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By Ali Muhammad Rizwan | 3D Studio Max | Intermediate
This tutorial will teach you how to model a mosque dome using three main techniques, (1) the box modelling technique for creating the base of the dome, (2) the lathe modifier for creating the body of the dome, and (3) loft modelling technique for creating the metal tip of the dome. This tutorial will cover only the modeling part of the project. The texturing process will be explored in a future tutorial.
The mosque we are going to model in this tutorial is the Prophet Mohammed's Mosque in the city of Al Madinah Al Munawarah in Saudi. Our tutorial will be divided into four parts: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Modelling the base of the dome. Adding details to the base of the dome (eg. Windows). Modelling the drum of the dome. Modelling the dome - using the Lathe modifier. Modelling the tip of the dome - using the Loft technique.
We will go through the order shown above.
Section 1 - Modelling the Base of the Dome
Our first section will involve modelling the base of the dome. We are going to use the box modelling technique to create this base. Start off by creating a box in the perspective viewport of any size. Access the modifier panel and set Length of the box to 100 units, the Width to 100 units, and the Height to 50 units. Now scroll down a bit and set the number of segments to, 10, 10, 5 respectively.
Place the box at 0, 0, 0 coordinates. Then right click on the box and convert it to Editable Mesh. Now access the Modify Panel and go to the Vertex sub-object selection mode.
Access the top viewport and select the upper half of vertices as shown in the image below and delete them. Once done. . select the right half of the present vertices of the box and delete these as well.
.You should be left with a quarter of a box. Select the polygon shown in the image below and then extrude it by a value of 10 units. Access the Modify Panel and activate the Polygon selection mode.
select the polygon above it and extrude it by -10 units three times. .Now select the polygon above it and extrude that one by -10 units two times. (You will have to click on apply twice) Once that is done.
Next. . Make sure that you do NOT delete isolated vertices. You should end up with an image similar to the one below. select the polygons shown in the image below and delete them. A notification window should pop up with the option to delete the Isolated Vertices.
make sure NOT to delete isolated vertices.Select the polygons shown in the image below and delete them. . Again.
Rotate the viewport to show some hidden faces visible from the bottom up. Rotate the box sideways to show some more hidden faces. . select these and then delete them. delete these as well. Make sure NOT to delete any of the isolated vertices in all of your steps.
Created a Box and converted it into an Editable Mesh. in this section we did the following: 1. Click here to view the next page. . Deleted unwanted sections to create a staggering shape.Summary This completed the first section of our tutorial. Deleted three quarters of the box to acquire a smaller box. 3. 2. In the next stage we will create faces over the steps to model the basic shape of the base.
then look for the Edit Geometry rollout and click on Create. click on 1 . and then 1 to complete the face. 3. Access the Modify Panel and activate the Face Selection mode. This stage will involve a process of creating faces.2.Modelling the Base By Creating Faces We are still in the first section of the tutorial. Click on the vertices in the order shown below. here we will continue modelling the base by creating faces. . we will then repeat everything we have done so far for th second side of the base. Start with the lowest step in our model. \ You will have to create another face in the place indicated below using the technique explained earlier. This process requires you to click on the vertices in a counter-clockwise manner.
To make sure that division is made at the center of the edge.We are going to divide the edge of the lowest block into two parts to create a vertex in the middle. Activate the Edge selection mode then access the Modify Panel and click on Divide under the Edit Geometry rollout. righ-click the Snap Tool. . check the Midpoint option. and uncheck all other options.
(Remember counterclockwise) . Once again.While the Divide button is activated. click on the center of the edge shown in the image below (one step above the newly created faces). click on Create under the Geometry Rollout and then create 3 faces as shown in the image below. activate the Face selection mode. This should make a new vertix appear. access the Modify Panel.
and then we will add faces using the process we used above. We will not repeat all the explanation again. The images below should guide you through the process.You should be able to easily create more faces. . You will now have to repeat what we have done on the first side to the other. we will extrude the polygons with a value of -10 units to create the steps on the other side. Repeat the process we used for creating the first set of faces to create the ones shown in the image below.
Created faces on the newly indented side. In the next section of our tutorial we will start adding details such as the door placeholder and the windows to the model.Summary In this section we did the following: 1. 2. 3. . Deleted the faces on the other side. Created faces on the three blocks we indented in the first stage. Click here to view the next page.
With the polygons selection mode activated. Go through Create>Plane and insert a plane in the Front Viewport that is 28. namely a door and some windows. . We will start off with the door.Modelling a Mosque Dome in 3D Studio Max . selectedthe polygons highlighted in the image below and then delete them by pressing the delete button on your keyboard. Use the counter clockwise technique to create the two faces shown below one at a time.3 unites wide and 50 unites long.Page 3 By Ali Muhammad Rizwan | 3D Studio Max | Intermediate Adding Details to the Base of the Dome We are going to add details to the dome of the mosque.
assign the name Base to this group. . We are done with the door. You will then have to place it at the position shown below. Select the plane and the base that you have on the viewport and then go through the Group menu and select the Group command. we will now group everything we created so far so that we are able to duplicate it to complete the whole base of the dome.Access the Top Viewport and rotate the plane by -45 degrees.
hold shift and rotate it along the z-axis by -90 degrees. 0. access the Heirarchy panel. select the base. Once done.Select the group you created. then select the instance option and set the Number of Copies to 3. Access the Top Viewport. 0 coordinates as shown in the image below. We will now duplicate the base. Summary . activate the option to Affect Pivot Only and then position the group at the 0. name this group Final Base. deactivate the option to Affect Pivot Only. Select the four quarters that make up the base and Group them together.
Switch to the Top viewport and set the lenght of the tube so that it matches that of the cylinder. It is important to note that making a proper door for our dome will require applying a texture to the plane at which the door is to be positioned. Modelling a Mosque Dome in 3D Studio Max . Grouped everything we made so far. Go through Create>Geometry>Tube to create a Tube in the Front viewport.In this stage we did the following: 1. name the group window. 4. Created a plane to hold the place for the door. Switch to the Top viewport and make the cylinder span across the base from side to side as the image below illustrates. Go through Create>Geometry>Cylinder to create a cylinder in the Front viewport. Created faces to straighten the edge above the door. . Deleted some faces to create a place for the door. 2.The Windows In this section we will be adding the windows to the base of the dome by simply creating multiple cylinders that span across the base. In the next page we will add the windows to the base of the mosque. Texturing goes beyond the scope of this tutorial and will be explained in a future tutorial. View the next page here. Set the radius of the tube so that it is greater than that of the cylinder as shown in the image below.Page 4 By Ali Muhammad Rizwan | 3D Studio Max | Intermediate Adding Details to the Base of the Dome . Align the tube so that it holds the cylinder inside it. and then grouped all the duplicates as a Final Base. duplicated it. Select the cylinder and the tube and then Group them together. 3.
So for example. You should get two copies of the window in the viewport. Use the same procedure (Shift+Drag) to create three more windows below the two you already have and then repeat it to create another one above. Align them in pyramid formation as shown below. The Instance object type was select to force any changes made to one of the window group instances appear on all the other windows as well. select Instance as the object type and set the number of copies to 2. those windows should be visible from the other side of the base as well. so you might have to manage the length of the group. when you reduce the size of one instance all the instances reduce in size as well. You can move them around to get a result similar to the one shown below. This should open up the Clone Options window. .Access the Front viewport. which should automatically change for all the other copies as they are instances of the original window group. then hold down Shift and drag the Window Group across the x-axis (to the right).
select Instance as the Object type. select all 5 windows. The Clone Options window should pop-up.It is now time to create windows on the other side of the base (perpendicular to the current windows). name this group Final Base. and then rotate these windows along the z-axis by 90 degrees. the final step we have to do is Group them together. hold down shift. Access the Top viewport. . The base is now done.
Created a window group using a cylinder object and a tube object. Create an instance of this new group and rotated it to show windows on all sides of the base. 3. . 2.Summary In this stage we did following: 1. Created multiple instances of the window group and aligned them in pyramid formation then grouped them together.
starting from the center of the object. this shape is composed of NGos and cylindricals. Look for the Object Type rollout and check the option for Auto Grid. Finally apply an Extrude Modifier to the NGone with an extrude amount of 2. then go through Create>Shapes>Splines>NGon. click and drag the mouse to draw the NGon. then access the Modify Panel. .0 units. which is the shape on which the dome is placed. Now. set the radius to 50 units and the number of sides to 16. Access the Top viewport. Modelling a Mosque Dome in 3D Studio Max .In the next page we will add the durm of the dome that will be placed above the base.Page 5 By Ali Muhammad Rizwan | 3D Studio Max | Intermediate Modeling the Drum of the Dome: We are going to create the Drum of the Dome. View the next page here.
hold down Shift and drag the NGon upwards along z-axis. becase we do not want these two objects to have identical characterstics. In the Object Clone options window.5. . Now access the Modify Panel and set the radius of this newly created NGon to 47. select Copy this time as the Object Type and not Instance. then extrude it by 5 units.Access the Front viewport.
Set the radius of the circle to 45 units and apply the Extrude modifier to the circle and set the extrusion amount to 5 units. . Now draw a circle in the Top Viewport starting from the center and going outwards. Select the three objects that make up the drum of the dome and group them together.Go through Create>Shapes>Circle and check the Auto Grid option.
We duplicated this NGon and then scaled it down to create another layer to to the drum of the dome. 2.Summary In this stage we did following: 1. In the next stage we will model the actual dome. Look for the Interpolation rollout and increase the steps to 26. Modelling a Mosque Dome in 3D Studio Max . select the Vertex sub-object selection mode. We created an NGon and placed it on top of the base. 4. We created a cylinder as a third final layer to the drum of the dome and placed it above the previous two layers. Adjust the lowest vertex to coincide with the boundaries of .Page 6 By Ali Muhammad Rizwan | 3D Studio Max | Intermediate Modeling the Dome In this section we will create the dome using by using splines and the lathe modifier. and create 3 vertices as shown in the image below. go through Create>Shapes>Line.) Access the Front viewport. 3. (You can learn more about Splines and Lathe from this tutorial. Access the Modify panel. View the next page here. We group all the layers we created as a single drum group.
select the uppermost vertex. Look for the Parameters rollout and check the Flip Normals options and set the number of segments to 36. .this will be very useful later when we add the lathe modifier to this line. Access the Modifiers List and select Lathe.the cylinder below it. Access the Front viewport. You will also have to adjust the uppermost vertex to coincide with the black line (y-axis of the front viewport) . Use the Bezier handles to make the shape of this spline as illustrated in the images below. Select all of the 3 vertices in the line and then right-click anywhere on the viewport to select the Bezier Corner as shown in the images below.
2.Summary In this stage we did following: 1.Page 7 By Ali Muhammad Rizwan | 3D Studio Max | Intermediate Creating the Tip and the Crescent Object above the Dome We are going to use the advanced Loft modelling techniques to create the tip of the dome. Drew a line that represents half the slice of a dome. In the next and FINAL stage we will model the tip of the dome with the crescent shape object above it. View the next page here. . The crescent shape will be created using 2D shapes that will be extruded to make up a 3D shape. Draw a line going upwards starting from the existing tip of the dome as illustrated in the image below. Modelling a Mosque Dome in 3D Studio Max . then go through Create>Shapes>Line. Added the lathe modifier to create a 3D model of the line we created. Creating The Tip of the Dome Activate the Front Viewport.
then go through Create>Shapes>Star. Access the Modifier Panel to expand the Parameters rollout and apply the changes shown below. click on the Get Shape button and then click on the star object in the viewport. go the Create>Geometry and then select the Compound Objects options panel from the list. . At this moment. Access the the Creation Method rollout. Then select loft. The line should take the shape of the star as shown below. you can place this start anywhere in the top viewport.Activate the Top Viewport. Now select the line.
now click somewhere around point 20 to insert a new node at that location. Click on the Insert Corner button at the upper menu of the window to select this Insert tool. and then right-click the original node to its left to convert that one as well to a Bezier Corner. Right-click this new node and convert it to a Bezier Corner. Select the star-shaped loft object. . and then access the Parameters rollout and set its radius to 1 unit as shown in image below. then access the Modify Panel and expand the Deformations rollout and click on the Scale button to open the Scale Deformation Options window.Create a circle anywhere in the Top viewport.
this is the point at which the new loft shape will start from. look for the Path Parameters rollout and then set the path to 28 units. then click on the Get Shape button to and select the circle.Adjust the Bezier handles to acquire a result similar to the image below. access the Skin Parameters rollout and set the number Path Steps to 31 as shown in the image below. . Notice the change in the shape object in the viewports when you move the handles. Now that the shape of the circle has been applied to the loft. You should see a small cross as you increase the value of the path. Access the Modify Pane of the loft.
Now click on the circle to make the upper part of the loft cylindrical. If this part does not match properly with the star shaped part of the loft because it is too big. Repeat this process two more times to create two additional circular objects above the ones we already have.Access the Modifier List. . Once you are done with that if you had to do it. select the option to create an instance of the existing object. copy the circle by holding down shift while dragging the object upwards. then you would have to use the scale tool to adjust it. expand the Loft Controls to select the Shape sub-object selection mode.
Select the 3 existing circles now and then hold down shift and drag them to create two more copies of them as shown in the image below. access the Modify Panel and look for the Geometry rollout. Right-Click any of the circles and then select the Convert to Editable Spline command from the menu. select Attach and then click on the other circle to attach them together. Finally. apply the Extrude Modifier with an extrusion amount of 1 and set the number of segments to 2. Creating the Crescent Object Create a circle in the Front viewport above the loft then copy and paste the circle you created. Notice the change in the perspective viewport. You should get a little deformed spherical shape as shown in the image below. scale it down and finally position it as shown in the image below.Select the circle in the middle and use the scale tool to enlarge it. . once done.
To finish this tutorial.Right-click the extruded shape and convert it to an Editable Mesh. . select all of the middle vertices and scale them up. Check the final shape of the crescent here below. then select the outer most vertices of this mesh and rotate them 10 degrees to get a result similar to the one below. Activate the Vertices subobject selection mode.
3dk.End of tutorial.ali. please email me at or alternatively post at the Oman3D Forum. I hope that you learnt some new modelling techniques which you could hopefully apply to other projects.org/. .This concludes our tutorial. Mohammed Rizwan is a CG artist working at Pakistan TV. If you have any problems with this tutorial. This tutorial was written by Ali Mohammed Rizwan as a gift to Oman3D readers in the month of Ramadhan. You can see more of his work at http://www. .
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