medial housing etc., motivate the workers to stay away form work.


In the absence of proper housing facilities the workers are forced to live for away from
the plant or in disagreeable and unhealthy surroundings since the workers getting low salary are
not able to pay the exorbitant rent, they tent to go for away to take up inconvenient and
unhygienic houses. The organization should provide housing facilities to fits employees within
the vicinity of the factory. The long hours of journey and adequate transport facilities result in
workers absence, there facilities like housing, transportation, marketing good sanitation, child
care centers schools etc., should be provided to the workers by the management which will be
mutually beneficial improve production or productivity and the workers will reap the advantage
of increased earning to ensure better living.

It is quite evident that absenteeism is a common feature of industrial labour in India. It

hinders industrial growth and its effect in two fold.


Let us try to know the effect of absenteeism on the worker himself:

A. Loss of Salary

The worker will loose almost double their basic salary when they get absent to their work.
This is a heavy loss for an individual. This adversely effects the financial position of
workers. If they work overtime also it is difficult to make up loss incurred due to

B. Continuity of Work

Absenteeism effects the continuity of work. When a worker return to work after a gap of
many days, it becomes difficult for him to fully concentrate on his work. This effects his
efficiency and effectiveness. Absenteeism may change a good worker into a poor worker.

C. Self Esteem

When a worker gets absent for many days, the management will differently take necessary
actions against him/her. His/her name will be included in the list of chronic absentees and
many counseling sessions will be conducted, notices will be issued and he/she will be
suspended for few days at last he/she will be terminated. All there things definitely hurt the
self- esteem of any individual irrespective of his/her positions.

D. Family

When a worker loose his/her salary due to absenteeism it becomes difficult for him/her to
meet his/her financial obligation. He/she may fail to meet his/her family’s needs. His/her
standard of living will come down. He/she will never get an opportunity to over come his/her
financial problems and domestic problem. All these things will effect the education medical
needs and other basic needs, and other basic needs of the family members.

E. Opportunity

People who rarely honkers will definitely loose many opportunities, workers are not
exception to his when they stay form their duties they may loose many opportunities like
good training, seminars and many such things absenteeism can also become a hurdle for his
career growth.


Now let us know the impact of absenteeism on the organization.

A. Production Planning

Planning will loose it purpose if it is not carried our accordingly absenteeism will act as a
hurdle in production planning lies in the combined effort of management and all the workers.
When a worker stays away form without any prior intimation it becomes difficult for the
supervisor make alternative arrangements to set right the things at earliest.
When a worker is considered as chronic absentee, the management must take necessary
actions against him counseling sessions, sending notices suspending terminating the workers
etc. may effect the cordial

B. Extra Work

C. Necessary Action
D. Quality

Relationship of management and workers.

When a worker comes to work once in a while a worker without interest it will effect the
quality of work. This may quality of work. This may lead to poor quality of products and loss
to the organization.

E. Productivity

Productivity is production more with less cost. Absenteeism will effect in achieving this
objective only regular and hard working workers can achieves productivity. Reduction in
absenteeism will definitely help in achieving productivity.


The impact of absenteeism on the co- workers is listed below.

A. Morale

Absenteeism will effect the morale of even the regular workers. When few workers when
few workers will stay away form work, even the others will also form work, even the others
will feeling like doing the same. This is common tendency in workers.

B. Extra Work Load

When one worker gets absent his work will be assigned to another worker. Even though
he/she gets the salary for his/her work, his/her work load gets increased. This may lead to
health problem in some workers.


Family Oriented & Responsibilities

It was observed that about 40% case absenteeism is family oriented and more
responsibilities of workers. It increases in harvesting season.

Social Ceremonies

In 20 % cases it was found that social and religious functions divert worker from work.

Housing Facility

In about 30% cases, the workers remain absent because there is no housing facilities and
the workers stay alone and great distance from factory.

Sickness and Accident

In 20% case the workers remain absent due to ill health and disease and in 15% cases
workers remain absent due to accident.


Most of the workers have to travel long distance to reach the work place. Most of the
workers are not satisfied with transport facilities.
Welfare Facilities

In 13% cases, the workers are not satisfied with welfare facilities.

Working Conditions

In 21% cases, the workers feel that there is not good working condition, because they
work in standing position which causes to remain absence for relaxation.

Management System

Near about 34% people are dissatisfied with management system because they feel that
their work is not being recognised and promotions are biased.


There are two types of absenteeism, each of which requires a different type of approach.


Innocent absenteeism refers to employees who are absent for reasons beyond their
control; like sickness and injury. Innocent absenteeism is not culpable which means that it is
blameless. In a labour relations context this means that it cannot be remedied or treated by
disciplinary measures.


Culpable absenteeism refers to employees who are absent without authorization for
reasons which are within their control. For instance, an employee who is on sick leave even
though he/she is not sick, and it can be proven that the employee was not sick, is guilty of
culpable absenteeism. To be culpable is to be blameworthy. In a labour relations context this
means that progressive discipline can be applied.
For the large majority of employees, absenteeism is legitimate, innocent absenteeism which
occurs infrequently. Procedures for disciplinary action apply only to culpable absenteeism. Many
organizations take the view that through the process of individual absentee counselling and
treatment, the majority of employees will overcome their problems and return to an acceptable
level of regular attendance.


Innocent absenteeism is not blameworthy and therefore disciplinary action is not

justified. It is obviously unfair to punish someone for conduct which is beyond his/her control.
Absenteeism, no matter what the cause, imposes losses on the employer who is also not at fault.
The damage suffered by the employer must be weighed against the employee's right to be sick.
There is a point at which the employer's right to expect the employee to attend regularly and
fulfill the employment contract will outweigh the employee's right to be sick. At such a point the
termination of the employee may be justified, as will be discussed.

The procedure an employer may take for innocent absenteeism is as follows:

1. Initial counselling(s)
2. Written counselling(s)
3. Reduction(s) of hours and/or job reclassification
4. Discharge


Presuming you have communicated attendance expectations generally and have already
identified an employee as a problem, you will have met with him or her as part of your
attendance program and you should now continue to monitor the effect of these efforts on his or
her attendance.
If the absences are intermittent, meet with the employee each time he/she returns to work. If
absence is prolonged, keep in touch with the employee regularly and stay updated on the status
of his/her condition. (Indicate your willingness to assist.)

You may require the employee to provide you with regular medical assessments. This will
enable you to judge whether or not there is any likelihood of the employee providing regular
attendance in future. Regular medical assessments will also give you an idea of what steps the
employee is taking to seek medical or other assistance. Formal meetings in which verbal
warnings are given should be given as appropriate and documented. If no improvement occurs
written warning may be necessary.


If the absences persist, you should meet with the employee formally and provide him/her
with a letter of concern. If the absenteeism still continues to persist then the employee should be
given a second letter of concern during another formal meeting. This letter would be stronger
worded in that it would warn the employee that unless attendance improves, termination may be


In between the first and second letters the employee may be given the option to reduce
his/her hours to better fit his/her personal circumstances. This option must be voluntarily
accepted by the employee and cannot be offered as an ultimatum, as a reduction in hours is a
reduction in pay and therefore can be looked upon as discipline.

If the nature of the illness or injury is such that the employee is unable to fulfil the requirements
of his/her job, but could for example benefit from modified work, counsel the employee to bid on
jobs of such type if they become available. (N.B. It is inadvisable to "build" a job around an
employee's incapacitates particularly in a unionized environment. The onus should be on the
employee to apply for an existing position within his/her capabilities.)

Only when all the previously noted needs and conditions have been met and everything
has been done to accommodate the employee can termination be considered. An Arbitrator
would consider the following in ruling on an innocent absenteeism dismissal case.

a) Has the employee done everything possible to regain their health and return to work?
b) Has the employer provided every assistance possible? (I.e. counseling, support, time off.)
c) Has the employer informed the employee of the unworkable situation resulting from their
d) Has the employer attempted to accommodate the employee by offering a more suitable
position (if available) or a reduction of hours?
e) Has enough time elapsed to allow for every possible chance of recovery?
f) Has the employer treated the employee prejudicially in any way?

As is evident, a great deal of time and effort must elapse before dismissal can take place.

These points would be used to substantiate or disprove the following two fold test.

1. The absences must be shown to be clearly excessive.

2. It must be proven that the employee will be unable to attend work on a regular basis in the


As already indicated, culpable absenteeism consists of absences where it can be

demonstrated that the employee is not actually ill and is able to improve his/her attendance.
Presuming you have communicated attendance expectations generally, have identified the
employee as a problem, have met with him/her as part of your attendance program, made your
concerns on his specific absenteeism known and have offered counselling as appropriate, with no
improvement despite your positive efforts, disciplinary procedures may be appropriate.

The procedures for corrective/progressive discipline for culpable absenteeism are generally the
same as for other progressive discipline problems. The discipline should not be prejudicial in any
way. The general procedure is as follows: [Utilizing counselling memorandum]

1. Initial Warning(s)
2. Written Warning(s)
3. Suspension(s)
4. Discharge


Formally meet with the employee and explain that income protection is to be used only
when an employee is legitimately ill. Advice the employee that his/her attendance record must
improve and be maintained at an improved level or further disciplinary action will result. Offer
any counselling or guidance as is appropriate. Give further verbal warnings as required. Review
the employee's income protection records at regular intervals. Where a marked improvement has
been shown, commend the employee. Where there is no improvement a written warning should
be issued.


Interview the employee again. Show him/her the statistics and point out that there has
been no noticeable (or sufficient) improvement. Listen to the employee to see if there is a valid
reason and offer any assistance you can. If no satisfactory explanation is given, advise the
employee that he/she will be given a written warning. Be specific in your discussion with
him/her and in the counselling memorandum as to the type of action to be taken and when it will
be taken if the record does not improve. As soon as possible after this meeting provide the
employee personally with the written warning and place a copy of his/her file. The written
warning should identify any noticeable pattern

If the amount and/or pattern continues, the next step in progressive discipline may be a second,
stronger written warning. Your decision to provide a second written warning as an alternative to
proceeding to a higher level of discipline (i.e. suspension) will depend on a number of factors.
Such factors are the severity of the problem, the credibility of the employee's explanations, the
employee's general work performance and length of service.



If the problem of culpable absenteeism persists, following the next interview period and
immediately following an absence, the employee should be interviewed and advised that he/she
is to be suspended. The length of the suspension will depend again on the severity of the
problem, the credibility of the employee's explanation, the employee's general work performance
and length of service. Subsequent suspensions are optional depending on the above condition.



Dismissals should only be considered when all of the above conditions and procedures
have been met. The employee, upon displaying no satisfactory improvement, would be dismissed
on the grounds of his/her unwillingness to correct his/her absence record.

Absenteeism is a disease that appears whenever a company fails to inoculate itself

through the use of sound management practices. To cure excessive absenteeism, one has to know
the exact causes and then examine the available, workable and proven solutions to apply against
those causes.


Establishing the Basic Facts

To embark upon a successful absenteeism reduction program, you need to make sure you
have some basic information and facts about absenteeism in your company. Consider the
following questions, and as you begin to dig for the answers, which should help you further
focus your ideas and put a plan into action.

Getting to the Root of the Problem

Once you have completed the above checklists, your responses should give you food for
thought and direction for combating absenteeism. If you have not made it a policy to keep track
of the items above, your first step now should be clearly mapped out for you. As a next step,
consider the following four questions, which should help you further focus your ideas and put a
plan into action.

Q. Why is your present absenteeism policy ineffective?

Absenteeism policies vary in effectiveness. Most ineffective policies I have reviewed
have a common denominator: They allow "excused" absences, whereas those that do work are
"no fault" policies.

Q. Where and when is excessive absenteeism occurring?

Numerous studies have concluded that under trained supervisors is one of the main
causes of absenteeism. Therefore, any company experiencing absenteeism of greater than 3
percent should consider supervisors as a potential contributor to the problem.

Given that this may be the case, you first should check the percentage of employee absenteeism
by supervisor to see if it is concentrated around one or two supervisors. If it is, you've begun to
uncover the obvious--undertrained supervisors. If, however, your research reveals that the rate of
absenteeism is almost equally distributed throughout your factory, you will need to investigate
other possible causes.

Q. What are the real causes for absences?

People-oriented companies are very sensitive to employee opinions. They often engage in
formal mini-studies to solicit anonymous employee opinions on topics of mutual interest. These
confidential worker surveys commonly ask for employee opinion regarding higher-than-normal
The responses have revealed rather surprising results: low pay, poor benefits and high workloads
were not major causes, nor was actual sickness. Instead, absenteeism generally was found to be a
symptom of low job satisfaction, sub-standard working conditions and consistent negative and
unfair treatment received by first-line supervisors.
In other words, employees revealed that repetitive, boring jobs coupled with uncaring
supervisors and/or physically unpleasant workplaces led them to make up excuses for not
coming to work, such as claiming to be sick. If your employees perceive that your company is
indifferent to their needs, they are less likely to be motivated, or even to clock in at all.
One way to determine the causes of absenteeism is to question your supervisors about their
employees' excessive absenteeism, including what causes it and how to reduce it. Of course, if
your supervisors have made no efforts to get to know the employees in their respective
departments, they may not be able to provide reasons. However, just the act of questioning may
get the ball rolling and signal to your supervisors that their involvement is important.

Q. How much formal training have your supervisors received on absenteeism containment
and reduction?

If you find that your supervisors hesitate to provide meaningful answers to your
questions, then you're on the right track toward a solution. Ask yourself, "How much formal
training have I given my supervisors in the areas of absenteeism reduction and human resources
skills?" If your answer is none or very little, your solution can't be far behind. The fact of the
matter is, you cannot ask a person to do a job he or she has never been trained to do.

If you have an absenteeism problem, it should now be clear that the place to begin the cure is
with its main causes: under-trained supervision and unsatisfactory working conditions. Without
improvement in these areas, you can expect your high rate of absenteeism to continue.

As the Causes of absenteeism are multiple one measure would not help in controlling the
rate of absenteeism. However a skilful combination of various measures would certainly bring
down the rate of absenteeism.

Some important measure which are generally adopted are


The first step in controlling absenteeism is systematic recruitment of employees. Workers

are to be recruited on scientific lines. Persons having adequate. Aptitude, necessary skill and
experience are to be recruited because they are less prone to absenteeism when compared to per
one who do not have aptitude and necessary skill. The selection of employees on the basis of
command, linguistic and family consideration should be avoided. The management should look
for aptitude and ability in the prospective employees and should not easily yield or pressure of
personal likes and dislikes. Application blanks should invariably be used for a preliminary
selection and tools for interviews. The personal officer should play more effective role as
coordinator of information, provided that he/she has acquired job knowledge in the function of
selection. Employers should also take into account the fact that selection should be for
employee’s development, their reliance. They should as far as possible rely on employment
exchange. .


In India, where the climate is warm and most of the work involves manual labour, it is
essential that the workers should be provided with proper and healthy working conditions. The
facilities of drinking water, canteens, lavatories, rest rooms, lighting and ventilation, need to be
improved. Where any one of these facilities is not available, it should be provided and all these
help in keeping the employee cheerful and increase productivity and the efficiency of operations
throughout the company. Providing healthy working condition is very important on reducing
absenteeism. Reducing the risk at the work place and providing necessary facilities would reduce
fatigue and also properly fenced.



The wages of an employee determine his/her as well as his/her family standard of living.
This single factor is important for him/her than other. The management should, therefore pay
reasonable wages and allowances, taking into account the capacity of the industry to pay.
Inadequate of wages is another important reason of absenteeism. Hence management should pay
all of its employees a fair wages and suitable allowance, fair wage may be decided often taking
into consideration the cost of living. Capacity of the concerned wages paid on other similar
concerns wage levels in the locality experience and skill of the employees etc. workers may be
given allowance, attendance allowance, special job allowance etc. to see that they attend to work
regularly. Job insecurity and absenteeism hence management should assure its employees that
workers will not be removed unnecessarily and without strong reasons.


The management should consider the needs of workers and offer them adequate and
cheap housing facilities, free of subsidised food, free medical and transport facilities, free
education facilities for their children and other monetary benefits. As for social security is
concern, the provision of Provident Fund, SBI facilities, Gratuity and Pension, all those need to
be improved.

Since a majority of the workers are illiterate or not highly educated bulletins and written
notices journals and booklets are not easily understood by them. Meetings and concealing are
called for written communication becomes meaningful only when workers can readied
understood them, too many notices should be avoided only the essential ones should be put on
the boards, which should be placed near the entrance inside the canteen and in areas which are
frequently visited by the workers so that they are aware of the policies of the company and any
sort changes being made.


In big industrial units where hundred of workers work, workers will certainly and in a fair
manner management can set up a grievance Redressal cell headed by an industrial psychologist
to settle grievances, the Redressal committee should be fair to the parties concerned and humane
in punishing the guilty.


The management’s strict attitude in granting leave and holidays even when the need for
them is genuine, tempts workers to go on E.S.I. leave for under this scheme, they can have 56
days leaves in years on half pay. An effective way of dealing with absenteeism is to liberalise
leave rules.


Safety at work can be maintained and accidents can be prevented if the management tries
to eliminate such personal factors as negligence, overconfidence, carelessness, vanity, etc and
such material factorizes unguarded machinery and explosives, defective equipment and hand
tools. Safe methods of operation should be taught. In addition consistent and timely safely
instruction, written instructions (manual) in the regional language of the area should be given to
the work force.

The supervisor should be recognise that industrial work is a groups task and cannot be
properly done unless discipline is enforced and maintained. Cordial relations between the
supervisors and these workers are therefore essential for without them, discipline cannot be
increased. One of the consequences of unhealthy relations between supervisors and subordinates
is absenteeism.


The system of worker’s education should be so designed as to take into account their
educational needs as individuals for their personal evaluation, as operatives for their efficiency
and advancement, as citizens for happy integrated life in the community, as members of a trade
union for the protection of their interests. The educational programs according to their national
commission on Labour should be to make a worker:-

a) A responsible, committed and disciplines operative.

b) Aware of his/her rights and obligations.
c) Lead a calm, clean and health life, based on a firm ethical foundation.
d) A responsible and alter citizen.


 There should be clear and definite rules and regulations on authorized and unauthorized

 Rules regulations relating to attendance must be explained to workers.

 A proper record of each workers attendance should be maintained on a special daily

attendance card.
 Regularity in attendance and be encouraged to some extent by the offer of a bonus and other
peculiar inducements.

 To reduce unavoidable absence due to sickness an industrial accidents, programmes of

industrial hygiene and safety should be strengthened.

 In case of personal and family circumstance E.G: illness of children in the case of married
women employee which make absence unavoidable leave should be granted liberally.

 The personal management should encourage notification especially in case of sickness when
the duration of absence in likely to be long.

The Bradford Factor is a Human Resources tool used by many organizations to measure
and identify areas of absenteeism. The theory is that short, frequent and unplanned absences are
more disruptive than longer absences.

It is based on the fact that it is normally easier to make arrangements to cover for staffs
who are going to be off for long periods, and which are more likely to be suffering from a
genuine illness.

However, employees taking odd unplanned days off here and there actually cause more
disruption to the business. If this pattern is repeated regularly, the employee will have a high
Bradford Factor score; which may raise questions about how genuine the illness actually is.

The formula for the Bradford Factor is:

E x E x D = Bradford Factor Score

Where E is the number of episodes of absence and D is the total number of days absent in
a rolling 52 week period.

So, for employees with a total of 10 days absence in one year, the Bradford Factor score
can vary enormously, depending on the number of episodes of absence involved. For example:

One absence episode of 10 days is 10 points (i.e. 1 x 1 x 10)

Five absence episodes of two days each is 250 points (i.e. 5 x 5 x 10)
Ten absence episodes of one day each is 1,000 points (i.e. 10 x 10 x 10)

How do organizations use the Bradford Factor?

There are no set rules for using the Bradford Factor; it is down to each organization to
determine the ways in which it uses the score.
However, used effectively, the Bradford Factor can reduce absenteeism dramatically,
serving as a deterrent and a method for tackling persistent absenteeism.

Studies have shown that by educating staff about the Bradford Factor, and then showing
them their score on a regular basis, absenteeism can be reduced by over 20%. This is largely
down to staff understanding that taking the odd day off here and there will quickly multiply their
Bradford Factor score. The Bradford Factor places a value on the absence which an employee
can clearly see. Where the absence is not absolutely necessary, this can serve to deter

When this is used in conjunction with a points system the Bradford Factor can be
effectively utilized to deter unnecessary absenteeism.
For example the Bradford Factor can be utilized by creating “triggers” whereby certain
actions are taken when an employee’s Bradford score reaches a certain point. For example, the
UK Prison Service has used the following triggers:

• 51 points – verbal warning.

• 201 points – written warning
• 401 points – final warning
• 601 points – dismissal

Setting these triggers is entirely dependent on the organization using the Bradford Factor.
It is usually advisable to use the Bradford Factor as one of a number of absence policies.
However, setting these triggers and making staff aware of them, in addition to taking action,
resulted in the Prison Service reducing absenteeism by 18%.
By implementing mandatory procedures for tackling absenteeism across an organization
led by the Bradford Factor, an organization can remove the potential for differences across teams
and management and remove the difficulties and reluctance that line managers often face when
having to discipline a close staff member.

The Bradford Factor can provide organizations with a two pronged method for tackling absence:
proactively deterring absence in the first place and utilizing a set procedure to identify and tackle
persistent absenteeism.

Implementing the Bradford Factor

Calculating the Bradford Factor for one member of staff over a given period is not a
difficult proposition. However, calculating the Bradford Factor over a rolling 52 week period,
across multiple teams and locations and considering different types of absence is a very difficult
As a result of the exponential nature of the formula {E x E x D}, even the slightest
mistakes in calculation can result in a wide variance of an employee’s Bradford Factor score.

For example: For an employee who has had 10 days off in a year in total, on two separate

2 X 2 X 10 = 40 {which does not trigger a warning – fewer than 50}

However, if their absence is either not recorded correctly, or is calculated wrong by just
one day:

3 X 3 X 10= 90 {which does trigger a warning – over 50}

You can see that their score is more than double, despite the small mistake. Getting the
formula the wrong way round can have even more significant results:
10 X 10 X 2 = 200 {which would trigger disciplinary proceedings – over 200}
If an organization wants to tackle absenteeism effectively, using the Bradford Factor,
including using an employee’s Bradford Factor score in potential disciplinary proceedings, then
the process for calculating the Bradford Factor has to be full proof, consistent and equal.

To achieve this, an organization will need to ensure:

• Absence reporting and monitoring is consistent, equal and accurate both over time and across
the whole organization.
• The calculation of an employee’s Bradford Factor score is based on these accurate, equal and
updated absence records.
• Management and staff have access to updated Bradford Factor scores.

Without these processes in place the calculation of the Bradford Factor is extremely
difficult and time consuming. In addition to this; unequal processes for reporting and calculating
the Bradford Factor could be discriminatory; everyone’s Bradford Factor score should be subject
to the same, indisputable criteria.

Leave Management at Global Head HR Consulting. Mysore

Global Head HR Consulting., Mysore has the problem of absenteeism but due to the
company’s good Leave Management, Absenteeism is negligible. Leave Rules specified can e
changed/ revised with the approval of chairperson only.


The Leaves are for a calendar year i.e. 01st January to 31st December. The power of grant leaves
vests with the Authorities / Officers authorized by Company.

Leaves cannot be claimed as a matter of right by the employees. In exigencies, leave can be
refused or revoked or postponed by the company. Half day leave is admissible only on CL & SL
the employees.

An employee shall, before proceeding on leave, furnish to the leave sanctioning authority his/her
address while on leave and shall keep the said authority informed of change, if any, in the
address previously furnished in a prescribed form.

Types of leave

The company provides certain leaves to the employees which are as follows:
The following are the types of leave may be granted to an employee:
Casual Leave (CL)
Sick Leave (SL)
Absent / Loss of Pay


Casual Leave is meant to cover certain unforeseen & sudden circumstances.

An employee is entitled for 13 days Casual leave for each calendar year of service. The Casual
Leaves are credited in the leave account of the employees on 01st January of the calendar year.
An employee can avail Half day Leave on these Leaves.
An employee can carry forward their Casual Leaves up to 15 days as per new Leave Policy.


Sick Leave is meant to cover sickness & health disorders / upset.

An employee is entitled for 11 days Sick leave for each calendar year of service. An employee
can avail Half day Leave on these Leaves.
An employee who avails sick leave more than three days on medical grounds for each calendar
year of service, required to submit a medical certificate. In case employee has a major illness /
sickness that require a leave of six continuous days or more then he/ she has to inform the
company in writing and obtain written permission to proceed on leave.
An employee on leave on medical grounds may be permitted to report to duty only on production
of certificate of fitness form approved medical practitioner.
An employee can carry forward their unveiled sick leave up to 30 days of leave at the end of a
calendar year to subsequent year (s) as per new Leave Policy.
No Sick leave may be granted to employees covered under the employee’s State Insurance act,
1948 Employees, who have been recommended absentention form work on grounds of sickness
by the employee’s state insurance (ESI) authorities, may have to apply immediately writing in
the form (S) provided for the purpose for grant of ESI leave required. They may also attach the
first certificate issued by the ESI authority

Absent is the leave availed by an employee without informing the authorized person about the
The leave will stand as absent for the period of leave if no other leaves available in the credit of
an employee and amounted to deduct the salary.
An employee has to give the satisfactory reason for leave period to the competent authority.
Leave / absent cannot be claimed as a matter of right by the employees. In exigencies, leave /
absent can be refused or disciplinary action can be taken against the individual by the company
Based on the No. of days absent form the duty for health reason, the company can ask an
employee on leave on medical grounds may be permitted to report to duty only on production of
certificate of fitness form medical practitioner.
The disciplinary action may be taken against an employee for the continuous absent. In spite of
repeated advise & warning, if the individual does not improve the attendance record, the
company can give punishment of suspension / Increment withheld.



Calling for explanation

Advisory Memos

Show cause Notice

If Explanation is not satisfactory

Charge sheet followed by Domestic enquiry, if charge are proved and found guilty, punishment
as specified under certified standing order of the company.



Reduces his earnings

Adds his indebtedness

Decreases the Purchasing power

Leads to family problems

Increases mental stress

Leads to inefficiency in his job

Loss of employment

Q. For how many years you are working with Global Head HR Consulting.?

INTERPRETATION – It can be seen that 56% of the workers at Global Head HR Consulting.
are working for more than 10 years whereas 36% are working for more than 5 yrs.

Q. How often you remain absent in a month?

INTERPRETATION- It can be seen that 96% of the workers do not remain absent.

Q. According to you what are the main reasons for employees absent?

INTERPRETATION- According to 96% workers, personal problem is the reason for being
absent. 4% think that stress can also be the reason.

Q. Your views regarding present Absenteeism Policy of Global Head HR Consulting.?

INTERPRETATION- It can be seen that 76% workers rate the present absenteeism policy as
good whereas 22% rate it as excellent.

Q. Are you clear about your work / job responsibilities?

INTERPRETATION- It can be seen that 94% of the workers at Global Head HR Consulting are
clear regarding their work responsibilities.

Q. Are you satisfied with your work?

INTERPRETATION- 82% of the workers are fully satisfied with their work whereas 16%
workers think their work as good.

Q. Views regarding working environment of Global Head HR Consulting.?

INTERPRETATION- 82% workers feel that the working environment at Global Head HR good & 14% feel it as excellent.

Q. Your relations with your superiors?

INTERPRETATION- 76% workers have good relations with the superiors whereas 22% have
excellent relations with the superiors.

Q. Yours superiors behaviour towards your problem?

INTERPRETATION-42% workers think that their superior’s behaviour toward their problems is
excellent & 56% workers consider it as good.

Q. Yours views regarding facilities provided Global Head HR Consulting.?

INTERPRETATION– 86% workers consider that facilities provided to them are good whereas
10% consider them as excellent.

Global Head HR Consulting., Mysore has a very good leave Management system. However a
good Leave Management system it may be, there is always scope for further improvement in
reducing the absenteeism. The study has identified certain important points towards this
objective. Suggestions have been given to uplift in reducing the absenteeism.

The Findings and suggestions are as follows:

 Most of the employees say agree that the Nature of work is challenging but it has the routine
work. Where the nature of work is different and very much challenging and always there is a
scope to learn new things.

 Most of the employees are multi skilled.

 Most of the employees are satisfied with the job allotted to them.

 The employees would like to take leaves for personal reasons and they take it as and when
required. The employees do not prefer to go no loss of pay. But in spite of the financial loss/
disciplinary action, the employees go on Leave / absent.

 Employees take leave for sick / health problem. The employees inform to the concerned
person when they have some leave balance in their leave account.

 Most of the employees the respondent, satisfied with the salary they are getting.
Finding and analysis reveals the following conclusion

 The employees were working over 3 years in the same department.

 Most of the employees say agree that the Nature of work is challenging but it has the routine
work except from the maintenance Dept. where the nature of work is different and very much
challenging and always there is a scope to learn new things.

 Most of the employees’ multi skilled and able to work in any section.

 Most of the employees are satisfied with the job allotted to them.

 The employees would like to take leaves for personal reasons and they take it as and when
required. The employees do not prefer to go no loss of pay. But in spite of the financial loss/
disciplinary action, the employees go on Leave / absent.

 Employees take leave for sick / health problem. The empl9oyees inform the section – in –
charge when they have some leave balance in their leave account.

 Most of employee the respondent, satisfied with the salary they are getting.

 Most of the respondent are happy with the welfare manager and safety interment provided by

 Most of the respondent’s good relationship with the immediate of.


Absenteeism is a serious problem for management because it involves heavy additional

expenses. The management should take the following measures to reduce the rate of

 Provide Incentives- An incentive provides an employee with a boost to their motivation and
avoid unnecessary absenteeism. Incentives like two hours of bonus pay for every month of
perfect attendance can improve a lot.

 Employee Assistance Program- If you confront an employee about his or her frequent
absenteeism and you find out that it is due to personal problems refer them to EAP.

 Sickness Reporting – Tell employees that they must phone in as early as possible to advise
why they are unable to make it to work and when they expect to return.

 Return to Work Interview- When an employee returns to work then ensure that they have a
‘return to work interview’.

 Bradford factor can also be used to identify and cure excessive absenteeism.

 Absenteeism can be minimized by educating workers about their role and responsibility. A
work-training scheme consisting of lectures should be arranged periodically.
 Welfare facilities should be improved.

 It is suggested that the management can give more attractive bonus for regular attendance of
the workers. It may be financial or non- financial. This will motivate the workers to attend to
work regularly.

 The maintenance department should ensure proper safety measure and healthy atmosphere in
the factory so that the workers with be included to work effectively and efficiently.

 The workers who feels that his/her problem and circumstances are given due consideration
and some importance in the organization he/she will react favorably and improve his

 Another thing which was notified even though the leave procedure of the company is
satisfactory most of the workers interned demanded for more leave. This clearly tells about
the laziness of the workers.

 From the point of convince and health most of the workers prefer to work in day shifts rather
than in evening shifts.

 The workers absence to attend to family needs is a significant factor to be noted. They have
other social obligations.

 It was found that married workers tend to absent themselves due to family pressure and

In the end to conclude this report I would like to specify that the project allotted to me on
ABSENTEEISM was of immense help to me in understanding the working environment of an
organization, thereby providing a firsthand practical experience.

In this project while identifying the reasons of absenteeism of the workers of Global Head HR
Consulting. I got an opportunity to interact with workers to observe their behaviour and attitude.
GLOBAL HEAD HR Consulting Mysore has overcome many problems now it has a planned a
well organized and implemented good human relation systems. It has the objective of achieving
good industrial relations.

Better Leave Management and Control on Absenteeism in necessary for the survival of the
company. Human Resource Planning and job allotment are important factors for the productivity
– to ensure the smooth functioning and to emerge successful in maintaining the human relation
in present

GLOBAL HEAD HR Consulting Mysore has an effective Leave Management System covers the
entire spectrum of practices and operations and process that can affect the quality and disrupt the
production and service,

The data have provided valuable information about the absenteeism. It has been compiled in
structured and systematic manner, easily understandable to all. So that it has many advantages to
the company.
The study has helped me to know about important absenteeism Concepts Importance, Reason,
Cause and Effect of Absenteeism etc. They are basics to the project and act like solid foundation
In the end I would once again like to thank the people of Global Head HR Consulting. who
helped me in accomplishing this project and boosting my morale by appreciating and
recognizing my efforts.


I am Pushpakala N fourth semester student of M.B.A. Studying at KSOU- Mysore. As a part of

the curriculum of partial fulfillment of my post Graduation as a part of my academic project
work, in this regard a questionnaire has been provided to you. I would be grateful to you if you
could spent sometime to answer the following questions.

Personal Information

Name… … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … … …..
Job status…………………………………………………………………….

Q.1) For how many years you are working with Global Head HR Consulting.?

(a) 0-1 yr [ ] (b) 1-2 yr [ ]

(c) 2-5 yr [ ] (d) < 5 yr [ ]

Q.2) How often you remain absent in a month?

(a) Nil [ ] (b) Once [ ]

(c)Twice [ ] (d) < Twice [ ]
Q.3) According to you what is the main reason for employees absent?

(a) Health problem [ ] (b) Stress [ ]

(c)Work dissatisfaction [ ] (d) Working environment [ ]

Q.4) Your views regarding the present Absenteeism Policy of Global Head HR Consulting.?

(a) Excellent [ ] (b) Good [ ]

(c) Fair [ ] (d) Don’t know [ ]

Q.5) Are you clear about your work / job responsibilities?

(a) Well clear [ ] (b) Good [ ]

(c) Fairly clear [ ] (d) Don’t know [ ]

Q.6) Are you satisfied with your work?

(a) Well satisfied [ ] (b) Good [ ]

(c) Fair [ ] (d) Not satisfied [ ]

Q.7) Your views regarding the working environment of Global Head HR Consulting. & work

(a) Excellent [ ] (b) Good [ ]

(c) Fair [ ] (d) Poor [ ]

Q.8) How are your relations with your superiors / co-workers?

(a) Excellent [ ] (b) Good [ ]

(c) Fair [ ] (d) Poor [ ]
Q.9) What type of leave do you normally take?

(a) Casual leave [ ] (b) Privilege leave [ ] (c) Sick Leave [ ]

(e) ESI [ ] (f) Loss of pay [ ] (g) others [ ]

Q.10) Your superior’s behaviour towards your problems?

(a) Excellent [ ] (b) Good [ ]

(c) Fair [ ] (d) Poor [ ]

Q.11) Will you keep your casual leaves till the end of the calendar year?

(a) Yes [ ] (b) No [ ]

Q.12) Do you think company has taken the right decision to deduct salary?

(a) Yes [ ] (b) No [ ]

Q.13) Your views regarding the facilities provided to you by Global Head HR Consulting.?

(a) Excellent [ ] (b) Good [ ]

(c) Fair [ ] (d) Poor [ ]

Q.14) Do you feel your work is heavy or tiresome?

(a) Strongly agree [ ] (b) Agree [ ] (c) Neutral [ ]

(d) Disagree [ ] (e) Strongly Disagree [ ]

Q.15). Are you satisfied with the existing working condition?

(a) Highly Satisfied [ ] (b) Satisfied [ ] (c) Neutral [ ]

(d) Dissatisfied [ ] (e) Highly Dissatisfied [ ]

Q.16) Are you satisfied with the welfare measures adopted by the company?

(a) Highly Satisfied [ ] (b) Satisfied [ ]

(c) Neutral [ ] (d) Dissatisfied [ ]
Q.17) Does sickness makes you absent from work?

(a) Very often [ ] (b) Sometimes [ ]

(c) Very seldom [ ] (d) No [ ]

Q.18) Do your colleagues help in case of personal problem?

(a) Yes [ ] (b) No To some extent [ ]

Q.19) Are you afraid of any occupational hazards which prompt you to take leave?

(a) Yes [ ] (b) No [ ]

Q.20) Have you been told about absenteeism?

(a) Yes [ ] (b) No [ ]

Q.21) Is your nature of work challenging?

(a) Yes [ ] (b) No [ ]

Q.22) Do you take leave for any other reason, specify?

Q.23) Give a suggestion to increase the efficiency of the company

Q.24) According to you what are the lessons for absenteeism?

Q.25) Your opinion if any?


1. Personnel management

2. Absenteeism in industry

3. Labour problems in industry

S.N. Mehrotra

4. Human Resource management