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Haiti – Cholera Epidemic
Courtesy of www.bbc.co.uk
Cholera Cholera is an intestinal infection caused by the bacterium, Vibrio cholerae, and transmitted through contaminated supplies of food and drinking water. An outbreak of cholera can spread quickly in areas with poor sanitation and tainted drinking water supplies, and usually through the faeces of patients. Symptoms include severe diarrhea and vomiting, and children and the elderly are vulnerable to dehydration as well. Once a person is infected with cholera, the bacteria can stay in their faeces for up to two weeks. Cholera is usually treated with antibiotics, although in severe dehydration cases patients may need intravenous fluids. Cholera in Haiti Ten months after the earthquake in Haiti, the country is now struggling to recover from an outbreak of cholera. Since October, when the disease was first detected, the Haitian government has confirmed that more than 15,00 people have died. At the moment, Haiti is facing a shortage of nurses and doctors, and necessary supplies to stem the epidemic. Nearly 28,000 people have been treated in hospital with cholera symptoms, and the epidemic is spreading twice as fast as had been estimated. The United Nations has appealed for $164 million in aid to help Haiti combat the outbreak. In response, the World Bank has announced a grant of $10 million in emergency aid to Haiti. Key Terms microorganism – an organism that is too small to be seen by the unaided eye epidemic – a widespread outbreak of an infectious disease that affects a large number of people at the same time contamination – introduction of an infectious organism, such as a bacterium or virus, into food or water, which may then pass to a person antibiotics – a drug used to treat infections caused by bacteria and other microorganisms sanitation – the process of keeping drinking water, foods, or anything else with which people come into contact, free of microorganisms such as bacteria
Global Voices Elementary Educator Resources
Note to Educators:
The following activities are designed to stimulate a current events discussion. Generative in nature, these questions can be a launching point for additional assignments or research projects. Teachers are encouraged to adapt these activities to meet the contextual needs of their classroom. In some cases, reading the article with students may be appropriate, coupled with reviewing the information sheet to further explore the concepts and contexts being discussed. From here, teachers can select from the questions provided below. Activities are structured to introduce students to the issues, then allow them to explore and apply their learnings. Extension and conclusion activities are included to challenge students and finally, encourage them to reflect on the issues at hand. Since these activities are designed as discussions rather than formal lessons, assessment strategies are not included.
Themes and Course Connections
Haiti, development, community, solidarity, sustainability, poverty, culture, natural disasters, human needs, current events, rehabilitation, and change. Curriculum Connections: Social Studies, Science and Technology, Language, the Arts.
Mural materials: brown craft paper, paint, paintbrushes, markers, glue, scissors, etc. Blackboard Writing utensils Paper Global Voices column
Specific Expectations and Learning Goals
Students will: Develop and express appropriate responses to issues and problems. Reassess their responses to issues on the basis of new information. Demonstrate appropriate research skills by compiling a range of data from a wide variety of print and electronic resources. Participate in active group work and class discussions. Communicate effectively in written and spoken language or other forms of expression. Demonstrate the ability to think critically. Develop, express, and defend a position on an issue and explain how to put the ideas into action.
Knowledge and Understanding
1. Haiti Commons (estimated time: 10 minutes) a. Ask students to sit in a circle. b. Explain that you will say a word and then each person will respond with the first word or statement that comes to mind. c. Say the word, “Haiti”. Go around the circle to give everyone a chance to respond. 1 of 4
d. When the sharing circle is complete, lead a more guided discussion about Haiti using the following suggested questions: i. Where is Haiti located? ii. What language is spoken in Haiti? iii. What are residents of Haiti called? iv. What happened in Haiti on January 12, 2010? v. Had you heard of Haiti before January 12, 2010? If so, what had you heard about this country? vi. What are some of the reasons why the damages of the earthquake were so fatal? vii. What have you heard about Haiti recently? Are the problems over?
1. Guided Reading: Global Voices column (estimated time: 20 minutes) a. Have students sit in a circle and distribute one copy of the Global Voices column to each student. b. Pre-reading steps: i. Make predictions: ask students to read the title of the column and view the pictures. After doing so, ask them to make predictions over what the column is going to be about. ii. Introduce vocabulary: skim the column finding key vocabulary as well as difficult words. Ask students to predict the meaning of each word before explaining it to them. iii. Prior knowledge: ask students to discuss what they already know about these topics. c. Reading steps: i. Go around the circle and have each student read a section of the column to the class, giving everyone a turn to read. ii. As students are reading, offer guidance and coaching by providing prompts, asking questions, and encouraging attempts at reading strategy application. d. Post reading steps: i. Encourage students to provide a summary of the column in order to ensure they have understood the series of events. ii. Ask questions about the text to judge comprehension.
1. Media Literacy (estimated time: 15 minutes) a. Divide the class into small groups and distribute chart paper to each group. b. On the chart paper, ask each group to write the heading of the column in the center of the page. c. Creating a word web, ask each group to write all the words that come to mind after reading the column around the center title. d. When students have completed their word webs ask them to answer the following questions in their groups: i. What is the title of this column? ii. What is the message of the column? iii. Who created this message? iv. What creative techniques are used by the writer to attract my attention? v. How might other people understand this message differently than me? vi. What values, lifestyles and points of view are represented in this message? Which ones are left out? vii. What statistics or facts are listed in the column? viii. Why has this message been created? ix. Do you agree with this message? 2 of 4
x. What do you know? What are you unsure of? What would you like to know? e. As a class, discuss the students’ word webs as well as their answers to the above questions. Address the reasons why it is important to understand the source and potential bias of a website or print resource that offers news information.
1. Haiti Mural (estimated time: continuous project) a. Ask students to volunteer details they know about Haitian culture. Write suggestions on the board. b. Explain to students that through the tragedy and destruction caused by the earthquake, Haitian culture still managed to shine through, bringing hope to the desolate situation. Tell the class that they are going to work together to celebrate Haitian culture by building a creative visual mural of this culture. c. Before moving on with the project, ask students the following suggested questions about their class mural: i. What is a mural? ii. What makes a good mural? iii. What are some of the important components we must include in our mural? For example, is a title important? iv. What materials would you like to see used on this mural? For example, paint, markers, printed pictures, etc? v. What would you like the mural to tell others in the school? d. List the following topics on the board: food, language, art, traditional dress, urban population and lifestyle, rural population and lifestyle, employment, traditional celebrations, and government. e. Allow students to choose an area of interest and write their name beside the topics. f. Students must begin by researching their chosen topic. When this research is complete, they must determine how to represent their findings on the class mural (e.g. if a student is researching language, they may want to paint important phrases in Haitian mother tongue on the mural). g. Book library time and encourage students to use the resources available to find information on their chosen topic. h. When students have compiled the information they would like to include in their Haitian culture mural, return to the classroom and lay out the brown craft paper. i. Encourage the class to work together and let their creativity flow. j. When the mural is complete ask each student to write a written reflection about what the mural means to them and what they hope the rest of the school will learn by viewing the mural. k. Display the competed mural in a hallway in the school.
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In addition to the above lesson plans, you may want to share some additional resources with your students. Listed below are some links to useful online resources: Free The Children in Haiti http://www.freethechildren.com/donate/haiti-earthquake-relieffund/ Adopt-A-Village in Haiti http://www.freethechildren.com/whatwedo/international/countries/haiti/ Craig’s Haiti Blog: Crisis in Haiti written January 17, 2010 Haitians are True Heroes written January 18, 2010 The Voice of Haiti written January 19, 2010 A Network of Hope written January 19, 2010 The Road to Help written January 20, 2010 Aftershock Causes More Uncertainty written January 20, 2010 No End in Sight written January 21, 2010 We Are All Haitian written January 22, 2010 CIA World Fact Book: Haiti - https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-worldfactbook/geos/ha.html Partners In Health http://www.pih.org/pages/haiti/ UNICEF http://www.unicef.org/infobycountry/haiti.html
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