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Fabrication Processes for VLSI Devices

Silicon Wafer Preparation

‰ Chip Fabrication Processes

Silicon Wafer Epitaxial

Manufacture Growth



Diffusion (Ion

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Silicon Wafer Preparation Czochralski (CZ) Growth Method

• CZ is more common
method to grow
silicon crystal today
because it is capable
of producing large
diameter crystals,
from which large
diameter wafer can
be cut.

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Lecture # 4

Modern CZ Crystal Growth
CZ crystal growth (cont.)
• The raw Si used for crystal • Sequence of
growth is purified from SiO2 photographs and
(sand) through refining, fractional
distillation and CVD. drawings illustrating
CZ crystal growth.
• The raw material contains < 1 ppb The charge is
impurities except for O (» 1018 melted,
cm-3) and C (» 1016 cm-3) • the seed is
inserted, the neck
• Essentially all Si wafers used for region is grown at a
ICs today come from Czochralski
grown crystals. Polysilicon material high rate to remove
is melted, held at close to 1415 dislocations and
°C, and a single crystal seed is finally the growth is
used to start the crystal growth.
• slowed down to
• Pull rate, melt temperature and produce a uniform
rotation rate are all important crystal.
control parameters.

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Wafer Slicing

300-mm (12 in.) and 400 mm (16 in.) Czochralski-grown

silicon ingots. (Photo courtesy of Sin-Etsu Handotai Co.,
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Modeling Crystal Growth: relationship between pull
Drawback of the CZ method rate and crystal diameter.
• Freezing occurs between
isotherms X1 and X2.
• The only significant drawback
to the CZ method is that the
silicon is contained in liquid • Heat balance: latent heat of
form in a crucible during
growth and as a result, crystallization + heat conducted
impurities from the crucible from melt to crystal = heat
are incorporated. conducted away.

• in the growing crystal. Oxygen

and carbon are the two most
significant contaminants.

• These impurities are not

always a drawback, however.
Oxygen in particular can be
very useful in mechanically
strengthening the silicon
crystal and in providing a
means for gettering other
unwanted impurities during
device fabrication. 9 10

2πrdx=radiation surface
area of an incremental
Length. σ=Boltzman constant
A= Cross-sectional area
KS=thermal conductvity of the soild

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Vpmax= maximum crystal pull rate is inversely proportional to the square root of the
crystal radius. 13 14

Modeling Dopant Behavior During CZ Crystal

All values are below 1
,which means that during
Growth the dopants are
• •Dopants are added Rejected into the melt.
to the melt to
provide a controlled
• n or p doping level
in the wafers. VO=initial volume
• However, the dopant Ko is the segregation coefficient.CS IO=number of impurities
and CL are the impurity concentration CL=impurity concentration
incorporation just on the either side of the solid/ n the melt.
process is liquid interface.
complicated by
dopant segregation.

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Lecture # 4

Doping concentration versus position along the grown CZ
crystal for common dopants in silicon.

Consider three cases: If K<1

If K>1
f= Vs/Vo, a fraction of melt that has solidified 17 if K~1 18

Float Zone Growth Technique

• CZ wafers are contaminated by O2 and C
from the crucible or graphite heaters.

• This limits the resistivity to ~ 20 Ωcm,

while intrinsic Si is 230 kΩcm.

• Extremely high purity Si wafers are

made using float zone growth.

• FZ does not use a crucible or carbon


• * More expensive.

• * Carrier concentrations down to 10 11

atoms/cm 3 have been achieved.
• * High purity needed for power
thyristors and rectifiers.
Curves for growth from the melt showing the doping
concentration in a solid as a function of the fraction19 20

Float Zone Growth Technique
• A seed crystal is brought into contact with
the top of the rod.
• In an inert atmosphere, an RF coil is slowly
passed along the length of the rod, starting
at seed contact.
• The field set up by the coil induces eddy
currents in the rod, leading to joule
heating, and so melts the rod in the vicinity
of the coil.
• The "floating" melt zone is about 2 cm
• The seed crystal touches the melt zone and
is pulled away, along with a solidifying Si
boule following the seed.
• The seed crystal determines the crystal
orientation of the boule.
• Limited to about a 4" wafer, as the melt
Float-zone process. (a) Schematic setup. (b) Simple model for zone will collapse.
• It is only held together by surface tension
doping evaluation. 21
(and RF levitation). 22

FZ Growth Considerations Doping in FZ Growth

• Segregation and evaporation of impurities in the melt zone help • Gas Doping:
purify the Si further. • Dopants are introduced in gaseous form during FZ growth.
• * PH 3 (Phosphine), AsCl3--> n-dopant
• * Recall, if k < 1, then more dopants/impurities in the liquid than • * B 2H6 (Diborane), BCl3 -> p-dopant
in the solid. • * Good uniformity along the length of the boule.

• * Thus, the impurities generally stay in the melt zone, and don't • Pill Doping:
solidify in the boule. • Drill a small hole in the top of the EGS rod, and insert the dopant.

• * You can "purify" FZ wafers further by successively passing the • * If the dopant has a small segregation coefficient, most of it will be
carried with the melt as it passes the length of the boule.
coil along the boule. The impurities then segregate towards the
end of the boule.
• * Resulting in only a small non-uniformity.
• Thermal instability in the melt zone can cause microvariations in • * Ga and In doping work well this way.
composition and doping.

• Difficult in making a uniform dopant concentration. 23 24

‰ Wafer Lapping and Etching Wafer Polishing and Cleaning

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