PART II.

FOUNDATIONS OF BLACK SOCIAL THOUGHT

The secondpart of this INTR0DUCTION T0 AFR0-AMERICAN S T U D I Ei S a n i n t e n s i v e a n a l y s i s o f b a s i c s o c i o - e c o n o m i c s f o r m s e x p e r i e n c e d y B l a c k p e o p l ei n t h e l a s t ' l 0 0 y e a r s . b Thepurposes to bu'ildon the survey(part I) of topics i w i t h a n i n - d e p t h s t u d y o f s e v e n( 7 ) c l a s s . i c so f B l a c k s o c . i a l w r i t i n g a n d a n a l y s i s . A w o r k o f B l a c ks o c i a l a n a ' l y s i ss i c o n s i d e r e d c l a s s i c w h e ni t : ( A ) d e f i n i t i v e l y s u n r m a r f z e s a the existing knowledge a major Black experi'ence; (e) reof presents a modelof methodology techniquethat serves and t o d i r e c t f u t u r e i n v e s t i g a t i o n ; ( C ) d r a w sf r o m t h e a n a l y s i s theoretical conceptsand propositions that contribute to our general theoretical grasp of the socio-econom.ic and p o l i t i c a l h i s t o r y o f t h e U S A n d A f r o - A m e r i c ap e o p l e ; ( D ) a n stands the test of time by not being proven incorrbct or i n a d e q u a t e n d r e p l a c e db y a s u p e r i o r w o r k ; a n d ( E ) g u i d e s a oneto take an active role in struggle to'liberate BTack people and fundamentally change the nature of ftnericansociety.

RATIONALE
l ^ l . E . B . u B o i si,n t h e l a s t c h a p t e r f E l a c kR e c o n s t r u c t i o n , D o . propaganOa-T-ttTitofi.r-Te discusses what he has termed',The states :
" B u t a r e t h e s e r e a s o n s f c o u r t e s ya n d p h i i a n t h r o p y o s u f f i c i e n t f o r d e n y i n gT r u t h ? I f h i s t o r y i s g o i n g t o b L scientific, if the recordof human ction is goingto be a set down ith accuracy ndfaithfulness of detail which w a w i l l a l l o w i t s u s e a s a m e a s u r i n go d a n d g u i d e p o s t o r r f the future of nations, there musl be someiet of standards o f e t h i c s i n r e s e a r c ha n d i n t e r p r e t a t i o n . ulf, on the other h a n d ,w e a r e g o i n g t o u s e h i s t o r y f o r p l e a s u r ea n d a m u s e m e nf to r i n f l a t i n g o u r n a t i o n a l e g o , , a n dg i v i n g u s a f a l s e b u t p l e a s u r a b l e e n s e f a c c o m p l i s h s o m e n t , t h e n w e m u s tg i v e u p t h e i d e a o f h i s t o r y e i t h e r a s a s c i e n c eo r a s a n a r t u s i n g t h e r e s u l t s o f s c i e n c e , a n d a d m i t f r a n k l y t h a t w e a r e u s i n g a v e r s i o no f h i s t o r i c f a c t i n o r d e r t o i n f l u e n c e a n d e d u c a t et h e n e wg e n e r a t i o n l o n g a t h e w a yw e w i s h . " ( p . 7 ' | 4 ) As we have cons'istently stressed throughoutthis course of s t u d y t h a t i t i s t h e S C I E N C E S O C I E T(Y s e t o f s y s t e r n a t i c a l l y a 0F c o ' l l e c t e di n d i c a t o r s o f w h a t i s h a p p e n i n g - - f a c t sa n d t h e O B J E C , T I V Er e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e nh e s e f a c t s ) t n a t w e m u s t s t r u g g l e t o t s t u d y t o l e a r n a n d t o t e a c h . D u B o i s o e so n t o m a k ee x p i i c i t g 46

as in is the 47 . A] booksshou]d be read i n ful l and a precise timetab'lefor reading assignments and paper comp l e t i o n s h o u l db e w o r k e do u t a n d a d h e r e d o . a n a l y z i n g ." (p. Thenwith that muchclearer and open to every reader. T o t h e s e d i f f e r e n c e sw e s h o u l dp a y s t r i c t a t t e n t i o n . 723) The historical record of Black people in the USand aroundthe world is already too muchcharacterizedby wishes. u s i n g s c i e n t i f i c i n v e s t i g a t i o nt o j u d g e t h e t r u t h o f a n y p a r t i c u l a r v i e w .a n d i ntel I ectua'l : s in "In the first place.. But the fact remainsthat al'l phenomena--whether is it (material) base of society or r'n the soctal in the economic s u p e r s t r u c t u r es d i a l e c t i c a l i n c h a r a c t e r . t Thegeneral rnethodology same outlined Part I. t h a t i s .o p p o s ' i n a s p e c t sw i t h e a c ha s p e c t g c o n t i n u o u s ' l s t r u g g l i n g t o d o m i n a t eh e o t h e r . Whatwe have got to know. t e a c h e r s . i s t h e p r o c e s so f u n c o v e r i n g .a n dn o t e n o u g h y s c i e n t i f i c s t u d y . Our task is scientific study of our hr'story to clarify the quest'ionsfacing our struggle. but the historian has no right.o p p o s i n ig t e r h n pretations on various aspects of the important experiences of B l a c k p e o p l e . b The Black liberation struggle has been "rnuddled" this by failure and every day continues to becorne nore muddled..t h a tw e a i m t o e n g a g en .. the philosopherand prophet has a chanceto interpret thesefacts. p o s i n ga s a s c i e n t ' i s t . i MET HO D O L O G Y t{herethree topics are assignedbelow assignments should be made so that everyonecan benefit from reading papersor hearing pre'l sentations on al I three topi cs . des'ires. a n d until we can distinguish between these two functions of the chronicler of human action. S u c hi s t h e y t c a s ew i t h h i s t o r y . t o c o n c e a lo r d i s t o r t f a c t s . D i f f e r e n t a n d o p p o s i n g i e w s e m e r g e n v o e v e r y a s p e c to f o u r h i s t o r i c a l e x p e r i e n c e e a c h v i e w w i t h i t s .t h e p r i n c i p a l t a s k w e f a c e a s B l a c k s t u d e n t s . vle are going to render it easy for a muddled world out of sheer tgnoranceto nake the sanemistake ten tirnes over. i t c o n i s i s t s o f c o n t r a d i c t i o n s . s e t o f " f a c t s " . somebody each era must make clear the facts with utter disregard to his ownwish and desire and belief. a r e t h e t h i n g s t h a t a c t u a l l y h a p p e n eid t h e n world. I t .so far as p o s s i b l e .a n d u n d e r s t a n d i ntg ' i s d ' i a l e c t i c . and b e l i e f s .

WRITING A RESEARCHPAPER I . S U R V E Y I N GT H E L I T E R A T U R E : T H E A N N O T A T E DB I B L I O G R A P H Y This part of INTRODUCTION T0 AFRO-AMERICAN STUDIES will continue to pursuetwo very important goals: increasing our a b i f i t y ( 1 ) t o a n a l y z et h e B l a c k e x p e r i e n c en t h e U Sm o r e i c r i t i c a l ] y .. d i s s e r t a t i o n '10-'15 or a book may include hundreds annotatedreferences. The requirernent for this part will be four researchpapersbasedon intensive treatment of four topics: R e c o n s t r u c t i o nR u r a l . tg Checkbooksfrom previous coursesor read'ings which m'ight p o s s i b ' l y o n t a i n i n f o r m a t i o no n t h e t o p i c y o u a r e i n v e s t i g a t c i n g . a n d s i g n i f i c a n c eo f e a c h b o o k . c o n t r i b u t i o n .T h e f i r s t p l a c e y o u s h o u l d 1.a r t ' i clesffiu can use in the formu'lationof your ideas on the topic. This is a b o f b o o k s . a r t i c ' l e . a n d w h i c hy o u m i g h t u s e f o r q u o t e sa n d o t h e r s u b stantiation of the information you present in the paper. t o b e i n c l u d e di n y o u r a n n o t a t e d bibliography. i ' l h i ' l er e s e a r c hf o r a P h . m a k e s v a i l a b l e t h e m o s t r e l e v a n t i n f o r m a t i o no n k e y a s p e c t s a . a r t ' i c l e s . Webster'sd'ictionary defines "annotate" as "to makeor furnish critica'l or exp'lanatory notes or comments. C h e c k o s e e i f t h e r e i s a b i b l i o g r a p h yo r f o o t n o t e s t w h i c h l i s t t i t l e s y o u m a yb e a b l e t o f o l l o w u p o n . and an annotatedbibf iographypreparedvery early in the res e a r c hf o r t h a t t o p i c ..s o m e t h i nh a t w e s h o u l da l 1 s t r u g g l e t o b u ' i l d u p . a n d B I a c k .F i no n e t h a t ' i s w e l l . e t c .s t o c k e da n d d 2.U r b a L i f e . e t c . S o c i a l C l a s s . a n d ( 2 ) t o c o n v e y h i s a n a ] y s i si n c l e a r a n d c o n t cise written forrn. of referencesfor each of the four topics should be selected. from which you can gather background m a t e r i a l . An important first step in any serious researcheffort ts surveyingthe available and most appropriate referencesabout t h e t o p i c o n w h i c hy o u w i l ' l w r i t e . L o c a l B o o k s t o r e ." for each so referenceyou shou'ld write a three or four sentencedescript i o n o f t h e c o n t e n t . Y o u r p e r s o n a ll i b r a r y . T h em o s t e f f e c t i v e m e t h o d o f s u m m i nu p t h e r e s u ' l t s o f t h i s p r e l i miis tan gi n v e s t i g a t i o n i s g 'l n i ry the annotated ibliography. . n Autobi ography. D . a l w a y st u r n t o f o r i n f o r m a t i o ni s y o u r o w np e r s o n a lc o l ' l e c t i o n o f b o o k s . T h e r ea r e t h r e e r e a d i l y a v a i l a b l e s o u r c e so f t i t l e s f o r t h e b o o k s ..

look up titles suchas "Reconstruction" a ' l s ol o o k u n d e r N e g r o e s . SpecialCollections: Sone libraries havea NegroCo1 1ectT6fr-ir-oTfiEiTlEffi-1col lection on Black people throughout world. 3. D. Afro-USA: Reference Work A on the Black ExpeFienceJBAfieth-er. I n a d d i t i o n . 4. DorothyPorter. Periodicals--Journals.F i s k U n i v e r s i t y .a A. TheAmerican Negro Reference Book. Salespersons often knowledgable everythingin are on the store and canhelp you in locatingnnteria'lson specific topics. 3. Ptoski. B. I 96-6-) nt . magazines. Visit the store andsurveythe co'l'lection. ' 1 9 6 ' 9 T . JohnDav'is. T h eh o l d i n g s f t h e o h s special coilection are-veiyvaluable(as is the entire library) so be careful not to remove materials that you havenot charged out. The Reference Deskis a sourceof qeneralreferenceassi stanG-anifil6-urcffiF several bi b1i ogiaphes and i other guideswhichmayhelp you in locating specific titles on your topic. U n i v e r s i t y n dP u b l i cL i b r a r i e s . . " e t c . . S .of B'lack history andthe Blackliberation struggle. (Harvirill9-76[ HamyA. Catalogue Holdings libraries at Howard of U n i v e r s i t y . Thereshouldbe a card catalogue the which. lmf. 5.t h e c a r d U " catalogue and will give you the call number location of titles that you havelisted from other sources. 2. t l a n t aU n i v e r A sity andthe Schomburg Co'llection. The subject -ategory is but a usefu'ltoo]. and (especiallybackissuesas well as current ones)shou'ld inbe . The Negroin the US. s h o u l d e l p i n l o c a t r ' n g p e c i f i c t i t l e s . E l i z a b e t h i ] ] e r . (Xerox P u bilc l t i o n s . by-Ti-tTilanlJfTffiect. newspapers. Youmay wantto consultthe following for references your topic: on 1. (Pre i ce HaTi. Make whichmaybe usefu'l careful notes of books to you. T h eN e q r on A m e r i c aA B i b M : i 1i osraphy. TheCardCata]ogug containsa listing of books by author. C. as well as strugglesall over the wor'ld.

I N V E S T I G A T I O NA N A L Y S I S . nns R e a d e r ' s u i d et o P e r i o d i c a ' l i t e r a t u r e G L publications shou'ldalso be searched useful Government as sourcesfor information about Black people and someshould b e i n c l u d e di n t h e b i b 1 i o g r a p h y . 3. e x c ' l u d i n g s i .u s u a ' l l yp r e s e n t e d n t h e b o o k st h a t w e a r e r e a d i n g .1 5 p a g e s n l e n g t h .c l u d e df o r e a c h t o p i c . i Pay careful attention to understand'ing opposingviews. S . n a n d ( 4 ) B l a c k A u t o b i o g r a p h y . evaluate the the evidencewhich supports each argument and your evaluation of t h e e v i d e n c e n y o u r p a p g r . A 1 1 p a p e r sa r e r e q u i r e d ( i n c l u d i n g t h e i a n n o t a t e d i b l ' i o g r a p h i e s ) . ( 3 ) S o c i a l b ' l a s s . Q . 2 . S . T h e f o l l o w i n g m a yb e u s e f u l : l. m5]-iETtfi' irs Tn toimaT-i seFVJ on ceNEw-T-or[-Ti Tndex. A l I p a p e r s h o u l db e l 0 .tals you STUDIES the o n t h e B l a c k e x p e r i e n c eo b e c o v e r e di n d i s c u s s i o n s .e fglgqlgh T0 AFR0-AMERICAN will enable to bnalyze nater. ) R u r a l .P R E S E N T A T I O N : THE RESEARCH APER P you papgf will do in this part of INTRODUCTI0N _ -_Jl. Thefour topics (2 a r e ( l ) R e c o n s t r u c t i o n . A l l p a p e r sm u s t b e t u r n e d i n o n t i m e o r b 'lose expect to credit for spec'ified periods of lateness. For each topic there are three questions from which to choose t h e t o p i c o f y o u r p a p e r . students are expectedto present a completed annotated b i b l i o g r a p h yp r e p a r e d c c o r d i n g o t h e g u ' i d e l i n e s b o v ed u r i n g a t a the first stage of work on each of the four topics. and supp'lementary readings. STYLE I. 2.I n a d d i t i o n t o c o m p ' l e t i n tg e h paper. I n a ' l l c a s e s .a s s i g n e d t readings.U r b aL i f e . and to present a synthesis of this material in a clearly written paper. 2. 3. G o v e r n m e Ptu b l i c a C o n tions I n d e xt o P u b ' l i c a t i o n s f t h e U . M o n t h ' l y a t a l o g u e f U . C o n g r e s s o Congressional uarterly(CQ). the ReferenceRoom: T h e f o l l o w i n g s h o u l d b e c o n s u l t e di n l.t h e r e a r e t w o s i d e s t o a l l o f t h e q u e s t i o n s .

doubletitle page.deserve be presented the best possible F0RM.andyou will probab'ly choose quotethe words to of your point as c'learlyas possib'le other authorsto make (but only when 'l footnotes addto the paper's andquotes presentati ) . A1 footnotesshou'ld comp'i on a be I ed on single pageat the endof the paper'stext. 2. (Referto Papers. Youmustcite Footnotes bibliography and your arguin consulted supporting outsidereferences ments.andbibliography spaced). Manua'l Writersof Term for and Dissertations.*t. . 2. A Turabian. Correctall errors neatly with a black ball point pen.s p e 1 1 i n ga n dp u n c t u a t i o n . 60% four research for 15% midtenn for exam. papers(with bibliography). i n g f o r t y p i n ge r r o r s . GRADES 1.footnotes.(typed. are important. Theses. 25% for final exam.rr as written. WOR K H A R D ! F U R T H E RT H E A N A L Y S I S ! 5'l .Carefu'lly re-readyour paper(severaltimes) checks. m i s . l-973T. 3. 3. andare as important they are in clarifying questions that havefacedandare facing the important to in Blackpeople. nritten as effectively as yourswill be -t.

t h e n a s f r e e d m e n t n t h e ) South. E . i n t e l l i g e n c e a n d p o w e rf o r a ' l l m e n "c o n f r o n t e d p u s ho f " i n a dustry for private profit directed by an autocracydetermined at any price to amass wealth and power.h o l d i n g l a n t e r c ' l a s s .a n d t h e p o o r w h i t e s a n d B l a c k a g r i c u l t u r a l w o r k e r s( f i r s t s ' l a v e s . ON THE RECONSTRUCTION ERA AND THE STRUGGLE FOR DEMOCRACY. BD u B o i s r e s e n t sa d e t a i ' l e dc l a s s a n a l y s i s o f t h e .g r o w i n ga n d i n t h e U . and proceeded up full speedwith the monopo'lization production and the concentraof t i o n o f w e a l t h . As DuBoisputs it. T h i s w a s t h e b a s i s o f t h e p r i n c ' i p a l c o n tradiction between the Southernplanter c'lass anCthe other c ' l a s s e s . E . S . a i n l y t h e N o r t h e r nc a p i t a l i s t s .B l q c k R e c o n s t r u c t i o n A m e r i c a . "abo'lition-democracy basedon freedom. e x p a n d e id d u s t r i a l p r o d u c t i o n .= I. B .I 880. T h eo p p r e s s e dl a s s e s p s c were the industrial workers and the independent smal'l farmers o f t h e N o r t h a n d W e s t . p causesof the Civil l'lar and of the crucial role played by B ' l a c kl a b o r i n t h e o u t c o m e f t h a t s t r u g g l e . ' l . " l .D u B o i s . I t w a s p r e c i s e l y t h i s s a m e o n s o l i d a t i o no f c the ru'li ng Northern cap'ita'l st cl ass that DuBoi ci tes not i s o n l y a s t h e b a s i s o f t h e e x p l o ' i t a t i o no f w h i t e w o r k e r . I860." Moreover DuBoisgoes on to accurately portray howthe "abo'lition-democracy" coal'it i o n w a s t e m p o r a r y . a n k i n g . in I 860-I 880. a s t i n g o n ' l y u n t i ' l t h e d o m i n a n itn d u s t r i a l l c l a s s d e f e a t e dt h e S o u t h . n W h i l e p a y i n g c a r e f u l a t t e n t i o n t o t h e n a t ' i o n a l( r a c i a l ) oppressionof B'lackpeop'le. The r u l i n g c ' l a s s e s e f o r e t h e w a r w e r e t h e m e r c h a n t . REQUIRED READING h l . b u t a s . The increaseddemand cotton causedby the expanfor s i o n o f B r i t i s h i n d u s t r i a l c a p i t a l i s mi n c r e a s e d h e d e m a n d t f o r c o t t o n .B'lackReconstruction portrays the vested interests of several identif-iabTecTasses.-TthenelmlJ9SS DESCRIPTIONOF TOPIC: RECONSTRUCTTON I n t h i s s u r v e yo f t h e " h i s t o r y o f t h e p a r t w h i c h B l a c k folk played in the attempt to reconstruct democracy Ameriin c a . T h e s o c i a l o forces leading to the continuedsubjugationof Black people in America fter the abolition of slaveryandthe unsuccessa ful attempt to establish genuinepo'litical denocracy the in S o u t hd u r i n g t h e R e c o n s t r u c t i o E r a a r e a l s o d e t a i l e d . .a n d b b d e v e ' l o p i n ig d u s t r i a l c a p i t a ' l i s t s o f t h e N o r t h . n opened the Westfor growing its food. w h i c h d i d n o t w a n t m slavery to expand. (t'tew-Toik-. a n d f o r B l a c k l a b o r t o l g r o wt h a t c o t t o n . a n d t h e n S o u t h e r n l a v e .

Positive achievements the establishment the like of f i r s t p u b l i c .n d u s t r i a ' l f ] g y " l . howBlacklabor wasreturnedto a state of peonage the by combined efforts of Northern capital andthe majority of white workers whohad not yet comel i nseed to k e that their freed-om from ' e x p l o i t a t i o n a si n s e p a r a b l y w t o t h e f r e e d o mf B l a c k o peopl e. e . I n t h e l a s t c h a p t e r sD u B o i s h o w s . c A majorgoal of BlackReconstruction to assess is the activities of Black legi-slaToitln-Ehevarious states of the South. t h e p r o d u c t i o r e ' l a t ia n ) t i o n s ( c l a s s e s a n dp r o d u c t i o no r c e s ( t e c h n o l o l y i. In 1877 federa'ltroopswerewithdrawn from the South(andusedalmostimmediatbly suppress to rebel'lions by railroad workers) when the Northern capitliists were assured that their contro'lover the national economy the and U . . i . s t a t e h a db e e n o n s o l ' i d a t e d . i m p o r t e d a p i t a l . andshow howthe class interests andnational chauvinism President of Andrew Johnson the forces he repreand sented obstructed attempts estab'lish agrariandemoall to an cracy based land reformin the South. he conduct. is providethe basic class analyone seven . f r a u d . The next two chapters dwell on the po'litics of the immediate postwar period. Landmonoin p o l y . andoutcome the Civil War.e s s e n t i a lf o r u n d e r s t a n d ' itn g c a u s e s . e t c . . W e r eh e e c o n o m f c c t o r s . L i n c o ' l n n dJ o h n s o n . DuBois on deals with the achievements shortcomings the Reconstruction and of governments three states with Blackmajorities.s u p p o r t e d u c a t i o n a ly s t e mn S o u t h a r o l i n a s i C are noted.the majorforce in the deliberatedismantling the democratof ic gainsmade during Reconstruction the betrayalof and Blackpeople.is of historians regardingthe low character andbackwardnessthe B'lack of electorate andtheir e'lected representatives disputed DuBois is by u s i n gp a t i e n t l ya c c u m u l a t e d i d e n c e . u m n e rn dS t e v e n s ) a S a the determining factors? . S . Thepropaganda racist bourgeo. FOR DISCUSSION AND RESEARCH QUESTIONS l.I n a d d i t i o n . 9 . Theattitudes of each of class toward the strugglereceives extensive treatment. a n dp h y s i c a r e p r e s s i o w e r e l c n factors that prevented successful a exerciseof the recently p a c q u i r e d o l i t i c a l p o w e r . ) a t w o r ki n t h e U n i t e dS t a t e so v e r i h e p e r i o d 1854to 1876the crucial factors influencingthe coirrse of eventsduring Reconstruction. Next. werethe attitudes of the or " g r e a tm e n "( e . Chapters through s i s o f t h e p e r i o d .D u B o i s v demonstrates that_givingpolitical emancipation Blackpeoto p1ewasincidental to the economic designiof the dominant cap'ita1 t class.

d i s c u s s e d h e r o l e o f B l a c k p e o p l ei n t h e R e c o n s t r u c t i o g o v e r n n t ments. R e c o n s t r u c t i oT667--1WT:(t167T. | 9 6 4 ) . R e c o n s t r u c t i oA f t e r t h e C i v i ' lW a r ..] 8 8 0 . l.1 8 6 5 ( ' 1 9 5 6 ) . James Allen.v SouthErn and R6i6istruction. 6.B l a c kP o w e r U . SUPFLEMENTARY R EAD I NGS '1. (le4).The treatment of Reconstruction reflects small c r e d i t u p o nA m e r i c a n i s t o r i a n s a s s c i e n t ' i s t s . " D i s c u s sh o w h t h e t w o s c h o o l so f h i s t o r y .1 8 9 0 . 't865-1876. C o r n i s h . 2.2. A r m :N e g r o r o o p si n t h e T T U n i o nA r m y . B e n j a m i Q u a r l e s . A . S . The Battle for Democracy. 3. h e N e g r o n T h eC i v i l W a r . V e r n o n a n eW h a r t o nT h e N e g r oi n M i s s i s s i p p i . 5. L . 4. D i d r a c i s ma n d r u l i n g c l a s s i n t e r e s t s i n t e r f e r e w i t h the estabjishment a genuineproletarian democracy the of in United States over the period lB54 to 1876. t A]'len hl. Reconstruction: (193T. ( t S S Z 1 (. ! ' l i l l i e L e e R o s e . n T i K a r l M a r xa n d F r e d e r i c kE n q e l s . 54 .T h e C i v i l W a ri n T h e U n i t e dS t a t e s . A l r u t h e u sA .s c i e n t i f i c a n d u n s c i e n t i f i c . 7. T a y l o r . 9. Herein lies morethan mereomissionand difference of emphas'is.'lar of and the relation which Reconstruction has to democraticgovernment the labor moveand ment today. ( 1 8 6 5 . n John HopeF r a n k l i n . (re61).. ( 1 9 5 3 ) . 1 0 . Tre'lease. (197T).T h e S : b l e . B.R e h e a r s afl o r R e c o n s t r u c t i o n . and whoseinterests these two interpretations served.1 9 4 7 ) . :The Human i d e o f Lerone S . D u d ' l e y . T h e N e g r oi n T e n n e s s e e 8 6 5 .o f t h e t r e m e n d o um o r a l p r o b l e m f a b o l i t i o n .l 8 6 ' l . s o of the causeand meaning the Civil l. Bennett. .White Temor: The Ku K'luxKlan-Conspirac. children taught today about Recon"Whatare American T h e yw o u l d i n a l l p r o b a b i l i t y c o m p l e t e h e i r struction? t educationwithout any idea of the part which the Black race has p l a y e di n A m e r i c a . or was it simply the backwardness innate inferiority of the newly freed men and and women that accounted for the fai'lure of Black people to achieveull liberation? f 3. n.

t h e p r o p o r t i o no f l t h e B ' l a c kp o p u l a t i o nr e s i d e n t i n u r b a na r e a s o f t h e U . f o u r o u t o f e v e r y f i v e B l a c k p e o p l es t i l l l i v e d i n r u r a ' l a r e a s o f t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s .n l 9 5 b t h e U n i t e d t i S t a t e s C e n s u s u r e a u e p o r t e dt h a t f o r t h e " n o n . o C T h e b o o ki s c o m p r i s e d f t w o m a j o r s e c t i o n s ..o n 1 y w e r ee m p l o y e a s d f a r m w o r k e r s . I t p l a c e st h e l i f e o f t h e B l a c k f a m i l i e s s t u d i e d i n t h e c o n t e s t o f t h e B l a c k B e l t S o u t ha n d i n t h e .w i t h 3 8 % s " b l u e c o l l a r w o r k e r s " ( m a i n l y i n d u s a t r i a l ) a n d3 4 % s " s e r v ' i c e o r k e r s .n s S E i o of tse o a r t t i T r : h e udv of oneimportantaspectof o f l i f e a m o n g l a c k t e n a n t f a|r9 3e r' si. B e t w e e n9 l 0 a n d 1 9 4 0 .2. | 2 f a m i l i e s . J o h n s o n '-s h a-ds twa n h T -P ln i naart .a q u a r t e r o f a c e n t u r y a f t e r t h e e n d o f t h e C i v i l W a r .. o sity of ChicagoPresslT9-gq[ DESCRIPTIONOF TOPIC: RURAL . M o r e o v e r . a b o u t 1 0 % f M a c o n o u n t y ' sp o p u l a t i o n . m0 s ( b a m a n e a r T u s k e g e ei)n t h e As a studywhichsbeks " t o p o r t r a y r e a l i s t i c a i l y t h e l i f e o f a r u r a l N e g r oc o m m u n i t y u n d e rt h e i n f l u e n c eo f a p l a n t a t i o ne c o n o m y . B y c o n t r a s t . ON THE CHANGING SOCIAL FORMS OF THE BLACK EXPERIENCE FROM RURAL TO URBAN LIFE.o n l y 4 0 % o f t h e B l a c k t p o p u l a t i o n ' l i v e do n f a r m s a n d t h e n u m b eo i a c r e s o p e r a t e d e r d c l i n e d 3 7 % o 2 5 . T e ny e a r s l a t e r i n 1 9 0 0 .. T h e f i r s t o s e c t i o n i s d e v o t e dt o t h e h ' i s t o r i c a l b a c k g r o u na n d d e v e l o p m e n t d o f t h e p l a n t a t i o n . " i s a c l a s s i c .w h i t e "D o p u B r .9 5 %o f w h i c hw a s B l a c k . 2 % ) l i v e d i n t h e N o r t h .n r u r a l M a c o n o u n t y . 7 n i l l i o n a c r e s . 7 % o 4 8 .B l a c k M e t r o p o l i s : C A Study of NegroLife in a Northern-Gty. 1 t h r e e o u t o f e v e r y f i v e B l a c k m e nw o r k e di n a g r i c u l t u r e . i n 1 9 5 0a l m o s t t h r e e o f e v e r y t e n B l a c k p e o p l e ( 2 8 . J o h n s o n S h a d o wf t h e P l a n t a t ' i o n . A n d b e t w e e n 8 9 0a n d 1 9 1 0 .4% l a t i o n . R E Q U I R E DR E A D I N G S S t .( U n i v e r . C h a r l e sS . I n 1 9 5 0 . i n c r e a s e df r o n 2 2 . it I t i s b a s e do n e x t e n s i v ei n t e r v i e w sw i t h 6 . .o n i:sTa -s tc o n d i t i o .i s o n e o f t h e m o s t s i g n i f i c a n t s o c i a l t r a n s f o r m a t i o n si n t h e h i s t o r y o f t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s . S . 2 % ..A l a B C . C l a i r D r a k ea n d H o r a c e a y t o n .f r oa p r e d o m i n a n t l y m a g r i c u l t u r a l l a b o r i n g c l a s s i n t h e r u r a l S o u t ht o a n i n t e g r a ' l s e c t o r o f t h e i n d u s t r i a l p r o l e t a r i a t m o r ec o n c e n t r a t e dn t h e i u r b a nN o r t h . " T h i s t r a n s f o r m a t i o n f a w o t h e s o c i a l f o r m o f t h e B l a c k c o m m u n i t y .|8.URBAN LIFE I n 1 8 9 0 .lnarcourt e-raceJ945): C h a r l e sS . n i h e o u t o f e v e r y t e n w e r e i n t h e S o u t h .

s'i Themajorportion of the two volunes a studyof Black is by Chicago. Four chaptersare devoted key of b a c. Many Black peoplewholeft the rural farmsof the South migrated Northern to cities undergoing rapid changes to due t h e f o r c e so f i n d u s t r i a ' l i z a t i oa n du r b a n i z a t i o n . t h e c h u r c h . Johnson then details the internal structure and dynamics the connunity. Included are observations survivals. "e to B'lackcorrnunity Chicago. B e c a u so t L h i s . government program Administration a during the Great Depres on. s c h o o l . Thesecond remaining from that previous section focuses the comron on economic life andsuchinstitutions as t h e f a m i l y . Thevast majority of Blackpeople duringthe early f gOts wereconcentrated preciselythe type of rural B'lack in Be'lt cl o mo nu n itth a t J o h n s os t u d i e s .n d 56 .providingemof pirical data to demonstrate historica1evolutionand its stability.B l a c kM e t r o p n o'lis is a two-volume study of onesuchcity--Chicagol-The study discusses by Chicago from its settlernent a Blacktradesmanin 1790to the early years of Wor'ld II. hea'lthcare. 2o f t h e U . but also to graspthe forces causing change. Throughout entire workwe are ab'lenot only to the understand dominant the historical forces that maintain the status quo. e c r e a t i o n a n d r .Jars the contextof Chicago. a'll important aspects the generalsocio-cultural of pattern. It is based War on extensive interviewsand first-hand part'icipant-observations by conducted a team. Part II is comprised casestudiesof the of whichkept BIackpeople varioussocial forces andmechanisms political. and 'life pinpointsthe forceswhichwere social of Chicago--and c a u s i n g r i f t s i n t h e c o l o r 1 i n e " i n a l l t h r e e o f t h o s ea r e n a s . in of forces of social change a on whichwasexperiencing same the broader sca'le.JPA).5 1 . and in segregated subordinated the economic. " th I o V o l u mIe i s a n i n . Part I situates the B'lack corununity--swollenthe mass migrations the Wor'ld l. socia'lcodes andattitudes shaped the economy in of slavery..r e l i g i o n . B l a c kp o p u m y n % ' ati w a sf o u n di n t h e B l a c kB e ' l ti n 1 9 0 0 . B l a c ki n s t i t u t i o n s : t h e n e w s p a p e rh u r c h . as we1l as memories slaveryand farming of methods period.ofinvestigators employed the Work by Project job (I.d e p t hi n v e s t i g a t i o n f " B r o n z e v i ' l ' | e . u s i n e s s e s .broaderMacon County corrnunity. e Shadow the P'lantg!!on provides of essentialinformation for a scientitT-sTmy-oFTe'precise characterof the Black experience during this period. patterns on of life. S .

S . i t w i l l h e l p u s t o u n d e r s t a n dh e h i s t o r i c a l d e v e l o p m e n t t moreand of manyof the questions and issues that are assuming m o r ei m p o r t a n c e u r i n g t h e 1 9 7 0 ' s . t h e n u m b e r s ) .and a 196'l updatehas been added. .2 3 a r e p r i m a r i ' l y s c o n c e r n ew i t h r e v e a ' l i n g h e i n t e r n a l d y n a m i c o f t h e B I a c k d t c o m m u n i t y . i t h t h e c o n c e p to f " s o c i a l c l a s s e s " p l a y i n g a w p i v o t a l r o l e i n t h e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n . s o c i a l p r o b l e m s a n d t h e d e v e ' l o p m eo ft r a d i c a l p o ' l i t ' i c a ' la n d n s s o c i a l t h o u g h ta n d p r o g r a m f o r r a d i c a l s o c i a ' l c h a n g e n d a a n e ws o c i a l o r d e r . T h u s . " 0 f T h i n g sT o C o m e i"s a projection of the future trends basedon the wealth of data presented.i n a l a t e r p e r i o d .7 .t h ee f f e c t o f t h e D e p r e s s i o n ." for emanc'ipating Common the T h u s o e h a v e ' i n t h e s et w o b o o k sn o t j u s t c l a s s i c s i n w m e t h o d o l o ga n d e m p i r i c a 1 a t a . Heconcludes y calling o pl f o r " c o m p r e h e n s i v ea n n i n g the completeeorgan'izar t ' i o n o f a g r i c u ' l t u r ei n r e s p e c t t o b o t h p r o d u c t ' i o n n d d i s a t r i b u t i o n ... I n a d d i t i o n .w a rw o r l d a n d o n t h c d e v e l o p i t ment of a world program Man. " D r a k ea n d C a y t o n .s i d e d a n d i n . Both Shadow the Plantation and. b u t a l s o t h e k ' i n do f b r o a d y d s o c i a l v i s i o n o f B l a c kl i b e r a t i o n t h a t i s t h e h a l l m a r k f o the sci enti f i c trad'iti on of Black i nte'lI ectual work.Black Metropolis are of excellent exffies ofThe concreTe conalTlons-ofifiEiFr e s p e c t i v eh i s t o r i c a l p e r i o d s . F. n o t e t h a t t h e p r o s p e c to f B l a c k p e o p l e" f i ' l 1 i n g t h e r o l e o f w h i p p i n g boy for an emerging American fascism depends not so m u c h p o nC h i c a g o s u p o nt h e p o s s ' i b i l i t y o f A m e r i c a c h i e v u a a i n g f u l 1 e m p l o y m e nn t h e p o s t .f ' l a t i o n a n d o t h e r it .d e p t h l o o k at the firstp[tG-of t h e h i s t o r i c a l e x p e r i e n c eh a t i s s t i l l t t h e " m o d a l "( t h e m o s t i m p o r t a n ta n d w i d e s p r e a de x p e r i e n c e o r f ) B l a c kp e o p l ei n t h e U .l i v i n ga n dw o r k i n g ' i nt h e c i t y . " a n d t h e i n c r e a s i n gp r e s s u r eo f e x p l o i t a t i o n a n d b oppression n the tenant farmers. e .l " p o 1 i c y "( i . d i n c r e a s i n gs t r u g g l e s a g a i n s t u n e m p l o y m e nn.C h a p t e r s8 . " J o h n s o n o t e s k i n t h e " c o n t r o l [ o f ] l a r g e a r e a sa l r e a d y i n t h e p o s s e s s i o n f o b a n k sa n d ' i n s u r a n c e o m p a n i eis s a t i s f a c t i o n o f m o r t g a g e n c d e f a u l t s . b o t h b o o k s s e e k t o p l a c e t h e c o n d i t i o n so f B l a c k p e o p l e" i n t h e b r o a d f r a m e w o r o f m a n ' se x D e r i e n c en t h e w o r l d . B l a c k M e t r o p o l i sp r o v i d e sa n a l l . t o d a y . It i s t h i s s a m e h a l l e n g i n gv ' i s i o n o f t h e n e ww o r l d t h a t w e m u s t c h e l p t o b u i ' l d t h a t s h o u l di n s p ' i r e o u r s t u d y a n d s t r u g g l e d u r i n g t h e p r e s e n tp e r i o d .

Charles Johnson. r n i a n Includein your discussion causes social consequences the and great migrationof B'lackpeoplefrom the rural of the second Southto the urbanNorth. o Harry Hayrvood. for and Questions Discussion Research: The social characterof a connunityis based the l. . Rope and Faggot: A Biography .ludge L y n c h . (1948). the Hylan Lewi . RevoltAmong Sharecroppers. After Freedom: Cultura'lStudy South." Compare pi-ojectT6fr-fitfi-the its 196'land 1969 Considering recentstatistical data appendices. 2. whatis the usefulness BlackMetropolis in of understandingtheseconditions. of (1936). on the current situation in the life andstrugglesof the urban Blackworkers. Charles Johnson. 4. TheCo]lapse CottonTenancy. Discuss the concluding essayin BlackMetropolis entitled "0f Things to Come. 3. of l. 5. 2.lhite. on class structureof its inhabitantsand its racial composition. n l y n c h i n g ) .andhencelh'-angTnjt-hemI SUPPLEMENTAR READINGS Y RURAL l. R. NegroLiberation. 7. Usingthe categoriesof race and class.|a]ter F. ) A Hortense Powdermaker. Edwin Embree ldil'l Alexander. ('1939T. B'l s of ackways Kent ( 1955 . 6.C. l. In whatwaysdoesthe socia'l characterof rural Macon County(as discussed Shadow the Plantatlon) compare in of to the area you live in nowls iEwasTn TtreTIilOtt Discuss similarities anddifferences. in the Deep 58 . 3. Howard Kester. S.( 1 9 2 9 . S. compare social the c h a r a c t eo f M a c oC o u n t yn ' 1 9 3 0 n dC h i c a g io t h e ' 1 9 4 0 ' s . and (tSeS1. Growing in the BlackBelt: Negro llp Youthin the nural-Soilth-lf]9[]T.

7. tego-igm'. Ha|em: l|e Uelilg . e t . W o o d s oT h eR u r a lN e g r o . .a Ghetto.TheNegro Chicago: on in A Study of RaceRelations and a RacenTffi.. (re65) ( l ^ l . ( C a r t e rG . J o h n B r a c e y . A l l e n H . J. (1 7 1 e ) 2. Chicago Conrnission Race Relations. t g S O ) . in (1e6e) Kenneth C'lark. Lynch. B . n € d . 8. ia '1866-197] Hol'lis R. 9. . u B o i sT h eP h i ' l a d e l p h N e g r o .' 1 91 9 6 7 ) .-TiFZ2T. 5. a l . lhe 814k Uqba4 (1s73) Constance Mclaughlin Green.. 59 10. Negro of_ New York. 6. G h e t t o . T h e R i s e o f t h e G h e t t o . n. URBAN l.Dar[ Ghetto:Dilemmas Social Power. Robert Weaver. Gi'lbert 0sofsky. ' 1 8 9 0 . Condil!9-!. ' 1 8 9 9 ) .ng66T. S p e a r .Prefaceto Peasantry: Iqle of IUq Blacksett cbuntieuTt36-J M o r t o n u b i n . 10. E . of 4. l [ . Negro The Ghetto. . A Arthur F. l a c kC h i c a g o :T h eM a k i n q f a N e g r o B o ( 20. R P n . IXe Sec!|et 9ity: A History of Race Relatiois in Thettitlon's t-apitaTJt-%Zl.(1948).Harlem: A ComrnunitaTransition. JohnHenry Clarke.8. D . ' l a n t a t i oC o u n t y ( 1 9 5 ] ) . 9. Raper. .

Thehisof tory of Black peoplein the UScan therefore be understood best if the historical developnent classesin the US of (particularly of Blackpeople)is thi basis on whichit is done. focus on 4 basic factorS: (l ) "the persistence ofTh"e-Negro's slave heritage. PETTY BOURGEOISIE. "a'lwaya fundarnentally based its social classes. restricted and minoritv. OF DESGRIPTI@N TOPIC: SOCIAL CLASS Thesocial structure of a society. REQUIRED READINGS Abram Harris and Sterlins D. gry! the LaborMovement.3.ths-relation of the domlnaht sCcli6nof the working class to the segregated. Riseof a New Middle class i1 the unftAI @(|_967T. . and all of its constituent peoples is and corununities.. The Blac&Up!:G!lis "an effort to set forth descriptively anil-anatlffidTty the results of a study of the Airerican labor movenBnt one of its mostlmpo_rtant aspects. circumscribed. ln namely. Spero. So this area of study is a basic framework the for entlre fie'ld of Afro-American Studies. ON THE CLASS STRUCTURE OF BLACK PEOPLE . .. FranklinFrazier. underglrdthe soclal structure of Afro-Anerican Speroand Harrts. This is true for the United on States as for all societies that haveever existed. in the Blackilorker.PROLETARIAT."(3) "the change the Negroe's in fundanental relation to industry resulting from the recent migrationsand the abioiptlon into the mills:and factories of a substantial 60 . valuesof the "blaekbourgeoisle . and or.TheBlack blorker: L." BlackBourqeoisie out "to make a Neqro set soii o1ogi caI ina I yET-0tffiEEfi a-vi the atti tudes. although the specific clais characterof eachsociety is based the on particular historical conditions that society. these two bookssumup the origin of the existing classesthat people.-(1931T. BlackBourseoisie." Together. AND BOURGEOISIE. TheNegro The E." (2) "the exclusivecraft structure of the leading labor organizations.

clerica'l workersquadrup'led since " The book is in two sections: The !{orld of Reality and The t l o r l d o f M a k e e l i e v e . T h i s s t u d y i s o r g a n ' i z e d 5 s e c t ' i o n s . t h e T r i a n g u l a r t l a n t i c S l a v eT r a d e .which has come of i n t o e x i s t e n c ea s a c o n s e q u e n c e r a c i a l d i s c r i m i n a t i o na n d of r a c i a l s e g r e g a t ' i o n . . T h em a i n c o n t r i b u t i o n o f t h e s t u d y i s i n the next four sections. A p l a n t a t i o n . ( 2 ) S e c t i o n3 ( 6 c h a p t e r s ) . . d'isplaced workers (unemp l o y e d .|940. o T h e s i g n ' i f i c a n t h i s t o r i c a l d e v e l o p m e n tf t h i s a n a ' l y s i si s t h a t o " t h e r e l a t i v e s i z e o f t h e b l a c k b o u r g e o i s i e n t h e N e g r op o p u ' l a i ( t i o n h a s i n c r e a s e d u r i n g t h e p a s t d e c a d e 1 9 4 0 ' s )l a r g e l y b e d causethe proport'ionof Negroworkers in clerical and kindred occupations has morethan doubledand the proportion of female . ( 3 ) S e c t i o n s4 a n d 5 ( 8 c h a p t e r s ) .'r- part of the reserve of b'lack labor. s y s t e mf a g r i c u l t u r e . Frazier begins his study of The B'lackBourgeois'ie tracby i n g t h e h i s t o r i c a l r e l a t i o n s h i p o f A f r o . " .this approach in has the addedimportance showinghowthe crisis facing of B'lackworkers is connected the crisis facing the entire to society." As the study was completed the middle of the Great Depression. 9 . "T h i s b o o kc a n b e r e a d i n t w o s t a g e s . T h e r e f o r e .w e 1 f a r er e c i p i e n t s . This dealswith the proletarianizat i o n o f t h e B l a c km a s s e s n d t h e i r r e l a t i o n s h i p t o w h i t e a w o r k e r s . a n d t h e B l a c k m i d d l e c ' l a s s . " p But the same ethodology at is used'inboth can be app'lied m th t o a l l c ' l a s s e s .a ' l t h o u g hh e s e b o o k sd o n ' t c o v e r a l l t c'lassesof Black people they have he'lpedlead the way in getting the total analysisdone. It does not cover farmers. Harris and Sperowrote "the obstac'les which econom- 61 . a n d w a r .t r a d e u n i o n s . .t h a t i n c l u d e 2 l in chapters.A m e r i c a nt s t h e d e v e l o p o m e n to f c a p i t a l i s m . The first section sumsup "the heritage of slavery" i n t w o c h a p t e r s . t h e f i r s t b e i n gt h e r e a l o r B o b j e c t i v e l y e x i s t i n g e c o n o m ic o n d i t i o na n d s o c i a l s t a t u s o f t h e ' b l a c k b o u r g e o i s i e 'i n t h e U n ' i t e d t a t e s . a n d t h e s e c o n d S b e i n g t h e s t a n d a r d s f b e h a v i o ra n d v a l u e s o f t h e i s o l a t e d s o c i a l o world of th'is segment the Negropopu'lation.t i m ei n d u s t r i a ' l i z a t i o n . ) a n d t h e " l u m p e n r o l e t a r i a t ." and (4) "the rise of a Negrom'idd1e spreadof middle c'lass class and the consequent ideals throughoutthe Negrocommunity. T h i s v o l u m e s h o u l db e r e a d i n t h r e e s t a g e s : ( l ) S e c t i o n sI a n d 2 ( 7 c h a p t e r s ) .e . Thesetwo bookscover the main classes of the Afro-American people. AND RESEARCH QUESTIONSFOR DISCUSSION 1. e t c .

Comparen detail. F r a z i e r .c l a s s o i d e o l o g y . H o w o e s t h i s g e n e r a la t t i t u d e s h o wu p d i n t h i s p a r t i c u l a r i n s t a n c e h i c hH a r r i s a n d S p e r od i s c u s s : w y " F o r t h r e e h u n d r e d e a r s t h e N e g r oh a s b e e nk e p t ' i n a p o s i t i o n o f s o c i a ' l a n d e c o n o m i i n f e r i o r i t y . "( p . I . c l d o m ' i n a t eb y t h e h e ' i r a r c h y f t h e s k i l l e d c r a f t s . 3 9 8 ) D i s c u s s h e s p e c i f i c s o c i a l c o n t e n to f t e a c ho f t h e a b o v et h r e e o b s t a c l e s . " b 3. a n d ( 3 ) r a c i a l a n t a g o n i s me t w e e n h i t e a n d b l a c k b w w o r k e r s . ( t6t9-1973. ( 2 ) t h e g r o w i n gp r e v a l e n c e f N e g r om i d d l e . s i n gb o t h o f t h e i r w o r k s . W h e n e g r o e s a r c h :The Marchon Washi i PoTitr-cs for ngton Movementn-The OrganilzaTTonal 3. w w a SUPPLEMENTARYR EAD I NGS PROLETARIAT 1. T h e e d u c a t e c f l e a d e r so f t h e N e g r os e e o n l y t h e r a c i a l a s p e c to f t h i s s i t uation. " b y d i s c u s s i n gt h e h i s t o r i c a ] r o o t s a n d e c o n o m i b a s i s o f t h e B l a c km i d d l e c l a s s . . T h e i r n e t h o d i s t o u n d e r s t a n dh e e c o n o m i cm a t e r i a l ) t forces at work in society and then to interpret the social and p o fi t i c a l d e v e l o p m e n t s . A La P h i l l i p S . .O r g a n ' i z e d b o ra n d t h e B ] a c kW o r k e r . the education ndoolit'ics of the Blackproa letariat andthe education ndpolitics of thb glack a b o u r g e o ii e . G a r f i n k e l .e g i n sh i s ' i n v e s t i g a t i o n s o f " t h e w o r l d o f r e a 1 i t y . i n B l a c k B o u r g e o ' i s i e . H a m i s c a n d S p e r oi n d i s c u s s i n gt h e B l a c k p r o l e t a r i a t b e g i n w i t h t h e c o m p e t i t i o n e t w e e n l a c k a n dw h i t e ' l a b o r d u r i n g t h e s ' l a v e b B ( r e g i m e s . I 9 0 2 ) .a n d t h e r o l e o f t r a d e u n i o n sa n d t h e B l a c k p r e s s . E . h a s n o d e d o s i r e t o s e e h i m e m e r g er o m t h a t c o n d i t i o n . B l a c k p r o l e t a r i a t a n d t h e B l a c kb o u r g e o i s ' io n t h e q u e s t ' i o n e o f r a c e r e l a t i o n s . 1974) N M H e r b e r tR . the specific attitudes of the i. what material forces describedby the two refe r e n c e s h ' i c h o u ' l d c c o u n tf o r t h e s e d i f f e r e n c e s . ( . s B. 2. a n dw h i t e o r g a n i z e d a b o r .d i s c u s s : U A.T1-e5e 62 . 2 I . F o n e r . BD u B o i s T h e N e g r o r t i s a n .i c r a d i c a ' l i s m a d t o o v e r c o m ie o r d e r t o g a i n s o m e c c e p h n a t a n c e i n N e g r ol i f e w e r e : ( 1 ) t h e N e g r o ' so r t h o d o xr e l i g i o u s t r a d ' i t i o n s . @.

r . Charles Johnson. 10.Divisionof Negro of Economics. 9.1 9 2 5 . andTheNegro Business. T.( 1 9 5 9 ) . Co]'lege August Meieramd DavidLewis. P i e r c e .S.l 8 5 0 . Menbership American LaborUnions. (tssol 10. F (1938).B 9 0 . Problem. Negro The Professional Man and the (1934). in Ifq L Reid. BD u B o i s . 63 2. et. Carter G. 5. F r a n k l i nF r a z i e r . .N e g r o u s i n e sa n dB u s i n e sE d u c a t i o n . W . 6.. C. T h eB ' l a c k i l l i o n a i r e . N . Negro Labor:A Nationa'l Problem. Robert Weaver."Historyof the Negro U p p e C l a s si n A t l a n t a . Blacker the Bemy. t .--(l9nT. C h a r l e s e s l e yN e g r o a b o r n t h e U n i t e d t a t e s . J M s 'lace t.l tO) .4. Woodson. 7. . T T ..la'l Thruman. l . TheNegro Anerican in Industry.S p r i n g s 1 9 5 9 ) . N e g r o d u c a t i o n(. at the Worldhlarand DuringReconsTFuction.al. Department Labor.TheNegro Wage Earner. L i S (1e27) S. E . 6. eds. F r a n k l i nE d w a r d s . E . . E J o s e p A . " n A l a i n L o c k e e t .h eN e g r o r o f e s s i o n a l l a s s .( t g : Z ) . Graduate. Negro (1e30 ) (1946). 8. ug1lqft Northrop. Carter G. in G . 3. G e r o g i al. 5. U. E . "i n W .BOURGEOISIE t.. Negroes the GreatDepression: and The laymgnd Walters. (1929) The . . i . T h eN e w e g r o ( 1 9 2 5 ) . | 9 5 8J " u r n a l f r . T P C E . BD u B o i s" T h e a ] e n t e d e n t h .o o . 9. F r a n k ' l i n r a z i e r o D u r h a m :a p i t a lo f t h e B l a c kM i d d l e F C " C ] a s s .-Recove ProbI emof Economi c ryf. (]903) and Booker tlashington. Negro The S. Corununity. h B s s ( 1e 4 b ) L o u i sR o b i n s o n .T h eF r e eN e g r o a m i ] y . Woodson Lorenzo and Green. 4. ( 1 9 7 2 ) . (1e68). TheNegro (1899T. 7. 8. TheNegro WorkDgl_!g.

AYA (thefirn). of Thisword alsomeans'lam not afraid you" A symbolof defiance. .

1880-19]5. TheGuardian Boston: Troiter. August Meier.E.-11emT. By AnyMeans *LetffiWcomT.lashington Others. DuBoisn Booker l. 67 . 9.) Your angercan not set me on fire. History. Negro in Ndgro' T. o ANIBERE ENSO YA A G (Redeyescan not light the fire. T. I!9 Futureof the American 7." "0f i n S o u ] s f B l a c kF o l k . Booker tlashington.B. ( 1 9 0 3 ) . o blilliamMonroe R. of Steohen Fox. 4.2. Malco]m 0n Afro-American X. (1907). Interviews. and tl. Thought America. 5. Another to symbolof defiance. 6. 3. You can not frighten me by pretending be angry. ('r8ee). The in Booker tlashington. Negro Business. (1967). T.and a Necesg{y: Speeches. 8. Four Speeches Supremacy: The Endof !a -l'lalcdin tlhite Wor'ld F ngn. (tgzo) (tS0f1.

6 0 6 . edited by political economists.good source of corrnentary radical by MONTHLY a social scientists. 5. A v a i l a b l e f r o mT i m b u k t u o o k s . CA. B P . a n d w o r ' l dr e v o ' l u t i o n . w i t h a n n u a li s s u e s o n p o e t r y . (P. 2 0 0 ] 3 ) n. ( l g Z OS . 0 . REVIET^I. serves as a vehicle for adacemic HIST0RY. I . ECON0MY. . '1 (p.W a s h ' i n g t oD . e Chicago. . 6. quarter'ly publication initiatJ0URNAL NEGRO a 0F ed by the Association for the Study of NegroLife and History in 1916.|970.RESOURCES PUBLICATIONS AND RESEARCH CENTERS 1. Pfoperty taxes in Mississippi. I I i nois 60680 ) . |South.i m p e r i a l i s t s t r u g g l e . C h i c a g o I ' ll i n o i s . 1 0 0 2 7 ) 2. BLACK SCH0LAR. best source of monthlydevelopments the i n t h e B l a c k ' l i b e r a t i o n m o v e m e ne. B o x7 6 9 6 . 7.. PRESS. Box 2 4 1 3 . l^lrite for further details. d r a m a . 4. 0 . Sausal o. that J0URNAL BLACK research. a n t i .The African World Resource Center is a good source of fTTms.| 9 5 0 9 4 7 . AFRICAN FAIVIILY.94965) it B L A CW 0 R L D . | 6 ) . l l i n o i s 6 0 6 8 0 ) I AFRICAN WORLD. and other resources.C h i c a g o . s'ince one of the REVIET^I BLACK 0F POLITICAL leading centers and journals is reflect'ing someof the curB s r e n t t h i n k i n g o n e c o n o m i ca m o n g i a c k p e o p l e . ( B l a c k E c o n o m iR e s e a r c C e n t e r .s p e c i a l l y t h e a n t i t imperialist student movement. ( Q u a r t e r l y . B o x7 6 9 6 . andBlackincomes c h a r e a v a i l a b ' l e .0. M i c h i g a n v e n u e . 9. expanding resourcecenter for PE0PLES COLLEGE politica'l education aterialson the BIackliberation movem m e n t . w i d e l y a v a i l a b ] e m o n t h l yr e v i e w i n m a t t e r s K a o f B l a c k c u l t u r e . C . 'important monthly review of Black an S t9 6 9e sa n d t h e t h i n k i n g o f B ' l a c ki n t e 1 l e c t u a l s s i n c e udi .goodsource for revo'lutionary RED a perspectiveson the current African situation.0. l l 2 W e s t Y 1 2 0 t hS t r e e t n N e w o r k . 8.-paffiTdts. W r i t e f o r a 'll i s t o f a v a i ' l a b ' l p u b ' l i c a t i o n s(. S p e c i a l publications on the land question in the rura'l. gox908. N Y . 3.|970 quarterly since 0F STUDIES. P . A a n d o t h e r s p e c i a l t o p i c s .

Y . N Y . IL 605. . 0 . UNi0N RADICAL ECON0MISTS an organi0F POLITICAL zation whichattempts deve'lop radica'lperspective to a l o n t h e c u m e n tc r i s i s o f i m p e r i a l i s m . (URPE).M I . . 0 . (URPE Office of 0rganizational n .l l 2 1 2 N RECORDS FOLKl. A v ' i c e s M i c h i g aU n i o n A n n r b o r .C. B e r k e l e y . 4 8 1 0 4 ) . B o x2 4 .N. 1 0 0 2 3 AUDIO BRANDON FILMS 8 4 0 0B r o o k f i e l dA v e . l 0 0 l l (F'ilms) AFRICAN W0RLD RESR0UCE CENTER P . NewYork.Y.S e v e r ap u b l i c a Sertions are available. Brookfield.C A . .|3 THIRD WoRLD NEIISREEL 26 West 20th Street N e wY o r k . B o x4 4 3 0 . SOURCES FOR AUDIO-VISUAL MATERIALS RESOURCES AUDIO-VISUAL ( W r i t e e a c hf o r u p t o d a t e c a t a l o g u e n d p r i c e s . NewYork 10036 .. NY. IMPACT '144 FILMS Bleeker Street New ork. | 3 D Washington. 0 .10. 20013 RECORDS PAREDON P .lAYS 701 7th Avenue NewYork. N Y . ) a TRICONTENTAL CENTER FILM P . 10012 Y NEllYORKER FILMS 43 West6'lst Street N e wY o r k . B o x8 8 9 B r o o k l y n . 9 4 7 0 4 '10001 244 ldest 27th St.

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