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Leadership is one of the main tenants of being an officer in the army. The first step in learning about

leadership is to define it. The army defines leadership as influencing people by providing purpose, direction, and

motivation. Gary Yukl was an organizational researcher who created the overarching model. This was one of the

first model focused on leadership. Leadership trait theory is the idea that people are born with certain character

traits or qualities. Since certain traits are associated with proficient leadership, it assumes that if you could identify

people with the correct traits, you will be able to identify leaders and people with leadership potential. Most of the

time the traits are considered to be naturally part of a person¶s personality from birth. From this standpoint,

leadership trait theory tends to assume that people are born as leaders or not as leaders. A famous series of studies

on leadership were done in Michigan University, starting in the 1950s. They found three critical characteristics of

effective leaders. Effective managers studied did not do the same kind work as their subordinates. Their tasks were

different, and included planning and scheduling work, coordinating activities and providing necessary resources.

They also spent time guiding subordinates in setting task goals that were both challenging and achievable. Effective

managers not only concentrated on the task, but also on their relationship with their subordinates. They were more

considerate, helpful and supportive of subordinates, including helping them with their career and personal problems.

They recognized effort with intrinsic as well as extrinsic reward, thanking people for effort. Overall, the effective

preferred a general and hands-off form of supervision rather than close control. They set goals and provided

guidelines, but then gave their subordinates plenty of leeway as to how the goals would be achieved. Effective

leaders use a style, managing at the group level as well as individually, for example using team meetings to share

ideas and involve the team in group decisions and problem-solving. By their actions, such leaders model good team-

oriented behavior. The role of the manager is more facilitative than directive, guiding the conversation and helping

to resolve differences. The manager, however, is responsible for results and is not absolved of responsibility. As
such, they may make final decisions that take recommendations from the team into account. The effect of

participative leadership is to build a cohesive team which works together rather than a set of individuals.

Transformational leadership is defined as a leadership approach that causes change in individuals and social

systems. In its ideal form, it creates valuable and positive change in the followers with the end goal of developing

followers into leaders. Enacted in its authentic form, transformational leadership enhances the motivation, morale

and performance of his followers through a variety of mechanisms. Transformational leadership is based on several

assumptions. The first is that soldiers are most willing to follow a leader who inspires them. The second is that

soldiers are motivated when they understand the importance of the task. Collaboration and teamwork are always

better in the short term and long term than working just as a group of individuals. The last assumption is that

working towards a greater good gives individuals a sense of pride in their organization. Transactional leadership

says that soldiers are motivated only by rewards and punishment. Unlike transformational leadership this model fails

to recognize the value of morals or the individual characteristics and motivations of people. Contingency theory

says that there is no one best way to lead, what works in one situation may not work in another. Situational

leadership says that there is no one best way to influence and lead people, the leadership style depends also upon the

group. leadership is also one of the most complex human behaviors. Therfore, there is no one universal theory for

developing and learning leadership. Army leadership is not just about issuing orders and making plans. A huge part

of army leadership is about seeing that your those plans are executed. Behavioral theory is a theory that focuses on

analyzing the observable actions and reactions of both leaders and followers in different situations. Behaviors are

observable and thus are much easier to quantify and measure than personality traits. This theory assumes that there

are certain traits that a person can be born with that create great leaders. But the theory also states that one can learn

to become a good leader through learning and experience. The most important lesson from this theory is that one¶s

leadership ability is not defined by traits but by what one does. R. R. Blake and J. S. Mouton classify leadership

using a task versus people focus of leadership style. The first is country club management which has a high concern

for people but a low concern for getting the job done. Middle-of-the-road management just focus on getting the

minimal of tasks completed. While they may serve to maintain the status quo, it is doubtful that their team or

organization truly floursish. The leadership style of team management produces the most effective leaders. These

leaders are able to focus both on people and task management, allowing them to raise the bar of performance for

their organizations. This lesson outlines many different theories on leadership.