This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
on GPS(GLOBAL POSITIONING SYSTEM)
Prepared by: Prikesh Patel(08BCL038) Darshan Pujara(08BCL041) Jay Senjalia(08BCL042) Manthan Shah(08BCL044) Guided by: Dr. A.K.Singh
4th Semester Department of Civil engineering
INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY, NIRMA UNIVERSITY
Tech (civil) IV has completed his work under my supervision and guidance. DARSHAN PUJARA(08BCL041) .CERTIFICATE This is to certify that the report entitled ³GPS(GLOBAL POSITIONING SYSTEM)´ submitted by PRIKESH PATEL(08BCL038) . Date of submission: __________________________ ________________________ Examiner _______________________ Staff in charge _____________________________ Head of the Department 2 . JAY SENJALIA(08BCL042) AND MANTHAN SHAH(08BCL044) Of Semester B.
Civil Engineering Department for guiding me to successfully accomplish my presentation work. Nirma University for his support and encouragement. Institute of Technology.H. Head of Department of Civil Engineering. 3 . P.Singh . I am deeply indebted to my guide Dr. A.ACKNOWLEDGEMENT I am very much thankful to Dr. Also I express my sincere thanks to my family members and all my friends who directly and indirectly helped me to complete this presentation work.K.Shah.
longitude. space-based radionavigation system that provides reliable positioning. For anyone with a GPS receiver. 4 . The GPS is made up of three parts: satellites orbiting the Earth. control and monitoring stations on Earth. the system will provide location and time.freely available to all. navigation.1. day and night. Each GPS receiver then provides three-dimensional location (latitude. GPS satellites broadcast signals from space that are picked up and identified by GPS receivers. GPS provides accurate location and time information for an unlimited number of people in all weather.2 INTRODUCTION The Global Positioning System (GPS) is a U. and timing services to civilian users on a continuous worldwide basis -. and the GPS receivers owned by users.S. anywhere in the world. and altitude) plus the time.
References 14 5 . GPS Observations and data processing 4.1 1. GPS 1. GPS Segments 1.2 1.3 Space Segments Control Segments User Segments 3.1 Basic principle of GPS working 6 7 7 7 8 2. GPS Error sources 9 11 5.TABLE OF CONTENTS 1. GPS Application 13 5.
For the measurement of accurate time. To explain the principle of working of a GPS. GPS measures Distance using the travel time of a radio message.1 Basic principle of GPS working GPS works on a principle. GPS needs very accurate Clock. 5. employs some of the most µhigh tech¶ equipment ever deployed.e. To measure travel time. 6 . the system is divided in to five conception pieces. The distance is calculated by knowing the time of travel of radio signal to reach from a satellite and multiplying it by the velocity of the radio signal (velocity of light=186000 miles per second). automatic clocks are used.Triangulation from satellites is the Basis of the system. it gets delayed. 1 . The locations of the satellites in the space.GPS 1. 3. which are also required in computation of points. As the GPS signal travels through the ionosphere And the earth¶s atmosphere. which is really quite simple through the system itself. 4. of known locations) and measuring the distance of the point from a group of satellites in space. GPS 2. Once you know distance to a satellite. You then to know where the satellite in Space. The position of the point on the surface of the earth or in space is determined by considering satellites as precise reference points (i. To triangle.
information about satellite position. system time. Control Segment and User Segment. Update periodically the navigation messages for each satellite. ionospheric modeling coefficients. These auxiliary data are transmitted at a rate of 50 bps and repeated after 30 seconds. 5 monitor stations and 4 ground antennas distributed at 5 different locations near the earth¶s equator.1.1 Space Segment: The space segment is designed to consist of 24 satellites orbiting the earth atapproximately 20200 kms from the surface of the earth. These satellites are placed in sixdifferrent orbital planes and each satellite is completing one revolution around the earth in about 12 hours. Such constellation of satellites provides minimum 4-5 satellites visible above 15 degree of elevation at any point on the earth surface at any time. 1. Various functions o f Control Segment are as follows: 1. clock bias parameters. Determine the GPS time 3. In addition to C/A code and P code. Each satellite is transmitting time coded signals known as C/A code and P code modulated on 2 L-Band carrier waves. Only user segment changesaccording to the requirements of application.L1 carrier wave of frequency 1575. L2 carrier wave of frequency 1227.2 GPS Segments: GPS consist of Space Segment. health parameters etc.60 MHz contains P code only. Space Segment and Control Segment remains same for all different applications. 7 .2. are also modulated on both carrier waves.2 Control segment: The Control Segment consists of one master control station.2. P code is encrypted due to US defense policy and is not available for civilian usage. 1. Determine satellite orbit and predict it¶s path for next 24 hours 2.42 MHz contains both C/A code and P code. User Segment is related to different types ofGPS receivers and their applications and it is more important for GPS applications designer.
C/A code+ L1 carrier phase 3.1.3 User segment: User Segment consists of military user.2. P code + L1 and L2 carrier phase 8 . civilian user and different types of GPS receivers. Military users and their applications are not relevant here. C/A code + L1 and L2 carrier phase 4. Hand help type of signal frequency C/A code 2. Various types of GPS receivers used by civilian users are described below 1.
Basically all the methods depend upon code and/or Phase measurement and Autonomous or Different type of data processing technique. Thus. Autonomous position: The autonomous position is determined by code measurement. Most of the Handheld and Navigation receivers¶ user above mentioned code measurement technique. of pseudorange R=SQRT([(Xs-Xr)*(Xs-Xr)+(Ys-Yr)*(Ys-Yr)+(Zs-Zr)*(Zs- Zr)]+c dT is generated for each satellite.3 GPS OBSERVATIONS AND DATA PROCESSING There are several different methods related to GPS observations and data processing. y 4 pseudorange equations are solved to determined GPS receiver position. pseudorange is determined from carrier phase measurements or carrier phase measurements are used to improve pseudorange d etermined from code observations. In case of survey grade receivers. 3 unknown (X. Y. survey grade receivers are used. minimum four satellite observations are determine 4 unknowns. The 3 techniques of positioning are commonly in use 9 . Accuracy of the order of 5 to 15 meters is achievable.1. There are 4 unknown in GPS observations. y y Position of all 4 satellites is determined from transmitted messages Eq. Only 3 methods are considered due to their wide applications. Measurement techniques: Measurement techniques using GPS depends up on the accuracy required in the results. For better autonomous positioning accuracy. Different steps involved are as follows. Z) are related to position and fourth unknown is receiver clock bias (dT). y Receiver generated code is matched with satellite received code and travel time for signal is measured y Receiver to satellite distance known as pseudo range is determined for all four satellites from observation of travel time.
Kinematics point positioning 3. Mostly double differencing technique is used. For Differentially Corrected Position (DGPS) two receivers are required. Once receiver known as reference receiver is kept at known position and another receiver known as rover receiver is kept at unknown position. Different steps involved in data processing are as follows. Static relative positioning Differentially corrected position (DGPS): Many of the errors affecting pseudorange measurements can be completely eliminated or can be significantly reduced by differential measurement technique. Relative positioning This technique is used to obtain relative positioning accuracy of the order of few millimeters. y Simultaneous observation are taken by reference receiver and one or more rover receiver y Reference receiver is computing range correction for each satellite and it is provided to rover receiver for eliminating common sources of errors Most of the signal frequency receivers use DPGS solution to obtain accuracy of sub meter level within distance of few tens of kilometers from the receiver. In differencing technique 2 receivers and 2 satellites are used for accurate measurement of phase. Static point position 2. Dual frequency receivers are used and carrier phase measurements are taken. 10 . This is also a differential technique and requires 2 receivers.1.
This effects velocity.4 GPS Error sources: In reality. Multipath: If receiver antenna is placed near reflecting surface then multipath signals are received. ionospheric error is significantly removed by dual frequency GPS receivers Tropospheric error is largely due to water vapor and it is easily compensated by tropospheric model provided in data processing S/W. many error sources are degrading range measurement accuracy of GPS positioning. Ionospheric and Troposheric delays: Satellite signals passing through ionosphere can be slowed down. Multipath errors can be reduced by selecting GPS antenna with ground plane and appropriately positioning it. Ionospheric delay is not constant and varies with respect to satellite elevation. GPS solution provides receiver clock correction as a bias to compensate receiver clock error. This error is a site specific local error and can be taken care of during observations planning. Dilution of Precision: The Dilution of Precision is a measure of the strength of satellite geometry and it is related to the spacing and position of the satellites in the sky. Satellite and Receiver clock errors: Satellite clock is very accurate and stable. Anti Spoofing an encryption technique used by US Department of Defense does not allow access to accurate P Code for civilian /commercial applications. If occasional drift occurs then it is corrected by ground control stations. resulting in equivalent error in range determination. Therefore. time and place of observation. Double differencing type of solution can be used for eliminating both these clock errors. accuracy obtained is not matching to theoretically expected value. US Department of Defense has removed Selective Availability ±a significant source of error for autonomous positioning. GDOP known as geometric dilution of 11 .1. solar activity etc. Receiver clock is less accurate and less stable. Other relevant sources of error are described below.
GDOP value of 4 or less is considered better for accurate positioning. GPS Datum: GPS receiver position is determined in WGS-84 datum. GPS data must be converted to local Datum/Projection system for seamless integration.precision provides information about accuracy degradation in 3D position and time. Therefore. 12 . Most of the survey agencies in India prefer Indian Datum and Polyconic projection.
20000 to 20 lakhs. Thus technology is highly scalable and offers wide range of applications. in air and in space Harbor navigation Navigation in rivers High precision kinematics surveys on the ground Guidance of robot and other machines Cadastral surveying Geodetic network densification High precision air craft positioning Photogrammetry without ground control Monitoring deformation Hydrographic survey Active control stations Inventory control using GIS Tectonic plate movement detection Fleet monitoring GIS data collection Location based services Crustal deformation studies Lonospheric based services Time synchronization Geo-referencing of satellite images Geo-referencing of cadastral maps Satellite orbit determination surveying 13 . sea.1.5 GPS Application: GPS receivers are available in price range of Rs. Few suggestive applications are as follows. Applications y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y Navigation on land.
net(20/04/2010) Books: (1) A. Chandra 14 .gov(20/04/2010) (2) www.gisdevelopment.REFERENCES Sites: (1) www.com(20/04/2010) (3) www.gps.garmin.M.
This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
We've moved you to where you read on your other device.
Get the full title to continue reading from where you left off, or restart the preview.