Design of Machine Elements

• Creating a plan or drawing for a product using intellectual ability and
scientific knowledge is called design.
• A product should be designed, such that it should permit economical
manufacture, and it shouldmeet the specification requirements.
DesignProcess: .
• The design prOCf!SS or approachvaries with individual requirements, size
of the project, company practices etc.
• Alogical order of, lesign steps is given below:
IRec: gnition of a need - Specific machine function
,-.'------- - . Specifications & Requirements -
1
--
t
IFeasibility Study -. Economic and

/ Creative Design synthesis I
',-
t
"':!'
JPreliminary Design and Development, Kinematic I
'I Arrangement, Overall Configuration I .

JDetailed Design (Mechanical Design)
'j Strength, Deformation, Materials
J, ,

lprototype Building and Testing I
t
I
Design for Production I
J,
I 'I
Product Release
. FIG.l.l. DESIGN PROCESS
Step 1: Specifying the customer Need: Customer criticism. on the product
function arid quality may force a redesign (Feed Back Loop). It may be
needed to satisfy a new requirement, to improve the existing design or to'
face competition fromother manufacturers.
Step 2: Specifications (Defining the Problem): Collect the required
specifications like No. of speeds, values of speeds, No. of feed rates, their
values, power of the machine tool, bed size, weight of machine tool etc.
'-t-
Step 3: Feasibility Study: The possible success of the proposal should be
verified from technical and economical stand points.
Step 4: Creative Design Synthesis: Synthesis of various new and or old ideas
in such a way as to produce new idea, using .the various sources like 1)
already existing methods, 2) Kinemetics, 3) Machine elements and
mechanism like levers, screws, wheels, gears, couplings, hydraulic and
pneumatic elements etc. 4) Standards, "5) Technical Journals, 6) Exhibitions,
and 7) Experiments.
Step 5: Preliminary Design: The design solutions similar to the ones
. mentioned in the previous paragraph should be compared for the design
factors mentioned below and the best solution should be found,
Design Factors: Strength, Rigidity, Friction,
Lubrication, Weight, Volume, Manufacturing ease, Reliability, Safety, Cost,
Efficiency, life, ease of control, overload capacity, maintenance, space "
requirement, cost of manufacture, Ergonomics, Aesthetics and safety.
For dte best design solution, layout drawings are made, to know the
overall configuration. All the spe cifications and requirements are rarely met
during this phase.
Step 0: Detailed Design: It is the actual sizing and dimensioning all
individual (both fabricated and purchased) components that go into making
the final product.
Knowing the loads acting on each component and deciding on the
"material, design calculations are done and sketches are made by the
Engineer. The draughtsman makes the part drawing showring all the
necessary views and dimensions, tolerances, material etc.
Step 7: Prototype Building: 'This building and testing may .lead to some
modifications in the preliminary design and detailed design
Loops)
Step 7: Design for Production: Design changes are introduced to suit the
most economical methods of production.
A part may be considered suitable for manufacturing by casting or
forging rather than by welding from several smaller parts; sometimes
commercially available purchased item cart. replace a manufactured
component leading to cost reduction.
-2.-
Types of Design:
a) Adaptive Design: Adaptation of the existing design
b) Development Design: Improvement of the existing design
c) NewDesign: Design of an entirely newproduct.
Ergonomic Considerations in Design:
The ease with which the user of the designed equipm.ent carries out various
operations, like moving hand wheels, levers and seeing instrument dials, fatigue of
the operator, energy expenditure in hand .and foot operations, environmental
conditions (light, noise, climate), human safety, etc. are the subject matter of
ergononucs.
Standards:
When designing machine elements, the calculated dimensions should be
rounded off to standard values wherever possible. By using standard dimensions
interchangeability of components is possible and hence the components can be
mass produced at lower costs.
PreferredSizes:
When manufacturing a product in different sizes, it is better to have
minimum number ofsizes to cover a certainrange, from economic considerations.
Here Sizeof a product may mean dimensions, power, speed, etc. It has been found
that if the numbers derived fromgeometric series (preferred numbers) are used to
specify the sizes, the demands are met with minimumnumber of sizes.
Refer Data Book Page No. 7.20 for the preferrednumbers.
Rules for Design:
• Design should aim. at the best with the least expenditure
• The component should have adequate strength, wear resistance and
corrosionresistance.
• The assembly should be backlash free. To prevent loosening of
connected parts, initial tension should be introduced to the joints.
• Resonance is to be avoided, because high stresses due to large amplitude
vibrations, will damage the component. High speed equipments should
be properlybalanced.
• The machine should be simple, fool proof, easy to operate and should
reduce operator's fatigue. .
-5-
~
<>
• The machine should need only a minimummaintenance. Design should
provide for proper lubricationof various parts.
• Design for Manufacture: Making a comparative study of designs,
depending on the number of components to be produced, manufacturing
process whether casting, forging or fabrication. (welding), should be
decided.
• By suitably designing castings and weld non uniform cooling, residual
stresses and deformations should be'minimized.
• When designing parts to be machined, a shape which facilitates quick
mounting, machining and easy measurement and also which requires low
cost simple machines and fixtures, should be chosen.
• Wherever possible, dimensions of the components should be rounded off
to standardvalues.
• Machines and equipments should be amenable for easy packing and
transportation. Transport cost should be as small as possible.
Material Selection:
• One of the first steps in machine design ~ selection of proper material.
• Following factors are consideredin the selection of the material:
o Mechanical properties of materials
o Manufacturing ease
o Quantity required
o Space Available
o Material cost
o Manufacturingcost
o Availability of material
Mechanical Properties to be consideredare:
1. Strength: is the ability of the material to resist the extemally applied loads
without failure (fracture or yielding). Ultimate strength is used for measure
the strength of brittlematerial and Yieldstrength for ductile material.
2
For steel, '[y Jay
2. Elasticity: enables the material to regain the original shape after
defonnation.
3. Plasticity: enables the material to permanently retain the deformation
producedby the externally appliedloads.
-4-
4. Stiffness (Rigidity): enables the material to resist deformation under loads.
Rigidity is of great importance in members whose deflections are limited by
service requirements as in machine tool spindles.
5. Ductility: enables the material to be drawn into wire when tensile force is
applied.
Steel, aluminium and copper are ductile materials, which have large
plastic deformation before rupture while brittle materials have a small plastic
deformation. .
Ductility is important because it permits the. material to absorb large
overloads and it permits the material to be cold worked.
6. Brittleness: means lack of ductility. Cast Iron is a brittle material.
7. Malleability: enables the material to be flattened or squeezed under a
compressive force. (Gold & Aluminium) Malleability isa compressive
quality while ductility i1 a tensile quality.
8. Resilience: is the material's capacity to absorb energy within the elastic
range. This enables material to -resist shock and impact and hence it is
desired in springs. .
9. Toughness: enaeles the material to -absorb energyin the plastic range; .it
. enables the m.aerial to be twisted or bent. under a sudden load before
rupture. _
10.Hardness: enables the material to resist indentation, wear or plastic
deformation.
11.Creep: At elevated temperatures materials yield and Undergo permanent
deformation at a stress lower than the yield pomt stress. In addition to the
loss of strength, there is a continuous gradual elongenon of the members at
. high temperature over a long period of time, known as.creep.
12.Strain· Hardening: When drawing ductile material through dies or when
rolling them between rollers, plastic deformation takes p1acemd this
increases the yield point stress and ultimate strength. This is known as strain
hardening.
13.Damping Capacity: is the ability of a material to damp vibrations by
absorbing the kinetic energy of vibration. CI has greater damping capacity.
14.Hardenability: is the ability of steel to through harden. Hardenability can be
improved by using alloying elements like boron, vanadium, manganese,
chromium and molybdenum.
I5.Machinability: is the ease with which the metal can be removed in
machining operations. This is an important factor, Good machinability
results in less tool wear, good surface finish and less power consumption.
This can be achieved by adding sulphur and lead in steel, which reduce the
tensile strength.
- 5 -

Ke
y

. .. "0" '. lS'!
Hub
(a) Saddle Key
, -h
b .
-
-, Hub
(d) Flat (sunk)
FORMS OF KEYS
The function of a key is to prevent relative rotation of a shaft and
the member (hub of pulley, gear or crank) to which it is connected. In
other words, key is used to transmit torque from a shaft to a gear, pulley
or similar device or vice versa.
/ape,linIDO r
b
-\ rb1l-/aper I inlOO r
b
l .i.t l
[ -:=l El he L.. h 0
IL- --.Ih=b L---I
T
10) Square (b). Flat (sunk)
. TAPER KEYS
WOOpRUFF KEY
Z$;rnicircular slo t
'Area in
=O.Shl
(b).lnvolute spline
(b! Crushing of key
...- l __
Woodruff key
Ke y instalied
bet ween rna ting
palts
(al Key in shear
(a).Para"el side spline titling
·PARALLEL-SIDE AND INVOLUTE SPLINES
Wheel
.GIB HEAD TAPERED· KEY'
. FORCES ON KEY DUE TO TRANSMITTED
---
.-"

Distribution. of
to.ngential load I

Torque
(b)
.FEATHER KEYS
L2d-=1
.LOAD DIAGRAM FOR
A RECTANGULAR KEY
U.lZ. Failure Modes of Keys
1. Shear failure 2: Crushieg failure
F
I
= tangential force onthe"'key
_ Torque on shaft _.I-
- radius ofthe shaft - d/2
Induced shear stress on the key
F
I
F
I
r= =-
Area resistingshear bl:
Induced compressive stress on the key
F, F, .
a - =---
C - Area resisting crushing L" h/2
• Keyway
(a)
*
(a) Kennedy. key (b) Round key
G------------ -------------- --- f
-- --- -------- ------- --- - d
I----"'"
Shaft

Fig. I I Sleeve or-muff coupling.
DESIGN OF SHAFT
COUPLINGS:
Muff Coupling: (Fl{;j. I I)
D= 2d+13mm
L= S.od 4-<;t
Irit.= lr (D4 - d
4
) ]
16'Cs D
1= 3.5d =!:.
2 2
-t4} t= I.w.'t.d
2
=d!.)·"C,·l(
, \2 2}
..
D
L
d
T
't's
I
\V
t
't
(Jc
=Outside dian eter of sleeve
=Length of the sleeve
= Diameter ofthe shan
=Torque transmitted by coupling
= Shear stress of shaft material, 14 MPa for CI
=Length of the key in each shaft
= Width ofthe key ,
=Thickness ofthe key
=Shear stress ofkey material
= Crushing stress ofkeymaterial

Diameter of the muff or- sleeve,
Length of the muff or sleeve,
where
»";""id +13 mm
L =3.5 d
d =. Diameter of the shaft.
Muff,
Clamp or compression coupling.
Compression or Clamp coupling:
HT _ 1t
2
.p.d,/· [cr.Jn.d
of - 16
where
J.1 = Co-efficient offriction between the surfaces
ofthe shaft and sleeve
=Core Diameter of the bolts
=No. of bolts
=Diameter ofthe shaft

Unprotected type flange coupling.
. - - - ----
Protective type flange coupling.
Flange Coupling:
a)Proportions:
D==2d
L=l5::f
Va '::
1:1=4d
b, :: O.liSd.
b.
l. 4
b) Shaft Design:
tft= z., d
8
16 S'
c) Hub Design:
t'\ = -d
4
)1
16 C I)
c) Key Design:
Mt == lW·'tk .d
2
Nt=
d) Flange Design:
tft=,.(D;},.t
f
e) Bolts Design:
n.( )(dt)·'t
b

I" J L
Ht =
Marine Coupling: (F/G!. 14-)
Flange thickness = d/3= tf
Taper of-bolt =1 in 20to 1 in 40
DI = 1.6d .
D2= 2.2 d
...... rnl 2 1
1
,-, ,,== 1- r(q ):ti;J.n·I-
L4J L2 j
da. = Nominal Diameter of bolts
d =Shaft diameter
D = Outside Diameter of Hub.
Da.. =Bolt circle Diameter
n =No.ofbolts.
= 3 for d upto
=4 for d upto 100mm,
= 6 for upto 180mm
tt =Thickness offlange
t
p
=Thickness of protecting flange.
'tS, 'tb) 'tk)= Allowableshear stressfor shaft)bolt and
key material respectively
't.: = Allowableshear £tress for flange material
(Jtb, (Jck =Allowable crushing stress for bolt and key
material respectively
t'ft:. = Torque transmitted by the coupling.
D, =Pitch circle diameter of bolts
Dz =Outside diameter of'flange
d =Shaft diameter
T =Torque transmitted bythe coupling.
'tb =Allowable shear stressfor bolt material
't
s
=Allowableshear stressfor shaft material
d
1
=Nominal diameter ofthe bolts.
n =No.ofbolts
=4 when 35 < d< 55 mm
= 6 when 56 < d < 150 mm
=8 when 151<d<250 mm
=10 when 251 <d < 390 mm
=12 when d > 390 mm
Fig. 14- Marine type flange coupling.
p
Rod (L.H. Threaded)
Rod (R.H. Threaded)
Turnbuckle,-1
····-·----1
DESIGN OF TURN BUCKLE:
[P] =1.3P
1t 2
[P]=4 (de) .[0"1"]
[P] =1td
e
.l. ['c]
[P] =; [d
2
- de2].n.L[0.l
[P] =; Lt>2 -d
2
].[O-t ]
[P] = it [D2
2
- D
1
2]. [O'T]
4 .
I =d to 1.25d for steel nut
= 1.5dto 2dfor CI nut
D =L25d to 1.5d
Dl=d+6mm
D:2 =(1.5 to 1.7)d
L=6d
t =O.5d
t1= O.75d
t
= Nominal diameter of'the thread .
= Core diameter of'the thread
=Outer diameter ofthe coupler nut
= Length ofthe coupler nut
=Length ofthe coupler between nuts
= Outside diameter ofthe coupler
=Inside dianeter of'the coupler
=Thickness ofthe coupler nut
= Thickness ofthe coupler
Cheese head bolt
_..:.......- ------
----
!--L= .5 d
____ _ __-.1----+----'
5mm °
L= 1.5d--l
1
d
1
w

1=1-1 1-1-1
Bushed-pin flexible coupling.
Flexible
Where
L = Hub Length
I = Length of the bushin the flange.
d.2 = Diameter of bush
d =Shaft diameter
PI;, =Bearing pressure on bush,
:s 0.5 to 0.8 MPa
D! = Pitch circle Diameter ofpins.
n = No. of pins
W = Load on each pins
M =Bending moment on pin
Gb =Bending stress in pin material
't =Allowable shear stressfor pin material
Z = d
1
3
, Modulus of section of pins.
w = Width of'the key
t =Thickness ofthe key
tf =Thickness offlange
tp =Thickness ofprotecting flange.
'ts, '4:.= Allowable shear stressfor shaft. bolt and
key material respectively
1:.; =Allowable shear stress for flangematerial
O'cb, Gcl; = Allowable crushingstressfor bolt and key
material respectively
T =Torque transmittedby the coupling.
I
I
°1
,
I
p p -
, Sleeve and cotter joint.
Where
d = Diameter of'the rods to be connected
d
1
=Diameter of'the enlarged end
d2 =Outside diameter of'the sleeve
a = distance of'the slot from the sleeve end
L = Length ofthe sleeve
1=Length of the cotter
b = Width of'the cotter
c = Distance of'the slot from the rod end
e =Length of the- enlargedend outside the
sleeve
t =Thickness ofthe cotter
SPLlNED CONNECTIoNS:
Torque carrying capacity of the
splined connection
T =p.A.r
m
SLEEVE AND COTTER
.JOINTS: (F16i. 4-)
Empirical relations:
d, = 1.3 d
d
2
= 2.5 d
a =1.3 d
L=8d
1=4d
b =1.3d
c=lAd
e =O.5d
t = O.3d = O.25d
1
.
P 11: d
2
= 4' .[Oot]
........ __._----
p
A
h
I
N
I'
m.
= permissible bearing pressure,
<7MPa
=Total area of the splines, (h/N)
=Height ofthe splines = (D- d)j2
=length ofthe hub
= No. of splines
(D +d)\ /
= Mean radius =
p
p=[; (d.)2 - dt.fJrCT+j
P=d
t
.t. [C5aJ
p=[;r
d2
f - (d. )2]_(d;z -dd.t } [
C5tl
crt
. p=2b.t.['t]
P=2a.d:. ['t]
P=2.(d
2
- d
1
).c.['t]
SCOKET A..ND SPIGOT JOINT:
p=[ KD
1
)2 - 'f]-(D
1
- d
1
). t } [crt]
P=(D - d
1
).t.[O'c]
P=2.c.(I:> - d
1
).['t]
P= - cit 2)[cr
c
]
P=n.d
t
•tt. ['t]

°b =
=Load acting on the joint
= Crushing Stress
=Shear stress
=Tensile Stress
clearance 1.5to 3 mm
"'-::==::::::=o:>'t hic kne55 t
-.1
t
--r
COHERED FOR RODS
Double eye or Pin head,---t---".
forked end
P

d
P
Split pin
KNUCKLE JOINT
d
d
2d
L5d
1.25d
O.75d
O.5d
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
= Load acting on thejoint.'
= Shear stress
= Crushing stress
= Tensile stress
Where P
't
O"c
crt
P
o ' • b' di P(. t
1
t \ 1t d 3
m m en ing 2 -+-) - 1 .ob
3 4 32 .
Prijportions: .
Diameter of'the rod
Diameter ofthe pin d
1
Outer diameter of eye d
2
Diameter ofPin head <h
Thickness of eye t
Thickness of Fork t1
Thickness of pin Head t2
KNUKLE JOINTS:
Solid RQd in Tension [CS"t 4.P,:>

Pin in doubleshear p
4
Rod end in tension
p (d
2
- d
1
).t.[Ot]
Rod end in Double shear
p52. (d
2
-4) t.['t]
2
Rod end in crushing p ::; dJ.t.[ocl
Forked end in tension
p::; - c\).fl.[crt]
Forked ends in doubleshear
p - (U.t
1.['t]
Forked ends in crushing
p 2A.t1·[ocl



(0)

. At
f bJ

Icl
(dJ
:
i
p
Octagonal
end
Dou ble eye or Pin head _-1-_
forked end
Knucle pin collar--
Knuckle pin
Single eye or
rod end
d
Split pin
p
Proportions
Diameter of rod = d
Diameter of pin = d
1
= d
Outer dia. of eye = d
z
= 2d
Dia, of pin head = d
3
= 1.5d
Thickness of eye = t = 1.25 d
Thickness of fork = t
1
= 0.75 d
Thickness of pin head = t
z
= 0.5 d
?Q resisting learing = (dZ- dl) t
KNUCKLE JOINT
Area resisting 2
shear =2 x TTd,
-4-
)II
:.': :::.-:; 1.l4-4o<--+
. ~ ; -e ,
Area resisting crUShing} = d, t
= projected area of pin
Area resisting shearing=2(drd1 ~
-. -2- xy
FAILURES OF EYE END
TENSI LE FAI LURE OF FORK END
4>45
(JJ)
a=J)
(;, :
:: "2'-d
-E:>-I:SO
Fig.IO.IS Knuckle joint
DiQ 04wet e tl
D'A FfJ p,n D =e4
p OJ) 'tJ Ese a, =2cl
'" A.,. d2 : '·rsJ
Th""", '" ESe. l; = '·2so d
n" " etwta' t, =Doo:J,tJ
1hk , p,nheao( t
2
': O·l5d

Friction. sometimes commercially available purchased item cart. hydraulic and pneumatic elements etc. and 7) Experiments. space " requirement. Safety. The draughtsman makes the part drawing showring all the necessary views and dimensions.the various sources like 1) already existing methods. replace a manufactured component leading to cost reduction. maintenance. For dte best design solution. mentioned in the previous paragraph should be compared for the design factors mentioned below and the best solution should be found. material etc. Design Factors: Strength. couplings. layout drawings are made. 2) Kinemetics. using . Volume. Weight. Step 4: Creative Design Synthesis: Synthesis of various new and or old ideas in such a way as to produce new idea. Wear~Noise. ease of control. Manufacturing ease. Ergonomics.Step 3: Feasibility Study: The possible success of the proposal should be verified from technical and economical stand points. tolerances. A part may be considered suitable for manufacturing by casting or forging rather than by welding from several smaller parts. 6) Exhibitions. -2.- . Step 5: Preliminary Design: The design solutions similar to the ones . screws. life. All the spe cifications and requirements are rarely met during this phase. 4) Standards. Cost. design calculations are done and sketches are made by the Engineer. Lubrication. gears. "5) Technical Journals. cost of manufacture. to know the overall configuration. 3) Machine elements and mechanism like levers. Aesthetics and safety.lead to some modifications in the preliminary design and detailed design (F~edback Loops) Step 7: Design for Production: Design changes are introduced to suit the most economical methods of production. Knowing the loads acting on each component and deciding on the "material. overload capacity. Rigidity. Step 0: Detailed Design: It is the actual sizing and dimensioning all individual (both fabricated and purchased) components that go into making the final product. wheels. Step 7: Prototype Building: 'This building and testing may . Reliability. Efficiency.

human safety. Refer Data Book Page No. speed. will damage the component. wear resistance and corrosion resistance. because high stresses due to large amplitude vibrations. fatigue of the operator. • The machine should be simple. environmental conditions (light. Here Size of a product may mean dimensions. initial tension should be introduced to the joints. 7. it is better to have minimum number ofsizes to cover a certain range. High speed equipments should be properly balanced. fool proof. Ergonomic Considerations in Design: The ease with which the user of the designed equipm.and foot operations. are the subject matter of ergononucs.20 for the preferrednumbers. energy expenditure in hand . It has been found that if the numbers derived from geometric series (preferred numbers) are used to specify the sizes. -5- . To prevent loosening of connected parts. • The assembly should be backlash free. • Resonance is to be avoided.ent carries out various operations. By using standard dimensions interchangeability of components is possible and hence the components can be mass produced at lower costs. Rules for Design: • Design should aim. . etc. the calculated dimensions should be rounded off to standard values wherever possible. easy to operate and should reduce operator's fatigue. like moving hand wheels. power. climate). noise. at the best with the least expenditure • The component should have adequate strength. Standards: When designing machine elements. from economic considerations. levers and seeing instrument dials. Preferred Sizes: When manufacturing a product in different sizes. etc. the demands are met with minimumnumber of sizes.Types of Design: a) Adaptive Design: Adaptation of the existing design b) Development Design: Improvement of the existing design c) New Design: Design of an entirely new product.

(welding). Design should provide for proper lubrication of various parts. '[y Jay 2. Strength: is the ability of the material to resist the extemally applied loads without failure (fracture or yielding).~ <> • The machine should need only a minimum maintenance. dimensions of the components should be rounded off to standard values. a shape which facilitates quick mounting. • Wherever possible. should be chosen. • Following factors are considered in the selection of the material: o Mechanical properties of materials o Manufacturing ease o Quantity required o Space Available o Material cost o Manufacturing cost o Availability of material Mechanical Properties to be considered are: 1. 2 -4- . manufacturing process whether casting. • When designing parts to be machined. residual stresses and deformations should be'minimized. Ultimate strength is used for measure the strength of brittle material and Yield strength for ductile material. forging or fabrication. • Machines and equipments should be amenable for easy packing and transportation. Transport cost should be as small as possible. Elasticity: enables the material to regain the original shape after defonnation. should be decided. 3. depending on the number of components to be produced. For steel. • By suitably designing castings and weld non uniform cooling. Plasticity: enables the material to permanently retain the deformation produced by the externally applied loads. Material Selection: • One of the first steps in machine design ~ selection of proper material. • Design for Manufacture: Making a comparative study of designs. machining and easy measurement and also which requires low cost simple machines and fixtures.

aerial to be twisted or bent. I5. wear or plastic deformation. Toughness: enaeles the material to -absorb energyin the plastic range. chromium and molybdenum. Hardenability can be improved by using alloying elements like boron. 7. which have large plastic deformation before rupture while brittle materials have a small plastic deformation. there is a continuous gradual elongenon of the members at . Rigidity is of great importance in members whose deflections are limited by service requirements as in machine tool spindles.Creep: At elevated temperatures materials yield and Undergo permanent deformation at a stress lower than the yield pomt stress. -5- . 11. This is known as strain hardening. Ductility is important because it permits the.it . .Hardenability: is the ability of steel to through harden. 12. .creep.Hardness: enables the material to resist indentation. which reduce the tensile strength.4.Damping Capacity: is the ability of a material to damp vibrations by absorbing the kinetic energy of vibration. Steel. 9. under a sudden load before _ rupture. Resilience: is the material's capacity to absorb energy within the elastic range. Stiffness (Rigidity): enables the material to resist deformation under loads. manganese. plastic deformation takes p1acemd this increases the yield point stress and ultimate strength. CI has greater damping capacity. high temperature over a long period of time. 5. Malleability: enables the material to be flattened or squeezed under a compressive force. good surface finish and less power consumption.Strain· Hardening: When drawing ductile material through dies or when rolling them between rollers. Ductility: enables the material to be drawn into wire when tensile force is applied. 8. 6. Good machinability results in less tool wear. 13. 10. This enables material to -resist shock and impact and hence it is desired in springs. . (Gold & Aluminium) Malleability isa compressive quality while ductility i1 a tensile quality. Cast Iron is a brittle material. In addition to the loss of strength. material to absorb large overloads and it permits the material to be cold worked. 14. This is an important factor. Brittleness: means lack of ductility. This can be achieved by adding sulphur and lead in steel. vanadium. enables the m.Machinability: is the ease with which the metal can be removed in machining operations. aluminium and copper are ductile materials. known as.

The function of a key is to prevent relative rotation of a shaft and the member (hub of pulley.ngential load ·PARALLEL-SIDE AND INVOLUTE SPLINES I WOOpRUFF KEY (b). -h - ~ -.i. I h = b 10) Square -:=l El r b -\ rb1l-/aper I inlOO T~ he L. FORCES ON KEY DUE TO TRANSMITTED TOR~UE.-" --- Ke y instalied bet ween rna ting palts * • Keyway (a) Kennedy. key ~@r (b) Round key (a).lZ.t l b FORMS OF KEYS . gear or crank) to which it is connected.Shl ...--l~~~~--"~5hafl Wheel .I. key is used to transmit torque from a shaft to a gear. In other words. L---I (b).LOAD DIAGRAM FOR A RECTANGULAR KEY (al Key in shear =O.radius ofthe shaft .d/2 Induced shear stress on the key FI FI Area resisting shear bl: Induced compressive stress on the key r= =- .. • (a) Saddle Ke "0" Hub • '. F. lS'! . (d) Flat (sunk) Hub [ / a pe. Failure Modes of Keys 1. . a C - =--Area resisting crushing L" h/2 F.. Flat (sunk) ~I h 0 T r l ..GIB HEAD TAPERED· KEY' .(b! Crushing _ key l _ of --. .(b).Para"el side spline titling Distribution.rnicircular slo t (a) (b) . pulley or similar device or vice versa. of to.linIDO IL---~L . TAPER KEYS Woodruff key Z$.. . .lnvolute spline ~"@ Torque 'Area in cru~hing L2d-=1 ..FI~t Key b .. Shear failure 2: Crushieg failure F I = tangential force onthe"'key _ Torque on shaft _.FEATHER KEYS L.~ U.y .

/·[cr.5d =!:. 14 MPa for CI = Length of the key in each shaft = Width ofthe key .p.d ) ] I \V 1= 3.f -.Jn.---------------I----"'" d ~ Shaft ~I Fig.5 d =. .d.. II Sleeve or-muff coupling. HT _ of - Compression or Clamp coupling: 1t where 2 ..-------------.w. ~--L----'--..'t.t D T 't's = Torque transmitted by coupling Shear stress of shaft material. Muff.~ = d!. Diameter of the muff sleeve.G-----------.)·"C. = Thickness ofthe key = Shear stress of key material = Crushing stress ofkeymaterial = Irit.= ~ 2 16'Cs 4 lr (D4 . .j.d 2 .""id +13 mm = 3. DESIGN OF SHAFT COUPLINGS: Muff Coupling: (F l{.--.1 = Co-efficient offriction between the surfaces ofthe shaft and sleeve = Core Diameter of the bolts = No.l Clamp or compression coupling.~ft\n~p. I I) D= 2d+13mm D L d = Outside dian eter of sleeve = Length of the sleeve = Diameter ofthe shan L = S.od ~ 4-<. Diameter of the shaft..·l(~I \2 2} ~ . Length of the muff or sleeve.d 16 J. L where d or- »". of bolts = Diameter ofthe shaft ~ fy)c-+. 2 t 't (Jc -t4} t= I..

ofbolts..[(l>4 -d4 )1 16 I) c) Hub Design: t'ft:. = 6 for upto 180mm b.d 2 tft=. 'tb) 'tk)= Allowable shear stress for shaft)bolt and = tft= 16 z..r(q ):ti. = 3 for d upto 40mm~ b. - -- ---- Flange Coupling: a)Proportions: da..~tf''''b..}. Mt Nt= t(~}CT~{~) c) Key Design: == lW·'tk . =No.: t'\ =~T.-.ofbolts =4 when 35 < d< 55 mm = 6 when 56 < d < 150 mm =8 when 151 <d<250 mm = 10 when 251 <d < 390 mm = 12 when d > 390 mm = Allowableshear stress for shaft material = Pitch circle diameter of bolts = Outside diameter of'flange = Shaft diameter = Torque transmitted by the coupling. Va ':: l·~ ~ Da. t==~ l. key material respectively Allowableshear £tress for flange material (Jtb. .[. tt tp 'tS. Dz d T 'tb 'ts e) Bolts Design: ~== n..== 1. 4 b) Shaft Design: = Thickness of flange = Thickness of protecting flange. :: O.J.] = J L d1 = Nominal diameter ofthe bolts. . (Jck = Allowable crushing stress for bolt and key material respectively = Torque transmitted by the coupling..n·I.Unprotected type flange coupling.6d . Protective type flange coupling. 14-) Flange thickness = d/3= tf Taper of-bolt = 1 in 20 to 1 in 40 DI = 1.r~] Ht n.==~ 1:1=4d L=l5::f ~==3d of Hub.( ~ )(dt)·'tb . rnl r~ 1 . = Allowable shear stress for bolt material n Marine Coupling: (F /G!. d D = Nominal Diameter of bolts D==2d = Shaft diameter = Outside Diameter b.liS d.1 L4 J L2 j ..2 d 2 ... n = Bolt circle Diameter =No. D2= 2.t I" d) Flange Design: f D.(D. C d8 S' 't.. =4 for d upto 100mm.

Marine type flange coupling.D 2].l [P] =.[O-t ] t it 4 [D2 2 .5 to 1.5d Dl=d+6mm D:2 = (1.n.Fig.de2].5dto 2dfor CI nut D = L25d to 1.75d .H.3P 1t = 2 Nominal diameter of'the thread .l.L[0 . = Core diameter of'the thread [P] = 1tde . 14.-1 DESIGN OF TURN BUCKLE: [P] = 4 (de) .25d for steel nut = 1. ['c] [P] = .5d t1= O. Threaded) Turnbuckle.7)d L=6d t = O.H. Threaded) Rod (R. [P] = Lt>2 = Outer diam eter ofthe coupler nut Length ofthe coupler nut =Length ofthe coupler between nuts = Outside diameter ofthe coupler =Inside dianeter of'the coupler = Thickness of the coupler nut = Thickness ofthe coupler = -d 2 ]. p ····-·----1 Rod (L. I = d to 1. [d 2 .[0"1"] [P] = 1. [O'T] 1 .

..:. 'ts.. Gcl.. I = 3~ d13 . bolt and key material respectively 1:.5 d--l 1=1-1 1-1-1 Bushed-pin flexible coupling.5 d ° L= 1. D! = No..8 MPa = Pitch circle Diameter ofpins.1----+----' ~+_-__t_--- ---- 1 --~"'1~5mm 5mm !--L= .Cheese head bolt w _.2 = Diameter of bush d = Shaft diameter PI. = Allowable shear stress for flange material O'cb. 'tb~ '4:. = Allowable crushing stress for bolt and key material respectively T = Torque transmitted by the coupling.. = Bearing pressure on bush. I d.5 to 0. w .. Flexible Where = Hub Length L = Length of the bush in the flange.. Modulus of section of pins. = Width of'the key = Thickness of the key t tf = Thickness offlange tp = Thickness of protecting flange.. :s 0.= Allowable shear stressfor shaft. of pins n W = Load on each pins M = Bending moment on pin Gb = Bending stress in pin material 't = Allowable shear stress for pin material Z I I °1 .- ------ 1 d ____ _ __ -.

enlarged end outside the sleeve t = Thickness of the cotter p p =[.3d c=lAd e = O. A h COTTER I N I'm.dt •tt.[O'c] P = ~ (~2 . _ .. = 1..5d t = O.25d1.JOINTS: (F 16i.(I:> .[Oot] 4' __.['t] P= (D . [C5aJ d2 f .3d = O. Where d = Diameter of'the rods to be connected d1 = Diameter of'the enlarged end d2 = Outside diameter of'the sleeve a = distance of'the slotfrom the sleeve end = Length of the sleeve L 1 =Length of the cotter = Width of'the cotter b = Distance of'the slot from the rod end c e = Length of the.t..5to 3 mm p =[ ~ KD1 )2 - (~ 'f]-(D1 - d1 ).d1 ).d1 )..t. (d.- .d1 ).dt. (h/N) = Height of the splines = (D .t.ND SPIGOT JOINT: clearance 1. p = 2b.(d.3 d d2 = 2..c.. 4-) Empirical relations: d.p p - .(d2 .)2 . of splines (D + d)\ / = Mean radius = ~ I~ = P = 11: d 2 . ['t] P.5~) °b "'-::==::::::=o:>'t hic k ne 55 t ~-W///////~""""~/A = 2.z -dd. )2]_(d.t. ['t] P= 2... Sleeve and cotter joint..(D+O.c.rm SLEEVE AND . t} [crt] P= 2.f JrCT+j = Load acting on the joint = Crushing Stress p=[.['t] SCOKET A.1 t .r P = dt .b~ COHERED JOI~T FOR RODS --r -.3 d L=8d 1=4d b = 1.['t] P = 2a.d:. t } [ C5tl crt = Shear stress = Tensile Stress .A.5 d a = 1. <7MPa = Total area of the splines.cit 2)[crc ] P = n. SPLlNED CONNECTIoNS: Torque carrying capacity of the splined connection p T = p..d)j2 = length ofthe hub = No. perm issible bearing pressure.

---t---".['t] Forked ends in crushing p ~ 2A .['t] 2 Rod end in crushing p ::.25d Thickness of Fork t1 O.[ocl Forked end in tension p::.t1.75d = Thickness of pin Head t2 = O.. Prijportions: .~ Icl (dJ i : .c\).~d12['tJ 4 Rod end in tension p ~ (d2 .(~ . (d2 -4) t.~ 4.:..d~ Pin in double shear p ~ 2.t.[crt] P(. dJ.(~ .5d o ' • Where P 't O"c Forked ends in double shear p ~ 4.[Ot] Rod end in Double shear p 52.:> 1t.. LlJ~] .4d~ Double eye or forked end Pin head.t.d1). 2.ob ing 3 4 32 .(U. t 1 t \ Pm m b'endi 2 -+ -) ~ -1t d13 .' Shear stress = Crushing stress = Tensile stress = = )i'~.~~I (0) 'E'~~ . At f bJ ~ F-tG.fl.t1·[ocl crt Load acting on the joint. Diameter of'the rod = d = Diameter ofthe pin d1 d Outer diameter of eye d2 = 2d = Diameter of Pin head <h L5d Thickness of eye t = 1. d P P Split pin KNUCKLE JOINT KNUKLE JOINTS: Solid RQd in Tension [CS"t1.P.

-4- ?Q resisting learing = (dZ.-:. of pin head = d 3 = 1.25 d Thickness of fork = t1 = 0. t = projected area of pin TENSI LE FAI LURE OF FORK END 4>45 .~.-2- y FAILURES OF EYE END )II .5d Thickness of eye = t = 1.5 d p p Knucle pin collar-Knuckle pin KNUCKLE JOINT Split pin Area resisting 2 shear = 2 x TTd. 1.dl) t Area resisting shearing=2(drd1 x ~ -. :. of eye = d z = 2d Dia. -e .Octagonal end Dou ble eye or forked end Pin head _-1-_ Single eye or rod end d Proportions Diameter of rod = d Diameter of pin = d 1 = d Outer dia.75 d Thickness of pin head = t z = 0.': :::.l4-4o<--+ Area resisting crUShing} = d.

: O"IJi~ ~ :: "2'-d DiQ 04wet e tl D'A FfJ p. p..nheao( t 2 ': O·l5d . ~etAtl d 2 : p a.n D =e4 I-r----.. l.tJ Fig.IS Knuckle joint 1hk ..A-"'--L""".DI'~ '" A. = Doo:J.-!::x::t~ OJ) 'tJ Ese 2cl _~-.IO.(JJ) -E:>-I:SO a=J) (. '" ESe. = '·2 so d n" " etwta' t. = '·rsJ Th""".

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