History Origin of Agriculture The beginning of 'agro' or 'agriculture' marks the beginning of 'civilized' or 'sedentary' society.

Climate change and increase in population during the Holocene Era (10,000 BC onwards) led to the evolution of agriculture. During the Bronze Age (9000 BC onwards), domestication of plants and animals transformed the profession of the early homo sapiens from hunting and gathering to selective hunting, herding and finally to settled agriculture. Eventually the agricultural practices enabled people to establish permanent settlements and expand urban based societies. Cultivation marks the transition from nomadic pre-historic societies to the settled neolithic lifestyle some time around 7000 BC. As per the modern definition of agriculture which would be" an aggregate of large scale intensive cultivation of land, mono-cropping, organized irrigation, and use of a specialized labor force", the title "inventors of agriculture" would go to the Sumerians, starting ca. 5,500 BC. Technological Evolution

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Originally fields were cleared of weeds and prepared for planting by hand at great effort, using primitive hoes or digging sticks The invention of the scratch plow (also called 'plough') about 6,000 years ago was a great labor-saving device for humans - the beginning of systematic substitution of other forms of energy, in this case animal power, for human muscles The Muslim Farmers in North Africa and the Near East of the Medieval world are credited with inventions of extensive irrigation based on hydraulic and hydrostatic principles such as norias, water mills, water raising machines, dams and



e. four-field crop rotation and selective breeding The science-driven innovations of 19th and 20th centuries led to the mechanization of the cultivation. the preeminent sector of the economy. this bountiful monsoon turns into a terror. In a matter of . mechanization. Indian Agriculture--WaterManagement Indian agricultural production in most parts of the country is closely related to skillful and wise watermanagement practices. although not infrequently. causing uncontrollable floods in parts of the country. the use of tractors.reservoirs y The Renaissance saw the innovation of the three field system of crop rotation and wide spread usage of the moldboard plow The early phase of Industrial Revolution witnessed new agricultural practices like enclosure. Bacon Ham Pork and more>> Processed Food & Snacks Porridge Potato Wafer Processed Chicken Processed Seafood and more>> Pickles & Condiments Chilly Sauce Mayonnaise Soy Sauce Pickle and more>> Marine Food Supplies Dry Fish Dried Bechede-mer Fish Oyster and more>> Other Agro Products Natural Honey Jaggery Sugar Soya Meals and more>> y y Agriculture in India Agriculture in India. India is usually endowed with generous rainfall. India survives". The contribution of agriculture and allied activities to India's economic growth in recent years has been no less significant than that of industry and services. i. Most of the agricultural practices in India confined to the few monsoon months. During the monsoon season. The importance of agriculture to the country is best summed up by this statement: "If agriculture survives. is the source of livelihood of almost two thirds of the workforce in the country.

and provided water for drinking and other purposes in the long dry season. The British rule witnessed the destruction of century-old water management structures and a virtual wreckage of the knowledge systems and cultural traditions that had helped build and preserve these water-management techniques over the centuries in states such as Bihar. or local representatives of the state were generally obliged to allocate a certain percentage of the agricultural taxes on building and managing water-storage. Most of the important institutional developments in agriculture emanated from the recommendations of famine commissions.1 per cent. This explains the inextricable link between Indian Agriculture and effective watermanagement practices known across different parts of India since the ancient times. The great Bengal Famine of 1942-43 provided the backdrop to India¶s Independence.antithesis. Indian Agriculture in Independent India Early Years of Independence The early years of Independence witnessed accentuation on the development of infrastructure for scientific agriculture. Bengal. Owing to this. The steps taken included the establishment of fertilizer and pesticide factories. every few years. According to the history of the Indian agriculture water-management practices are known to have either been taken up by the state. The stagnant performance of agriculture in India during the colonial period was turned into a sustained growth since 1947. with a stronger performance in India especially in terms of per-capita food production. leading to drought and the possibility of famine. famines were frequent and famine commissions were abundant. The growth rate in food production during the 1900-1947 period was hardly 0. Regional rulers. the monsoon is erratic and deficient. Karnataka. during the colonial era. water-harvesting and/or water-diverting structures which facilitated a second crop. or by local village communities since the earliest times. construction of large multi-purpose . Tamil Nadu and others.

The National Bank for Agriculture and Rural Development (NABARD) was set up. fragmented land-holding. owing to which progress was steady and sometimes striking as in the case of milk and egg production. antiquated agronomic practices. while subsidies and . and political stability realized that self-sufficiency in food production was an absolute prerequisite. However. in order to address the concerns about national independence. consumption. low level of input usage. cultivation. While monsoon dependence.irrigation-cum-power projects. security. Green Revolution Policy makers and planners. lack of technology application and poor rural infrastructure are some of the key internal constraints that deter a healthy growth. All these steps led to a quantum jump in the productivity and production of crops. which led to the next phase characterized by the Technology Mission. An end-toend approach was introduced involving attention to all links in the production-consumption chain. organization of community development and national extension programmes and. Present Times Indian agriculture continues to face internal and external challenges. White and Yellow Revolution The Green revolution generated a mood of self-confidence in our agricultural capability. above all. and commerce. This perception led to a program of agricultural improvement called the Intensive Agriculture District Programme (IADP) and eventually to the Green Revolution. the growth in food production was inadequate to meet the consumption needs of the growing population which necessitated food imports. the focus was on conservation. the starting of agricultural universities as well as new agricultural research institutions across the length and breadth of the country. Under this approach.

The objective of every policy initiative has been to make Indian agriculture globally competitive ² by investing it with the ability to produce globally acceptable quality at globally comparable cost. .barriers have been distorting international agricultural trade. rendering agri-exports from developing nations such as India uncompetitive.

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