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LUCRARE DE LICENŢĂ
Conf. univ. dr. Adriana Neagu
UNIVERSITATEA „BABEŞ-BOLYAI” CLUJ-NAPOCA FACULTATEA DE LITERE SECŢIA LIMBI MODERNE APLICATE
THE ROLE OF ADVERTISING IN PRESIDENTIAL CAMPAIGNS (An insight view over political communication)
Conf. univ. dr. Adriana Cecilia Neagu
.............. COMMUNICATION DURING THE ELECTORAL CAMPAIGNS.3........................1......................4.................2................4.........................4...... THEMES OF POLITICAL PUBLICITY ..........................................11 1.....................................................................32 CHAPTER II MEDIA – “THE SCENE” OF THE POLITICIANS .......................................... Manipulation..............................................................3....................................... Interpretation.................... GENERAL CONSIDERATIONS CONCERNING THE POLITICAL COMMUNICATION...............................................18 1..............................................................................................................................................................................................................2........................... THE MAIN FUNCTIONS OF MASS MEDIA IN THE POLITICAL SYSTEM......... ELEMENTS OF THE POLITICAL COMMUNICATION...................2.......................1.......................................................3.................21 1........22 1.................... Surveillance. THE POWER OF TELEVISION AND RADIO............13 1... THE IMPACT OF MASS MEDIA OVER THE POLITICAL PARTIES .........................5.............................3................................4..........3.................... THE PURPOSE AND THE ROLE OF THE POLITICAL PARTIES .....1................4.. THE STAGES OF POLITICAL COMMUNICATION.. POLITICS IN THE PUBLICITY ERA............28 1...................................................................20 1.......................................................3............................................................2............1....................................................................19 1.............................36 2......................................................................1....................................................15 1..........1................................... THE DEPOLITICIZATION.............40 CHAPTER III APPROACHES TO SEMIOTICS (SAUSSURE AND PIERCE) CHAPTER IV CASE STUDY: ELECTORAL VIEWS IN ROMANIA AND IN THE USA 42 42 46 46 4.................2.13 1...............................................................................................46 4 ................................................................................2..............31 1....................................................3...............................1.....................................................................2..20 1......................3... BRIEF SURVEY OF THE TWO POLITICAL REGIMES....................... THE INTERNET...........................................................TABLE OF CONTENTS LIST OF FIGURES INTRODUCTION CHAPTER I POLITICAL PUBLICITY – A WAY OF MANIPULATING PEOPLE 6 7 11 11 1.......................4...................22 1.................................................... THE PUBLIC... Socialization............. THE WRITTEN PRESS AND STREET PUBLICITY..................................1......1.....................4..... POLITICAL ORGANIZATIONS................34 2........................................................................ STRATEGIES................24 1..........................................21 1............METHODS OF POLITICAL MARKETING 34 34 34 2....3..35 2.........1................1..........................4.........................................
.......2............................................1......2.. SEMIOTIC ANALYSIS APPLIED ON POLITICAL PUBLICITY............1......61 4....3.......................................... BUILDING THE IMAGE OF THE CANDIDATE........... TRAIAN BĂSESCU...................................2..................... Democratic National Platform....3........................................................................... Promoting Strategies............................................3.........2.................................54 4..3..................................................2.......................1........4.................................................................... Electoral Platform of D.................................................. THE PROGRAM AND FORMULATING THE MESSAGES.................2.3.... The Image of Barack Obama.....A.2............ THE UNITED STATES............54 4..........................................................3.3.......... Negative Publicity..3............2..2.............................3........... ROMANIA..2............................58 4..........52 4.............5.........2................1...........1................. POLITICAL LIFE BEFORE THE ELECTORAL CAMPAIGN IN 2004 (TRAIAN BĂSESCU).......................2............. Political Opponents for Presidency.........1.. Media Campaign.......................................2......................56 4..........................................3.....56 4...............................2....59 4..........................................................1. Promoting Strategies ......... The Image of Traian Băsescu ............2................................................50 4..........................................52 4.........................3......2........................3...57 4..........................52 4............46 4........................... BARACK OBAMA....................................1.......3.........................................2.......................... Alliance.....2.......65 CONCLUSION WORKS CITED BIBLIOGRAPHY DICTIONARIES REZUMAT RESUMEN 67 69 71 74 75 84 5 ..................................62 4.................................................48 4.............................................1...........................................3..............................2....................1.........3...........4.....2....................51 4............................................................. Political Opponents to Presidency....................2............. POLITICAL LIFE BEFORE THE ELECTORAL CAMPAIGN IN 2008 (BARACK OBAMA)...........2.....50 4.......3..2.....1.....................................2..................................................................................2. POLITICAL MARKETING...............................................................................62 4....................................................
WORLD INTERNET USERS BY WORLD REGIONS FIGURE 4. BANNERS FROM BARACK’S OBAMA PRESIDENTIAL CAMPAIGN FIGURE 7. THE LOGO OF PEPSI FIGURE 8: BANNER FROM THE PRESIDENTIAL CAMPAIGN OF TRAIAN BĂSESCU 17 37 37 55 60 62 64 65 6 . OABAMA’S LOGO VS. ONLINE PRESIDENTIAL CAMPAIGN FIGURE 5. THE TRAFFIC OF BARACK OBAMA FROM UNITED KINGDOM IN2008 FIGURE6. THE ELEMENTS OF POLITICAL COMMUNICATION FIGURE 2.List of Figures FIGURE 1. WORLD INTERNET USAGE AND POPULATION STATISTICS FIGURE 3.
electorate. political actors and the role of mass media and 7 . Realizing the importance of being well-informed of my country’s political system and historical background I became aware of the fact that it is a good opportunity to start reading more about this issue.Introduction Any endeavor to inquire into the political communication insight must clarify important problems such as the elements and purpose of political communication. and behaving as compared to the American people. The primarily focus of this study is to evaluate the process of political communication in terms of language. the use of images which contain symbols and signs meant to unconsciously suggest us ideas and the intensive promoting at radio. in that moment I found myself in the situation of not having any knowledge about the candidates. the antagonisms created among the groups of politicians and the process of inducing ideas to the citizens in order to persuade them to adopt certain ideologies. when I had to choose the theme of my thesis I considered that an approach to this subject would be a challenge and a possibility to find out more. in the means of transport etc. on the street. This is done through a variety of methods such as the use of words in their connotative meaning. from the desire to find out more about politics. Also. I am interested to highlight that the role of mass media in the political process which does not refer only to promoting the image of a candidate. Consequently. TV. written press. political strategies. I never had a particular interest in this domain until I had the right to vote. Internet. but also to manipulating our preferences and opinions. the political parties and their ideologies. its advertising and propaganda strategies. and. The aim of the present paper is to provide responses to questions of Romanian people regarding the major differences of the way of thinking. My choice of writing about political communication comes firstly from my interest concerning the area of advertising and secondly.
trying to discover the political discourse behind the images. Therefore. in this category can be included the political parties. the terrorist groups resort to the tactic of terror (violence. Te first chapter is structured in five parts comprising general considerations about political communication. On the other hand. the consumers groups. and the first three contain theoretical aspects concerning the political process through which the electorate receives the information that will draw his attention. taking into account that a text in the area of semiotics does not refer to words. but to the encoded messages which use signs. For applying this theory. intend to attract the electorate on their side by publicly expressing their ideologies and the changes they propose for improving the life standards using the traditional means of communication (Internet. the trade unions. written press etc.). the department of public relations. This requires the presence of the political actors. the impact of mass media over politics. All of them have the purpose of transmitting messages. letting the impression that everything is under their control. the public organizations. I considered necessary to provide a definition for the term political communication as the process which includes an interaction between many elements. which represent a group of people with the same political ideologies. the public and the mass media. The chapters included in this research are centered on topics related to political communication. radio. The case study analyzes the insight aspects regarding the strategies of realizing an electoral campaign. For a better understanding of the concept I would cite Meadow Robert G. the pressure groups and the terrorist organizations. who says that “political communication refers to the change of symbols and messages between the actors and the public institutions. communication generates significances by “telling us things we already know in a language that nobody will ever understand” (Semiotics. to make a comparative analysis of the American and Romanian political systems and historical evolution by evaluating the electoral campaigns of Traian Băsescu and Barack Obama. online article).secondly. I was also interested in exploring more the visual impact of the political posters. Nevertheless. my case study consists of a semiotic analysis of two banners from the electoral campaigns of Traian Băsescu and Barack Obama. TV. nevertheless their methods are different. on the one hand the political parties. and. in this sense. their common target. 8 . bomb attacks. the role of political actors in the process of communication. The information citizens receive from the political parties has a persuasive character whereas the message transmitted by the terrorists is supposed to frighten them. assassinate) to transmit their messages and to accomplish their objectives. banners and fliers. the communication during the electoral campaigns and the themes of political publicity. and these symbols are consequences of the political system”. The common point of these political actors is represented by the public. I referred to the science of semiotics according to which.
it is essential to add to these the forth function of the media which is the deliberate manipulation of the public. event or political action. the interpretation of the events and the socialization function which refers to the fact that. Moreover. It is easy to manipulate through media. radio. The electoral campaign represents a political event realized for promoting the image of a candidate and they have the tendency to become standardized as the language implemented and the strategies used transform the politician in a product. Finally. I highlighted these aspects as they are of major importance for my case study where I analyzed the two political campaigns having as a starting point all the elements enumerated above. trying to identify in two electoral banners the language behind the visual image and the symbolist message transmitted through the language. For this reason. In the second chapter. the editorial restrictions. there are three main functions of the press: the surveillance over the world having the purpose of presenting events. the message. the channel. the personal and ideological perspective and the fact that. the feed-back. written press and street publicity) participate in the process of promoting the candidate and the other emphasizes the fact that these media elements provoked the depoliticization of the politics which loses its essence and becomes more and more dependent on the press. to accept the communicational rules imposed by the society. usually. My thinking about this chapter proceeds along two paths. The third chapter deals with the theoretical part regarding the science of semiotics which I applied on my case study. I presented the main functions of mass media in the opinion of the political analyst. the receiver. The reason for which I detailed this function of the press is to show the public which are the principal methods of manipulation in order to make them be rational and avoid being influenced. Harold Laswell. the electoral campaign can be considered a communicational process constituted from a number of elements such as the sender. the individuals must socialize in their cultural environment. for understanding the political process form their country. Hence. Internet. According to him. the context. I considered essential to make a survey about the methods of political marketing which represent the central theme of investigation of my paper. the noise and the repertoire. as the fear of feeling isolated in a society determines the individual to agree with the general opinion. The one represents the way in which the means of communication (TV. in my case study. The stages of this process imply the establishment of the target public. The most notable ways of manipulation are represented by: the reduction of the time for presenting a message. the journalists give the message another meaning by taking it out from the context. I am 9 . the creation of a positive image of the political actor and the promotion of the politician. my investigation thoroughly focuses on the mass media as a principal factor in the communicational process between the politicians and the electorate.Further on. the code.
in Romania the money for the electoral campaigns comes from each candidate’s budget whereas in America. My approach to this topic undertakes to examine all the points mentioned above with the final purpose of providing an original view over the entire political communicational process with all its positive and negative aspects. BarackObama. Traian Băsescu and Barack Obama had interesting and original electoral campaigns which attracted a large number of voters. the achievements as a president. 10 . the quality of the debates. the difference between the two countries are major regarding the money allocated for the campaigns.interested in demonstrating that even though the both presidents. Needless to say that. Barack Obama organized on the Internet a donation website. and the most important. the clarity and the coherence of the messages transmitted to the electorate. and he totaled hundreds of millions of dollars for realizing the electoral campaign.com. the political platform.
the street messages.CHAPTER I Political Publicity – A Way of Manipulating People 1. General Considerations Concerning the Political Communication In order to analyze the impact of the mass media on the political communication. the political communication can be perceived according to specific factors such as: the domination. Therefore. the communication can be conceived as a representation of the politics. (Meadow Robert. the seduction or the negotiation. pragmatism refers to “the relation which connects the transmitter with the receiver and which establishes the communication” (Watzlawick. which. 1972. and these symbols and messages are consequences of the political system”. With reference to the pragmatic dimension. the political assassinate etc. the persuasion. in the view of Meadow Robert G. 2008:76). the symbolic dimension and the structural dimension. the politics represents a very important field of the communication. the public and the mass media. the politicians use the communication in order to act over the electorate and also over particular situations. The politicians communicate with the public throughout signs.1. the banners. Nevertheless. cited in Seceleanu Andra. symbols or any other means that spread the message: the polling. Political communication implies three important dimensions: the pragmatic dimension. when the last is defined as the 11 . the information. Concerning the theory of the signs which studies the relation between the signs and the persons who use them. the advertisements. online article) Therefore. it can be said that it regards the study of the real situations of communication. Helmick-Beavin. I would start by defining this concept. In general. signifies “the change of symbols and messages between the actors and the public institutions.
slogans. the communication becomes political when entries in the field of the tension between the collaboration and the conflict. To make a general idea concerning the symbolic dimension. but in order to establish a connection between things the human being uses the language. one can say about the “politics” that is something real. as its main function is to find an agreement in a discourse or a dialogue. The fact that the discourses of the politicians are full of symbolic words is important when referring to the public’s perception. cinema) having the purpose of demonstrating their symbolic efficacy. gadgets. As the symbols have a great power of evocation and identification. Furthermore. and a phrase might be seen as “map” that can decode the messages we receive while reading or speaking. the “political text” testifies the fact that it can take many forms in music. stimulating in this way people’s attention. For instance. When speaking about words. I would say that the concept of “reality” is different in the opinion of each person. it can be said that beyond the particular culture. the politicians benefit from the possibility of creating a tension on it. the symbols. picture or literature. posters) and of the animation (television. a discourse has the power to create conflicts or it might include strategies of manipulation and domination. Regarding this aspect. their involvement and the way of associating ideas. The semiotics. Firstly.field of the tension between the collaboration and the conflict. the myths etc. and the ordinary people perceive them as representations of the world. a distinction should be made 12 . the political communication uses signs such as the words which are selected and combined in order to make logical sentences and messages. tags. but when the process of communication has as a final purpose the domination it can be taken into consideration the aspect of manipulation. that makes part from our lives. In was introduced in the area of the “image” (photos. the political message can be spread throughout multiple methods: songs. whereas one can see it as an abstract concept. banners. the symbols as signs represent important weapons in the hands of the politicians as they offer them opportunities to belabor the opponents and secondly they are considered to be perceptions of the social reality. For instance. To continue with. throughout the video culture. This way. cartoons etc. we can speak about collaboration when the communication is based on an agreement between two persons when taking a decision. In other words. which refers to “the study of the way in which people communicate through signs and symbols”. The language plays an important part in establishing social relations. and their symbolic dimension it can be said that they refer to symbols. the reference can be made concerning the means through which it advances: channels. the impact on the audience is bigger and for this reason. graffiti. However. When speaking about the structural dimension of the political communication. networks and media. therefore it has a conciliatory role. is strongly related to the symbolic dimension.
2007: 127) 1.2. 2008:76-88) 1.1. and have the possibility of realizing this only if they obtain the political power in the Govern and or in constituent assemblies. These purposes and their values will contribute to the ideology of the party they represent. but by its content and its purpose”.2. the purposeful communication concerning the politics includes all the means of communication used by the politicians and by the political actors with the purpose of reaching a certain objective. the communication which is addressed to the politicians by non-political persons such as the electorate or the journalists from the written press. the organizations (political parties). the media (the written press and the audio-video media) and the social groups. the communication which makes reference to their activities and which is presented in the news and in the written press. The political parties represent a group of people who gather together in an organizational and ideological structure and who have the same purposes and share the same ideas. A concrete example is represented by the British Conservative Party which has as a basic principle “the individual 13 . They also characterize this type of communication from the point of view of the intentions of the transmitter whose main purpose is to influence the political area: “the ultimate factor which makes the communication to be political is not represented by the source of the message. their main purpose regards the obstruction and the replacement of those who have the power. (Reference: Andra Seceleanu. as it may be defined in several ways.between the institutions such as the parliament or the administration. (1990. and official sanctions (what is to be rewarded)". Denton and Woodward propose a definition trying to emphasize the fact that it refers to a “public discussion about the allocation of public resources (money). (Brian McNair. However. Political Organizations When speaking about politicians we may refer to them as actors who play a role on the scene of politics. if they represent the opposition. p. 14). They aim at influencing the process of taking the decisions. official authority (who decides). To continue with. Politics in the Publicity Era It is difficult to give a definition to the political communication.
the political publicity uses the mass-media in order to make a difference between the political “products” (the parties and the candidates) and to give them significance for the electorate in the same way that on a full market. the Labour Party sustains the capitalism and the social equality. these type of organizations benefit from an institutional status and from public legitimacy which help them to have access to policy-makers and media. but also for trying to give public notoriety to a certain problem with the help of the elected politicians. the producer of detergent tries to distinguish his product from the others even though they have similar effects. they are not the only political actors. image managers. This type of organization is not connected by a political ideology. an entire industry developed. Another category of political communication is represented by the department of public relations which is in charge with the image of a certain party. Another example in this sense are the democrats from the USA which are associated with the liberalism in social policy. receipt of charitable donations and official funding. there are included the proactive devices such as the press conferences and the party conferences (which want to attract positive reactions from behalf of the journalists). nowadays. meanwhile the republicans want to reduce state involvement in all the aspects of the socio-economic life and support a conservative and center-right platform. but by some common characteristics of their member’s situation such as work problems (the case of the trade-unions) or the lack of power of the citizens in the face of large corporations (the case of the consumer groups). they use as a strategy the lobby. 14 . appeared the political marketing and the politicians must resort to all the means of the mass communication in order to be promoted. spin-doctors of the political sphere) which appeared during the 20th century. and using this method they convince the journalists to retouch the articles in order to create a positive image. and its purpose is to maintain for a long period of time a positive image and to try to attenuate the negative publicity. and the reactive political techniques which are used by the politicians who want to limit the negative image created by the press. the consumers groups and the professional associations which can be defined as public organizations. which must be an ethical activity. These political actors may be divided into three categories: the trade-unions. and which is useful and advantageous for the politicians. If in the past the parties used only the written press for persuading the electorate to vote them. This new form of communication. This new means of political communication represent the area of a new professional class (consultants. For instance. whereas its opponent. The individuals from these organizations do not associate only for helping each other.liberties”. Moreover. Among the activities of this department. It is important to know that even though the political parties have a major contribution in the political process.
because of their character these groups are deprived of the financial resources and they must find less expensive means of transmitting their political messages such as the public demonstrations and protests which are meant to attract the attention of the journalists.2. assassinate. religions and who come from various social classes. It is an example of a pressure group which tried to be in the general tendency of the political process by creating the “green” parties in Europe. The terrorist organizations use violence as a way of persuasion and their purposes go beyond the constitutional process which they consider to be illegitimate. the ecological movement was supported by individuals with different ages. it can be said that the first come from diverse social classes. Nevertheless.2. The most known organizations which are associated with the terrorism are the Irish Republican Army in North Ireland.Another category of political actors is represented by the pressure groups which are centered on one single problem and can be distinguished from the public organizations through the fact that are less institutionalized and are preoccupied by problems such as the environment. it can be said that even the terrorist acts can be seen as a means of political communication which has as a purpose to transmit a message to a certain electorate. The Public 15 . the cruel treatment of the animals which are raised for their meat or the testing of certain medicines or cosmetic products. an organization such as the Campaign for Nuclear Disarmament has members from all the British social classes. hijackings – in order to accomplish their objectives. Consequently. ETA in Tara Bascilor from Spain and al-Qaida which is responsible for the destruction of the tower from World Trade Center. The politics of the pressure groups supposes communication and the utilization of the publicity and public relations techniques available nowadays. obliging the Conservative Party and the Labour Party to elaborate at least one ecological directive. As a political party. kidnappings. it did not managed to enter in the British Parliament. but the ecological movement had a major impact over the political agenda. 2007:19-28) 1. Hamas and Hezbollah in the Middle East. Taking into consideration the members of the pressure groups and the members of the existent parties. For example. Following the same pattern. while the Labour Party and the Conservative Party from Great Britain (or the Democratic and the Republican parties from the USA) are associated with “the work” and “the businesses”. The terrorist organizations represent the groups which recur to the tactic of terror – bomb attempts in urban spaces. (Brian McNair.
it should be noticed the fact that the public can be in the same time large or limited. In order to illustrate this.The main purpose of the communication is to convince and the target of the persuasion is the public. I will take the example given by Brian McNair in his book “Introducere în comunicarea politică”. 2007: 27-28) 16 . which refers to the bomb attack undertaken by IRA (Provisional Irish Republican Army) in 1995 in a commercial center from Manchester. on the other hand. regardless of the size and the type of the public. they warn the govern that IRA has the power to accomplish such acts of terrorism and that there must be established some changes in politics (these changes produced in 1997 when was elected the Labourist Govern). On the one hand. which represents the second key element of the process of the political communication. the transmitter hopes that the message has a positive impact over the political behavior of the recipient. Nevertheless. In relation to this. Starting with the presidential elections from the USA and continuing with the individual lobby. it addresses to the population of Great Britain to whom they tell that should see the conflict from North Ireland as something relevant and. the political communication wants to produce a certain effect on the receivers of the message. (Brian McNair. This type of “communication” has to levels of significance and has two target publics.
Figure 1. 2007:22 17 . The Elements of Political Communication Source: Bria McNair.
The Impact of Mass Media over the Political Parties 18 .Reportage Editorials Commentary Analysis Political organizations: public organizations pressure groups terrorist organizations governments political parties Appeals Programmes Advertising Public relations Media Opinion polls Letters Reportage Editorials Commentary Analysis Citizens 1.3.
through the identification of the principal sociopolitical problems and by creating a “free market”. influencing the opinion of the electorate. Regarding this aspect. the bankers. 2008: 81). the political analyst. Moreover. can express their ideas. the socialization of the individuals in their cultural environment. the opinion leaders. when the first news papers appeared.It is known that the main function of the mass-media is to give information concerning society’s problems including the political ones.3. The democracy liberated the press from the pressure of the authorities and the mass communication made that the importance of the media grew quickly.1. the aristocracy. it is important to add the forth function which is the deliberate manipulation of the political processes. and this represents an advantage for the minorities because sometimes it is difficult for them to have access to the means of communication. the press was controlled and financed by the political and religious authorities of those times. 1. Generally. to inform correctly and on time the citizens who will have the power to influence the decisions taken regarding the society they live in. the surveillance over the world having the purpose of presenting the events. interpreting the news and the facts. the interpretation of the events. where the spokesmen. it can be said that from this point appeared the specific functions of the press in the political system: presenting the information to the public. It is important to know that the way in which these functions work affects the life of the individuals. ensuring the relation of the politicians with the electorate. the democratic standards impose in a society the activities of the mass-media through the surveillance of the daily events which may influence the life of the citizens. The Main Functions of Mass Media in the Political System In the past. and the clergy). Therefore. the social groups. Harold Lasswell mentions three basic functions of the mass-media: Nevertheless. the information was read exclusively by the high class (the aristocrats. 19 . (Andra Seceleanu. establishing the priorities of the political actions. the social organizations and also the local and the international politics.
in the same way that mass-media brings some problems in the attention of the public. Interpretation From the beginning. the politicians who want to have part of publicity or those who want to avoid it.3. as the media represents their “eyes and ears”.3. On the other hand. directing their impact on the life of the individuals. the mass-media assumed the role of interpreting the social and political life by keeping the attention of the public on the elements that are relevant. the publicity made by the media became an important source of political motivation. For instance. on the first page of the newspapers using huge and colored characters or on special TV shows. This way.1. On the one hand. By suggesting the relations between the events and their effects. through the simple fact that they present a person or an institution. as through it. The citizens use the mass communication in order to keep the contact with the world. the values and the standards which have a social and political status quo are being reaffirmed.1. The way that the press interprets the events may change the opinions over the political activities.1. events or political personalities and on the penalization of those aspects which are contrary to the general standards. The main function of the press is to satisfy the needs of a certain person and his/her questions concerning certain social aspects. 1.2. On the whole. the media can form the opinions without saying to its 20 . it also offers indications regarding the importance of certain problems. Regarding its functions. There are situations when the press made deliberately modifications by changing the language in order to give a false impression over a certain event. try to structure the events thinking to the effects that a certain type of publicity might have. Besides that the media attracts the attention of the public over the problems of political interest. Nevertheless. it can condemn certain people or events by ignoring them according to some journalistic criteria. the most important themes are presented by offering more details. the problems which are less important to the public are presented on the last pages and have short presentations at the TV and at the radio. a negative publicity might produce disastrous effects over the image of a politician and the effort of clearing away these consequences is double. Surveillance The surveillance has two major purposes: the media should concentrate on certain institutions. mass-media can offer them a statute.1.
1.3. it can be observed that it makes the citizens to take part to the political actions. one of the most powerful weapons of the media against the political system.1. which the politicians need. Manipulation 21 . radio. Regarding the negative part. Nevertheless. but succeeds extremely well to tell them to what to think”. In contrast. Presently. newspapers. news and not at the cultural ones.3. the terrorists and the society’s “dregs” are constant apparitions at the TV. it can be said that they accept the information received.3.1.). Moreover.public what to believe or not. taking into account the positive part of the socialization through mass-media. Thus. the press plays an important part in the social life of the youngsters as their knowledge concerning the world is assimilated throughout the mass-media (TV. the socialization through mass-media creates stereotypes! The tendency to imitate and simplify things influences the behavior and the way of perceiving the reality and we should be careful concerning the fact that the politicians are the most interested in stereotyping the reaction of the media consumers. Socialization The socialization supposes the assimilation by the individual of the principal values in order to integrate in the cultural and social life of the society. magazines etc. on the first page of the newspapers so that we started to consider them something normal. abominable murder. What I want to emphasize is the fact that we are responsible for all these and not the press because we show a lot of interest for the sensational. for the unbelievable and the majority of us look at this type of TV shows. It is also important to know that for a politician is essential to be known by a large number of people and the press represents the path through the electorate. mass-media has the power to induce a false perception over the most relevant events from a community. A concrete example in this sense could be the fact that the press shows a lot of interest for death. and the criminals.4. they have models among the TV stars and form their own opinions regarding this changing world. 1. it is believed that the media has a negative part and a positive one. and as Bernard Cohen was saying: “The press cannot tell people what to think. No one won a battle with the mass-media and this thing makes the social legitimacy.
to accept the communicational rules imposed by the society and they emphasize the fact that the social individuals are addicted to the mass-media. The most notable ways of manipulation are represented by: the reduction of the time for presenting a message . the editorial restrictions (the interdiction list).4. the political publicity manipulates. promotes and directs through certain groups of people the image of a political party or of a candidate. This can be considered the main reason for which the citizens feel obliged to follow the ideas and the political direction imposed by the press. Following this path. Its main purpose is to influence the public opinion in order to promote a political actor. There are three strategies 22 .4. Communication during the Electoral Campaigns 1. regarding this aspect. event or political action. when the public opinion expresses a high degree of conformism. 2008: 98-106) 1. This tendency has the role of transforming the politician in a product who has as a purpose the obtaining of votes at the end of the electoral campaign. Strategies Roland Cayrol considers that the process of political communication is the result of the work between “television. Therefore. the personal and ideological perspective. A particular aspect of the political communication is represented by the creation of a standardized system. In its turn. It is certain that together with all this. it accomplishes the role of manipulating and persuading. The political publicity forms. giving the message another meaning by taking it out from the context. it becomes a factor which can control other’s options.The specialists consider the fact that the fear of feeling isolated in a society makes the individual to agree with the general opinion. (Reference: Andra Seceleanu. the inquiries and the publicity”.1. an important part in the transmission of the political messages through the people plays the written press and the radio. mass-media becomes a product accepted by the general values of the society and. Taking into account the fact that the politicians are the promoters of a particular political ideology it can be said that the verbalization of the elements belongs to an ideological language.
Regarding all these elements. The publicity of the political actor must be carefully used because his image must obtain positive or negative values according to certain factors. the promises which were in vain could have the effect of a boomerang and return against the politician. with the time chosen and last but not least. therefore. the political actor creates a product image which presents to the potential electorate. The projection strategy. One of these factors is connected with the means of communication chosen for transmitting the message. The gestures of a politician are the same with the gestures of any individual of the society. The strategy of informing the public opinion. with the availability of the public for receiving the message. the gestures the clothes and all the discourses which are meant to sustain the politician’s image. The non-verbal communication which is used when creating the image of the political actor brings more conviction to the people when hearing a political discourse. 23 . Therefore.which are the components of this standardization process: the projection strategy. 2005: 9398). which regard the social area and the areas of economy and politics. The verbal and non-verbal strategy. As a conclusion. This strategy contains the mimics. (Călin Rus. The base of this project is represented by the inquiries which contain the opinions and the wishes of the electorate. the politician should take into consideration only those aspects of the mass-media which. Throughout this strategy it is realized a project that includes the principal offers of the political actor. the verbal strategy and the non-verbal strategy. in the project should be included all the elements of the inquiries and it should give a solution to the major wishes of the population. This strategy involves all the actions through which the final project must be presented to the citizens and has two parts: the mediatization and the promotional actions. this technique makes any citizen of a community identify with a political person. Using different techniques and strategies of communication. The purpose of this image is to convince more people of the veracity of the promises and to transform them in sympathizers and in possible voters. It is important to know that these solutions should benefit from a practical part because contrary. it should be reminded the benefic effect of the transparency through which not only the mass-media but also the public have access to all the actions and the projects of the political actors and that the political communication is presented to us as a system ruled by norms and specific values which complete this process. in connection with other actions will contribute in creating a positive image of the politicians and a closer relation between him/her and the electorate.
There are many models of the political communication which are formed of different elements. The political sender has some characteristics which apply in the process of the political communication: he elaborates the message. Elements of the Political Communication The political communication is based on a series of actions. or in politicians who are more or less charismatic persons. unconsciously they start speaking about another subject. norms and rues. the context. they want to say a thing and. For instance. transmits it through a target population. who. The political message can be seen as a piece of information transmitted by the political transmitter. there are cases when they manage very well to transmit the message by combining the verbal and non-verbal elements. the message. It has two main characteristics: informing 24 . on the other hand. but there are cases when. in conditions of stress or a exhaustion. especially in the moments of conflict and of crisis so that through his contribution could solve the problems and inspire trust and stability to the electorate. With reference to the political communication.1. the code. it must contradict the opinions of the political opponents. the receiver. For this reason. the quick or the slow way of speaking). the sender will use not only the verbal and non-verbal communication. components. it will have the role of expressing its opinions and ideologies using different methods and techniques. the discourse of the politician must contain the elements and the values which sustain his/hers political ideology and. the pauses. but it is constituted from a number of elements. The sender of the political communication is also known as the source of the message and has the capacity of initiating the process of communication. Moreover. and which emphasizes his political doctrine. The most eloquent example in this sense is the one which contains nine elements: the sender. the noise and the repertoire. in order to accomplish his purposes. When this political community becomes a transmitter. the feed-back.2. it is believed that the self-control is important for the political actor.4. Taking into account the type of information transmitted. one of the most important problems they confront with is represented by their psychic potential. the channel. the politicians can be classified into politicians who have a considerable oratorical capacity or a limited one. but also the paralinguistic communication (the tone. the sender can be an individual or it can include more elements which form a political community which produces ideological programs. On the one hand. Nevertheless. Concerning these aspects of the communication. and he/she has to prove it in any situation. the sender is the political actor. transmits to the electorate messages which contain his ideas and opinions. adapts the message according to his own beliefs and finally.
it is believed that it has a limited public. then the codes used in the structure of the political messages will be simple. and these systems should reason with the interests of the political transmitter. clear. In contrast. realized using well-established patterns such as the description of the information. in general.and persuading. there are many cases when it has a demagogic and populist character. If the main purpose is to convince the receivers. the mimics.. The means of transmitting the political message refer to all the modalities of transmitting the political message. when the politicians do not intend to tell the truth or wish to hide a part of it. Through these means of communication it is assured the connection between the political transmitter and the receivers. which presently is the most important connector between the politicians and the electorate. the code of the verbal communication is represented by the ideological language. It can also be added the fact that. the change of information is made in wellstructured groups. Concerning the interpersonal communication. they resort to complicated codes 25 . will make reference to the emotional and retributive part of the individual and will have well-defined target groups. Firstly. Furthermore. Concerning the purposes of the politicians. The indirect communication is realized through mass-media. In the case of the political communication. the look etc. the feed-back is present and all the component elements of these groups are in direct contact one with another. In this case. The last takes place when the information produced is transmitted by one source through the written press. The first is realized between the politicians and the receivers and uses verbal and non-verbal elements. regarding its informative part. and it differs according with the mental structure of the users. having the purpose of creating confusion in the mind of the receivers. the television etc. the opinion leaders who are the principal agents of the indirect political communication are well-informed and charismatic persons who have a great capacity of persuasion. whereas the non-verbal communication uses specific elements such as the gestures. an immediate feed-back is excluded. The messages can take the shape of the interpersonal communication or of the mass communication. the radio. with reference to the persuasive message. it can be said that the message will contain short and clear patterns formulated according to a simple language which should be understood by a large number of people. it can be said that they use two types of codes: simples and complicated. the political communication can be divided into direct and indirect communication. Secondly. The next step after creating this confusion is represented by a change in the systems of values of the receivers. to large groups of people. The code refers to a logical enumeration of elements. which can be defined as the base of the thinking and which transmits meanings and significations with a socio-political value using signs and symbols.
the information will supersaturate the target groups and will appear the “effect of the boomerang”. it is important to know that even though the persuasion is important in the process of convincing the mass. the transmitter becoming a receiver and the receiver becoming a transmitter. The political receiver is represented by a person or a group through which the messages are transmitted. The people who are not interested in the political life and who do not participate in the process of the political communication can also be called receivers of the political messages and can be influenced. using the wooden language. Moreover. This is the reason for which any politician and political organization should balance the quantity of information they offer daily to the electorate and they should also let the opposition to express its point of view. The receivers are not equal. If they persist with this mistake. the people will loose their interest and the leaders will loose the power. of decoding. These persons must have the ability of receiving the messages. transforming the political discourses in vague verbalizations. To 26 . the level of intelligence etc. The politician should take into account this aspect and in the moment when he/she will address to these groups should combine the elements of publicity with information which must contain real promises. It is known that in the structure of the society a smaller group as the politicians leads a bigger group as the mass of people. taking into consideration the fact that they belong different social categories regarding their social position. In the case of the political communication there is a clear difference between the transmitters and the receivers as the last ones are more in number than the first. In the process of transferring the information both the transmitter and the receiver will have the role of encoding and decoding the messages so that they will change alternatively the positions. If they will not accomplish the promises made in the electoral campaigns. In order to maintain the position of leaders.of the political messages. analyzing and understanding them and finally they must react giving a feed-back to the transmitter. The technique through which the politicians can transmit messages to this category of people is simple as they will transmit important messages for their families and indirectly those who are not interested in politics will be attracted in this political circle. the politicians must have the power of persuading the mass. the target public will change its political preferences. Its effect consists on the fact that the target groups will not listen anymore the political messages and will have an attitude of rejection and hostility regarding the politicians. when the politicians insist too much on a certain type of message. The main purpose of the politicians is to convince the majority of the electorate to vote them in order to obtain important results in the electoral campaigns.
The sources of noise can be visible or hidden. a fast or slow rhythm of speaking etc. The source of noise is very important in the political communication and refers to the physical or psychical disturbing factors which action directly or indirectly and has the power to influence the political communication. In the first category can be included the booing during the electoral meetings. It represents the reactions of affection or dislike regarding the political transmitters. An important factor. The context of the political communication is represented by the field of values. accepted and 27 . in order to be understood. is represented by the discourse of the opponents through which they try to destroy the entire scaffold of a discourse and they try to impose their own opinions. Taking into account the fact that the political communication should take place in good conditions. The feed-back in a political community refers to the reactions of the receivers regarding a politician or a political party as a consequence of the political messages. the values between the elections. personalities or events. rules and laws where in a certain period of time takes place the process of communication. it is important to know that through their discourses the politicians manipulate more or less the receivers transforming them in possible voters or sympathizers. B. it is important for the politicians to know all the disturbing factors in order to eliminate or control them so that the effects should be minimal. The elements of noise are represented by: the intensity of the voice. defects of speaking. the values of the electoral campaigns which can be local or general and the last refer to the presidential elections and the local ones refer to the elections of the mayor and the local cancellers and in this case the political communication takes the form of the electoral communication. which is considered to be a hidden source. It should also be emphasized the fact that there is a category of persons which are not interested in the political phenomenon. the political communication implies the existence of two types of repertories: the repertoire of the politicians and of the electorate. The specialists in the political communication divide these values in two parts: A.conclude. Therefore. the lack of coherence of the discourses. the disturbing elements from a TV or radio show such as the laughers and the applauses. The presentation of the political life in stages is a determinant factor of the success or the failure of a whole system of political values such as the democratic system. which in the majority of the democracies last four years. It is important for the politician to know how to speculate the differences between the transmission of the message and the perception of it. The political field will refer to the political life of a society as a whole with all the component elements. The repertory is the last of the elements of the political communication and represents all the knowledge from a certain area of the transmitter and of the receiver.
should not contain contradictions. therefore the political communication is better when the two repertoires join together and when the transmitters and the receivers speak the same language. the image of the politicians is more important than the 28 . presently. of his actions. of the political. Even though the image of a politician should reflect the desire of the mass. the social position. but they also follow some characteristics such as the age. To continue with. it is supposed that it is impossible that an entire society agrees in totality or disagrees with the ideologies of one political party. It should be also emphasized the fact that. 2005:101-113) 1. related problems and desires and should agree with the ideology promoted by the party. the sex. in many of the cases. the people form groups taking into account certain interests. he must take care of his image. The first stage of the process of political communication refers to the establishment of the target public to which addresses the politician and to the analysis of the main characteristics of it.4. it should be easily recognized and should contain original elements of the physical and psychological profile of the candidate so that he should have an advantage towards his opponents. All these elements should be well organized and the image of the politician should pass through some stages so that he would gain more and more sympathizers. The Stages of Political Communication The main purpose of each political actor is to have success and to obtain as many votes as possible. it is difficult for a political PR to create a popular and perfect image for the mind of the electorate. (Călin Rus. The electoral campaigns of the politicians and their discourses are based on the characteristics and on the expectations of the target public having the purpose of making their programs to be accepted easier. As it was mentioned before. the target public of a politician will be chosen so that the persons who agree with his political ideology should have the same opinions. In this stage will be identified the individuals with a higher degree of receptivity regarding the political programs. social and cultural context and last but not least he should be a good organizer of his political program. The next stage refers to the creation of the image of the political actor. an image which should be promoted and implemented in the mind of the electorate. In order to accomplish all his purposes.even sympathized. the professional statute. economical.3. In general. The difference between the transmitter (the politician) and the receivers (the mass of people) is given by two parameters: the quality and the quantity. The image of a politician who wants to become popular among the citizens of a society should be clear.
Therefore. He was often seen together with his family at certain events and lately the new dog he bought for the family became very famous. Usually. He has to promote and to sustain the climate of friendship and a total transparency with the press. his professional achievements and last but not least his aptitude in combining the conservatism (appreciated more by the older people) with the modernism of the developed societies (which is more appreciated by the youngsters). the perseverance. his profile should present him as a person integrated in a team. the political actor must avoid as much as possible the mistakes as his image should reflect him as a serious and self-assured person with clear political ideologies. once he does some mistakes and is seen as a corrupt person. To all these qualities. This situation appears especially in the societies in transition because of the lack of an economy and a well-shaped system of values. his entire profile should emphasize his major qualities such as the power of work. Moreover. appreciated by his colleagues. regardless of their social position and what is more important is the fact that they should respect the promises they make. Moreover. The politician should also have the ability of listening the wishes of the people as this quality will make him popular and it is emphasized especially in the electoral campaigns when during certain manifestations. all this happens in a society where the people believe that the welfare of the politician comes from the higher taxes they must pay. must shake hands with them. 29 . where the standard of living is lower and the citizens are obliged to make sacrifices. he should participate together with his family at certain cultural or scientific manifestations where he can be seen by a lot of people. the politicians must add the fact that he has good relations with his family as it represents a symbol for the society.political ideology they promote. he will leave the impression of a person who has nothing to hide. the correctness. capable to respect them and he should also demonstrate the fact that he benefits from the support of his political party. concerning the fact that since then the sales of this breed (Portuguese water dog) increased a lot. The political actor should also have a close and opened relation with the mass-media. the citizens must understand the fact that the politician is not a singular entity and that he can not solve all their problems on his own. Barack Obama. During a press conference. Nevertheless. In this respect. For this reason. Another quality of a politician and which is the most important in the eyes of any member of the society is the honesty as no matter how many qualities has a politician. his image will have to suffer for long periods of time. the press conferences are the most indicated and the politician should often realize them as this way. the politician must speak openly with the mass of people. they must have the patience of listening the wishes of the people. A good example in this sense is the new president of the United States of America.
By combining the informational quantity with the quality of the image will result a positive profile of the politician which will be presented to the electorate. it is important for the politician to demonstrate the fact that he is a good Christian. These were the most important elements regarding the image of the political actor. especially in the countries which confront with an economic deficiency. an intelligent person with appreciates the values and who loves his country. the traditions and the national culture. At a certain point. This profile realizes if he participates to commemorations or to different events which have a historic and religious character. This attitude will leave the people under the impression that their leader is a good patriot. Related to this subject. The third stage of the process of political communication refers to the promotion of the politician and of his electoral program which must resonate with the people’s wishes. the persons with disabilities and the orphans. It is better to know that if the exterior elements (a pleasant appearance. It is one of his attributions to respect the history. It is better to know that the assault with information must persist but in smaller quantities. then the result will be a positive image of the politician which must be promoted to the mass of people. the politicians who resort to this method want to occupy higher positions. the political actor can create a positive image by his preoccupation for the middle class and by taking measures for helping the elder people. the politicians make an error by stopping this process of giving a lot of information and all the positive effects of the campaign disappear in the following period. and it represents a great opportunity for impressing the electorate. The first possibility refers to the methods which have a big impact such as the assault of the citizens with a lot of information which is meant to be implemented in their mind with the help of the mass-media. Throughout this method. Nevertheless. the clothes) are combined with the interior elements (the values of the politician). the image of the politician succeeds to fix into the mind of the 30 . A politician’s faith must be authentic and must leave the impression that is something usual because contrary he will receive a negative feed-back. There are two possibilities through which the politician is promoted to the citizens: through actions which have a big impact and through a presentation of the politician in several stages on a longer period of time. The second possibility regards the presentation of the politician in several stages on a longer period of time and usually. his simple presence is not enough as his duty is to sustain a discourse with reference to the values of the nation which should also amplify his patriotism. It is well-known that the religious institution maintains the balance between different societies and that it has a great power of influencing the people.In an electoral campaign. The impact is bigger if these actions are followed by emotional discourses which address to these categories of people.
trying through this method to attract to their party a large number of people. 2005: 114-127) 1. participate to the shows of important artists and participate to the electoral meetings.people and finally if he manages to create a positive image in their minds. sustains the ideology of the politician who analyzes the social and economical problems and proposes a set of values and ideas.4. the politicians use the political communication for presenting their political programs which contain solutions for the different problems of the society. The forth stage of the political communication takes into consideration the techniques used by the politicians to differentiate from their opponents. (Călin Rus. The most important activities are: the meetings with the people from different social classes. The political communication divides in two major parts according to the ideology and the image: the political communication which uses the dialog as a method and the political communication which uses the marketing as a method. the symbolical and the operational functions of the ideological language. On the whole. will try to persuade the mass of people that the ideas and the solutions they offer are truthful and practicable. They are interested if their popularity increases in the inquiries and the actions they realize in the electoral campaigns contribute to this. The content of the messages having a political character. The first 31 . in the written press. Therefore. they visit the workers from the most important industrial areas.4. it can be said that the presentation of a politician in stages has many advantages and a system of rules. The method which uses the dialog. All these actions have the role of attracting the attention of the public opinion over the politicians. which. trying in this way to find solutions for these problems. over their qualities and also have the role of exciting the public opinion by appealing to their emotional part especially when they show interest for the problems of the people and when they help them. participate to different religious ceremonials and events with a historic character. if respected and applied bring a positive reaction from behalf of the electorate over the candidates and over the political parties they represent. The Purpose and the Role of the Political Parties The main purpose of political communication is to realize a connection between the politicians and the citizens. For this method of communication. constant apparitions at the TV. at the radio. the politician uses the informational. then the politician will benefit from the sympathy of the electorate. These activities increase the degree of sensitiveness of the electorate and will result a closer relation between the people and the politicians.
It must be noted the fact that the political publicity is conceived as an impulse to action of the people and shows using the public space the representations of the political and social practices. Finally. which has the role of converting the abstract elements from a message into political actions perceived by the public. The publicity of action represents all the activities of a political party which have as a purpose the calling of the electorate to vote. The method of the marketing has as a purpose the attraction of the electorate by using the power of the persuasion and it is used especially during the electoral campaigns. The representation is another way of making political publicity and emphasizes the connection between the political parties. Its final purpose is to show 32 . for a greater clarity of the messages. In this method. The language which is used does not insist on the presentation of the political offer. the representation. The image of a politician can be described as the result of a long process and can be defined as being the product of the electoral publicity. the persuasion and seduction) which are often used in the electoral campaigns and for this reason can be considered the most important themes of the political publicity. There are three methods (the publicity of action. (Călin Rus. the politicians resort to different methods for convincing the citizens that they deserve their vote. Through this image it is intended to attract public’s attention and interest and finally to convince and attract the citizens to vote a certain candidate. Furthermore. and using the electoral publicity it convinces them to adhere to a certain association or party or to their purposes and ideologies. it is not intended to emphasize the elements from the political program. 2005: 130-134) 1. it can be said that using the method of the marketing.function gives the messages an informational character which is doubled by an ideologicalparticipative language which has the function of explaining to the people the ideas which contain rough information and it also gives the messages the power of persuasion. Themes of Political Publicity Political publicity refers to the action of calling the electorate to vote a candidate or to sustain a political party. it is used more the emotional part of the ideological language appealing to the sensitivity of the public and it manages to attract its attention on the politician by using the phenomenon of personalizing the politics. the politicians and the citizens. This method centers on the image of the political actor.5. Therefore. amplifies the image of the politicians and in the same time brings disadvantages to their opponents. but to form an opinion regarding the positive image of the candidate and to promote a negative image of the opponents. it is used the operational language.
in a public space the ideologies and the ideas of one political party. In this case, it can be spoken of a publicity of ideas rather than a publicity of the political actors; therefore it does not represent a personalized publicity of a politician, but it refers to the presentation of the ideas and of the commitments. The persuasion and the seduction are the two rhetorical effects of the publicity which are more and more emphasized by the politics. On the one hand, the traditional political communication is based on the rhetoric of the persuasion and presents arguments which should be assumed by the electorate who shows in this way its attachment to the political discourse. On the other hand, it should be emphasized the fact that the publicity resorts more and more to the technique of the seduction, which, in contrast with the persuasion, takes into account the person to whom it addresses. The large number of the methods through which the image of a politician may be promoted made that the possibilities of the seduction enlarge in the sense that the discourses of the politicians have no real political consistency. For instance, this could be the case of a politician who in his electoral discourse presents abstract concepts such as liberty, responsibility, dignity, authority without explaining their involvement in precise political situations. (Călin Sinescu, 2007:138-139)
CHAPTER II MEDIA – “The Scene” of the Politicians - Methods of Political Marketing -
2.1. The Power of Television and Radio
It would be an interesting investigation, trying to find out which is the element that decides who will win in an electoral campaign: the candidates or the media? Presently, the messages from politicians make the electorate to trust more the information received throughout the press than the political parties. Nevertheless, the TV presenters and the press in general are not impartial regarding the politics. They are partisans of certain parties and if a politician is not liked by the TV presenters he has minimal chances to win. Therefore, it is in the interest of the politicians to have friends among the TV presenters who register the highest ratings as nowadays the battle is not given in front of the electorate but in front of the cameras. There is a dependence on the media, as the politicians must communicate directly with the electorate in order to obtain votes by answering to the questions of the public as they know that if the electorate does not receive much information concerning their activity and their purposes, it will lose its interest. They conceive the electoral campaigns in order to attract television’s interest, in other words, the politicians are guided by the needs of the press: the slogans must be catchy and the promises they make should catch the voter’s eye. The political interests and the mass-media are strongly connected, and in this context the “chain” is represented by the money. For instance, the politicians from Romania spent enormous quantities of money in their electoral campaign, especially for the spots from the national televisions and also for their apparitions in the political shows. In order to participate in this type of shows a candidate must pay between 10000 and 20000 euro, and 100.000 euro for a spot of 30 seconds broadcasted in prime time. To make a short comparison with America, I would add the fact that the costs for a political spot rise up to 350000 dollars. Through the medium of television, the candidate gets closer to the electorate, and if he/she appears constantly at the TV has more chances to win as the impact upon the viewers is bigger. Nowadays, the politicians must have not only intellectual qualities but also a pleasant appearance. Even though this may be an awkward situation, we tend to 34
choose our leaders taking into account the way they look as we are influenced by the concept of “beauty” which is promoted excessively. And now follows the question: Do we choose our leaders according to their values and attitudes concerning the problems from the society or according to their charisma? To continue with, it is important for them to know how to take advantage of the technical part of the television: the cameras, the lights, the prompter. Even though this is not a determinant element to be taken into consideration when choosing our leaders, it might be helpful for them regarding their political success. To illustrate this point of view, I would give the example of the presidents Carter and Ronald Reagan. The last was an actor, therefore, the cameras did not intimidate him, he knew how to read a script, while it was obvious that Carter was feeling uncomfortable in front of the TV and this was bad for his image. The radio represents another method of making publicity and its advantage is represented by the fact that it is cheaper. Moreover, the radio is preferred to the television, especially when the local elections take place. In addition, the message has a precise impact on a varied audience as the majority of the radios are specialized on a certain theme: classic, rock, informative etc. Nevertheless, the radio commercials must be catchy and have many sound effects in order to attract the attention as they do not have the image as a support. (Joe McGinnies, 1968)
2.2. The Written Press and Street Publicity
One advantage of the written press in comparison with the other means of communication is the fact that is allows to a candidate to give more information and gives the electorate the possibility to read again the materials when he/she wishes not only when is broadcasted the TV program. The variety of newspaper’s and magazine’s articles attracts a miscellaneous category of people: those interested in sports, in economy, in entertainment, therefore the politicians should adapt their messages according to the particular section they want to appear. For example, if they want to be promoted in an economic newspaper, then the message should render information concerning politician’s plans about new changes in the country’s economy. Regarding the street publicity, it can be said that her main purpose is to remind and not to persuade. Consequently, the banners do not contain too much information, their main characteristic being the simplicity. For instance, if a poster contains too much information, the persons from buses, cars etc., do not manage to read everything and this is the reason for which the accent is put on the image and also on simple and catchy words. To all this there can be added the balloons, the pens, the brochures, the trinkets which can play an important part in an electoral campaign. In other words, we should not underestimate this simple form of 35
advertising as they have the power to create a chain reaction as a person who sees the name of a candidate may start to put questions concerning a certain campaign or a certain politician and his plans may attract viewer’s attention. (Joe McGinnies, 1968)
2.3. The Internet
If in the 1990 the Internet was practically unknown for the majority of the public, after this period the number of the users increased rapidly in the industrialized countries. Despite the difficulties connected with the access to this new form of media, it can be said that a large number of people began to use the Internet and the number of those who do not have access to it reduce more and more. Analyzing some statistics from 1993 up to 2000, it can be observed the fact that the number of the users of the Internet grew from 90.000 to 304 millions, and in July 2000 were 137 millions of users in the USA, 83 millions in Europe and a total of 72 millions of guests all over the world. Around the same year, Pipa Norris (on Internet World) mentioned the fact that there were almost 1228 web sites which were detained by political parties; in Europe the number of the on line political parties grew up to 7075 meanwhile the number of the newspapers decreased reaching the number of 481. It should also be emphasized the fact that the power of the digital revolution can be shown by comparing it with the evolution of the other means of communication: in order to reach the number of 50 millions users, the radio developed in 38 years, the television in13 years, the PC in 16 years and the Internet in 4 years. Making an analysis of the year 2007 we draw up the astonishing conclusion that in the entire world there are 1 milliard and 114 millions of users (in Europe there are 315 millions of users, in USA 233 millions and in Asia 399 millions). In the following table there are presented relevant numbers and the rhythm in which the number of users increased in each region.
Figure 2. World Internet Usage and Population Statistics Source: www.internetworldstats.com/stats.htm World Internet Usage and Population Statistics Population Internet Internet Users Penetration Users Users (2008 Est.) Users Dec. Latest Data (% Growth % of 31,2000 Population) 2000-2008 Table 4,514,400 54,171,500 5.6 % 1,100.0 % 3.4 % 975,330,899 3,780,819,792 803,903,540 196,767,614 337,572,949
114,304,000 105,096,093 3,284,800 108,096,800 18,068,919 7,620,480 360,985,492 657,170,816 393,373,398 45,861,346 251,290,489 173,619,140 20,783,419 20,783,419 17.4 % 48.9 % 23.3 % 74.4 % 29.9 % 60.4 % 23.8 % 474.9 % 274.3 % 1,296.2 % 132.5 % 860.9 % 172.7 % 342.2 % 41.2 % 24.6 % 2.9 % 15.7 % 10.9 % 1.3 % 100.0 %
World Regions Africa Asia Europe Middle East North America
Latin America/ 581,249,892 Carribean 34,384,384 Oceania/Australia WORLD TOTAL
NOTES: (1) Internet Usage and World Population Statistics are for March 31, 2009. (2) CLICK on each world region name for detailed regional usage information. (3) Demographic (Population) numbers are based on data from the US CENSUS BUREAU. (4) Internet usage information comes from data published by Nielsen Online, by the International Telecommunications Union, by GfK, local Regulators and other reliable sources. (5) For definitions, disclaimer, and navigation help, please refer to the Site Surfing Guide. (6) Information in this site may be cited, giving the due credit to www.internetworldstats.com. Copyright © 2001 - 2009, Miniwatts Marketing Group. All rights reserved worldwide.
Figure 3. World Internet Users by World Regions
World Internet Users by World Regions
1% 2% 3% 11% 42% 16% 25% Asia Europe North America Latin America Africa Middle East Oceania/Australia
Copyright © 2009, Miniwatts Marketing Group
cultural or religious frontiers and connects individuals from different social classes. the significant. regarding the aspect of a greater political transparency. this new means of communication offers to the smaller parties the possibility of promoting their ideologies and permits an active communication between the parties and the citizens. the Internet passes beyond the geographical. Regarding the rhetorical view over the Internet. 2007: 233242) 38 . The Internet stimulates the political debates. the Internet can be considered a potential source of opening new possibilities of affirmation for the new organizations which are not represented in the political systems and which can bring into light aspects which were not broached by the press or by other political parties. To continue with. For this reason. Moreover. social. Other advantage of the political debates from the Internet could also be the participation at the dialogues from the forums which generates social connections.In this context. The major function of the Internet in the political context is the fact that it generates a closer relation between the politicians and the citizens. where each individual has the possibility of expressing in a free way. This transparency represents in the same time the condition. who. the language. the Internet became the new media for the political communication and its main advantage was the fact that it permitted to the political parties to control the messages and to send them directly to the electorate. it can be considered a pedagogical indicator and the rules are made by all the participants and the proof is the good manner codes established by the users. the image. (Călin Sinescu. In this context. the Internet represents an element through which the political actors have the possibility of knowing citizen’s points of view and their wishes. without taking into consideration the restrictions imposed by the institutional life or by the social image. in other conditions would not have the possibility to communicate. it is taken into consideration what is communicated and the way in which the Internet communicates. Therefore. The forum represents another way of organizing interesting debates. It is no exaggerated to say that it is a place of the liberty and of the authenticity. the Internet becomes the place where new ideas appear and where the ideas expressed by some persons are understood by others. the content of the site becomes the unity of analyze: it is analyzed the style. the means and the purpose of the democracy. Concerning this part of the close relation which establishes between the politicians and the electorate. the shape. the themes. and makes possible the organization of discussions on the forum or on the blogs. without being necessary to submit it to the journalistic filter.
188-190) 39 . However. In the USA. The term blog is new for the Romanian public and designates “a biographical web log: a type of diary on a Website that is changed regularly. The number of the Americans who used the Internet in order to pick up political information grew significantly (24% in 2008 in comparison with 13% in 2004). Subsequently. comments. and provides links to other places on the Internet”. to give the latest news. 2008: 9. (Dorina Guţu-Tudor. Another point is that it has the power to change attitudes and to influence the IQ level of the persons who use it and it is also preferred by the majority of the people to the traditional means of communication. the politicians observed this evolution and realized that they can use this social reality for their electoral campaigns. Furthermore. and experiences. the statistics made by Pew Internet Research Project show the fact that 42% from the youngsters between the ages of 18-29 use the Internet to get new information concerning the electoral campaign and this emphasizes the fact that a powerful “weapon” arises in the hands of the politicians. in Romania the situation is different as the politicians used the “blog” only for short periods of time in order to communicate with the electorate. the blog of Adrian Năstase (http://nastase. Presently.The “new media”. Nevertheless. this enthusiasm of trying to change the attitude of the young people has its limits as it is very hard to “transform the youngsters from couch potatoes in active voters!” (Dorina Guţu Tudor – New Media). the blog is important and may be helpful for a better and direct communication between the politicians and a large number of people. In the Asiatic countries the situation is even more spectacular. It is believed that “the new media” has the capacity to give an impulse to certain social categories. What is more. In my opinion. as it is perceived the Internet is a means of communication more attractive especially for the youngsters who become more and more addicted to it. the Romanian electorate needs to find out more about its leaders.wordpress. the statistics ascertain the fact that the citizens give importance to “the new media” when speaking about politics and politicians. In China there are 137 millions of users of the Internet in contrast with America where the number exceeds 200 millions.30. The page usually contains someone’s personal opinions.com) is the most visited political blog from our country and it could represent a start in the domain of communication between the politicians and the electorate. it is a necessity to benefit of the possibility to ask questions directly. especially to the youngsters.
this new media discovered a new path: the politics. Usually. On the other hand. tender tone: “If you vote PSD + PC. In this way. pensioners or with his partisans. Taking this into consideration. it is created a “salable” image of the political leader in order to convince the electorate to vote him. The Depoliticization In the last two decades. hiding the internal problems by substituting the political programs with the charisma of the political leaders. it can be said that they use more and more an emotional. Therefore. Regarding the slogans. Moreover. in Romania. it can be said that appeared a new commercial manifestation: the political marketing which centers on the simplicity. humor and hedonism. I would say that the political publicity is ubiquitous on the contemporary political scene which was named by Jean Baudrillard the consumer society. It can not be said that the entertainment replaces the information as long as it is very difficult to delimit the entertainment and the information. political posters and banners are made and their messages appeal to joy and friendship. simplicity. you vote for you!” – „Votezi PSD + PC. handled by the advertising agencies. the french sociologist Gilles Lipovetsky says that: „The seduction.” To draw a conclusion from this quote.4. 40 . an electoral campaign begins with a year before the elections. „Together for a better life!” – „Împreună. Trying to attract a large number of people. The political function of the press consists in informing the public about the actions or the inactions of the political parties and of the govern. honesty and intimacy.2. it seems that the „show politics” prolongs the process of desacralization which started at the end of the 17 th century. Refering to the political communication as a type of publicity. votezi pentru tine”. contributes to the maintenance of the democratical institutions. by the specialists in mass-media and has as a principal tool the Internet. This strategy of marketing is very criticised as it corrupts the democracy. pentru o viaţă mai bună! (PRM)” or "A man to bring us peace!” – „Un om pentru liniştea noastră!” (the slogan used by Ion Iliescu in his electoral campaign). and regarding this aspect. and which has as values: the pleasure. who wrote that “Our society thinks itself and speaks itself as a consumer”. in the political area was developed a new form of publicity. appealing more and more to the emotional part. their discourses are balanced. simple and have a tendency to become neutral. the political scene tries to detach from the emphatic and an example in this particular sense is the fact that the leader is presented in the electoral campaigns near his family or sometimes shaking hands with poor people. there are being organized shows where the candidates are invited.
The world deals with a depoliticization of the politics which loses its essence and becomes more and more dependent on the press. they appear in newspapers. It is essential to go beyond this manipulation and start thinking! And as Mario Pereyra said we should try to: “return to books. calendars. the reality is another: our power is nothing but pure illusion. as Giovanni Sartori emphasized. at the TV. we eat what we hear at the TV that is good for our health and we even educate our children as we see at the TV. in other words we are practically invaded by this mass mediatization and the individual feels that can not hold the control anymore over his own life. To all these. Following this path. we dress as the TV says. but establishes ethical principles and transcendental values that are essential to life here and to life in the hereafter. about what he/she should do and. online article) 41 . in this way. we have absolutely no power. Although it is hard to believe that presently this happens with our society. on the internet. to become not mere refractors of the screen content but thinkers with minds of our own. in his book “Homo videns: La sociedad teledirigida”. banners. to the Holy Scriptures. which has in the starring role the politicians. the electronic media makes us migrate “from homo sapiens to homo videns”. is the fact that. which not only favors thinking. to cultivate the habit of reading. posters. What is more important. the politicians tend to become salable “products”. The journalists search for the sensational. Analyzing the facts presented by the media we conceive ideas and after that. being just the spectators of a play. we say our opinions about what is good or what is wrong.” (Mario Pereyra. we enter in a vicious circle believing that we have the power to change the world. For instance. Moreover. to develop critical thinking. Nevertheless. we are those who are manipulated. the politicians try to take advantage of the sensational and we enjoy it. we accept to be manipulated and to become addicted to the TV and in our mind the concepts are replaced by the image. at the radio. we must add another supreme imperative: a return to the Word.
no one can say what it would be. and is therefore comparable to a system of writing. Saussure’s theory concerning the “signification” is a “dyadic” or two-part model of the sign. I shall call it semiology (from the Greek semeion. online article hj) Furthermore. Semiology would show what constitutes signs. Consequently. Language is the total sum of all available speech instances. military signals. Therefore. it would be part of social psychology and consequently of general psychology. The relationship between "language" and "speech" is similar to that between "code" and "message". Nevertheless. Their approaches were different to some extent. and the latter will circumscribe a well-defined area within the mass of anthropological facts. the definition given by Saussure to the semiotic is: Language is a system of signs that express ideas. He defined a sign as being composed of: the “signified” (the idea being represented) and the “signifier” (the word doing the representing). a place staked out in advance. The two most important writers of semiotic are Fernand de Saussure and Charles Sanders Pierce who are considered the fathers of semiotic. an existing system of relationships. it represents a field intensively approached by philosophers. therefore it is difficult to give a general definition to the term. From this definition it can be noticed the fact that Fernand de Saussure gives major importance to the language which is in a dynamic relation with the speech. the sign refers to what results from the association of the signifier with the signified. For a better understanding of this concept. used by later semioticians. Since the science does not yet exist. 'sign'). A science that studies the life of signs within society is conceivable. symbolic rites. semiotic refers to the science that studies the meaning of the signs.CHAPTER III Approaches to Semiotics (Saussure and Pierce) Generally speaking. But it is the most important of these systems. He also considers necessarily citing the two scholars who have different perceptions regarding the term “semiotic”. I would use as a starting point the book “A theory of semiotics” written by Umberto Eco. polite formulas. what laws govern them. (Visual Communication and Semiotics. the laws discovered by semiology will be applicable to linguistics. the alphabet of deaf-mutes. but it has a right to existence. Linguistics is only a part of the general science of semiology. etc. We put together and send messages by referring to a code. The relationship between those two 42 . Most semioticians agree that no messages are possible without the existence of a code (although its actual structure may be difficult to demonstrate).
an interpretant (not an interpreter but rather the sense made of the sign) and an object (to which the signs refer). onomatopoeia. sounding. an influence. metaphors. imitative gestures).g. the word “stop”. The philosopher distinguishes the “sign” from “word” and sustains that it is a mechanism for “understanding”. a portrait. a number. Pierce offered a triad: the representamen (the form which the sign takes). a diagram. tasting or smelling like it) – being similar in possessing some of its qualities (e. By semiosis I mean an action. (Umberto Eco. a scalemodel. or involves a cooperation of three subjects. Icon / iconic: a mode in which the signifier physically or perceptually resembles or imitates the signified (recognizably looking. a red traffic light. 1976) Another view over the semiotic can be found in a more complete definition given by Charles Sanders Pierce: Semiotic is the doctrine of the essential nature and fundamental varieties of possible semiosis. As compared to Saussure’s “self-content dyad”. which is. a national flag).concepts is referred to as a “signification” and it is known that Saussure refers to the signified as to as an idea. its object and its interpretant. In his view. there are three modes of signification: Symbol / symbolic: the way in which the signifier does not resemble the signified but which is arbitrary or purely conventional so that the relationship must be learnt (e. 43 . this tri-relative influence not being in anyway resolvable into actions between pairs […] A sign is something which stands to somebody for something in some respects or capacity. sound effects. such as a sign.g. feeling.
for instance freedom. A sign may have more than one denotation meaning and the choice for a certain meaning regards the context in which it is found. good continuation. the signs may have different “subjective” meanings that come from individual’s personal experience. The sign’s denotation refers to the “common sense” meaning of it and is said to come from social convention. smoke. for this reason some theorists argue that there are involved codes in our perception over the world. and an analytic distinction is made between two types of signified: a denotative signified and a connotative signified.Index / indexical: a mode in which the signifier is not purely arbitrary but is directly connected in some way (physically or causally) to the signified (e. surroundness and symmetry. Theorists make a distinction between the three categories of signification and in this sense it can be said that the denotative order of signification is seen as a primarily representational and relatively self-contained. Perception depends on coding the world into iconic signs that can re-present it within our mind. In the third category (mythological) of signification the signs mirror the cultural concepts and assign them a particular view. The most important are the following: proximity. Their major function is to make the historical and cultural values seem natural. 44 . footprint. pulse rate. fingerprint. The term “myth” refers to unconscious meaning that a society makes from a semiotic process. smallness. Nonetheless. clock. pain. This could be a definition for the connotation of the sign. Meaning includes both denotation and connotation. online article) It should be highlighted the fact that signs are generated by myths and serve to maintain them. the terms denotation and connotation describe the relation which establishes between the signifier and its signified. myths refer to beliefs.g. can be seen as extended metaphors and they help us to understand our experiences within a culture. In semiotics. The connotative level of signification reflects “expressive” values which are attached to a sign. spirit-level). objectivism. closure. similarity. thermometer. A perception is considered to be a representation of a sign. Generally. ( James Hurfold. normal. being as a representation of the “way things are”. individualism. masculinity etc. objective. which in practice prove to be false. The Gestalt psychology outlined the universal principles of perceptual organization. femininity.
Socialism. Genre. the law of continuity is connected with the contours based on smooth continuity which are preferred to abrupt changes of direction. prosodic and paralinguistic subcodes . the law of proximity refers to certain features which are close together and which are associated. television. Those which are the most known in the context of media can be classified in three categories: • Social codes – verbal codes (phonological. the law of similarity regards those features which look similar. music etc. the symmetry emphasizes the symmetrical areas that tend to be seen as figures against asymmetrical backgrounds and the surroundness which refers to those areas which can be seen as surrounded by others.behavioral codes (protocols. facial expression. feminism. stylistic codes. but they can see different things as each person’s values and knowledge modify the information received distorting the reality and giving it a personal representation. aesthetic codes in poetry. proximity.(scientific codes. consumerism The art of communicating by using symbols implies a process through which the signs pass through a system image from the designer’s conceptual model to the user’s mental model. syntactical. rhetorical. online article) 45 . which operate in certain domains. the law of closure refers to those interpretations which produce “closed” rather than “open” figures. newspaper and magazine codes • Interpretative codes – perceptual codes of visual expression.). painting.Hence. the principle of smallness regards those small areas which tend to be seen as figures against a larger background. Codes are not simply “conventions” of communication but rather procedural systems of related conventions. gestures and posture . physical orientation. capitalism. lexical. which tend to be perceived as figures.commodity codes (fashion. cars) . To outline this process I would include an illustration which emphasizes the parts of our mind which contribute to decoding the signs we receive. radio. (Daniel Chandler.Bodily codes (bodily contact. This process happens unconsciously in our mind and when trying to decode an image. racism. mass media codes including Photography. ideological codes such Individualism. clothing. rituals) • Textual codes . liberalism. two persons might look to the same object.
Nicolae Ceauşescu was the most important figure and its regime was based on the union between the party and state (He was not only a state secretary of the Romanian 46 . with an emphasis over the fact that in the United States democracy has been lasting for 200 years whereas Romania has undergone many regimes after 1918 and has been a democratic country since the revolution from 1989 (20 years of democracy). After years of wars and revolutions. The Constitution of 1952 implemented another institutional reform through which it was implemented the Stalinist regime and which imposed a single party: The Romanian Communist Party (Partidul Român Comunist . Alexandra. there are certain aspects that should be drawn. Romania entered under its influence.PCR).1.1. Romania strengthened its position on 1st December 1918 when it became a national unitary state as Transilvania united with Romania at Alba Iulia. (Bârdan.1. the clarity of the messages sent to the electorate and also their coherence. These are the main reasons for which I consider that an investigation in the each state’s history is necessary. it can be noticed that our country confronted with many invaders who wanted to conquer our territories and to benefit from the richness of the natural resources. Furthermore. there are also a lot of distinctions concerning the quality of the debates and of discourses.CHAPTER IV Case Study: Electoral Views in Romania and in the USA 4. the Romanian people always fought fiercely to defend our land and never intended to take control over other countries. 4. Romania Looking back in time at Romania’s history. Romania participated in both the First World War and the Second World War and in 1944. in December 1947. 2001:57-58) In this perspective. Brief Survey of the Two Political Regimes In order to make a comparison between the two countries. King Mihai abdicated and it was proclaimed the Romanian Popular Republic which had as a principle the fact that the power of the state is in the hands of its citizens. Therefore. as the differences regarding the two political systems are very significant. From my point of view. The leaders of the communist party were Gheorghe Gheorghiu-Dej (1955-1965) and Nicolae Ceauşescu (1965-1989). after signing the armistice treaty with URSS.
a president who knew how to become popular among the citizens. in the context of a country where the politicians and the parties concentrate on the conflicts rather than on the problems of the society.Communist Party. I would say that. but also the President of the Republic ). our country is not entire democratic as the influences of the communist regime are still existent. the National Liberal Party remained in minority. For this reason. in Romania the political parties form alliances before and after the elections and this had become a common thing. presently. after the elections from 2004 the Liberal Democratic Party allied with the National Liberal Party having as a purpose to be more powerful in the Govern. the elections were won by Traian Băsescu. I would say that the Romanian electorate is diverse regarding the age and also the political options because of the continuous changes of the political regimes from the country and I would 47 . Greater Romania Party (PRM). Nevertheless. as the Liberal Democratic Party retired from governing. Secondly. but they were supported by another powerful party from Romania. but also in the way of thinking of the citizens. In my opinion. The National Salvation Front (Frontul Salvării Naţionale . the Social Democratic Party would retire from the alliance as the programs of the two parties do not correspond. there were many candidates for the presidency of Romania.FSN) took the control becoming the supreme organ of the state. Ion Iliescu won the elections and after this period appeared many political parties such as the Social Democratic Party from Romania (PDSR). in 1989 was established the new name of the country would be Romania and that the system of government would be the Republic. the Social Democratic Party which has the majority in the Parliament. Therefore. Nicolae Ceauşescu imposed a drastic regime trying to industrialize the country in a short time with no regard for the real needs of the people. this is a political strategy as the interest of a party which lost the elections is to make an alliance with the wining party in order to form the majority in the Parliament. This is the major reason of distinction between Romania and the United States and the difference is not felt only in the system. In 1992. Taking into consideration the years when Romania had a communist leader. My prediction would be that. 2006:43-72) Furthermore. In 2004.CDR). For instance. This regime was followed by more periods of transition until the implementation of a democratic constitutional structure. among the politicians from the parties appear divergences and this seriously affects their methods of governing. but the favorites were Ion Iliescu (the National Salvation Front) and Emil Constantinescu (Romanian Democratic Convention – Convenţia Democrată Română . (Florin Abraham. Socialist Labour Party (PSM). Romanian National Unity Party (PUNR) and the Democratic Union of Hungarians in Romania. After the communist regime ended. after the presidential elections from 2009.
The third category includes those persons who were born after 1989. and the slaves were given the right to vote. he subjected the reform of the Constitution to the “Virginia Plan”. The most important participants in the constitution-making process were Alexander Hamilton and James Madison who is considered the father of the American Constitution. (Silvia Irimiea.divide it into three categories. 2002: 12). The first party wanted that a central power to be created whereas the opposite party sustained that if a strong and powerful government was formed. the contrary ideas of the two opposite parties gave rise to many compromises and one of the most relevant concessions is that of slavery. the United States of America has been a democratic country since September 17. during the communist regime and who also know what the present democracy entails.1. The United States In the USA. 4. for the American people the concept of democracy is far more advanced than for the Romanian people. a regime which is not consolidated and where there are many economical. The first category includes the citizens who lived during the regime of the inter-war period. Another major step in the constitution-making process is represented by the constitutional act. the history. Therefore. and his ingenuous idea was that the people should “delegate authority both to the national government and to the states”. who have the right to vote and who live in a democratic regime without having any knowledge of the communist regime. The “Bill of Rights” (under this name are known the first ten amendments of the Constitution). Therefore. political and social conflicts. the system and the citizen’s way of perceiving the world are totally different from Romania. These citizens keep living with the melancholy of the communist regime. It is important to know that it was not condemned. 1787 the date when the Constitution was ratified. it would “fall into the hands of interest-groups who would eventually oppress the people and deprive them of their basic rights”.2. The second category includes those citizens who were born and educated in the communist regime and who have been living in a democratic regime since 1990. Therefore. This process of making the Constitution encountered several problems and the major one was the fact that appeared two opposite parties: the federalists and the anti-federalists. 2002: 11). This document contains amendments to the Constitution intended to restrict the federal power and it was initiated by the federalists when the anti-federalists said that 48 . Firstly. (Silvia Irimiea. The Constitution represents the most important legal document in the United States and “it must be looked at from the point of view of its impact on the evolution of the past and present human rights movement”.
In my opinion. it determined important changes regarding the political regimes. the Democratic Party supports a liberal or center-left platform. shall not be construed to deny or disparage others retained by the people”. Nevertheless. According to Richard Nathan and Erik Hoffman (1996). among the federal and state governments”. technological. the four aims of federalism are: “to protect against abuses and arbitrariness by the central government. 2002: 25). The concept of federalism refers to a “form of political organization in which the governmental power is divided between a central government and territorial subdivisions in the US.. 1996 cited in Irimiea. I set out to emphasize the fact that regardless of the fact that the both countries have a democratic system. life or property without due process of law. 49 . Moreover. to stimulate innovative socio-economic. to enhance participation of citizens in the political process within and between various organs of government. prohibits the federal government from depriving any person of liberty. the fact that in Romania the history of the constitutionalism had to pass through many stages because of the foreign domination and the influence of some powerful countries over the political. On the one hand. Silvia. the constitutions and therefore. I have found a resemblance between the two countries regarding the way of perceiving things. Furthermore. of certain rights. the Republican Party is also called the Grand Old Party (GOP) and sustains a conservative or center-right platform. They sustain a progressive tax structure in order to reduce injustice and to provide more services. guarantees a speedy public trial having an impartial jury. In this survey regarding the evolution of the two political systems. the electoral laws. On the other hand. and culturaleducational policies by regional governments”. in the United States of America there are two powerful parties (the Democratic Party and the Republican Party) which benefit from a very well-organized system. prohibits the cruel punishments and states that “the enumeration in the Constitution. (Nathan R. the major differences come from each state’s history. to increase the policymaking and administrative efficiency of government through regional competition. The Bill of Rights prohibits the Congress to establish an official religion.the Constitution did not mention anything concerning the individual right. the US did not confront with wars on its territory and this fact allowed the democratic regime and the society to be in a permanent evolution and economical development. Hoffman. social and economical issues. guarantees to every citizen the right to bear arms. E. scientific. In contrast. Firstly. the USA is a federal state with a federal government which exercises control over the entire nation.. The republicans sustain the fact that the Constitution should be interpreted strictly according to the original and also emphasize the role of free market for a prosperous economy. it requires that the grand jury must indict any capital or “infamous crime”.
it is well-known the fact that in America. 4.PSD) won the elections in 2000. when took place the local elections. Secondly. Romania passes through a similar situation concerning the democratic system. once with the first colonies also came the Afro-Americans and that slavery was practiced for a long period of time. It will take some years for the Romanian people to understand the concept of democracy and to behave accordingly. Barack Obama. demonstrates that the American people managed to view the black people as their compatriots and not as inferior persons. it took almost 200 for the Americans to forget the racial hate and to accept the Afro-Americans as their compatriots. as long as. The reason for this situation arose from the fact that the Constitution which was revised in 2003 clarified the relation of the president with the prime-minister. there would be citizens with communist ideas. at that time there was a wish to separate the presidential elections from the parliamentary elections. Even though in 1864 was adopted the law for abolishing the slavery.2. Another important change refers to the fact that the president’s mandate was prolonged on a period of 5 years. Political Marketing 4.2. After the Social Democratic Party from Romania (transformed in the Social Democratic Party – Partidul Social Democratic . and this was a consequence of the fact that. The fact that presently the US has an Afro-American president. These elections established a balance of the political scene and its bipolarization between the Social Democratic 50 . The presidential elections from 2004 took place in a different political and constitutional context as those from 2000. Political Life before the Electoral Campaign in 2004 (Traian Băsescu) The electoral year 2004 confronted with many overturning situations especially because the candidate who won entered in the competition for the presidency with only two months before the elections. only when there would remain the generations born after 1989 because. Nevertheless. but he mentioned the fact that the emigrants who came in America worked hardly every day and together put the basis of the United States. In both cases the problems regard the human’s perception and their mentality. it would be hard for them to adapt to the democratic system. the most important changes appeared in the distribution of power on the political scene. it dominated the Romanian political scene until June 2004. and I think that this is also illustrated in Obama’s inaugural discourse as he did not speak about the racial hate. meaning that the president does not have the power to revoke the leader of the cabinet.1.
51 . it is an institution called the “Electoral College” which makes the decision concerning the elected president. It is interesting that. it is known that the country started to confront with many political. Political Life before the Electoral Campaign in 2008 (Barack Obama) In the United States.2. lost the presidential elections. Theodor Stolojan. the president of the Democratic Party. Adrian Năstase initiated a dynamic campaign helped by the press and. left the competition for the White House and. Theodor Stolojan retired from the competition. who had with 700. In one of his speeches Barack Obama declared that those who are guilty of starting this crisis will pay. Traian Băsescu enters in the competition for Cotroceni Palace. Therefore. Obama attracted more voters on his side. as she also was a democrat all her votes went to Barack Obama. (the National Liberal Party and the Democratic Party). Adrian Năstase. When Hillary Clinton saw that loses ground. the situation is different with regard to the election of the president. It is hard to explain the reason for which. Being phisically exhausted. president of the National Liberal Party. it seemed that the electoral competition is given between Adrian Năstase. according with the inquiries. as he is not elected directly by the voters as in Romania. Traian Băsescu.A. It is possible that his defeat was caused by the theory of Băsescu who argued that the elections were defalcated. 2006: 72-78) 4. he succeded to outrun his contracandidate. A final aspect that contributed to the election of Barack Obama as a president is the fact that the democrats had two representatives (Hillary Clinton and Barack Obama) whereas the republicans had one representative (John McCain). takes place a significant change. president of the Social Democratic Party and Theodor Stolojan. only two months before the presidential elections. Iraq. social and especially economic problems. the president visits all the countries in order to obtain as more votes as possible. invoked a „blackmail” of the power against Theodor Stolojan. immediately after this change. The fact that the US was involved in many conflicts with countries such as Afghanistan. (Florin Abraham. Surprisingly. With reference to the political background before the electoral campaign from 2008 of Barack Obama. As the US is a federal state.2. as the mayor of Bucharest.000 votes more than Traian Băsescu. Israel and Palestine generated enormous expenses and the money were taken from the state budget.Party and the alliance D. All these had as a consequence the economic crisis for which the US is still looking solutions. Invoking this idea. Therefore.
1. the economical raise from the years of his mandate etc. he made efforts in order to democratize his speeches but the results were inconclusive and for this reason he decided to leave the competition in spite of the request made by 52 . Political Opponents to Presidency The favorite candidate from that year was Adrian Năstase who tried to win the elections through a complex electoral campaign based on: his succeses as prime minister (the adhesion of Romania to NATO. another step in convincing the citizens to vote him is re presented by the fact that he built his electoral campaign on the idea that he would be a president totally different from his predecessors. Building the Image of the Candidate. Traian Băsescu started to accuse Adrian Năstase of blackmail against the DA alliance.2. As I mentioned above. he entered in the competition for the presidency only two months before the elections. the alliance with Mircea Geoană with the intention of attracting the youngers from towns and he also based on his abilities of political leader (president of the Social Democratic Party). “a player president” rather than a spectator.3. It is interesting to see that after one of the candidates.1. I consider that the way he built the path through victory was a premeditated strategy which. the Program and Formulating the Messages 4. an active politician. Traian Băsescu was a well-liked politician and the reason may consist in his capacity of making a distinction between his life as a politician and his life as a citizen of Romania.2.3. The third candidate for the presidency was Corneliu Vadim Tudor who entered in the electoral campaign having certain disadvantages as he was categorized as being an extremist and anti-semitic.). the alliance with Ion Iliescu under the slogan „Together for Romania’s future” which had as target the attraction of the countryside electorate. The theme of his electoral campaign was the fight against corruption. Therefore. Theodor Stolojan retired from the competition. proved to be successful. the positive dimension was conceived on the motive of welfare and his slogan was „Să trăiţi bine!” (“Have a good life!”).4. obtaining the right for the Romanian citizens to travel in Schengen space without presenting an official endorsement. building 400 sport halls. 4.1.3. The Image of Traian Băsescu Regardless of his position. finally. Moreover.2.
refers to their international image. Silvio Berlusconi – Italian Prime Minister. and for this reason they used calm messages and the themes from Adrian Năstase’s speeches were those regarding the stability and the continuity. nonetheless this brought him displeasures when declaring that he sustains the marriages between the homosexuals and that 20% from Romania’s population is homosexual. Traian Băsescu – 33. and as a result the urban electorate with high incomes was insufficient to win the elections. making efforts to give the impression that he is irresistible and he continuosuly tried to provoke his opponent to direct disputes on TV shows.Adrian Năstase who asked him to remain in the rivalry because the departure of Corneliu Vadim Tudor was in favour for Traian Băsescu. Thus. he realized a campaign accusing Adrian Năstase of obtaining the support of those leaders and of the European Union by “purchasing” their benevolence throughout some contracts. The courage is one of his principal political qualities. after the poll from 12th December 2004. 77%. 53 . Other electoral strategy used by the two opponents and which should be pointed. On the one hand. 57%. Traian Băsescu tried to fill his lack of diplomatic experience by attacking his opponent. Traian Băsescu adopted a different strategy. Hence. Corneliu Vadim Tudor – 12. 92%. Adrian Năstase based on a positive campaign trying to highlight his achievments as president of theGovern and attempting to counteract the direct disputes with his contracandidate. On the other hand the electorate of Traian Băsescu was more heterogeneous and unpredictable. In this sense. The electoral campaign had specific strategies due to the different conceptions of the two candidates. Adrian Năstase and the alliance PSD+PUR (the Social Democratic Party and the Romanian Humanist Party) wanted to maintain their sympathizers for convincing them to vote. 23% and Adrian Năstase 48. 2006: 75-78). Consequently. (Florin Abraham. 94%. Thus. The final results of the poll from 28th November 2004 were: Adrian Năstase – 40. Adrian Năstase wanted to convince the electorate that his personal relations with important political leaders from West (Tony Blair – English Prime Minister. Günther Verheugen – European commissary) can be useful for Romania. from a total percentage of 55. 21% were obtained the following results: Traian Băsescu 51. Traian Băsescu used a popular language with populist characteristics in some place identical with that of Vadim Tudor (the term “people” was often used in his speeches and the tone was redeeming: “the decapitation of a corrupt minister”). for attracting the electorate of Corneliu Vadim Tudor. The second poll of the presidential elections took place after Traian Băsescu contested the results and required the organization of new elections. Another point would be that another difference regarding the campaign strategies of the two candidates consists in the type of the target electorate.
One of his slogan was: „Singur fac multe. alliance) 4. outdoor.2. the Internet proved to be the ideal place for sustaining the image of Băsescu and his electoral campaign. religious and ethnic affiliation. The online campaign of Traian Băsescu was the most spectacular and impressive campaign ever made in Romania. more private scholarships and financial advantages for the younger person who start a business.3. arguments.A. the „D. ensuring the equal access to education regardless of social. but with a 54 . Cu un consiliu fac totul!”(„I can do much by myself. Electoral Platform of D. their electoral platform contained especially educational problems they wanted to solve if Traian Băsescu was elected president.A. reducing the number of students from each class to 25 and diversifying the methods of teaching by introducing a more practical system. (official site of D. events and Internet. Promoting Strategies Felix Tătaru (general director of Gmp/MAP Romania) said that the electoral campaign of Traian Băsescu extended on five media components: press. Another promise was connected to the fact that the schools and the high schools will receive autonomy for elaborating educational programs. TV.ro. Furthermore. they based on many programs for supporting the youngsters from Romania by according funds for the construction of new hostels for students.1.2. Surprisingly. 1 of 5 citizens from Bucharest pressed a banner or the pop-under of this online campaign. alliance were: improving the quality of the education in rural areas. Other objectives of the D.3. When entering in the competition for the presidential elections.4. in buses) and which needed support. Traian Băsescu needed a place for developing his messages which could be seen everywhere (on the street.3.A.” alliance of the National Democratic Party and the Democratic Party promised a better life for the Romanian citizens. Therefore. The major problem that was discussed was the depolitizacion of the educational system.1. and it was realized the site basescu. Alliance In 2004.A. consequently. for hiring new staff and also for using the financial resources in order to differentiate the incomes.2. from which the last proved to be the most efficient component”. according to the European standards: eliminating the political encroachments from the system of promoting the teaching staff. bringing the educational system from Romania to the level of that from the European countries.
Moreover.Counsel I can do Everything!”) and the words „much” and „everything” represented the base of building the site.markmedia_ro. 55 . Figure 4. Băsescu was a funny. „Much” signifies the accomplishments from 2000-2004 with the Social Democratic Party and „Everything” refers to his strategy from 2004-2008 with a supporting Counsel. Consequently. The game also presented the main points of the electoral platform of Traian Băsescu and it had an impact on the mind of the player as it unconsciously suggested to the player that he must go to vote as the election of those cancellers depends also on his choice. there were offered prizes 1000 t-shirts with electoral messages. for increasing the interest. appeared the game “Winn with the pepper!” which had a simple rule: he player had to transport at least 28 Cancellers to the Town hall. open-minded and ironic person and for succeeding the site should have been special and original. Online Presidential Campaign Source: http://www.htm For realizing this original campaign there were taken into consideration three aspects: the pepper represented the image of the brand. The statistics are amazing as over 12000 people played the game and the site registered 500000 visitors and 290000 displays in only one week.
His electoral campaign did not begin with two years before the elections. but with seven years in advance.3. It was an ingenuous and at the same time an original campaign which paved the road of Barack Obama to the White House.2. I think that we both have a similar opinion about what involves the function of president. Hillary Clinton was a democrat as Obama and the fact that she quite the competition for presidency represented an advantage for Barack Obama as all her votes went to him. The actor which interpreted this role is Dennis Haysbert and in an interview he declared that: “From public’s point of view. antiterrorist fights and also it presents the election of the American presidents. He won the elections. the electoral campaign lasts two years whereas in Romania the politicians begin their electoral campaigns only two months before the elections.2. Traian Băsescu’s approach over the electoral campaign was a well-organized strategy but. 2001 and the action of the film consists in political conspiracies.4. this film opened a path in their minds according to which an Afro-American could be the new president of the United States. The film registered high ratings and was broadcasted in six seasons (symbolically these represented six days from America’s “life”) and each season had 24 episodes (each episode presented an hour from the respective day). his name is David Palmer and he wears at the right hand a bracelet which resemblance with the one that Obama has on his hand. From my point of view.3. but in time his reputation was compromised by the fact that he was not an apolitical president and his image had to suffer as he was always in conflict with the prime minister Călin Popescu Tăriceanu instead of persevering in solving the problems that our country confronts with. One of them is an Afro-American. I depict my character David Palmer as being very intelligent and as a person who knows how to control his emotions”. The first season of the TV series started to be broadcasted on 6th November. 56 . It is known that he benefited from a powerful promoting campaign on the Internet. became a popular president among the citizens from Romania. Political Opponents for Presidency Obama had two major political opponents: Hillary Clinton and John McCain.2.2. The Image of Barack Obama In the US.1. Barack is not a choleric person. by accusing the other competitor of blackmail he did not act with fair-play. he has a well-balanced character. In contrast. 4. but it is the serial “24” broadcasted by Fox which unconsciously suggested the citizens that an Afro-American could be their president. the American president Barack Obama is a well-balanced person and he won the elections on his own and not by appearing in press accusing the other candidates.
“Education Means a More Competitive America”. nevertheless this represented a disadvantage in comparison with Barack Obama who based his electoral campaign on the word “change”. emphasizes the preservation of the traditional values. combating terrorism and. The proposed objectives of the republicans are the following: “Defending Our Nation. “Expanding Opportunity to Promote Prosperity”. The Party believes that the fight against poverty must be national priority and that they want to offer more opportunities for women. The Democrats promise good jobs and better paid. “Renewing American Leadership”. “Protecting Our Families”. liberty and prosperity of the United States and to fight for defending their principles. investing in biomedical research and stem cell research. Therefore.2. “Reforming Govern to Serve the People”.2. they also sustain that it will be raised the minimum wage and increase the Earned Income Tax so that workers can support themselves and their families.3. 4. “Health Care Reform: Putting Patients First”. defeating Al Qaeda. his policy included 9 points meant to preserve the freedom. Their program was strictly organized and debates all the problems of the US.Other powerful opponent was the republican John McCain who had a well-organized political platform based on the principles sustained by the Republican Party. “Preserving our values”. as she was the first woman in America’s history to win presidential primaries. The second objective refers to “Renewing American Leadership” and the democrats underline the idea of putting an end to the war in Iraq. the political platform of the democrats is more convincing as their objectives regard a promise of a change and for this reason their electoral program “Renewing America’s Promise” is based on four main points which make reference to something new: “Renewing the American Dream”. and it is stated that a new government is needed to stand up for the values. Securing the Peace”. the interests and the hopes of the working people and to improve the health care system by providing incentives for innovation. “Renewing the American Community” and “Renewing American Democracy”. The first point “Renewing the American Dream” emphasizes that the current crisis and the economical transformation affect drastically the United States. “Environmental Protection”. “Energy Independence and Security”. to fight against sexism and intolerance and for convincing the electorate the example of Hillary Rodham Clinton is given. 57 . Democratic National Platform In my opinion. Another promise regards the Educational system which will be noticeably improved. Supporting Our Heroes. highlighting that Bush Administration failed to protect the American workers.2.
The way great things happen is when people are willing to submerge their own egos and focus on a common task.if possible seeking a new partnership with Pakistan. Promoting Strategies The path of Obama through the White House represents an innovative electoral campaign with interesting marketing strategies. the restoration of the constitutional traditions and the protection of the Constitutional right of every American to vote. Obama was self-confident. and he recognized this when saying “When I started this campaign […] I wasn’t sure I was going to be the best of candidates. calm always answered the questions on a balanced tone. as during certain TV debates. 4. as he made a company to act having the same objectives “We are one” or “Yes we can”. they promise to seek for partnerships with civic institutions and with other states to which the govern will provide temporary funding. Moreover. The third point “Renewing the American Community” encourages people to invest in America as to create opportunities for international service and for experienced and retired persons to work. His quality of having a well-balanced personality contributed to his election. Barack Obama believed in team work. It should be also pointed his ability of organizing the electoral campaign. as when looking at him. one could see the change as compared to the other candidates. 58 . It’s not just a shtick. the democrats promise to prevent and respond to future natural catastrophes and also to restore the communities affected by floods in 2008. But what I was absolutely positive of was that there was the possibility of creating the best organization. in spite of the fact that McCain was aggressive and sometimes lost his temper. he was also original concerning the fact that his team made a brand from the name “Obama” beginning with the concept of the symbol “O” as a rising sun over the United States.3. (2008 Republican Electoral Platform.2.3. At the end. I actually believe in it”. The advantage of Obama was the fact that he was black and coming with the idea of “change”. online article). That’s my old organizing mind-set. All these measure will be taken to strengthen America’s security and to ensure a peaceful life to its citizens. In this part. Having excellent communication skills. it is interesting to see that his image matched.2. It should be taken into consideration the fact that the presidential elections from the US took place under the situation of economic crisis and of the wars in which the country was involved. In the last part of the political platform “Renewing American Democracy” the democrats promise a new democratic system with an ethical government.
4. the majority of the links displayed were about Obama. Media Campaign Barack’s Obama campaign is most know for the use of technology.2. the Internet donation campaigns using BarackObama. Barack Obama was intensively promoted on the Internet. Moreover.3. Regardless of the original idea of suggesting the electorate by broadcasting a TV serial that the new president of the United States could be an Afro-American. and for this reason Obama received a positive feedback from the youngsters from the US. The target public on the Internet had the age between 18 and 29 years old. For a better understanding of Obama’s popularity on the Internet. his image became a brand and it is interesting to notice that when typing on Google the word “change”. and it is important that Obama realized the reason for which younger voters tend to ignore politicians and politics: because politicians tended to ignore the issues which more concerned them. IPhone application which helped contacting friends to support Obama. Twitter (100.2. Using forums and websites such as MySpace. adverts Xbox Live Games.4. especially of the Internet through which Obama made his political ideologies and policies known.000 fans). YouTube. Furthermore. 59 .com as a small donation website from many people totaled to hundred of millions of dollars. Facebook (with two and a half million fans). I would include a scale representing the traffic of Barack Obama.
and according to Sol Sender “We were looking at the “o” of his name and had the idea of a rising sun and a new day”. Ruwanga Samath and Maxwell D.am from the band Black-Eyed Peas composed the song “Yes We Can”. The slogan of his campaign is “Yes We Can” and represents Obama’s team spirit as he always says that only together with the citizens the success will be guaranteed. For instance. Will. wrote the song “Make it to 60 .i. The traffic of Barack Obama from United Kingdom in2008 Source: online powerpoint The logo of Obama’s electoral campaign is the most known for the original concept it invokes. It represents a circle with wavy lines suggesting a sun rising over fields in colors of the American flag designed by a team from Senders LLC.Figure 5. The presidential campaign song was composed by Joss Stone as she appeals across racial boundaries and Obama’s campaign inspired other artists to create more music than any other candidate in American political history.
Regarding his TV advertisements.2. CBS.5. To sustain this idea. The Obama team bought a channel on Dish Network to screen Obama ads 24/7. Negative Publicity Nevertheless. JFC composed “Barack Obama” and “Unite the Nation” by the Greek-American hi hop group Misa/Misa. MSNBC. In these languages Barack Hussein signifies “the blessing of Hussein”.the Sun”. 61 . Another attack which put him in a difficult situation made reference to the fact that the “Forbes” magazine published an article in which speculated the fact that Obama could be the “expected warrior” who would come to help the Shiite Muslims to conquer the world. an official site from Iran published a text from 17th century reporting that Imam Ibn-Talib (the cousin of the prophet Mohamed) said that “a tall and black person would take the power in West. The new leader would bring signs from the third imam. Moreover. American Solutions” run on NBC. ABC was the only major US network that did not show the advertisement being indecisive. His last name Obama. written in Persian alphabet “O Ba Ma” signifies “he is with us” (this is the message from the Shiite texts). TV One.3. 4. it was published a photography made when Obama visited his cousin from Kenya and the fact that in that picture he wears a turban made that the suppositions according to which he is a Muslim increase.” The most interesting part comes by deciphering the signification of Barack Obama’s name in Arabian and Persian. whose name is Hussein Ibn Ali. Those campaigns were promoted on the Internet and the attacks were connected with the fact that his second name is Hussein or that he is a Muslim (Obama denied all this speculations and declared that he is a Christian). it should be emphasized the fact that Obama started his electoral campaign with a biographical commercial in which he emphasized his patriotism. The advertisements were broadcasted in 18 states and his 30-minute spot “American Stories. Fox. Barack Obama had to confront with a rough negative publicity as he was the target of many campaigns which had the purpose of denigrating his image.2. Univision and BET concentrating on many issues including health and taxation.
“Says what?”. it should be taken into consideration certain aspects. Moreover. Semiotic Analysis Applied on Political Publicity 4. and Harold Lasswell suggests the following questions: “Who?”. “In which channel?”.3. Michael Jackson. Marilyn Monroe. he is considered to be a pop icon the same as Madonna. Beginning from the moment when Barack Obama entered in the competition for the White House it is evident that he became a brand and his image is the most popular representation of the 21st century. He considers that these elements are essential for a better understanding of the communicational process regardless of its form. Jackie Kennedy.1. “To whom?”. “With what effect?”. Figure6. Banners from Barack’s Obama Presidential Campaign When trying to make a semiotic analysis. this happened not only because an Afro-American wanted to become the president of the United States. Barack Obama To illustrate the power of image in the process of seducing the population. In my view. Barack Obama is the transmitter of the message which is addressed to the electorate. It is obvious that in this case. I have chosen to make a semiotic analysis of some political posters used by Barack Obama and Traian Băsescu in their electoral campaigns in order to demonstrate that communicating messages by using codes and signs represents an art which is intensively used in the process of political communication. this domain is representative for semiotics as in the posters there is being used a codified visual and written language which has the role of transmitting unconscious messages to the electorate.3. but also for his original and intensively promoted 62 .4. For this reason and for the fact that his picture is used everywhere.
Nevertheless. he is not seen only as a “brand”. language. and “hope”. The message becomes more convincing as the face of Obama from the second poster is painted with red and blue.’s “I have a Dream” and Ronald Reagan’s ”Tear Down this Wall”. the message transmitted contains an articulated code (a vocabulary of basic units with syntactical rules) which generates meaningful combinations and in this case the entire sense is connected with the idea that together (both the president and the citizens) we can change the world in better. prediction. By using this strategy. Barack Obama suggests the idea that he is a patriot. 63 . opportunity. music. politicians use the visual communication for persuading and attracting the electorate. and “can”. the same as the promises he invoked especially when saying that he represents the “change”. Making a close analysis of Obama’s posters. Nevertheless. At first sight it can be noticed that the colors used are representative as they are the same with those from the national flag of the United States. a modal auxiliary verb suggests ability. but also as a “God”. permission. “can”. Moreover. “a Savior” of the US and even of the world. Regarding this aspect. The Global Language Monitor said: “Obama’s “Yes we can” speech ranked in tone. the main colors of the American flag. it makes us think of Obama as a powerful man and due to the colors implemented (the blue background and the white letters) he could be seen as a “Savior”. and represents a combination of three words in which “yes” is an adverb that indicates agreement or affirmation whereas “we” (first person plural noun) denotes a collective force or unity. the promoting campaign on the Internet brought him a large number of votes. Consequently. literature etc. the publicity represents a type of communication based on signs with different significations which have the purpose to unconsciously manipulate people’s mind. possibility. to catch the attention and to induce certain messages in people’s mind. In my opinion the word “change” represents a semiotic code and it is significant for the theme of his electoral campaign which is based on it. Therefore. in both images as well it can be seen the logo of Obama’s electoral campaign which resemblances surprisingly well with the logo used by Pepsi company.electoral campaign. However. “change”. tenor and rhetoric with memorable political addresses of Martin Luther King. the colors are important when analyzing a publicity poster as they have power to influence. the above pictures clearly represent the face of a politician who promotes his image using the banner as a method of attracting the electorate. it can be noticed that with regards to the language implemented. In this sense. The slogan of Obama’s electoral campaign is also used in domains such as sports. request. billboards and his TV apparitions. and that he loves his country. On a denotative level. Hence. on a connotative level. he continuously uses four words “we”. Jr.
as he became a model followed by many and in this sense the lawyers from the White House are trying to limit the commercial use of president’s image. giving meaning to the message. Furthermore. the Logo of Pepsi As it can be observed in the above images. the political posters. there is a discourse of the image which speaks by itself and communicates to the electorate that the politician is a friend of the citizens and not a person who wants to dominate. I would say that the symbolic part of the first picture makes reference to America’s cultural values and ideals and it suggests the idea of the “American dream”. There is the possibility that this logo was intentionally created so people would associate the image of Obama with Pepsi as it is known that since 1903. contain catchy phrases and words. the costume he wears induces the idea of a respectable man and the logo which contains the colors from the national flag. In order to draw the attention of all categories of electorate. and the type of argumentation used is the deduction. as his hands are crossed and in this case this gesture gives the impression of a calm and peaceful person. Moreover. there are used the same colors. Pepsi has been a brand with tradition in the US. gestures and posture. 64 . Firstly. I had the impression that the most important fact is to succeed in life and that America represents “the change” in better. These represent social codes which refer to facial expression. the figure of Obama can be considered an archetype.Obama’s logo Old logo of Pepsi New logo of Pepsi Figure 7. the language and the message transmitted are simple. This is suggested by the fact that Obama smiles friendly and he adopts a relaxed position of his body. With regards to the mythological level. wavy lines and the same shape. This type of inference is based on reasoning which emerges immediately in the mind of the person who sees the image. when seeing the photo for the first time. the first picture combines many single elements which are related to each other. gives the impression of a patriot who loves his country. Oabama’s Logo vs. Moreover. Personally.
Traian Băsescu in the electoral campaign from 2004.3. it becomes a code of each country’s culture. there is an electoral billboard representing Romania’s president. At first sight and on a denotative level the situation is the same as in Obama’s case since there can be seen a politician who uses the publicity as a method of seducing the public to vote him. Traian Băsescu Figure 8: Banner from the Presidential Campaign of Traian Băsescu In the above image. It should be emphasized the fact that this photography appeared during his electoral campaign and it could have represented a disadvantage for the image of Traian Băsescu as there is an enormous difference between the message transmitted and the reality. when the publicity passes for reality. we could see a person full of energy and the entire billboard suggests a state 65 .The political commercials are as simple as possible in order to seduce the electorate however the effort for realizing them is considerable as the reality is always encoded because in any culture. On a connotative level. 4. nevertheless I will debate on this situation in the following paragraphs.2.
the first situation arises from the sentence “Aşa DA Preşedinte!”. it can be noticed that the social codes he uses are also friendly. Another characteristic of orange would be that it attracts immediately the attention and in my view it was well chosen as it speaks for itself. Thus. an important resource for our health. immediately in our mind takes place the process of deduction through which we are able to understand the contrast. instead of Traian Băsescu who is a talkative person. the photo of the political billboard and the poor man who sleeps below the commercial raises many questions regarding the social and economic situation of our country and it represented a disadvantage for Traian Băsescu as it was put on the Internet during his electoral campaign. Regarding Traian Băsescu’s position of the body. makes a promise to the citizens that if he is elected president. than the economic situation of the country will improve and we will live in better conditions. secondly for underlining the parties he represents (the DA alliance of the National Democratic Party and the Democratic Party).of excitement. it has a strong impact as the person who watches might have the tendency to return Traian Basescu’s bow. The reason for which I have chosen this photo is represented by the fact that in Romania the real life is in a total opposition with the reality that the politicians try to present it. In spite of some negative aspects of Traian Băsescu’s electoral campaign. This is given especially by the orange color which is a combination between red and yellow. It is an interesting strategy as when looking at this billboard. the biggest prices therefore a low living standard. was not apolitical. 66 . a person might have the impression that the politician friendly greets him/her. Moreover. However. therefore it shares common features with those colors. The language attracts especially by the slogan used „Să trăiţi bine!“ (“Have a good life!”) which makes reference to the living standards from Romania. presently. When seeing this image the mind of the viewer unconsciously relates the words from the slogan “Have a good life!” with the poor man and. Nevertheless. there is used a pun for highlighting firstly the fact that Traian Băsescu is the politician who should be our president. Furthermore. As our country is known to have the smallest incomes. he was elected as president because his popularity continuously increased due to the “crowd baths” and to his unique methods of approaching citizens and situations. Traian Băsescu. where “DA” refers to the alliance of the two political parties. Băsescu is not popular anymore among people because of the conflicts he had with some politicians and for the fact that during his mandate as president he sustained certain political parties. the energy given by this color comes from the fact that it is found at some fruits such as oranges which are known for containing Vitamin C. through his electoral slogan. In addition. the smile giving the impression of a calm person and the gesture he makes with his hand is a form of salutation in army and it is known the fact that before involving in politics he was a sailor.
On the other hand. Another major thing that should be taken into account is that he continues to infringe his duties as a president and the Constitution. Therefore.As a conclusion. he declared in public the retreat of some troops from Iraq. In this sense. accusing their leaders. I would say that after Barack Obama was elected president. he started to accomplish his duties. At this moment he attacks the most important institutions from our country. by interfering in the judicial system. the separation of powers. after several weeks from his elections. he infringes one of the most important articles of the Constitution. Conclusion 67 . making the first steps for ending the wars in Middle East. entering in conflict with The Superior Council of Magistracy. Traian Băsescu lost his popularity due to his continuing conflicts with some politicians and to the fact that he did not respect the Romanian Constitution.
provides an answer to the three cardinal questions posed by the Romanian citizens: “why?”. the differentiation comes from people’s perception of the social and political reality. emphasizing the methods of political marketing with major contribution in the process of persuading. as political actors use it for trying to influence our perspectives and most of the time they succeed in doing so. Thereby. In my view. seducing and manipulating the electorate. and it should be noted that it took 200 for the American people to accept the Afro-Americans as being their compatriots. Additionally. the print media etc. on the world political arena. For this reason. in the second section of my case study I approached the particular strategies used by the two presidents in their electoral campaigns proposing a semiotic analysis for a better understanding of the manipulating methods through images and language. manipulate us using the most powerful weapon: mass media. The method proposed in this paper.Considering the title of my work “The Role of Publicity in Presidential Campaigns –an insight view over political communication-”. politicians are not only “actors” which pretend to make efforts to improve the life of the citizens. I realized a short survey of the historical background of the two countries. I demonstrated and argued my opinion that political publicity has as a final target the public manipulation. the radio. “how are we different?” and “what can we do in order to live as the Americans?”. emphasizing that Romania is not entirely democratic as the influences of the communist regime are still persistent and that even though America was in continuous evolution. it can be said that the impact of mass media over politics is major. In this way I gave a response to the three questions. it encountered problems concerning racial hate. an investigation of the electoral campaigns of Traian Băsescu and Barack Obama. Also. in other words. I demonstrated that the problem comes from each country’s past and it is strongly related to the mentality of the people. stating that a final consideration will be that the Romanian people will understand and behave as in a democratic system only when there would remain the generations born in democracy. the suggested method of demonstrating this statement has a major impact and all the semiotic elements applied on the analysis of the two banners represent powerful arguments of this idea. developing the idea that even though the political communication implies common features. 68 . Moreover. I underlined the pattern followed by the politicians in the process of drawing our attention through the means of communication such as the Internet. To illustrate what I have previously mentioned in the theoretical section. the paper investigates current issues regarding the difference between the American and the Romanian political systems. the TV. but they are also “film producers” who direct us from behind the scene. in the first part of the case study. this paper examines various elements related to political communication. Therefore.
With reference to the effort of writing this paper I state that it required a thorough documentation and concrete research over the political communication and the semiotic theory. Works Cited 69 . as some debated aspects shed light on some insight parts of politics and mass media that are attractive for the reader who can discover methods to perceive the language behind the image. In my opinion. all the chapters are interesting and captivating.
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în studiul de caz al lucrării am făcut o analiză comparativă între campania prezidenţială a lui Traian Băsescu din 2004 şi cea a lui Barack Obama din 2008. Prin urmare.Rezumat Având în vedere titlul lucrării mele de licenţă „Rolul publicităţii în campaniile prezidenţiale”. În sprijinul acestor partide vine şi departamentul de relaţii cu publicul care se ocupă de crearea unei imagini pozitive asupra partidului pe care îl reprezintă prin organizarea de conferinţe de presă. De aceea. am început lucrarea prin a reda anumite consideraţii în ceea ce priveşte comunicarea politică. totodată încearcă să contracareze. atunci când este cazul. şi. principala temă abordată este comunicarea politică prin intermediul mijloacelor mass-media având ca şi scop final evidenţierea metodelor de marketing politic în procesul de persuasiune a electoratului. Aşadar. De asemenea. am precizat faptul că aceasta implică trei dimensiuni importante şi anume dimensiunea pragmatică (face referire la situaţiile reale de comunicare). încă din titlul primului capitol este lansată întrebarea „Poate fi considerată publicitatea politică o încercare de a manipula cetăţenii?”. ideologii politice şi care au acelaşi scop. imaginea negativă creată de presă. Un alt aspect important priveşte actorii politici care sunt principalii pioni ai scenei politice şi care pot fi împărţiţi în mai multe categorii având ca şi criteriu principal ideologiile politice pe care le susţin. televiziune. 75 . internetul). Un exemplu elocvent în acest sens ar putea fi cele două partide puternice din Statele Unite: partidul republican (ai cărui reprezentanţi sunt adepţii unor idei conservatoriste) şi partidul democrat (ai cărui membri susţin ideile social-liberale). dimensiunea simbolică (rolul simbolic pe care îl au cuvintele în comunicarea politică) şi dimensiunea structurală (tratează mijloacele prin intermediul cărora se realizează comunicarea politică şi anume radio. De asemenea. bannere. şi anume de ce nu putem trăi ca americanii? Astfel. într-o primă categorie sunt incluse partidele politice ce reprezintă un grup de oameni care împărtăşesc aceleaşi idei. evidenţiind faptul că aceasta se regăseşte pretutindeni îmbrăcând diferite forme precum afişele stradale. presa scrisă. reclame TV etc. prin alegerea a două situaţii diferite de campanie electorală am încercat să dau un răspuns la întrebarea generală pe care şi-o pun mulţi cetăţeni români.
Cele mai cunoscute organizaţii teroriste sunt Hamas şi Hezbollah în Orientul Mijlociu. asasinatele. IRA în nordul Irlandei şi al-Qaida. să facă ceea ce fac şi ceilalţi din jurul său iar în acest fel opinia publică se transformă într-un factor de control al opţiunilor. publicităţii. influenţează opinia electoratului. Socializarea indivizilor în mediul lor cultural reprezintă cea de-a treia funcţie în opinia lui Laswell şi care presupune învăţarea principalelor valori în vederea integrării individului în mediul cultural. Însă. stabileşte care sunt priorităţile acţiunilor politice. ci mai cu seamă de anumite caracteristici legate de problemele de muncă.Cea de-a doua categorie de actori politici cuprinde sindicatele. În categoria actelor teroriste sunt incluse atentatele cu bombă. asigură comunicarea între politicieni şi electorat. se poate vorbi şi de o a patra funcţie. instituţii. În procesul comunicării politice. interpretează acţiunile politicienilor. Harold Lasswell abordează dintr-un alt punct de vedere funcţiile mass-media şi le clasifică în trei categorii. În comunicarea politică. grupurile de consumatori şi organizaţiile publice. cea de manipulare a proceselor politice. Odată cu liberalizarea presei. incluzându-le şi pe cele de pe plan politic. Membrii acestor organizaţii nu sunt uniţi de ideologii politice comune. dar aceste grupuri recurg la terorism pentru a-şi îndeplini obiectivele. funcţiile acesteia s-au multiplicat. dar pentru a reuşi acest lucru trebuie să adopte anumite strategii de marketing pe care le aplică prin intermediul televiziunii. organizaţia responsabilă cu atentatul asupra turnurilor World Trade Center din New York. Organizaţiile teroriste pot fi considerate şi ele ca făcând parte din categoria actorilor politici. radioului şi a presei scrise. personalităţi. răpirile. iar în această situaţie intervine şi rolul acesteia de manipulare. principalul rol al mass-media este acela de a informa cetăţenii cu privire la problemele societăţii. şi se deosebesc de organizaţiile publice prin faptul că sunt mai puţin instituţionalizate. Prima este cea de supraveghere a lumii având ca scop prezentarea evenimentelor de actualitate şi concentrarea pe anumite evenimente. Cea de-a doua funcţie este cea de interpretare a sensului evenimentelor care formează şi deformează opinia publică asupra celor ce se întâmplă în lumea politică. iar în procesul de comunicare politică îndeplineşte următoarele funcţii: prezintă informaţiile publicului. Cea de-a treia categorie include grupurile de presiune ale căror preocupări sunt constituite în jurul unei singure probleme precum mediul înconjurător. ETA în Ţara Bascilor din Spania. Mai 76 . Aceasta apare în momentul în care teama individului de izolare îl determină să accepte anumite convenţii sociale. Chiar dacă acţiunile acestora includ acte de terorism. direcţionând impactul acestora asupra vieţii indivizilor. ajungând sa fie un produs acceptat de valorile generale ale societăţii. aceştia au ca scop transmiterea de mesaje politice unor anumite grupuri de electorat. emiţătorii mesajelor au ca şi scop seducerea sau persuasiunea electoratului.
Un alt element al comunicării politice este codul ce reprezintă o enumerare logică de elemente realizată prin folosirea unor „pattern”-uri bine stabilite care diferă în funcţie de structura mentală a utilizatorilor. Caracteristicile principale ale mesajului politic sunt informarea şi convingerea. zgomot şi repertoriul. Astfel. ce presupune realizarea unui proiect de campanie bazat pe sondaje de opinie. procesul trebuie să 77 .mult decât atât. conferind discursului acestuia un plus de convingere. însumând totalitatea elementelor perturbatoare. iar in cazul acesta emiţătorul este actorul politic ce transmite electoratului mesaje conţinând concepţiile şi ideologiile sale. vorbirea prea lentă sau prea rapidă. fizice sau psihice. influenţând într-un fel sau altul procesul de comunicare. promovează şi direcţionează spre anumite grupuri ţintă imaginea unui partid politic sau a unui candidat. Repertoriul constituie ultimul element al comunicării politice şi care se referă la bagajul de cunoştinţe într-un anumit domeniu. Ca orice alt tip de comunicare. economic. Există trei tipuri de strategii în cadrul acestui proces: strategia de proiectare. În vederea realizării acestui obiectiv. Această particularizare are rolul de a transforma politicianul într-un produs deoarece acesta are ca scop final atragerea opiniei publice şi obţinerea de voturi în urma campaniei electorale. având ca scop persuasiunea publicului său. Cel de-al doilea element al comunicării politice este mesajul. iar pentru ducerea la bun sfârşit a acestei acţiuni. cod. Canalul de transmitere al mesajului este cel de-al treilea element şi se referă cu precădere la modul prin care este transmis mesajul politic. De asemenea. canal de transmitere al mesajului. feed-back. emiţătorul comunicării politice are rolul de a iniţia procesul de comunicare. strategia de înştiinţare a opiniei publice prin care proiectul trebuie să fie făcut cunoscut cetăţenilor şi strategia verbală şi nonverbală care implică limbajul mimico-gestual al actorilor politici. Acestea pot fi: intensitatea vocii. Scopul fiecărui politician este acela de a se face apreciat şi de a câştiga cât mai multe voturi. publicitatea politică formează. cea politică se bazează pe mai multe elemente fixe precum: emiţător. actorul politic trebuie să aibă în vedere contextul politic. context. social. aceste persoane trebuie să aibă capacitatea de a decodifica mesajele primite pentru a putea răspunde la acestea sub forma feed-back-ului. cultural. mesaj. atât al omului politic (emiţătorul) cât şi al electoratului (receptorul). care acţionează direct sau indirect. defecte de vorbire. Sursa de zgomot reprezintă un factor important în comunicarea politică. receptor. lipsa coerenţei discuţiilor. ce este transmis prin intermediul emiţătorului politic şi care scoate în evidenţă ideologia politică pe care o adoptă. Contextul se referă la valorile şi regulile pe baza cărora se derulează procesul comunicării politice. Receptorul politic este un element de bază al comunicării şi este reprezentat de o persoană sau un grup de persoane către care sunt direcţionate mesajele emiţătorului. Un aspect particular al publicităţii politice constă în crearea unui sistem standardizat al acesteia.
atunci şi-a câştigat aprecierea electoratului. Prin urmare. omul politic foloseşte limbajul ideologic pentru a da 78 . De aceea. Din cauza faptului că în prezent politicienii încearcă să îşi creeze o imagine cât mai originală. în care nivelul de trai este mai scăzut şi apare din cauză că oamenii consideră că bunăstarea politicianului corupt este o cauza a împovărării lor. sau printr-o prezentare în mai multe etape a oamenilor politici. Pentru crearea unei imagini pozitive este important ca printre calităţile şi responsabilităţile unui politician trebuie să se regăsească şi următoarele: să fie în relaţii bune cu presa. care trebuie promovată în vederea punerii într-o lumină cât mai favorabilă a politicianului. înglobează ideologia omului politic. transformarea unui om politic într-un personaj cât mai popular în rândul electoratului se poate realiza prin intermediul acţiunilor şoc. se ajunge la viziunea că profilul acestuia este mai important decât ideologia pe care o reprezintă. În prima etapă se stabileşte care este publicul ţintă şi se face o analiză a acestuia. adică prin bombardarea cetăţenilor cu informaţii despre actorul politic. Dacă scopul comunicării politice este acela de a realiza o legătură între oamenii politici şi cetăţeni. Astfel. în aceste ţări oamenii vor admira un om cinstit şi onest. sugerează o serie de principii şi de idei prin care să găsească o rezolvare pentru problemele respective. să participe la evenimentele mai importante. să aibă capacitatea de a asculta oamenii. În acest fel. atunci rolul acesteia este acela de transmitere a ideilor. comunicarea politică se împarte în funcţie de ideologie şi de imagine în două părţi: comunicarea politică de tip dialogic şi comunicarea politică de tip marketing. Cea de-a patra etapă face referire la tehnicile de diferenţiere a actorului politic în contrast cu opozanţii. iar la această modalitate apelează îndeosebi politicienii care doresc funcţii înalte în stat.parcurgă mai multe etape. Primul model. ideologiilor politicienilor către electorat. atunci. În acest tip de comunicare. iar dacă acesta dovedeşte faptul că este şi un bun familist. A treia etapă în procesul comunicării politice o reprezintă lansarea actorului politic şi a programului său. În această situaţie. să fie deschis la dialog. să fie clară şi să fie recunoscută cu uşurinţă. care analizând problemele sociale sau economice ale societăţii. Astfel. dacă acesta a fost etichetat ca fiind corupt. imaginea acestuia va avea de suferit pentru totdeauna. să respecte tradiţia şi istoria. aceasta trebuie să nu conţină contradicţii. se ajunge la evidenţierea anumitor aspecte sau chiar la exagerearea unor caracteristici prin care imaginea candidatului să poată creşte în sondajele de opinie. pentru ca imaginea să aibă un impact cât mai mare şi să fie cât mai convingătoare. dacă la un moment dat presa crează o imagine negativă asupra unui politician. În acest context se vor identifica indivizii care au un grad mai mare de receptivitate a programelor politice. Următoarea etapă presupune crearea imaginii actorului politic. Acest sistem este întâlnit în special în ţările de tranziţie. de a cunoaşte realitatea economică şi socială şi cel mai important să se ferească de greşeli.
prin intermediul televiziunii. De obicei. se poate spune că rolul acesteia este de a aminti şi nu de a convinge. acesta fiind motivul pentru care principala lor caracteristică este simplitatea (puţină informaţie. scoaterea candidatului în prim plan). În România. dar doreşte să ancoreze în spaţiul politic partidul sau ideologiile politice pe care le reprezintă. De altfel. în încercarea de părea cât mai convingători. cele două efecte retorice ale publicităţii cărora politica le accentuează specificitatea. Prin urmare. În privinţa presei scrise. şi pot ajunge la un public cât mai variat pentru că politicienii îşi fac reclamă atât în ziarele politice. de tip marketing are ca scop principal seducerea şi persuadarea electoratului prin utilizarea mijloacelor de convingere şi este folosit în special în campaniile electorale. Această metodă se axează pe crearea unei imagini a omului politic din perspectiva limbajului folosit. televiziune şi radio. Radioul reprezintă şi el o modalitate de promovare fiind folosit în special datorită faptului că este mult mai ieftin. În cel de-al treilea rând. sumele cheltuie în campanie sunt enorme şi provin din bugetul statului în timp ce banii pentru campaniile electorale din SUA sunt din bugetul propriu. Cu privire la publicitatea stradală. deoarece. se poate vorbi de o dependenţă a actorilor politici faţă de mijloacele mass-media. În capitolul II al lucrării intitulat „Media – scena politicienilor” am evidenţiat metodele de marketing politic folosite cel mai mult de politicieni şi care au un impact mare asupra publicului. prin care nu vizează în mod special să declanşeze o implicare specială a electoratului în procesul politic. O altă formă de publicitate politică este reprezentarea. politicienii vând imagine şi nu ideologie politică. ce se referă la reprezentarea unei acţiuni aflate în proiect pentru a convinge electoratul să acorde votul unui candidat sau să adere la un partid sau asociaţie. am început prin a prezenta relaţia care se stabileşte între politicieni. totul se învârte în jurul banilor. Publicitatea de tip politic se referă la chemarea electoratului pentru votarea sau susţinerea unui anumit candidat.mesajelor un caracter informativ şi cât mai concret şi de asemenea. dar şi în revistele sportive sau de divertisment. şi a „prieteniilor” legate între politicieni şi unele posturi de televiziune. se poate spune că aceasta are menirea de a acorda cât mai multe informaţii despre un anumit candidat. limbajul operaţional prin care elementele abstracte sunt transformate în acţiuni politice sesizabile percepute de publicul larg. există persuasiunea şi seducţia. iar aceste metode pot fi considerate ca fiind teme ale comunicării politice. concep campanii electorale cât mai originale şi mai atrăgătoare. 79 . Mai mult decât atât. care să fie în primul rând pe placul presei pentru a le promova. în primul rând se poate vorbi de publicitatea de acţiune. Cel de-al doilea model. În acest caz. Aşadar. politicienii recurg la o serie de metode pentru a atrage electoratul la vot. multă culoare.
încercând să găsesc o posibilă motivaţie în ceea ce priveşte diferenţele majore dintre de gândire. Un alt element important al acestei ştiinţe îl reprezintă codurile care pot fi clasificate în trei categorii: coduri sociale. societatea a ajuns să fie una a consumatorului. De aceea am considerat că este necesar să fac o mică analiză a evoluţiei celor două ţări de-a 80 . televiziunii 13 ani iar internetului doar 4 ani. ne transformăm după cum evidenţia Giovanni Sartori din „homo videns în homo sapiens”. forumurilor. ajungându-se la o depolitizare a politicului care îşi pierde tot mai mult esenţa şi devine tot mai dependent de presă şi noi la rândul nostru la fel. trebuie să nu ne lăsăm influenţaţi de această manipulare politică mediatică. internetul a devenit o cea mai răspândită formă de comunicare ce s-a extins şi în domeniul politicii. Peirce face o distincţie între „semn” şi „cuvânt” şi susţine că acesta reprezintă mecanismul înţelegerii. coduri textuale şi coduri interpretative. Astfel. În studiul de caz „Abordări electorale în România şi în SUA” am încercat să analizez comparativ campaniile electorale ale preşedintelui României Traian Băsescu şi Barack Obama. În acest context. hedonismul. De asemenea. prin încercarea de manipulare folosindu-se de false promisiuni. şi nivel de trai dintre cele două ţări. se poate trage o concluzie uimitoare. din cauza dezvoltării mijloacelor de comunicare ce cultivă simplitatea. sau a jocurilor pe care unii politicieni le inventează în timpul campaniilor electorale în vederea atragerii a cât mai mulţi simpatizanţi. cel dintâi acordă o mai mare importanţă limbajului care este într-o relaţie dinamică cu discursul şi oferă semnificaţiei o diadă conform căreia semnul este compus din semnificant şi semnificat. De aceea. şi anume că în anul 2007 în întreaga lume erau 1 miliard şi 114 milioane de utilizatori. acesta oferă acestu proces o triadă alcătuită din simbol. Fernand de Saussure şi Charles Sanders Peirce. după această perioadă numărul utilizatorilor a început să crească în special în ţările industrializate.Dacă în anii '90 internetul era un mijloc de comunicare practic necunoscut pentru majoritatea publicului. radioului i-au trebuit 38 de ani. din icon şi index. încercând să abordez problema prin prisma a doi scriitori importanţi din domeniul semioticii. Mai mult decât atât. iar în România se poate vorbi de o politica-spectacol practicată de candidaţi prin certurile permanente din mediul politic. deoarece se poate întreprinde o comunicare mai eficientă cu electoratul prin intermediul blogurilor. Astfel. s-a ajuns la crearea unei imagini a politicianului ca „produs”. şi să reîncepem să cultivăm obiceiul cititului cărţilor. se poate spune că dacă pentru a ajunge la un număr de 50 de milioane de utilizatori. Pe de altă parte. De aceea. şi de asemenea. politicienii apelează la el din ce în ce mai mult. Astfel. Cu toate acestea. pentru a ilustra dezvoltarea rapidă a acestuia. între modurile în care sunt văzute personalitaţile politice. În cel de-al treilea capitol al lucrării am încercat să dau o definiţie conceptului de semiotică (ce se referă în sens larg la ştiinţa interpretării înţelesului semnelor).
Pe de altă parte. O altă strategie a fost faptul că Traian Băsescu îşi provoca mereu adversarul la înfruntări televizate. Astfel. În ciuda acestor lucruri. în special prin jocurile cu premii realizate şi prin imaginea brandului care era un ardei roşu. Adrian Năstase de şantaj asupra lui Theodor Stolojan. deoarece de aici pornesc toate diferenţele. se poate spune că americanilor li s-a sugerat în mod 81 . se poate afirma că Barack Obama a început cu şapte ani înainte de alegeri campania electorală prin faptul că în SUA a rulat un serial de televiziune „24”. Traian Băsescu şi-a construit imaginea prin încercarea de a demonstra că el este diferit de predecesorii săi. De aceea. în timp ce Adrian Năstase s-a bazat pe succesele sale ca prim ministru şi se pare că nu a fost de ajuns. atmosfera politică înainte de intrarea în competiţia pentru Palatul Cotroceni a lui Traian Băsescu era tensionată. fiecare în modul ei. se află SUA.A. am început prin a descrie mediul politic dinaintea începerii cursei prezidenţiale. Pe de altă parte. şi în SUA situaţia era destul de tensionată din cauza crizei financiare şi a războaielor din Orientul Mijlociu. ai cărei cetăţeni susţin că trăiesc într-un regim democratic. astfel Traian Băsescu a profitat din plin de spiritul său ironic aducând în continuu acuzaţii şi provocări adversarului. în timp ce acesta din urmă încerca să le aplaneze. nu un spectator. care nu au suportat războaie mari pe teritoriul ei. iar prin carisma şi ingeniozitatea sa a devenit popular în rândul cetăţenilor într-un timp relativ scurt. acesta fiind motivul pentru care multiplele regimuri politice prin care a recut să contribuie la ceea ce este astăzi. în care preşedintele Americii era o persoană de culoare. dar care nu s-au desprins de influenţele regimului comunist. Campania online a fost cea mai spectaculoasă până la momentul respectiv. Strategiile pe care acesta le-a iniţiat pentru a-şi promova imaginea au fost interesante şi au atras mulţi simpatizanţi de partea lui. România este o ţară care a trecut prin multe războaie. că este un politician activ. Cu privire la analiza comparativă a celor două campanii electorale. Cei doi politicieni care au rămas în competiţie s-au diferenţiat prin modul de promovare. iar acest lucru a contribuit la permanenta dezvoltare economică. La această tensiune a contribuit şi faptul că Traian Băsescu a intrat în competiţie prin acuzarea oponentului său. Prin urmare. Adversarii săi politici au fost Adrian Năstase şi Corneliu Vadim Tudor. ambii preşedinţi s-au concentrat pe campaniile de promovare care au fost spectaculoase. din care făcea parte Traian Băsescu s-a bazat pe reformarea sistemului educaţional şi pe încurajarea tinerilor de a studia prin acordarea de burse. În acest fel. adică o ţară de tranzit. acesta din urmă retrăgându-se din cursa electorală cu puţin timp înainte de alegeri. Platforma electorală a alianţei D. În cealaltă extremă.lungul istoriei. din cauza distribuţiei puterii între partidele politice. a fost continuu cotropită şi cucerită. fiind înfrânt în turul doi de scrutin.
am luat bannerul folosit de Obama în întreaga campanie electorală şi care îl înfăţişează din punct de vederea al semnificaţiei la nivel conotativ un salvator al Americii. pe conceptul de împreună ca naţiune ce reiese din sloganul acestuia „Yes We Can” şi pe ideea de un nou început sugerat de logo-ul acestuia care a fost realizat în ideea unui soare ce răsare. dimpotrivă mereu a folosit cuvântul „noi”. Astfel. pentru a combate ideile conservatoriste ale republicanului John McCain. iar celălalt al lui Barack Obama. De asemenea. În acest sens. scopul principal reprezentându-l schimbarea. Barack Obama a trebuit să treacă şi peste publicitatea negativă care i s-a făcut mai ales de adversarul său. care îl acuza că este musulman deoarece al doilea său nume este Hussein sau că este războinicul aşteptat de lumea musulmană pentru a-i ajuta să cucerească lumea. logoul lui Obama ce se aseamănă cu cel folosit de compania Pepsi ar putea sugera faptul că preşedintele se leagă de tradiţia acestui brand pentru a-şi crea la rândul lui o astfel de imagine. imaginea lui apărea pe cele mai cunoscute siteuri şi forumuri precum Facebook. încrazător în forţele proprii şi un adevărat patriot. referindu-se implicit la 82 . de om calm. dezvăluie lucruri pe care nu le putem percepe la o primă vedere. Barack Obama împreună cu întregul partid democrat au creat o platformă electorală bazată pe ideea de refacere. ci. Un alt lucru interesant ce poate fi observat în afişul acetuia este celebrul slogan „Yes we can” ce este foarte sugestiv din mai multe puncte de vedere. Aşadar. În primul rând sugerează faptul că Obama niciodată nu a vorbit despre faptul că el va face un anumit lucru sau că va scoate America din criză. Pentru crearea unei imagini pozitive s-a încercat evidenţierea ideii că Barack Obama reprezintă schimbarea. Pentru a ilustra puterea imaginii de a comunica mesaje. am analizat din punct de vedere al semioticii două afişe electorale. titlul acestui program fiind „Reînnoirea promisiunii către America”. limbajul folosit împreună cu logoul şi culorile utilizate reprezintă simboluri care dau un înţeles întregii imagini şi care analizate la un alt nivel. În ideea acestui concept a fost realizată şi campania electorală a lui Obama. e important să le înţeleagă plăcerile. MySpace. Cu toate acestea. unul al lui Traian Băsescu. Adversarii politici ai lui Obama au fost Hillary Clinton şi John McCain. şi de aceea a creat o interesantă campanie online prin care şi-a atras un număr mare de simpatizanţi. Obama a rămas cu voturile acesteia dat fiind faptul că ambii erau reprezentanţi ai partidului democrat. un om politic ce şi-a dovedit calităţile de politician. de a persuada sau chiar de contribui la formarea de opinii. iar în urma retragerii lui Hillary Clinton din cursa pentru Casa Albă. de nou. În acest fel. YouTube. a înţeles faptul că pentru a-şi atrage tinerii de partea sa.inconştient că viitorul lor preşedinte ar putea fie de culoare.
dar. ce denotă energie şi care. mesajul lasă loc de interpretări în sensul că Obama se poate referi la faptul că „putem să dăm o nouă înfăţişare Americii!” sau „putem opri războaiele!”. cu toate acestea. Un alt element din acea fotografie îl reprezintă contrastul dintre sloganul preşedintelui „Să trăiţi bine!” şi cerşetorul care doarme zgribulit în partea de jos a panoului. În al doilea rând. el a fost câştigătorul alegerilor. În ceea ce priveşte bannerul electoral al lui Traian Băsescu din 2004.populaţia Statelor Unite. Acest lucru a adus o umbră asupra imaginii lui Traian Băsescu. atrage atenţia. am evidenţiat că acesta are ca şi culoare centrală portocaliul. 83 .
la dimensión simbólica (el papel simbólico que tienen las palabras en la comunicación política) y la dimensión estructural (con referencia a los medios de comunicación mediante los cuales se realiza la comunicación política: la radio. Por eso. la televisión. contrarrestando la imagen negativa creada por la prensa. ideologías políticas y que tienen el mismo propósito. Asimismo.Resumen Conforme al título de mi licencia “El Papel de la Publicidad en las Presidenciales”. en una primera categoría podemos incluir los partidos políticos que representan un grupo de personas que comparten las mismas ideas. De modo igual. en el estudio de caso hice una comparación entre la campaña presidencial de Traian Băsescu de 2004 y la campaña presidencial de Barack Obama de 2008. el Internet). los reclamos de televisión etc. la prensa escrita. he aclarado el hecho de que ella supone tres dimensiones: la dimensión pragmática (que hace referencia a las situaciones reales de comunicación). De este modo. el principal tema debatido es la comunicación política mediante mass media y el propósito final de este proyecto es subrayar los métodos de marketing político en el proceso de persuasión del electorado. organizando ruedas de prensa y también. Otro aspecto importante se refiere a los actores políticos que son los principales peones de la escena política y se pueden dividir en tres categorías según sus ideologías políticas. mi intención fue la de elegir dos situaciones totalmente diferentes para dar una respuesta a una pregunta frecuente entre los rumanos: “¿Por qué no tenemos el mismo estándar de vida como los americanos?”. destacando la idea que la podemos encontrar en diversas formas como las carteleras de calle. 84 . creando una imagen positiva. desde el título del primer capítulo se nace una pregunta: “¿Podemos considerar la publicidad política una manipulación de los ciudadanos?”. los banners. Por consiguiente. De este modo. al principio de mi trabajo he escrito sobre los aspectos generales de la comunicación política. El departamento de relaciones con el público viene de apoyar estos partidos. Un ejemplo elocuente en este sentido lo representan los dos partidos políticos muy poderosos de los Estados Unidos: el partido republicano (cuyos representantes sostienen las ideas conservadoras) y el partido democrático (cuyos miembros sostienen las ideas socio-liberales).
La segunda categoría es representada por los sindicados. Aunque las acciones de estos grupos incluyen ataques terroristas. Sin embargo. la organización responsable del atentado sobre los turnos gemelos World Trade Center de Nueva York. Los miembros de estas organizaciones no están unidos por ideologías políticas sino por algunas características de los asuntos de trabajo. y se distinguen de las organizaciones públicas por el hecho de que están menos institucionalizados. influye la opinión del electorado. al-Qaida. En la categoría de los actores políticos están incluidas también las organizaciones terroristas. establece las prioridades de las acciones de los políticos y asegura la comunicación entre los políticos y el electorado. incluso sobre los problemas políticos. orientando su impacto sobre la vida de los individuos. En la aceptación de Laswell. los asesinados y los secuestros. la opinión pública se transforma en un factor de control de las opciones. con el fin de presentar los eventos de actualidad. y en el proceso de comunicación política tiene los siguientes papeles: presenta las informaciones al público. IRA en el norte de Irlanda. ETA en el País Vasco de España. personalidades. En el mismo tiempo con la liberalización de la prensa. Harold Lasswell tiene otro punto de vista sobre los papeles de los mass media y les clasifica en tres categorías. la manipulación de los procesos políticos. y. siendo un producto aceptado de las valores generales de la sociedad. la socialización de los individuos en su medio cultural representa la tercera función que supone el aprendizaje de los principales valores de la integración del individuo en su medio cultural. haciendo las mismas que hacen las personas de su alrededor. el problema del medioambiental. El segundo papel es de interpretar el sentido de los eventos que forman o deforman la opinión pública sobre los acontecimientos del mundo político. sus funciones se multiplicaron. el papel de los mass media es de informar los ciudadanos sobre los asuntos de la sociedad. interpreta las acciones de los políticos. Los ataques terroristas más conocidos son los atentados con bomba. Las organizaciones terroristas más renombradas son: Hamas y Hezbollah en el Oriento Medio. los grupos de consumidores y las organizaciones públicas. por ejemplo. concentrándose en determinados eventos. En la comunicación política. instituciones. en este caso interviene su papel de manipulación. se puede hablar sobre una cuarta función de los mass media. su propósito es de transmitir mensajes políticos hacía determinados grupos de ciudadanos. De este modo. La tercera categoría incluye los grupos de presión cuyos intereses se constituyen alrededor de un problema como. y. La primera función es la vigilancia sobre el mundo. Esta función aparece cuando el miedo del individuo de no quedar aislado del resto de la sociedad lo determina a aceptar ciertos convenciones sociales. pero la diferencia es que estos grupos recurren al terrorismo para cumplir sus objetivos. 85 .
defectos en la habla. social. siguen algunas estrategias de marketing aplicadas mediante la televisión. concediendo al discurso más convicción. Más aún. el político se transforma en un producto porque el propósito final es obtener votos después la campaña electoral. El receptor político representa una persona o un grupo de personas hacia el cual están transmitidos los mensajes. receptor. Las características principales del mensaje político son la información y la convicción. la radio. contexto. feed-back. El repertorio es el último elemento de la comunicación política y se refiere a los conocimientos de un determinado ámbito. En la primera se establece el público y en este sentido se identifican los individuos con un mayor 86 .En el proceso de la comunicación política. ruido y repertorio. la falta de coherencia en los discursos. el canal para transmitir el mensaje. estas personas deben tener la capacidad de decodificar los mensajes recibidos para ofrecer el feed-back. De esta manera. es necesario que el actor tenga en cuenta el contexto económico. el ritmo de hablar etc. la publicidad y la prensa escrita. tanto de los políticos (los emisores) como del electorado (los receptores). Como los otros tipos de comunicación. De este modo. Unos ejemplos en este sentido serían: la intensidad de la voz. político. los emisores de los mensajes tienen como objetivo la seducción o la persuasión del electorado. cultural. Asimismo. transmitido mediante el emisor y que destaca la ideología política del candidato. y por eso. promueva y directa hacia determinados grupos la imagen de un partido político o de un candidato. El segundo elemento de la comunicación política es el mensaje. Para realizar este objetivo. código. El canal mediante el cual se envían los mensajes es el tercer elemento. El propósito de los políticos es de lograr la consideración del público y da ganar votos. que influencian directa o indirectamente el proceso de comunicación. El contexto se refiere a los valores y las regulas que contribuyen al proceso de comunicación política. la comunicación política se basa en muchos elementos fijos como: emisor. físicos o psíquicos. y para finalizar esta acción es importante que el proceso pase por algunas etapas. El código es otro elemento de la comunicación que representa una enumeración lógica de elementos realizada con el uso de determinados “patterns” bien establecidos que se diferencian según la estructura mental de los usuarios. la estrategia de anunciar la opinión pública para que los ciudadanos conozcan el proyecto y la estrategia verbal y non verbal que implica el lenguaje mímico gestual de los actores políticos. mensaje. Un aspecto particular de la publicidad política consiste en la creación de un sistema estandardizado de ésta. transmitiendo al electorado mensajes en conformidad con sus ideologías. el emisor tiene el papel de empezar el proceso de comunicación. forma. El ruido es un factor muy importante que representa la totalidad de los elementos de perturbación. Hay tres tipos de estrategias en este proceso: la estrategia de proyección que supone la realización de un proyecto de campaña a base de unos sondeos de opinión. la publicidad política.
En el primer tipo de comunicación se usa el lenguaje ideológico se usa para dar a los mensajes un carácter informativo y. De costumbre. clara y reconocida con mucha facilidad. los políticos usan una serie de métodos para atraer el electorado. de conocer la realidad económica y social de su país y. El segundo modelo. se puede hablar de tres grandes temas: la publicidad de acción. teniendo en cuenta que los políticos promueven su imagen tanto en los periódicos de especialidad como en revistas esportivas o de divertimiento. usando métodos de convencer el electorado. tiene como propósito la persuasión del público. destaca los métodos de marketing político con un impacto muy grande sobre el público. convencerlo a votar. participar a los eventos culturales. lo mas importante es que debe saber como evitar los errores. sin contradicciones. La tercera etapa se refiere a la promoción del actor político y de su programa electoral. se pueden enumerar los siguientes: el político debe establecer buenas relaciones con la prensa. estos métodos pueden ser considerados los mayores temas de la comunicación política. la representación y la persuasión. En Rumania todo se hace con mucho dinero y el político que tiene muchas “amistades” entre los puestos de televisión. la comunicación política se divide conforme a las ideologías y a la imagen en dos partes: comunicación política dialógica y comunicación política de marketing. el lenguaje operacional mediante el cual los elementos abstractos están transformados en acciones políticas percibidas por el público. especialmente en las campañas electorales. para convencer al público. y. La siguiente etapa supone la creación de una imagen positiva del político. se puede decir que su papel es de 87 . Dado que en el presente los políticos tratan de crear una imagen original. las ideologías de los candidatos y el electorado. sociales importantes de un país. Más aún. que. Si el propósito de la comunicación política es de realizar una conexión entre los políticos y los ciudadanos. Por consiguiente. El tercer capítulo nombrado “Media – la escena de los políticos”. Para evidenciar este asunto. entonces su papel es de transmitir las ideas. La cuarta etapa hace referencia a las técnicas de distinguir los candidatos y sus adversarios.interés en los programas políticos. las cantidades de dinero necesarios por las campañas son enormes y proceden del presupuesto del estado mientras que. tiene muchas ventajas. Entre los cualidades de un candidato en la presidencia. respectar la tradición. en los Estados Unidos proceden del presupuesto propio. En cuanto a la prensa escrita. conciben campañas electorales originales y atractivas. Por lo tanto. históricos. se puede hablar de una dependencia de los actores políticos hacia la mass media. tener la capacidad de escuchar la gente. se puede decir que está es importante porque ofrece muchas informaciones sobre los candidatos y el público es muy diversificado. podemos destacar que su imagen es más importante que la ideología que el representa. Con referencia a la publicidad de la calle.
De este modo. Peirce hace una distinción entre “signo” y “palabra” y sostiene que estos representan el mecanismo de entender. Asimismo. el presidente de los Estados Unidos para encontrar motivaciones referentes a las grandes diferencias de pensamiento y estándar de vida entre los dos países. Por otra parte. En el tercer capítulo de mi trabajo trato el concepto de semiótica. es decir.000. el rápido desarrollo de los medios de comunicación ha hecho que el político se convierte en un producto. no debemos dejarnos influidos por esta manipulación política y tenemos que empezar cultivar el costumbre de leer libros. se puede destacar la conclusión sorprendente de que. Otro aspecto muy importante de esta ciencia lo representan los códigos. especialmente porque pueden comunicar directamente con el electorado a través los blogs o los forums. el número de los usuarios creció especialmente en los países desarrollados. Si en los años '90 el Internet era un medio de comunicación desconocido por el público. Él nos ofrece una triada compuesta por el símbolo. códigos textuales y códigos interpretativos. Por esta razón. éste es la razón por lo cual su principal característica es la sencillez (poca información. el primero científico da una mayor importancia al lenguaje que tiene una relación dinámica con el discurso y nos da una díada teórica diacronía-sincronía. la radio alcanzó el número de 50 millones de usuarios en 38 años. el icono y el índice.114. En el estudio de caso hice una comparación entre las campañas electorales del presidente rumano Traian Băsescu y de Barack Obama. para subrayar su rápido desarrollo. Asimismo. y ocurre una despolitización de la política que pierde sus valores y deviene cada vez más dependiente de la prensa y. Por eso. los políticos lo usan cada vez más. que sostiene el hecho de que el signo es compuesto de significante y significado. y. Por eso. clasificados en tres categorías: códigos sociales. la televisión alcanzó el mismo número en 13 años y el Internet solamente en 4 años. consideré necesario hablar un poco sobre las historias de los dos países. Más aún. el Internet se convirtió en el más difundido medio de comunicación. la ciencia de interpretar el sentido de los signos. en todo el mundo eran 1. Rumania es un país que pasó por muchos regímenes 88 .000 de usuarios. mucho color para evidenciar la imagen del candidato). Por otra parte. y en nuestro país se puede hablar de un espectáculo político resultado de los frecuentes altercaciones entre los políticos y de su deseo de manipular a los ciudadanos mediante sus falsas promesas. En este contexto. Presentaré este problema desde el punto de vista de dos escritores importantes de este dominio. involucionamos según la opinión de Giovanni Sartori desde el “homo videns a homo sapiens”. nosotros pasamos a otra etapa. la sociedad llegó a ser una sociedad del consumidor.recordar y no de convencer. De este modo. en 2007. Fernand de Saussure y Charles Sanders Peirce. se puede decir que. después este período. porque de ahí empiezan las diferencias.
se puede decir que su campaña empezó siete años antes de las elecciones. energía (las principales cualidades del presidente) y. Barak Obama tuvo que sobrepasar la publicidad negativa que lo acusaba de ser musulmán. Aunque en los dos países la situación política era tensionada. especialmente porque aún se sienten las influencias comunistas. por eso. y su imagen aparecía en sitios web como Facebook.políticos. el sistema democrático se desarrolló continuamente. hice un análisis del punto de vista de dos pósteres políticos de Traian Băsescu y Barack Obama. que se basó en sus éxitos como primer ministro. por un filmo “24” que sugirió de modo inconsciente que el futuro presidente americano puede ser de origen Afro-Americano. Adrian Năstase. los dos presidentes concibieron espectaculares campañas electorales. presidida por Traian Băsescu. organizó una campaña de promoción en el Internet. YouTube. y. Traian Băsescu construyó su imagen intentando demostrar que el es diferente de sus predecesores. El programa electoral de los republicanos se basó en la idea de la “renovación” de todo el país. hice una descripción del ámbito político antes de que la competición empezara. En el caso del póster de Traian Băsescu se destaca el color orange que significa poder. también la gran diferencia de significado entre el eslogan “Să trăiţi bine” (¡Que viváis bien!) y el mendigo que duerme a la baja del póster. No obstante. en el presente el régimen democrático no es muy bien definido. en contrasto con su adversario político. se baso principalmente en la reformación del sistema educacional y en apoyar los jóvenes concediéndole becas de estudio. “Yes we can” haciendo referencia a la poder de los americanos de sobrepasar todos los obstáculos sin están unidos. En este sentido. los Estados Unidos conocieron un permanente desarrollo económico. De este modo. Por otro lado. y destaqué el hecho de que su eslogan tenía valores connotativos. y por eso. carismático e ingenioso.A. y para atraer los jóvenes a su parte. por que lleva el nombre de Hussein Para ilustrar el poder de la imagen como medio de comunicación de los mensajes. que es un político activo. hice un comentario sobre el póster usado de Obama en su campaña. Con respecto a la campaña de Barack Obaam. El programa electoral de la alianza D. MySpace. de manipular o cambiar las opiniones de los individuos. En cuanto al análisis comparativo entre las dos campañas electorales. 89 .
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