3.

2 TELEMETRY TRACKING CONTROL

TT&C
• 3 related communications functions:
– telemetry: measuring, collecting and transmitting vital data on board of spacecraft – tracking, ranging: position determination, distance, radial speed measurement – control: commands to spacecraft from ground • TTC&R: telemetry, tracking, control & ranging

1

TT&C
• Same calculations for link budgets apply as for communications payload (transponder) • lower data rates: few kbit/s • antenna patterns and link budget must be adequate for both transfer orbit and final orbit • INDEPENDENT package, highly reliable

FREQUENCIES
• VHF (old)
– 136 - 138 MHz uplink – 148 - 149.9 MHz downlink – ranging accuracy: 20 - 140 m

• S-band (SOS- space operations services):
– 2025 - 2120 MHz uplink – 2200 - 2300 MHz downlink – ranging accuracy: 5 - 175 m

2

fixed satellite services) • in orbit TT&C rerouted to FSS band • in case of weak signal or loss: automatically routed to S-band TT&C • beacon: for finding satellite. antenna tracking • modulated beacon: carrying telemetry 3 .FREQUENCIES • Only 100 MHz: therefore S-band only during maneuvers • Segment of the communications band for TT&C services (FSS.

ANTENNA • S-band antenna omni-directional • FSS band antenna highly directional • same as transponder MODULATION. CODING • FM analog systems obsolete • PSK standard • data acquisition system: A/D conversion of analog data • PCM • time division multiplexing • powerful forward error-correction coding • encryption 4 .

REDUNDANCY • replicated systems • usually several S-band antennas to be able to receive and transmit signals under all possible conditions and orientations of satellite COMMAND LINKS (TC) • modulated on subcarrier • bit stream: NRZ format • data rates: several 100 bit/s…several kbit/s • commands to adjust a parameter (e. helix current of a TWT) • load registers in on-board computer 5 .g.

EXECUTION • immediately after reception • stored in memory. executed on reception of a specific command • stored in memory and executed at a defined time. handled by on-board time management system SECURITY • absolutely vital for survival of spacecraft • repetition of commands for ensuring integrity • protection of link by – FEC – encryption methods 6 .

band reception – input limiters – non-standard signals blocked – spread-spectrum links (efficient use of limited spectrum resource) • deferred execution of commands commands command storage and processing RX RX antenna DECODER “twice around signal processing” TX antenna TX ENCODER command verification sensor data command processor 7 . interference – narrow.SECURITY • system insensitive to signals by intruders.

TELEMETRY LINKS (TM) • modulated on subcarrier • bit stream: NRZ format • data rates: several 100 bit/s…several kbit/s • analog data (A/D converted) • digital data • directly from equipment to encoder • from on-board data handling unit STANDARDS • PCM standard. published in 1970s • CCSDS standard (Consultative Committee for Space Data Systems) 8 .

data 1 data 1 rep data 2 data 2 rep data 3 data 3 rep 16 4 4 12 12 12 12 12 12 CCSDS • international standard • launched in 1980ies • recommendations – radio frequencies – modulation – packet telemetry – channel coding – packet tele-command 9 .PCM STANDARD • 96 bit frame • data words of 8 bits may be extended by 4 bit FEC addr sync mode select mode select rep.

COMMAND • • • • • Increased complexity of spacecraft more autonomy higher data throughput higher efficiency layered structure – exchange of information – standardized protocols – defined data structures COMMAND DATA FORMATS • User data packets (TC packets) • TC transport frame – reliable transfer of TC packets • command link transmission unit (CLTU) – encapsulation of channel-coded transfer 4 frames 10 .

PACKET TELEMETRY • Layered structure to allow multiplexing of different data into single RF channel • 2 data structures – SOURCE PACKET – TRANSFER FRAME SOURCE PACKET • • • • encapsulates block of data including ancillary data interpreted by ground user processor packet header to route packet to destination • length • sequence 11 .

assigned a common identification code • various sources have exclusive access to physical channel • channel capacity assigned on a frameby-frame basis 12 .536 octets MULTIPLEXING • virtual channelization • virtual channel: sequence of frames. 000 3 hdr flag applic. no. 10 last 11 no 14 1 1. group source seq process ing flag count ident 11 2 01 first 00 cont. var. if secondary header present 1…65. data length header 16 var.PACKET PACKET PRIMARY HEADER PACKET IDENTIFICATION version type 0 1 PACKET SOURCE CONTROL PACKET DATA FIELD data packet source sec.

ADVANCED ORBIT SYSTEMS • including manned space-flight • multiple classes of data – asynchronous – synchronous – isochronous • video and audio data included SCPS • Space Communications Protocol Specification • compatibility with terrestrial networks • IP de-facto standard • slight modifications to accommodate space environment 13 .

immediately or deferred • Acquisition. formatting 14 .SATELLITE GROUND Application ftp TCP IP Application ftp TCP IP Link layer physical Link layer physical SPACE/GROUND LINK ON-BOARD DATA HANDLING (OBDH) • Command processing – decoding – validation – acknowledgement and execution. compression. coding.

OBDH • Processing and storage – processing of data relating to on-board management subsystem – demand from satellite sub-system – storage of telemetry data • Synchronization – on-board time management – distributing time and clock – dating of events OBDH • Monitoring and control – acquisition & analysis of monitored and diagnostic parameters – decision taking – generation & execution of commands 15 .

~10 • 4400 telemetry channels on INTELSATVI • more powerful and reliable processors ARCHITECTURES • Centralized • Modular 16 .OBDH • First satellites had few telemetry channels.

mode from data) – validates – transmits execution commands after demultiplexing to various equipment channels 17 .CENTRALIZED ARCHITECTURE • Processing of commands – decoding – validation – execution • Telemetry signals – acquisition – formatting – dating CENTRALIZED ARCHITECTURE • Command decoder – synchronization – separates various formats (address.

…) – modulates subcarrier SPACECRAFT DESIGN • • • • Larger satellites more complex more channels electrical signals separately routed to TT&C system • bulky cabling: 13 km.CENTRALIZED ARCHITECTURE • Telemetry encoder – A/D conversion of analog signals – multiplexing of different channels – generation of data formats (ident. sync. bits. 160 kg on INTELSAT VI 18 ..

transmitted directly • data processed by central terminal unit (CTU) 19 .MODULAR ARCHITECTURE • • • • • • decentralized control communications bus command decoder central terminal unit (CTU) data bus remote terminal units (RTU) COMMAND DECODER • data demultiplexed in order of priority.

clock signals • sometimes also power to activate relays • data exchange is governed by protocols 20 . distribution to equipment via bus • handling of data traffic on bus • generating terminal interrogation for acquisition of telemetry data • multiplexing of data • modulation of subcarrier DATA BUS • Data.CTU • handling of command data.

BUS STANDARDS • MIL-1553-B • ESA OBDH MIL-1553-B • half-duplex • single shielded twisted pair • path between bus controller and all remote terminals (RTs) • only one station transmitting. bus monitors 21 .

polling bus management • response time: < 140 µs • data rate: up to 500 kbit/s 22 .MIL-1553-B • asynchronous transmission • single-wire half-duplex • 3 types of units: – bus controller – remote terminal – bus monitors • up to 31 users • data rate up to 1 Mbit/s • Manchester-coded data OBDH STANDRD • 2 wire. full-duplex • up to 31 users • no interruption of CTU by users.

TRACKING • Distance measurement (ranging) • Measurement of radial velocity (range rate) METHODS • tone: commonly used • variable frequency • pseudo-random code 23 .

DISTANCE MEASUREMENT • tone method • specific subcarriers of telecommand carrier • coherently demodulated on board • modulate telemetry carrier on board • comparison on ground of phase of transmitted signal and received telemetry subcarrier RX compare phase SATELLITE TX 24 .

5 7.008 1.PROBLEM • ambiguity • phase shift measured modulo 2π ∆Φ = 2πf (2 R ) c 2R… roundtrip distance AMBIGUITY f 100 20 [kHz] ∆R [km] 4 0.5 18.750 25 .5 37.

CONFLICT • high frequency necessary to achieve accurate phase measurement • low frequency advantageous to avoid phase ambiguity • 8 Hz max. discard other ones 26 . for GEO satellite to avoid ambiguity SOLUTION • • • • two-tone method major tone: 100 kHz minor tone: 20 kHz (divide by 5) reception: minor tone compared with 5 signals separated by 2π/5. derived from received major tone (divide by 5) • only one of them is in phase with 20 kHz minor tone • keep this one.

derived from received major tone (divide by 5) STEP 2 • compare phase • maintain in-phase tone • discard others • divide by 5: 800 Hz as new minor tone 27 .STEP 2 • Replica of received minor tone obtained. but with accuracy of 100 kHz tone • create 4 kHz (divide by 5) and transmit as new minor tone • on reception: derive 5 signals separated by 2π/5.

CONTINUE • • • • repeat for 160. 32 Hz finally divide by 4: 8 Hz phase comparison with 8 Hz minor tone accuracy of 100 kHz tone • 100 kHz tone keeps transmitting to maintain reference DIGITAL METHOD • continuous PR sequence transmitted – measure time to arrival of code sequence – correlation • send pulse. measure time to arrival – known data sequence. unique word 28 .

RADIAL VELOCITY • measurement of Doppler shift • necessary to maintain frequency and phase coherence between up.and downlink  v * f = f 1 +   c 29 .

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