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We, at Green Energy Stirling Engine Partnership (GESEP) and our

colleagues feel that it is timely and important to call for an International
Stirling Engines Conference, with the theme Green Energy Stirling
Engines in 21st Century. The Conference can be held in 2009 at Las
Vegas or Beijing, date to be announced. Both U.S. and China are
leading countries in Stirling engine technology. Partners in GESEP are
a group of practitioners active in the field of state of the art Stirling
Engines R and D, commercialization and international technology
transfer since the 1970’s. We played a key role in transferring U.S. MTI
Stirling Engine technology to China during 1980’s.

GESEP international partners are enthusiastic promoters of green

energy Stirling power as alternative to nuclear and fossil power
worldwide. We were among the key groups that sponsored the 2nd
International Stirling Engines Conference in Shanghai, China, July
1984. We were firm believers of “The steam engines initiated 19th
Century, the internal combustion engines powered the 20th Century, and
green energy Stirling engines will harmonize 21st Century”. We are
more than ever convinced in this prophetic truth.

This Conference can provide the opportunity for not only academic
scientific discussion of Stirling engines but also room for technology,
product information exchanges and commercial ventures synergistics.
Those invited to attend will include prominent technical experts,
developers, manufacturers, utility managers, venture capitalists,
investment bankers, research organizations, academic institutions and
government policy makers. Through this Conference we hope all
Stirling engines believers will come together, so worthwhile technology
can obtain funding, investment organization can find their technology
and developers can find their customers.

We hope this overdue large scale Stirling engines international

conference can also serve as rallying call for worldwide commitment to
substitute green energy Stirling engines for nuclear and fossil power
plants. A Conference with “Stirling commitment,” that will commit to
improve ecology and quality of life. A Conference of “Stirling alliance,”

that will enhance harmony between man and nature and unity in
diversity among world citizens.

With Al Gore’s recommendation to convert all US electric power to

green renewable energy by 2018, Stirling engines in all forms now are
finally coming to life. We will see green energy Stirling engines
applications in electric generation large or small, appropriate power for
developing world and free piston cryocoolers for cooling. The
promising future of green energy Stirling engines is unlimited. We
foresee all forms of hybrid powered Stirling engine transportation
vehicles replacing the current fleet of fossil fuel consuming automobiles,
ocean going vessels, trains, trucks and even airplanes. Attached
overview abstracts describe model green energy city with Stirling
energy systems, ocean crossing airplanes and ships to be replaced by
solar powered Stirling engine hybrid surface effect ships and low flying
SES vehicles.

To play a timely important role in Stirling Engine Renaissance, we

expect the Conference to be inclusive and enlist worldwide leaders of
Stirling engine believers, manufacturers, R and D experts, Nobel Prize
laureates, government energy policy planners, managers of utilities and
relevant UN NGO’s. Following is a preliminary list of distinguished
individuals and organizations invited to support or sponsor the
Conference. Your support and participation is very important to us.
Kindly respond with your recommendations, comments and suggestions
to Conference Planning Committee, Green Energy Stirling Engine
Partnership by email to

1 – 11


JUNE 21-24, 1984





Visiting Consultant
Institute of Engineering
Chinese Academy of Sciences

The Chinese Society of Naval Architecture

and Marine Engineering
andChinese Society of Engineering Thermophysics

Francis C.W. Fung,* Ph.D.


Modern Stirling engines have high thermal efficiencies even using hot air as a
working medium. The efficiency of a properly optimized Stirling engine is independent
of the working gas. Although the introduction of lighter gasses can increase the power
density. With their multifuel capability, they can utilize other abundant energy sources
such as coal, biomass, and solar to substitute for precious liquid petroleum. With its
many possible forms and its flexible demand on working pressure, technology, and
material, the Stirling engine is an ideal appropriate technology most adaptable to the
widely varying conditions in China.
In their most simple form, they are low cost alternatives to the diesel engines to
mechanize the Chinese countryside. In the free piston configuration, they are the only
high efficiency, portable, self contained methane gas liquefiers suitable for the small user
with methane as a fuel. They can do all the above utilizing any locally available energy
sources at high thermal efficiencies of 30% or more.
Finally, in the large, low speed coal burning version, the Stirling engine in the 0.5
to 5 MW power range can be substantially more efficient than turbines and non
condensing multiple expansion reciprocating steam engines and be reasonably simple and
compact. They are foreseen as applications for marine propulsion, stationary power,
railway locomotives and heavy, off-highway vehicles used in mining, agriculture,
construction, and forestry.
Modern high density, high efficiency Solar Stirling engines in
large number Clusters are green energy alternatives to nuclear and
fossil power plants.

One day Solar powered high speed surface effect ships will replace
commercial airliners as cost effective ocean transports crossing the
Pacific and Atlantic ocean.

* Visiting consultant, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Institute of Engineering



Stirling engines are externally continuous burning engines as opposed to internal

combustion engines with synchronized intermittent ignition. Stirling engines operate on
a closed thermodynamic regenerative cycle with a gaseous working medium. Air is a
preferred working fluid for low speed engines because of its availability, although higher
power density and higher speed can be obtained through the use of lighter gases such as
helium and hydrogen. The working fluid is cyclically compressed and expanded at
different temperature levels so there is a net conversion of heat to work. Any source of
external heat may be utilized as substitutes for the precious and dwindling liquid
During the early 1900’s, thousands of very low efficiency Stirling engines were
working in Europe. Today, modern Stirling engines are made with typically very high
thermal efficiencies.
The Stirling engine was originally conceived by Robert Stirling, in its early form
incorporating the thermal regenerator in 1815. Although Stirling was never extensively
involved in its commercialization, thousands of hot air Stirling engines were built during
the early 1900’s for all manners of pumping and similarly rural applications. [Ref. 1]
However, the advent of the cheap petroleum era in the 19 th and 20th centuries ushered in
the internal combustion engine and brought an untimely pause in Stirling engine
refinement and development, but not for long.
Due to a sudden realization of the world’s depleting petroleum resources brought
on by the oil crisis during the 1970’s, the Stirling engine is beckoning s more
sophisticated and energy conscious world. It’s most noteworthy virtue is the ability to
utilize any kind of external heat source as power, with our without combustion. Thus, its
source of power can include biomass, solar, waste heat, gas, as well as liquid fuel, to
name some commonly available sources. Other Stirling engine virtues worthy of note
are: High thermal efficiency of 30 to 40% by current technology is achieved.
Temperature and pressure design requirements are flexible for different applications
because power does not come from synchronized combustion, but from a continuous heat
source. The working medium stays clean without direct contact with the heat source.
There is low pollution due to continuous burning characteristics when liquid fossil fuels
are used. In the free piston configuration, with linear generator combination, the total
package can be hermetically sealed to be free of outside environmental contamination.
In short, the modern Stirling engine is highly efficient, omnivorous, adaptable to
different levels of technology, amenable to long life and easy maintenance design,
independent of outside environmental contamination, and low polluting to the outside
In this world of constant evolution, there is much to be said about the humble
traits of flexible and adaptable species, be they biological or mechanical. Today, there are
firm convictions among informed scientific and engineering circles in the West that;
‘whereas the 19th century belonged to the steam engine, and the 20 th century to the
internal combustion engine, the 21st century will belong to the Stirling engine.’ [Ref 1]
In view of China’s goals of four modernizations and of quadrupling its industrial
and agricultural production by 2000 [Ref. 2], the need to improve all energy utilization

efficiency across the nation and to use coal as petroleum substitute is very compelling.
These needs, to conserve energy by science and technology, and to consider alternate
fuels, have been eloquently discussed by many influential Chinese including Wu [Ref. 3].
Although the broad based interest in Stirling engines is yet to materialize, the future of
Stirling engines in China is bright because of its many inherent virtues and the above
compelling needs.
Presently, many leading Stirling advocates in the West, including Beale [Ref. 4],
believe that the Stirling engine is particularly suited for wide spread use as an
“appropriate technology” in the third world. The term, “appropriate technology”, is an
apt description for the Stirling engine here because it is able to use locally available
forms of energy, can be manufactured and maintained by indigenous technology, comes
in small and medium sizes to suit rural needs, and still maintains high thermal efficiency.
[Ref. 5] If necessity is indeed the mother of invention, China will no doubt play an
important role in the world development of the Stirling engine applications in the near
future. Additionally, considering China’s relatively advanced machine building
capability, the availability of vast manpower and materials, and the need for science and
technology to serve the economy, [Ref. 6] it can be predicted with reasonable certainty
that China will become one of the major world Stirling engine manufacturing centers.
Considering the large third world market, China needs to stay ahead in all phases of
Stirling engine technology so as to not loose this important export market to another
advanced or third world country.


Stirling engines come in many configurations, mechanical arrangements, and

sizes. Within the scope and intent of the present paper, it is not possible to go into an
unnecessarily lengthy description of the principles and developments of the whole
spectrum of existing Stirling engines. Instead, the reader is referred to the 1980 book by
Walker [Ref. 7] on the many splendid past accomplishments.
Any mention of Stirling engine development in the West must necessarily include
the unrelenting and impressive developmental efforts by Phillips of Holland to increase
its efficiency and power density. These increases were accomplished through the
increase of mean working pressure, better designed regenerator, and switching from air to
helium as a working medium. The recent flourishing of world wide Stirling engine
efforts was brought on by the 1973 oil crisis to seek energy alternatives. Despite the
considerable efforts and its many inherent virtues, the modern, high efficiency Stirling
engine has yet to live up to its potential. In retrospect, the belated coming of the new
Stirling engine age is due mainly to the inappropriate market development emphasis by
the West in the recent past. [Ref. 8] Instead of seeking the vast territory of appropriate
technology where the internal combustion engine, with many of its limitation , cannot
tread, major efforts have been spent on applications to dislodge the competition from
established turf.
Examples of appropriate technology applications, excluding the internal
combustion engine, include the following. Free piston Stirling engines with thermal
efficiencies of 30 to 40% can use multifuels [Ref. 9]. Low technology, hot air engines

with overall 20% or better thermal efficiency utilizing biomass fuel, can be simple to
construct and easy to maintain. [Ref10] Duplex Stirling engines can liquefy two parts
of methane gas by consuming only one part methane gas as heat energy. [Ref. 11, 12, 13]
Large bored hot air engines with a thermal efficiency in the range of 25 to 30% can use
coal directly for transportation in coal-rich developing countries.
One of the outstanding examples of disproportionate marketing emphasis is the
considerable (and many independent) in the U.S. to transfer European technology to the
U.S. for automobile applications resulting in oil-fired, highly efficient and sophisticated
Stirling engines using helium, instead of air as a working medium. [Ref. 14] Because of
this classical case of disregard of vested interest, economics, human psychology, and
unnecessary technological overkill, this expensive project is not likely to lead to any
success soon. Although the technology transferred to the U.S. is not totally in vain, the
advent of the useful Stirling age, with broad benefits to mankind, is delayed by at least
ten years. On the other hand, if the same efforts were directed towards Stirling engine
Applications in easily implemented, appropriate technologies, the world would be now
benefiting from the efforts, and many advantages of the Stirling engine would be clearly
demonstrated to the world and to China especially.


Appropriate Stirling engine applications can only be limited by one’s own

imagination. The Stirling cycle lends itself to a multitude of physical forms, some of
which are simple and effective, and thus are strong candidates to help China by using
locally available fuels. Examples of the most likely applications for China, in order of
likelihood of success are:
1) Simple, low pressure, modern hot air Stirling engines in the 5 – 20 kw range
[Ref. 10]
2) Free-piston Stirling engines with linear electric generators in the 1 – 15 kw
range [Ref. 9]
3) Portable duplex Stirling methane gas liquefiers with 1 4 kw refrigerating
capacities [Ref. 11, 12, 13]
4) Large bored, low speed, coal burning Stirling engines in the 0.5 – 5 MW
range [Ref. 15, 16]
In the following, we shall discuss each of the above examples in terms of technical
features, engineering merits, and specific appropriate applications.


In reference 14 a modern low pressure hot air Stirling engine producing 4 kw of

shaft power is designed for the Asia foundation and funded through the U.S. Agency for
International Development. The objective of the project is to design a rice husk fired
engine that can be produced by low technology applications utilizing locally available
biomass fuel, but not requiring high power density, a modern Stirling engine can be
simple, efficient, and easy to maintain. The efficiency of properly optimized Stirling
engines and independent of working gas. Although the introduction of lighter gases
allows higher operating speed thus results in higher power density. [Ref 14] In the
Chinese countryside, where the call to modernize is urgent, and the availability of scarce
petroleum fuel is almost nonexistent for the average farmer, the development of simple
modern Stirling engines cannot afford not to be mandatory. [Ref. 17]
The main specifications of the 4 kw Asia Foundation Stirling engine are:
moderate efficiency (15%) relatively large displacement (7 litres), low speed (720 rpm),
and low mean cycle pressure (4.5 bar). For the benefit of the technologically
unsophisticated countryside, this engine is designed to be dry lubricated. Thus, it does
not require periodic oil changes. In addition, being a Stirling engine, it requires neither
the electronic ignition system for the carburetion system. Therefore, it is extremely
adaptable to severe cold or hot climates. Also, in remote cold areas, where diesel fuel is
not readily available and where biomass cannot produce methane gas, this is the best
candidate for mechanization. Besides using locally available biomass fuel, modern
simple Stirling engines do not require sophisticated training to operate and maintain. The
thermal energy to run the engines can come from specially designed or modified
indigenous furnaces familiar to the natives on the farm. The objective is: “If one can
cook with a stove, one can also operate a simple Stirling engine.”
Of course, China may eventually use high efficiency Stirling engines to
mechanize the vast countryside. The fuel utilization efficiency can also be further
improved if the furnace heat is also used to perform other low temperature heating,
drying, or cooking processes besides running the Stirling engine in a combined, efficient,
total energy system. However, the simple Stirling engine with moderate efficiency of
20% or better is economical, has a short developmental time, and can be easily
manufactured by small rural industries. The improvement towards more expensive high
efficiency rural Stirling engines can be introduced in steps. Early implementation of
Stirling engines for farm use can enhance China’s image as a leading exporter of Stirling
engine technology to the third world in the future. The need for simple Stirling engines
using biomass in the third world is currently even more acute than in China. China is not
in a more advanced technological position to supply parts of the third world. She cannot
afford to lose these opportunities to earn State revenue through exports now, or in the
future. Finally, the existence of the Stirling engine is totally unknown to the vast
majority of the Chinese. Early introduction of one form of Stirling engine can pave the
way for the successful introduction of many forms of appropriate Stirling engines in the
In the penetration of international technological export markets, time is of the
essence. Early loss of leadership may never to be regained again in the eyes of the third

world. Now is a good time to catch up in all phases of Stirling engine technology while
the West is still willing to share. It may become too late soon, as the west is now
beginning to cooperate with other third world countries with low labor costs as partners
in producing various Stirling engines for export at an affordable price.



The last ten years saw a great upsurge of Stirling engine research and
development effort as evidenced by the number of papers published yearly in the
proceedings of the Intersociety Energy Conversion Engineering Conference (IECEC). Of
these publications, an increasingly larger percentage is being directed toward the free
piston Stirling engine. This is due to its absence of critical seals and mechanical
simplicity, making it a favored form for many applications including rural electric
generation. Small free piston Stirling engines with linear generators in the 1 – 5 kw
ranges have been built in the U.S. with thermal efficiencies ranging 30 – 35%. [Ref. 9]
When optimized for production, thermal efficiencies are expected to reach 40%. Some of
these small generators, suitable for space or remote area applications, are designed to be
powered by solar collection.
In this free piston form, the Stirling engine generator has additional advantages to
the rural user unmatched by conventional internal combustion engines. These special
advantages are:
- can have a long life with only three moving parts
- absence of lateral mechanical forces so gas bearing can be used throughout
- portable because of the high power density and integral design
- free of any accessories because there is no need for lubrication, carburetion,
and ignition systems
- the whole apparatus, including the generator can be hermetically sealed to be
independent of environment and avoid unskilled tampering.
Because of the above advantages, the free piston Stirling engine generator is ideal
for the countryside where it can get into unskilled hands, be subjected to hostile
environmental conditions such as heavy dust and moisture, be expected to work long and
hard, and yet the only maintenance routine is more likely than not to be the famous kick
so often employed to revive a neglected machine. So, in this form, the Stirling engine
can come close to a permanently sealed, maintenance free, life long package. In
operation, the farmer need only attend to his biomass furnace which is by habit more in
his domain. In the opposite spectrum, paradoxically, all the above niceties plus the dead
silent operation feature, the free piston engine generation also as a most sophisticated
military portable generator. [Ref. 18]


Biomass, including firewood, farm residues, and secretions by humans and

animals, is an abundant supply of rural energy in China [Ref. 3]. Conversion of biomass
to methane gas is an efficient way of utilization without the attending polluting effect of
direct burning. This is because methane gas is the cleanest fuel humans can devise, as
well as being produced by nature. Additionally, by converting biomass to methane, one
also eliminates the waste disposal problem and yields improved fertilizer simultaneously.
Furthermore, in the industrially advanced countries, liquefied methane is also now used
as a high grade fuel, substituting for liquid petroleum for vehicular use. Modified vehicle
carburetors and insulated storage tanks for this conversion are now available off the shelf.
If methane from biomass can be liquefied on the farm efficiently by portable and
self contained liquefier for ease of storage and transportation then its use can be
significantly more widespread in China.
Liquefaction will encourage not only larger and more production wells, but also
increased production during the warm seasons. Because liquefied methane, besides used
for heating and cooking, can find wider uses such as running farm vehicles and machines.
It can also be traded and transported to where it is most needed. Waste is eliminated.
This can herald the beginning of true rural energy independence.
Thus the development of a portable, self contained, rural methane liquefier which
does not require electricity or liquid petroleum to run, is an important and urgent task.
Current state of the art technology suggests the ideal solution to be in the form of a
Duplex Stirling Cycle machine. Since the Stirling Cycle is reversible, it can produce
power when heat is added, and can refrigerate when work is applied. This duplex
configuration is a small, free-piston mover coupled directly to a small, free-piston Stirling
liquefier. It is compact, self-starting, requires no electronic or carburetion system
accessories. It is simple to operate with only three or four moving parts. It can be
hermetically sealed to be free of maintenance or any adjustments.
The technology of small, free-piston Stirling cycle cryocoolers to liquefy nitrogen
or helium is well established in the West for the defense industry. In the U.S., they are
produced by the thousands as the key dependable components for night vision and infra-
red guidance sensor cooling.
Stirling cryocoolers for methane liquefaction is a relatively simple application.
Preliminary design study shows that they can be made in wide ranging sizes from a few
liter per hour liquefaction capacity to a capacity handling as much as any farm methane
well. Conservatively calculated liquefaction efficiencies for units with 4 to 200 liter/hour
capacities are 200%. In other words, only one-third of the methane gas would be
consumed in combustion to liquefy the remaining two-thirds. As a liquefaction process
to produce petroleum fuel substitute, this 200% efficiency is unsurpassed by large scale
industrial plants.


In an article (to be published in the Transaction of Chinese Society of Internal

Combustion Engine), titled “Large Coal-fired Stirling Engines – Speculations for Future
Development”, Walker argues convincingly for the future use of large bored Stirling
engines in China [Ref. 16]. “The large and increasing cost differential in the price of oil
and coal coupled with the relative abundance of coal deposits in China for future
development, signals the end of oil as the primary fuel and a return to a coal based
economy. The coal may be processed to produce synthetic oil, but direct use of the coal
appears preferable.”
“For powers in the range of 0.5 to 5 MW, the Stirling engine can be substantially
more efficient than turbines and noncondensing multiple expansion reciprocating steam
engines, utilize robust components, be comparatively easy and cheap to manufacture, and
operate for long periods with nothing more than routine maintenance. It can do this with
air as the working fluid and water as the lubricant.” “Typical steam locomotive
efficiencies of 8% overall could likely be elevated with Stirling engine locomotives to
20% or better with consequent dramatic decrease in coal consumption.”
“Most likely applications for Stirling engines in this power range are for
stationary electric power generation, railway locomotives, marine propulsion, and large
off-highway vehicles used in mining, forestry, and agriculture. In these applications, the
engines use hot air as a working medium. Low grade coal can be used in an atmospheric
pressure fluidized bed combuster with two stage sodium heat pipes for thermal transport
to the engine cylinder heat.”


Stirling engines are appropriate technologies that must be developed by China in

her four modernization drive. They can provide mechanical power and electricity by
utilizing efficiently any locally available energy sources. They can relieve the farmers of
backbreaking labor by serving as a low cost alternative to the diesel engine. They can
electrify the remote and inaccessible rural areas without the need of a large scale capital
investment and massive user training programs. They can help shape rural energy
independence as efficient, self contained, portable methane gas liquefiers. They can
enable the Chinese rail and marine transportation to switch to coal base with efficiencies
almost three times as high as conventional steam engines. Finally, the Stirling cycle
cryocooler is a key component in the most up to date weaponry, and the unique qualities
of the free piston Stirling generator make it the near-perfect military portable generator.


1. Walker, G., Free-Piston Stirling Engines, University of Calgary, 1982

2. Hu, Y. Create a New Situation in All fields of Socialist Modernization, Report
to the 12th National Congress, September 1, 1982
3. Wu, Z.H., China’s Energy Problem and Its Solution by Science and
Technology, First U.S.-China Energy, Resources, and Environment
Conference, November 12, 1982
4. Beale, W., Stirling Engines for Developing Countries, U.S. National Academy
of Sciences, Energy for Rural Development, 1981
5. Gordon, T., Free Piston Stirling Engines Increase Solar/Thermal Efficiency,
International Power Generation, July, 1979
6. Zhao, Z., A Strategic Question on Invigorating the Economy, National Science
Awards Conference, Oct. 24, 1982
7. Walker, G., Stirling Engines, Oxford University Press, 1980
8. Beale, W., Private Communication, October, 1982
9. Goldwater, B., Current Free-Piston Stirling Engine Technology and
Applications, IECEC Conference, 1979
10. Wood, G., Design of a Low Pressure Air Engine for Third World Use, IECEC
Conference, August 1982
11. Walker, G., Thermally Activated Stirling Cryocooler, International Cryogenic
Engineering, May 1982
12. Berchowitz, D., The Design, Development and Performance of a Duplex
Stirling Natural Gas Liquefier, IECEC Conference 1982
13. Fung, F., Free Piston Methane Gas Liquefier, Presented at the Chinese
Academy of Sciences, Institute of Engineering Thermophysics, August 1982
14. Martini, W., Stirling Engine Design Manual, Martini Engineering, May 1980
15. Walker, G., Coal Fired Stirling Engines for Railway Locomotive and
Stationary Power Applications, Institute of Mechanical Engineers, England,
November 1982
16. Walker, G., Large Coal Fired Stirling Engines – Speculations for Future
Development, Transactions of the Chinese Society for Internal Combustion
Engines, November, 1982
17. Anonymous, Modernization of Rural China, China Daily, November 20, 1982
18. Marusak, T., Evaluation of Requirements for Militarization of 3-kw Free-
Piston Stirling Engine Generator Set, M.T.I., Latham, N.Y. 1982

The Sun produces more energy than all of the other known
energy sources combined. More energy from the sun strikes
the Earth in just one hour than all the energy consumed on the
planet in an entire year.

Even if we could bring on-line one new nuclear power plant

every day for the next 20 years it would not come close to
meeting the future demand for clean and inexpensive carbon-
free power. In fact, even if we could somehow immediately
produce the maximum amount of the other potential renewable
energy alternatives such as wind (3TW), biomass (6TW),
geothermal (1TW), ocean currents (2TW) and hydroelectric
(1TW) combined – for a total of 12 Terawatts, we would still
have a demand gap of 33 TW by 2100. All of these other
alternative energy sources, combined, can account for only a
small percentage of the future demand for energy.

Solar energy can generate up to 600 Terawatts (or 600 Trillion

Watts per hour) and is now clearly the answer to generating
massive amounts of large utility-grid power. It is enormously
abundant, free, renewable and clean. With ground-breaking
technology, solar energy it is now more cost effective or less
expensive to produce than natural gas fired plants or the
current leading power plant option).

The world is also fast approaching the electrification of the

transportation industry (e.g., electric vehicles) that will require
a significant increase in electric power plants. Hydrogen fuel
cell powered automobiles will also soon be deployed in the U.S.
market. Hydrogen burns clean but is not a primary energy
source so it requires significant amounts of electricity in its
production (approximately 300 kWH of electricity for one tank
of equivalent gasoline for a 50 MPG car).
CO2’s and Greenhouse Gases

Today, coal-fired power plants produce approximately 50% of

the electricity in the U.S. Just one coal-fired power plant emits
as much CO2 (carbon dioxide or greenhouse gases) as 1 million
cars. For every mile that you drive a gasoline powered vehicle,

it is the equivalent of throwing out the window – one pound or
a12 ounce can packed with carbon ash and pollutants. Oil has
reached $144.00 a barrel and is expected to climb to $200 a
barrel within the next 2 years. Average US regular grade gas
price is $3.96 a gallon and is expected to top $7.00 a gallon in
2 years. Gasoline has already reached $10.00 in Europe.

It is now clear that the burning of fossil fuels (coal, oil and
natural gas) is raising havoc with the environment by creating
an intense or hot greenhouse effect within the earth’s
Become part of the revolution by transitioning to inexpensive
renewable solar energy and electric or hydrogen vehicles.


The Solar Dish system utilizes a 25-foot radius round parabolic
mirrored dish (similar to a large satellite dish) that tracks or “Points”
to the sun to concentrate or reflect its thermal heat onto a small ultra-
hot area called a receiver or collector plate (similar to that of a
magnifying glass). That heat is then used by new Stirling Cycle engine
that turns a crankshaft (similar to a diesel engine) that powers a
generator to produce electricity. The Solar Dish System is scalable and
has been designed to produce approximately 50 Kilowatts per hour
(kWH) per unit for large scale solar power plant applications. Each
Solar Unit, when produced on a mass scale, is estimated to cost
approximately $100,000 including land and installation costs for an
average cost per Watt of approximately $2.00 installed. Additional
engineering advances and enhancements could potentially yield up to
100 kWH per hour to reduce the cost and improve the efficiency even
further. Photovoltaic or PV solar panels, the most common form of
solar energy today, by comparison, cost approximately $3-5 per watt
to produce and $5-7 per watt including installation. The Company is
applying for and will be protected by all available intellectual property
rights and applicable patents.


Descriptio SOL
n Thermal Through Tower AR 1
Panels NG 2
$0.12 $0.08
Operating $0.20 Cents Cents
$0.15 Cents (Est.) Cents
Cost per (Est.)
(Est.) (Est.)
$3-4 Hard
Cost Per Hard
Costs TBD TBD Costs
Watt $5-7 With
$2-3 With
(Sun to 10%-15% 15% -20% 29% 33% +
1.5 – 2 Million Gallons per MW or 1 Billion
Water None Gallons per 500 MW plant None None

The SOLAR STIRLING Dish will only become incrementally more and
more profitable as the rates and revenues from electricity sales
continue to escalate, but the costs remain relatively constant. Both
the availability and cost of water will become a critical issue for most
other power plants.

The majority of large scale power plants today (coal, natural gas and
even new solar thermal troughs) consume massive quantities of water
at a significant cost. Most plants use a heat source to boil water to
produce steam that powers a large turbine to generate electricity. A
typical 500 Megawatt plant is estimated to consume up to 3,000 acre
feet or 1 Billion Gallons of water per year. Effluent or treated
wastewater, where available, also carries a cost and is difficult to
obtain in the required massive quantities in dry desert areas where
most thermal trough or tower solar plants would be located.

Natural gas is the predominate fuel of choice for new traditional power
plants. The cost of natural gas has also risen 3-fold over the past
decade and now accounts for approximately ½ or more of the
electricity production cost.

Over the long-term, the operating or variable cost of these other

competing power plants that depend heavily on large amounts of
water and natural gas will only increase. The Starpoint Solar Dish, in
contrast, will only become more profitable over time as the only
resource required is the sun itself. The system is also modular,
meaning it is a combination of many individual and self contained. It is

thus much easier and relatively simple to construct and deploy
compared to the massive and complex centralized boiler/turbine
systems typically used by fossil fuel and thermal trough/tower plants.
The simplicity of the modular field also greatly enhances the systems
expansion ability along with its maintenance requirements and

Photovoltaic Cells or Panels (PV): The most common type of solar
energy is Photovoltaic Cells (or PV Solar Panels). PV solar cells have
been around for years and are primarily used on the roofs of residential
homes and some commercial building applications. Although PV Panels
are now being deployed in large-scale utility-grid solar plants, they are
generally twice as expensive (approximately 18-23 cents per kWH
compared to the Solar Dish and traditional gas fired plants of 8-10
cents per kWH.)

Thermal Troughs: The most common type of large scale utility-grid

solar power plant technology currently being utilized is the Parabolic
Thermal Trough. This system utilizes long rows or trough of large U-
Shaped parabolic mirrors to focus or reflect the sun’s heat onto a tube
that is suspended and runs down the center of the trough. The tube is
typically filled with oil which heats up and eventual flows to central
collector or heat exchanger to boil water in a steam turbine to generate
electricity. These systems are proven and reliable. Thermal trough
technology or systems are more expensive at around 15 cents per kWH
compared to 8-10 cents for the new gas fired plants and they require
large amounts of water and land. (The Solar system also requires large
amounts of land, but no water).

Thermal Towers: A new Thermal Tower design is being developed by

several companies where a tall tower sits in the middle of a large mirror
field with all of the mirrors focused or concentrating sunlight on the top
of the tower where a receiver sits. These systems utilize the same
basic principles of the thermal troughs to heat either water, oil, molten
salt or another fluid to heat steam turbines to generate the electric
power. Most of these Power Tower projects are still in the planning or
prototype stage and their cost is expected to be similar to thermal
troughs at around 15 cents per kHW.

"Leading the Renewable Revolution" DATA FROM STARR POINT RATING