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Energy remaining in the exhaust gases after they leave the turbine can be utilized to produce thrust, To do this; components in the exhaust system must straighten and accelerate the stream of gases. After the gases leave the turbine, they flow through a duct formed between the exhaust cone and the exhaust, or tail, pipe. Depending on the aircraft design the exhaust can be: divergent, convergent or convergent-divergent. Figure 1: Convergent Exhaust Duct
the highest practical velocity. The opening at the end of the tail pipe is called the exhaust nozzle, or jet nozzle. Its outlet area is critical because it determines the velocity of the gases as they leave the engine. The nozzles on most turbojet and early low-bypass turbofan engines have an area that usually causes them to operate in a choked condition. By the time the gases reach the end of the tail pipe, they have accelerated to the speed of sound and can accelerate no further. The remaining energy that would otherwise be converted into velocity is now converted into a pressure differential across the nozzle. This differential produces a small increase in thrust. This condition soon turns uneconomical in terms of fuel consumption. Also temperatures within the engine would elevate significantly. Modern high bypass turbofan engine exhaust nozzles work in Unchocked condition only. Higher hot exhaust airflow speed is not desirable, considering that nowadays environment pollution and noise reduction have become very important aspects in engine design. Gas parameters at turbine section outlet and flow diameter are tuned in a way that at outlet diameter core exhaust gas path pressure is reduced to ambient and maximum hot gases speed is never higher than sound speed of the hot gases. Sound speed of hot exhaust gases is higher than that of ambient air sound speed because of temperature difference. This phenomenon allows aircraft with unchocked exhaust to fly at speeds up to mach 1.5 (transonic). The RPM and exhaust gas temperature of some of the early gas turbine engines were adjusted by changing the size of the exhaust nozzle; the area was increased by trimming the end of the nozzle or decreased by installing around the edges small metal tabs called “mice.” Engines with afterburners have variable-area nozzles that modulate, or open or close automatically, as the fuel flow changes. On the early afterburner engines, these nozzles had two positions, but the area of the nozzles installed on modem high-performance engines is continuously varied by the EEC (electronic engine control) to maintain the proper back pressure on the turbine.
On Figure 1 on page 2 a convergent exhaust duct is formed between the exhaust cone and the exhaust pipe. The exhaust cone is the fixed conical faking centred in the exhaust stream immediately aft of the last-stage turbine wheel. The exhaust cone is an engine component, but the exhaust pipe is an airframe component. Most engines have an exhaust collector with struts between the forward end of the exhaust cone and the tail pipe to support the rear turbine bearing and straighten the gas flow. As gases flow through the convergent duct between the exhaust cone and the exhaust pipe, they are accelerated and leave the exhaust nozzle at
The gases leave the turbine section and enter the convergent portion of the nozzle at a subsonic speed.Figure 2: Exhaust Collector Exhaust Collector Figure 3: Convergent-Divergent Exhaust Nozzle Subsonic Convergent Section Supersonic Divergent Section Exhaust Cone Gas Attains Sonic Velocity Strut A convergent-divergent. The exhaust collector bolts to the engine housing just aft of the turbine. For the most efficient operation. Figure 4 on page 4 shows the way such a nozzle works. The thrust produced by the engines of supersonic aeroplanes is increased by using convergent-divergent. and as the duct area increases. The tailpipe bolts to the ring around the collector. The benefits of a CD nozzle increase as the flight Mach number of the aircraft increases. the rate of change of the divergent portion of the nozzle cannot be fixed. but must vary automatically as the airflow through the engine changes. Exhaust Nozzle . Some high-performance engines have a CD nozzle whose boundary is formed by a wall of air. exhaust nozzles whose cross-sectional area changes as is shown in Figure 3 on page 3. or CD. they accelerate to a higher supersonic speed. exhaust nozzle causes an increase in thrust by increased acceleration of the exhaust gases. The gases leave the narrowest point at the speed of sound. Their speed increases as the duct gets smaller until they reach the speed of sound at the narrowest point where a shock wave forms and prevents further acceleration.
all of their expansion is in an axial direction. one set at the end of the primary airflow passage and the other end at the end of the secondary airflow passage. Therefore. The size of the openings formed by these flaps is varied with hydraulic actuators controlled by the Electronic Engine Control Unit. they try to expand in all directions.Figure 4: Variable CD Nozzle of Low Bypass Engine with Afterburner Secondary Nozzle Primary Nozzle Secondary Flow off After Burner on Effective CD Nozzle Primary Flow Primary Flap Secondary Flap The afterburner duct has two sets of overlapping flaps. The primary flaps adjust the opening to achieve sonic velocity at the primary nozzle. and as the gases leave. The shape of an effective CD nozzle is controlled by the relative position of the two sets of flaps. . which increases the velocity of the gas. but are restrained from expanding radially by the flow of secondary air controlled by the secondary flaps.
Noise Suppressors Noise from high-powered turbojet engines around commercial airports has caused complaints from area residents. The amount of noise produced by a turbojet engine relates to the velocity of the exhaust gases. turbofan engines have reduced the noise problem considerably. But. The total amount of sound cannot be decreased without sacrificing power. and it is only when the band is much nearer that the highpitch of the horns can be heard. The first sound heard is the low frequency of the drum. turbofan engines do not produce enough noise to require noise suppressors. The frequency of some of the sound produced by these smaller streams is above the audible range of the human ear. if its frequency is increased. Turbofan engines extract much more energy from the exhaust gases to drive the fan. and these high frequencies are absorbed by the atmosphere before they can travel a great distance from the . and it works by breaking the normal exhaust stream into a number of smaller streams. but the distance the noise can be heard relates to the frequency of the sound. A sound suppressor. However. may be used to replace the normal exhaust nozzle. The same principle applies to turbine engine noise suppressors. For these reasons. and their exhaust gas velocities are lower than those of a turbojet engine of comparable power. Figure 6: Noise Comparison 120 Pure Jets without Noise Suppressor Pure Jets with Noise Suppressor 110 EPNdB Low By-Pass Ratio Jets High By-Pass Ratio Jets Exhaust Nozzle 100 Overall Trend 90 This type of nozzle is called a corrugated-perimeter noise suppressor or exhaust mixer. You have perhaps noticed the way a band is heard as it approaches from a distance. Figure 5: Sound Suppressor of Low Bypass Turbofan Engine aircraft. the sound will not be audible at a long distance.
Thrust reverses. These reverses are used on the ground to decrease the landing roll. A pair of scoop-shaped doors that normally lie alongside the exhaust nozzle may be deployed by sliding them rearward and opening them so they block the normal nozzle and deflect the exhaust gases forward (see “Figure 7” on page 6). Turbojet and turbofan engines do not have reversing propellers. the rear portion of the fan cowl moves aft.Thrust Reversers Modern turbine-powered aircraft are normally so heavy and land at such a high speed that the aircraft brakes cannot be depended upon for complete speed control while the aircraft is in its landing roll. When the reverser is stowed the fan discharge duct is unobstructed. Thrust reversers are controlled by a cockpit lever at the command of the pilot. A thrust reverser operates by deflecting part of the exhaust gases. which deflect the fan discharge air forward (see “Figure 8: Cascade-Type Thrust Reverser” on page 7) . But when deployed. which produce a rearward thrust of between 40% and 50% of the engines rated forward thrust can be installed on these engines. and it is used on many large commercial engines to provide reverse thrust by deflecting the fan discharge (see “Figure 8” on page 7). forward. or fan discharge air. The fan discharge airflows out through a series of reverser vanes. They provide approximately 20% of the braking force under normal runway conditions and are especially helpful when landing on wet or icy runways. A cascade thrust reverser is sometimes called an aerodynamic-blockage reverser. Figure 7: Clam Shell Reverser Aft Section of Engine Pod Exhaust Gases Reversers Stowed-Forward Thrust Exhaust Gases Reversers Deployed-Reverse Thrust . Two ways of doing this are with a set of clamshell doors or a series of cascade vanes. and blocker doors block the fan duct. Propellers with reverse-pitch capability can be used to slow aeroplanes equipped with reciprocating and turboprop engines. but they do have provisions for reversing some of their thrust. A clamshell thrust reverser is often called a mechanical-blockage reverser.
Figure 9: Landing Distance Fan Exhaust Air Inlet Air Engine Engine Exhaust Air Fan Exhaust Air Fan Exhaust Air Inlet Air Engine Engine Exhaust Air Fan Exhaust Air Cascades Blocker Doors Thrust Reverser Deployed . The throttle is retarded to the idle position and the reverse thrust control is moved. The reversers deploy. Thrust reversers are not normally used on the ground when the speed is less than approximately 60 knots because of the danger of recirculating exhaust gases and ingesting foreign objects stirred up by the high-velocity gases.Figure 8: Cascade-Type Thrust Reverser Thrust Reverser Stowed Blocker Doors Cascades Thrust reversers are actuated by the pilot using a control mounted on the engine throttle. and further aft movement of the control increases the engine speed and thus the amount of reverse thrust.
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