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I. Purpose:

The overall objective of this Experiment is to familiarize the student with the basic properties

of the junction diode and, as well, provide an overview of some important but simple

applications. The main concentration, however, will be on the device itself, with most

emphasis on the diode's forward-conduction properties.

While many of the Explorations to follow could be done with a single diode of a single

type, there is much to be learned about different diode types, and the myriad applications of

multiple diodes. Thus you are provided with

1 - oscilloscope

1 - function generator

1 - Multifunction DMM (with ohmeter ranges)

1 - dual power supply.

2 - 1N914 diodes (or equivalent 1N4148) - a small-signal diode

2 - 1N4004 diodes - a low-power rectifier diode

1 - 100 μF polarized capacitor

1 - 1 kΩ, 10 kΩ resistors

Please note that on each diode, the band indicates the cathode end for normal forward

conducting operation.

D B

A

+

VA R VB

-2-

1. Read Sections 3.1, 3.3 and 3.5 of the Sedra & Smith Text (5th Edition).

2. Ideal Rectification:

(a) Consider the rectifier circuit in Fig. 1 with load resistance R = 1 kΩ load. Let the input VA

be a 10 V peak triangle wave at 100 Hz, sketch the input and output waveforms, VA and

VB, respectively.

(b) Redraw the sketch of the output waveform VB made in (a) above to take into account a

diode which has a constant voltage drop of VD = 0.7 V for all currents.

+10 V

A

IR

R

1 kΩ

B

ID

D

(a) Consider the circuit in Fig. 3, consisting of some particular diode with its cathode

connected to ground and anode connected to a 1 kΩ resistor that is fed from a 10 V

supply. If the diode voltage drop is 0.62 V measured at node B, what is the corresponding

diode current ID?

(b) Let the diode operating in Fig. 3 be shunted by a 1 kΩ resistor as shown in Fig. 4. With the

shunting of the diode by the 1 kΩ resistor, the diode drop decreases by 3.0 mV. Determine

the new value for the diode current ID.

(c) Use the voltages and currents in (a) and (b) to compute an estimate for the value of

parameter n for this diode.

-3-

+10 V

A

IR

R1

1 kΩ

B

ID

D R2

1 kΩ

(a) Using the diode I-V characteristic in Fig. 3.12 on page 156 of the Sedra & Smith text (5th

Edition), estimate the values of VD0 and rD for a piece-wise linear diode model which

matches this characteristic exactly at ID = 0.5 mA and 5 mA.

(b) Let a diode for which n = 2 operate at 5 mA with a drop of 0.69 V. Determine the

incremental resistance rd for this diode.

1. Ideal Rectification:

Goal: To explore the detailed behavior of the diode in performing the rectifier function.

a) Assemble the circuit shown in Fig. 1, using a 1N4004 diode and 1 kΩ resistor.

b) Set the generator to provide a sine wave at 100 Hz with 10 V peak amplitude.

B.

d) Using the waveforms in (c), estimate the diode voltage drop VD at the peak of the output,

and at an output voltage which is one-tenth of the peak value. Hing: You can display the

difference between the two signals on the scope by going to the +/- menu and selecting the

proper function.

e) Switch the generator to provide a square-wave output. Note the direct effect of the diode

drop.

Record the waveforms observed and the estimated values for VD.

-4-

Goal: To explore the use of a capacitor to store energy from a rectifier between intervals of

diode conduction, and thereby to smooth or filter the rectified output voltage.

D 100 Ω B

A +

+

VA C R

VB

100 μF 10 kΩ

a) Assemble the circuit shown in Fig. 5 using an 1N4004 diode. Use a 10 V peak 10 Hz

sinewave as input. Note that 100 μF capacitor is polarized thus, its + terminal must be

connected as indicated in Fig. 5. The 100 Ω resistor is added to limit the current in the diode.

You can assume that it has a minimal effect on the operation of the circuit.

b) Display the waveforms at nodes A and B with an oscilloscope. Estimate the diode drop

during conduction. Sketch and carefully label both waveforms. Estimate the time interval for

which the diode is forward conducting. Note that there is a 50 Ω source resistance (internal to

the function generator) in between node A and the actual voltage source.

Record the waveforms, and for each input waveform record the peak values for vAmax and

vBmax, and the minimum value for vBmin.

in a). Record the waveforms as you did above.

b) Use your DMM to monitor as you adjust the supply voltage to 10 V. Measure VB = VD and

determine ID.

-5-

c) Shunt R with another 1 kΩ resistor (i.e. put a 1 kΩ resistor in parallel with R). Measure VB =

VD and determine ID.

d) With two 1 kΩ resistors connected, shunt diode D with a second IN4004 diode (assumed to

be matched). What does VD become? Estimate the current ID in each diode.

Record your measurements in table with headings # of Diodes (i.e. 1 or 2 diodes), R, VD, and

ID.

In your report use your measurements in b) - d) above to determine values of the parameters

IS and n (see Eqs. 3-3 to 3-5 of the Sedra & Smith text) for the your 1N4004 diodes.

Goal: To explore a relatively simple but effective way to characterize a diode over a wide

current.

a) Using the circuit in Fig. 3, connect the anode of the diode to one of the leads for each of four

resistors, with values 1 kΩ, 10 kΩ, 100 kΩ, and 1 MΩ. The second leads for each of the

resistors are to be left open circuit for the time being. As measurements are taken (see section

b below), each of these open terminal will be connected to the 10 V supply alone in sequence.

That is first connect the 1 kΩ resistor and take your measurements. Next disconnect the 1 kΩ

resistor from the circuit , then connect the 10 kΩ resistor and take your measurements, and so

on until you have used all four resistors. [Please note, from a safety point of view, to limit

currents which might flow as a result of accidental misconnection, use the power-supply

current-limit feature and/or a small series resistor connected to the supply, say 10 Ω to 100 Ω.]

sequence. Estimate the diode current ID for each value of R. Please note that if the supply

voltage is raised slightly, to 10.7 V or so, the values of current become somewhat easier to

estimate (or calculate) and to plot.

c) Repeat the measurements in a) and b) for the 1N914 (or 1N4148) diode.

Record your data for each diode in a table with headings R, VD, and ID.

a) Using these data as four points, make sketches of the forward-drop I-V characteristic for

your diodes on a linear current scale, and on a log current scale. From the log scale sketch,

estimate the value of n.

-6-

b) For the 1N4004 diode: If 10 mA is the "normal" operating current, determine the diode

junction voltage VD0 at 1% of normal (i.e. 0.1 mA) and at 0.1% of normal (i.e. 10 μA). For these

values used as VD0 (See Fig. 3.12 of the Sedra & Smith text), determine values for rD.

c) For the 1N4004 diode: Determine estimates of incremental resistance at about 5 mA, 0.5 mA,

and 50 μA.

Kenneth R. Laker

Revised 18 March 2002; March 26, 2004

Updated by J. Van der Spiegel, March 16, 2007

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