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DEPARTMENT OF ENVIRONMENTAL AND BIOSYSTEMS ENGINEERING
COURSE CODE & TITLE: FEB 423 HEAT AND MASS TRANSFER
B.SC. IN ENVIRONMENTAL AND BIOSYSTEMS ENGINEERING
Mr. Emmanuel Beauttah Kinyor Mutai Dip. Agric. Engin. (Egerton College), B.Sc. Agric. Engin. (Egerton Univ.), M.Sc. Agric. Engin. (UoN)
OFFICE: Main Campus NUCLEAR SCIENCE ROOM No. 19 TEL: 318262 EXT 28471 0723630157 Environmental & Biosystems Building 2nd Floor Tel: firstname.lastname@example.org or email@example.com
Tuesdays Fridays Thursdays Examinations
10:00 am – 1:00 pm 11:00 am – 1:00 pm 2:00 pm Main Campus office
Cat 6th Week Assignments Laboratory Project Modeling & Simulation Final Exam Total 1
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Convection. and Radiation.1 What is Heat Transfer? Thermal energy is related to the temperature of matter. When you touch a hot object. Any energy exchange between bodies occurs through one of these modes or a combination of them. this mode uses the electromagnetic radiation emitted by an object for exchanging heat. and is denoted by q. For a given material and mass. Convection uses the movement of fluids to transfer heat.2 Three Modes of Heat Transfer There are three modes of heat transfer: • • • Conduction. the heat you feel is transferred through your skin by conduction. The rate of heat transfer is measured in watts (W). thermal energy transfers from the one with higher temperature to the one with lower temperature. Conduction is the transfer of heat through solids or stationery fluids. 1. Units and Conversion Factors for Heat Measurements SI Units 1J 1 J/s or 1 W 1 W/m2 English Units 9. the greater its thermal energy.1 Conduction Conduction is at transfer through solids or stationery fluids.3171 Btu/h ft2 Thermal Energy (Q) Heat Transfer Rate (q) Heat Flux (q") 1. Two mechanisms explain how heat is transferred by conduction: 2 . When two bodies are at different temperatures.4787×10-4 Btu 3. Radiation does not require a medium for transferring heat. Table 1 shows the common SI and English units and conversion factors used for heat and heat transfer rates.LESSON 1 Overview of Heat Transfer 1.2. Heat is typically given the symbol Q.4123 Btu/h 0. equal to joules per second. and uses q" for the symbol. is measured in watts per area (W/m2). and is expressed in joules (J) in SI units. Table 1. Heat always transfers from hot to cold. or the rate of heat transfer per unit area. The heat flux. the higher the temperature. Heat transfer is a study of the exchange of thermal energy through a body or between bodies which occurs when there is a temperature difference.
where the electrons are moving at the same average velocity. where all the atoms are vibrating with the same energy. equilibrium is reached.2. which do not have many free electrons. the hot side of the solid experiences more vigorous atomic movements. the faster electrons give off some of their energy to the slower electrons. As the electrons undergo a series of collisions. The mechanism is identical to the electron collisions in metals. The vibrations are transmitted through the springs to the cooler side of the solid. analogous to springs as shown in Figure 1.1. through a series of random collisions. Eventually. Conduction through electron collision is more effective than through lattice vibration.2 Conduction by particle collision In fluids. Eventually. 3 .1 Conduction by lattice vibration Figure 1. Lattice vibration and 2. heat is conducted through stationery fluids primarily by molecular collisions. The electrons in the hot side of the solid move faster than those on the cooler side. In solids. This scenario is shown in Figure 1. this is why metals generally are better heat conductors than ceramic materials. Particle collision. have free electrons. atoms are bound to each other by a series of bonds.1. which are not bound to any particular atom and can freely move about the solid. they reach equilibrium. conduction occurs through collisions between freely moving molecules. Conduction through solids occurs by a combination of the two mechanisms. Figure 1. especially metals. Solids. When there is a temperature difference in the solid.
which is then carried away by fluid movement such as wind.4. 1. The negative sign in Eqn. the rate of heat transfer is enhanced. The density of fluid decrease as it is heated. Warm fluids surrounding a hot object rises.The effectiveness by which heat is transferred through a material is measured by the thermal conductivity. has a high conductivity.2 Convection Convection uses the motion of fluids to transfer heat. A good conductor.1 ensures that this convention is obeyed. which can draw more heat away from the surface. The result is a circulation of air above the warm surface. In heat transfer. and a negative q represents heat leaving the body. has a low conductivity. and is replaced by cooler fluid. The warm fluid is replaced by cooler fluid. hot fluids are lighter than cool fluids. or an insulator. 1.3 Heating curve Where A is the cross-sectional area through which the heat is conducting. a hot surface heats the surrounding fluid. In a typical convective heat transfer. 4 .2. k. Conductivity is measured in watts per meter per Kelvin (W/mK). The rate of heat transfer by conduction is given by: (Eq. Since the heated fluid is constantly replaced by cooler fluid. T is the temperature difference between the two surfaces separated by a distance ∆x (see Figure 1.3). Natural convection (or free convection) refers to a case where the fluid movement is created by the warm fluid itself. 1. as shown in Figure 1.1) Figure 1. a positive q means that heat is flowing into the body. a poor conductor. such as copper. thus.
Infrared (Ir). Ultraviolet (uv). having 5 . and T∞ is the ambient or fluid temperature. is why we feel warmer in the sun than in the shade. We all experience radiative heat transfer everyday. and is determined by factors such as the fluid density. winter day feel much colder than a calm day with same temperature.2. Wind blowing at 5 mph has a lower h than wind at the same temperature blowing at 30 mph.Figure 1. 1. it is the only form of heat transfer present in vacuum. solar radiation. h. The electromagnetic spectrum classifies radiation according to wavelengths of the radiation. Radiative heat transfer occurs when the emitted radiation strikes another body and is absorbed. is the measure of how effectively a fluid transfers heat by convection. Natural wind and fans are the two most common sources of forced convection. Visible light. The rate of heat transfer from a surface by convection is given by: (Eq. It uses electromagnetic radiation (photons). which travels at the speed of light and is emitted by any matter with temperature above 0 degrees Kelvin (-273 °C). Tsurface is the surface temperature. Forced convection is what makes a windy.3 Radiation Radiative heat transfer does not require a medium to pass through. The heat loss from your body is increased due to the constant replenishment of cold air by the wind. thus. Main types of radiation are (from short to long wavelengths): • • • • • • • Gamma rays. viscosity. and velocity. and Radio waves. X-rays.4 Natural convection Forced convection uses external means of producing fluid movement. Convection coefficient. absorbed by our skin. 1. It is measured in W/m2K. Microwaves.2) Where A is the surface area of the object. X-rays. Radiation with shorter wavelengths are more energetic and contains more heat.
T is the temperature of the body. Hotter objects. Most "hot" objects. equal to 5. having wavelengths on the order of meters. as we all know. emit more energetic radiation including visible and UV. The emitted radiation strikes a second surface. can readily pass through concrete walls. The percentage of the incident radiation that is absorbed is called the absorptivity. α. The emissivity has a value between zero and 1. Figure 1.5 Interaction between a surface and incident radiation The incident radiation is determined by the amount of radiation emitted by the object and how much of the emitted radiation actually strikes the surface. 1. radio waves. 1. A second characteristic which will become important later is that radiation with longer wavelengths generally can penetrate through thicker solids. σ is a constant called StefanBoltzmann constant. Visible light. absorbed.3) Where A is the surface area. and ε is a material property called emissivity. The amount of radiation emitted by an object is given by: (Eq. The visible portion is evident from the bright glare of the sun. such as the sun at ~5800 K. is blocked by a wall. emit infrared radiation. The latter is given by the 6 . or transmitted (Figure 1. where it is reflected. However. It is the ratio of the radiation emitted by a surface to the radiation emitted by a perfect emitter at the same temperature.67×10-8 W/m2K4.4) Where I is the incident radiation. from a cooking standpoint. the UV radiation causes tans and burns. Any body with temperature above 0 Kelvin emits radiation. are very energetic and can be harmful to humans. and is a measure of how efficiently a surface emits radiation. The portion that contributes to the heating of the surface is the absorbed radiation. while visible light with wavelengths ~10-7 m contain less energy and therefore have little effect on life. The amount of heat absorbed by the surface is given by: (Eq.5).wavelengths ~10-9 m. The type of radiation emitted is determined largely by the temperature of the body.
2. the radiative exchange between the object and the wall is greatly simplified: (Eq. and the convection coefficient from the loaf to air is 10 W/m2K.6) This simplification can be made because all of the radiation emitted by the object strikes the wall (Fobject→wall = 1). and its surface temperature is 120 ºC. 7 . 1.121.5) For an object in an enclosure.76. The temperature of the air is 20 ºC. Define the following heat transfer situations as either conduction. The net amount of radiation absorbed by the surface is: (Eq. The dimension of the loaf is as described in the figure. F. and its conductivity is 0. A loaf of freshly baked bread is left to cool on a cooling rack. A turkey is being roasted in the oven. For example: A person with a headache holds a cold ice pack to his/her forehead. Emissivity of the bread is 0. o o o o o The sun shines brightly on a car. which is the percentage of the emitted radiation reaching the surface. Potatoes are boiled in water. convection. 1. Problems for Chapter 1 Note: These problems are NOT your homework assignments. or a combination of the three. Please also clearly state what two objects the mode of heat transfer is between and the direction of heat transfer. radiation. 1. An ice cube is placed on a metal tray and left out of the freezer. making the black upholstery very hot. Homework’s will be assigned in class on a separate handout. Answer: Conduction occurs from the person’s forehead to the ice pack.shape factor. A small 4" fan is installed in the back of a computer to help cool the electronics.
the thermal resistance is expressed as: (Eq. k is the thermal conductivity of the layer. A cup of all to the on these information. When the system is still changing with time.1 Steady State and Transient State If you heat a pan on a stove. When there is more than one layer in the composite. it takes a while for the pan to heat up to cooking temperature. and A is the cross-sectional area. An analysis much like a circuit analysis follows. calculate the total heat from the bread. it is in transient state.Based loss 3. In this model. the total resistance of the circuit must be calculated. For conduction. Describe modes of heat transfer that contributes cooling of the coffee. and ∆T is the temperature difference between two surfaces separated by a distance ∆x. The total resistance for layers in series is simply the sum of the 8 . 3. hot coffee sits on the table. A is the cross-sectional area through which the heat is conducting.2) Where L is the thickness of the layer. The latter state is called the steady state. A model used often to calculate the heat transfer through a 1-D system is called the thermal circuit model. 2.2 One-Dimensional Conduction One-dimensional heat transfer refers to special cases where there is only one spatial variable – the temperature varies in one direction only. 3. after which the temperature of the pan remains relatively constant. LESSON 2 Steady-State Conduction 2. where there is no temporal change in temperatures. The rate of conduction through an object at steady-state is given by: (Eq.1) Where k is the conductivity of the material. This model simplifies the analysis of heat conduction through composite materials. each layer is replaced by an equivalent resistor called the thermal resistance.
the heat flow through the layers can be found by: (Eq. and k4 = 46 W/mK.4) The convection at the surface must also be expressed as a resistor: (Eq. The convection coefficient on the right side of the composite is 30 W/m2K. 3. 3.3) For resistors in parallel.resistances: (Eq. Calculate the total resistance and the heat flow through the composite. 3. 3.5) Once the total resistance of a structure is found. the total resistance is given by: (Eq. Conductivities of the layer are: k1 = k3 = 10 W/mK. Example Problem Consider a composite structure shown on below. k2 = 16 W/mK. 9 .6) Where Tinitial and Tfinal refers to the temperatures at the two ends of the thermal circuit (analogous to voltage difference in an electrical circuit) and q is the heat flow through the circuit (current).
an equivalent resistance for layers 1. R2 = 0.15. 2. The circuit must span between the two known temperatures. draw the thermal circuit for the composite. Next. and R4 = 0. and 3 is found first. T1 and T∞.36 To find the total resistance.First. that is. These three layers are combined in series: 10 . the thermal resistances corresponding to each layer are calculated: Similarly.09. R3 = 0.
The equivalent resistor R1.2.3 is in parallel with R4: Finally.2. ← heat flow through the composite 11 .3.4 is in series with R5. R1. The total resistance of the circuit is: ← total thermal resistance Rtotal = R1.46 The heat transfer through the composite is: = 22.214.171.124 W.4 + R5 = 0.
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