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A STUDY ON EMPLOYEE’S ABSENTEEISM IN SPINCO.

,
THIRUBUVANI, PUDUCHERRY

SUMMER PROJECT REPORT

Submitted by
K.PRASANNA
REGISTER NO: 27348327

Under the Guidance of


Mrs.M.JANAKI RAMA MBA., PGDCA.,
Faculty, Department Of Management Studies

in partial fulfillment for the award of the degree


of
MASTER OF BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION

DEPARTMENT OF MANAGEMENT STUDIES


SRI MANAKULA VINAYAGAR ENGINEERING COLLEGE
PONDICHERRY UNIVERSITY
PUDUCHERRY, INDIA
SEPTEMBER- 2007
SRI MANAKULA VINAYAGAR ENGINEERING COLLEGE
MADAGADIPET, PUDUCHERRY

DEPARTMENT OF MANAGEMENT STUDIES

BONAFIDE CERTIFICATE

This to certify that the project work entitled “ A STUDY ON EMPLOYEE’S


ABSENTEEISM IN SPINCO LTD., PUDUCHERRY” is a bonafide work done by
K.PRASANNA [ REGISTER NO: 27348327 ] in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the
award of Master of Business Administration by Pondicherry University during the academic year
2007 – 2008.

INTERNAL GUIDE HEAD OF DEPARTMENT

Submitted for Viva-Voce Examination held on

EXTERNAL EXAMINER
TABLE OF CONTENT

CHAPTER TITLE PAGE NO

LIST OF TABLES
LIST OF CHARTS

I INTRODUCTION
1.1 Profile of Organization 1
1.2 Process of manufacture 4
1.3 Organization chart 6
1.4 Organization structure 7
II REVIEW OF LITERATURE 10

III OBJECTIVES 25

IV RESEARCH METHODOLOGY 26

V DATA ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION 33

VI FINDINGS OF THE STUDY, 71


SUGGESTION AND RECOMMENDATIONS 73

VII CONCLUSIONS 74

VIII LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY 75


SCOPE FOR THE FUTHER STUDY 76

APPENDICES
ANNEXURE-1 77
ANNEXURE-2 81
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

I am extremely grateful to Our Principal Dr. V.S.K. VENGATACHALAPATHY to

provide necessary and essential facilities to do this project report.

I express my sincere thanks and deep sense of gratitude to my Head of Department

Mr. S.JAYAKUMAR, Department of Management Studies for providing me with an

opportunity to study and to do this report.

I express a deep sense of gratitude to my Guide Mrs. M.JANAKI RAMA, faculty

Department of Management Studies, for her encouragement, support and guidance to complete

this project work successfully.

I convey my heartiest thanks to Mr. G. RAJA MOHAN MANAGING DIRECTOR THE

PONDICHERRY CO-OPERATIVE SPINNING MILL LTD, Puducherry, who kindly granted

permission to do this project report in his esteemed organization.

Finally, I express my sincere thanks and deep sense of gratitude to my parents and friends

for giving timely advice in all the ways and in all aspects for doing the project
ABSTRACT

The project report entitle “A STUDY ON EMPLOYEE’S ABSENTEEISM IN


SPINCO, PUDUCHEERY.” is intended to determine the employees condition, salary,
Facilities, attendance program, training programme, motivation techniques and promotions

To achieve this defined objective structured questionnaire based on the preliminary study
made is prepared. The prepared questionnaire is used to get the direct responses from the
employees of spinco, puducherry.

The response given by the employees of spinco, puducherry analyzed and interpreted
using different type of statistical tools used are percentage analysis , weighted average method ,
chi square , correlation .

After analysis and interpretation it reveals the following points are important in improving
the working condition ,increasing the salary , transport facilities , introduction of attendance
programme , promotion incentives , increasing leave , welfare facilities , the above all conclusion
will helpful for management to improve the presenteeism.
LIST OF TABLES

S.no TABLE NAME Page No


1 Table showing respondents age level 33
2 Table showing Educational Qualification of the Respondents 34
3 Table showing respondents experience 35
4 Table showing number of working days 36
5 Table showing leave taken in a month 37
6 Table showing respondents number of working years 38
7 Table showing respondents on their work load 39
8 Table showing respondents working hours 40
9 Table showing respondents management policy 41
10 Table showing respondents working environment 42
11 Table showing respondents relation ship with supervisor 43
12 Table showing respondents their leave will affect company out put 44
13 Table showing respondents employees skill 45
14 Table showing respondents salary 46
15 Table showing respondents compensation provided 47
16 Table showing respondent existing job 48
17 Table showing respondent facilities provided by the company 49
18 Table showing respondent flexibility and independence 50
19 Table showing respondent procedure for taking leave 51
20 Table showing respondent reason for taking leave 52
21 Table showing respondent absent due to transportation problem 53
22 Table showing respondent infectious diseases 54
23 Table showing respondent get leave whenever you want 55
24 Table showing respondent insufficient rest pause 56
25 Table showing respondent motivation techniques 57
26 Table showing respondent personal problem 58
27 Table showing respondent counseling provided by the company 59
Table showing respondent Preference on their shift to reduce
28 60
absenteeism
29 Table showing respondent freedom to change shift 61
30 Table showing respondent need additional leave 62
31 Table showing respondent excepted facilities provided 63
32 Table of Respondents Based On The Working Hours - CHI-SQUARE 64
33 Computation of Chi-Square 65
Affected By Infectious Diseases Vs Leave Affecting The Company
33 66
Output- Correlation
34 Ranks for correlation data 66
35 Salary Paid Vs Absent Due To Transportation- ANOVA 67
36 ANOVA Table 68
37 Weighted Average for Data 69

38 Point Weightage 69

LIST OF CHARTS

S.no CHART NAME Page No


1 Chart showing respondents age level 33
2 Chart showing Educational Qualification of the Respondents 34
3 Chart showing respondents experience 35
4 Chart showing number of working days 36
5 Chart showing leave taken in a month 37
6 Chart showing respondents number of working years 38
7 Chart showing respondents on their work load 39
8 Chart showing respondents working hours 40
9 Chart showing respondents management policy 41
10 Chart showing respondents working environment 42
11 Chart showing respondents relation ship with supervisor 43
12 Chart showing respondents their leave will affect company out put 44
13 Chart showing respondents employees skill 45
14 Chart showing respondents salary 46
15 Chart showing respondents compensation provided 47
16 Chart showing respondent existing job 48
17 Chart showing respondent facilities provided by the company 49
18 Chart showing respondent flexibility and independence 50
19 Chart showing respondent procedure for taking leave 51
20 Chart showing respondent reason for taking leave 52
21 Chart showing respondent absent due to transportation problem 53
22 Chart showing respondent infectious diseases 54
23 Chart showing respondent get leave whenever you want 55
24 Chart showing respondent insufficient rest pause 56
25 Chart showing respondent motivation techniques 57
26 Chart showing respondent personal problem 58
27 Chart showing respondent counseling provided by the company 59
Chart showing respondent Preference on their shift to reduce
28 60
absenteeism
29 Chart showing respondent freedom to change shift 61
30 Chart showing respondent need additional leave 62
31 Chart showing respondent excepted facilities provided 63
CHAPTER-I
INTRODUCTION

1.1 PROFILE OF THE ORGANISATION


1.1.1 GROWTH OF TEXTILE INDUSTRY

The birth of cotton textile industry can be traced back to the year 1818, when for the first
time a mill was started in Calcutta. But its real foundation was laid in Bombay with a mill set up
in 1853 under PARSI Management. Early years marked a rapid progress and number of cotton
mil1s increased up In Ahemedabad, Sholapur and Nagpur. In 1951 the total number of mills in
this Industry was only 378 of which 103 where spinning and 275 were composite Mills.

The number of cotton textile mill increased to 1051 in 1990; of this 770 were spinning
mills and 281 composite mills. The total investment in the fixed assets is 1300 crores. It
contributes for about 25% of total exports. In puducherry, the first spinning mill which started its
operation be Desbarsyns de Richement', Governor of French rule at that time in 1827 on the
western style. In 1828 Blin and Delbruck are businessmen of France have stared another spinning
mill in PuduCherry with a production capacity ofabout700 Kg per day, and provided employment
for 225 workers. Thus the organized mill sector provides employment to more than one million
people in the country and about l/5th of the total employed in manufacturing industry. Its
contribution of government revenue and to export earnings is substantial.
1.1.2 HISTORY OF THE MILL

The Pondicherry Co-operative Spinning Mills was registered as cooperative Society under
the Pondicherry co-operative societies Act 1972 during the year 1979. This spinning mill is the
first type of its kind in its venture in the union territory of Pondicherry. The society has been
registered on 28-12-1979, the actual functioning commenced in the year 1984. The factory is
situated 22 Kms away from Pondicherry in the National Highways 45-A, between Pondicherry
and Villupuram in the Village Thirubuvanai.

The foundation stone for the Mill was laid on 10.08.1981 by the then Chief Minister of
Pondicherry and the factory was inaugurated by the then his.Excellency T.P. Twari, Lt. Governor
of Pondicherry on 16.11.1984. The trial production was made on 12.2.1984 and the Commercial
production was started on 19.3.84. The mills Spindale was 25080 only. The Mill has achieved its
full spinning capacity in the year 1987.

1.1.3 MEMBERSHIP

The Mill was started with 138. Members with a share capital of Rs.79, 9001akhs- at the
beginning and at Present there are 815 members with a share capital of Rs .689.31lakhs
comprising as the following.

Particular Membership Share Capital (in lakhs)


"A" Handloom weavers co-op
Societies 14 4.45
.
"B" Other Co-operative
Societies 69 3.72
"C" Individuals 731 6.64
"D" Government of Pondicherry 1 674.50
815 689.31
1.1.4 AWARDS COMPLEMENTED BY THE AIFCOSPIN

Among all the co-operatives in India, the Pondicherry Co-operative Spinning Mills has been
identified as No.1 Mill for its profitability, Machine productivity, Net profit and Labour
productivity. The Position placed by the Mill from 1987-88 to 1990-91 is detailed below:

1.1.5 AIFCOSPIN - All India Federation for Co-operative Spinning Mill- Bombay,

It has awarded many awards. The position placed by the mill from 1987-88 to 90-91

Year Selection Criteria Position


1987-88 Spindle Profit I
1988-89 Spindle Profit . I
Spindle Profit I
1989-90
Machine Productivity II
Productivity per Spindle Shift III
1990-91 Spindle Profit I
Cash gain per spindle II
Machine Productivity II

Labour Productivity III

1.1.6 EXPANSION PROGRAMME

The licensed capacity of the Mill is 39, 192-spindle unit. The installed capacity is 35,160
spindles with an average count of 40's to 6’s. By the year2001, the remaining capacity of 4,032
spindles will be erected.
1.2 PROCESS OF MANUFACTURING

The Pondicherry co-operative spinning mills ltd is processing with its licensed capacity

1.2.1 SPINNING

The process of spinning starts with ginning. Ginning is process by which Seeds are
removed from the raw cotton. In this mill, the ginned cotton is directly purchased and so that the
ginning is not carried on and the remaining .Process is followed as usual.
• MIXING AND BLOW ROOM

Raw cotton is received at the mill in highly compressed bales. Bales of different varieties
are opened at time and layer of cotton from each bale is fed alternatively, into the machine with a
view to obtain uniform blend. It is cleaned in blow room line.

• CARDING

The blow room lap is fed into carding machine. The cotton is subject to the action of
sharp wire points of licker cylinder, doffer and flatter resulting in 'the further removal of neps and
waste. After processing in, comes out in the cane.

• DRAWING
On the drawing frame, a uniform sliver lab is produced- by 6 to 8 card sliver and drafting
them proportionately. Here parallelization of fibers is achieved and this process is repeated twice
for carded yam and the sliver lab is then fed to the speed frame.

• SPEED FRAMES

This term' Speed frames' is used to designate a group of machines in which cotton in the
form of drawing sliver is reduced to a much smaller size by drafting and a slight twist.

• RING FRAMES

The final yarn is spun on ring frames by drafting and twisting the rove from the speed
frames. The drafts and twist .varies depending on the count and quality of yarn required.

• DOUBLING

Generally two yarn threads are sending parallel on single cone on a doublers winding
machine. Thereafter such yarn is twisted together on a ring doubling machine to form a double
yarn.

1.2.2 BUSINESS

• The mill shall purchase the cotton required by spinning.


• The mill shall produce such kinds of cotton yarn and staple fiber yarn as are required by
the weaving units, by the weavers in union territory of Pondicherry and by others.
• The yarn required by the Pondicherry state weavers co-operative societies and other
primary weavers co-operative societies shall ordinarily be supplied by the mills.
• The Board of director may appoint necessary agent brokers etc on such terms and may be
agreed upon for canvassing order.

1.2.3 FUNCTION OF THE MILL


The Pondicherry co-operative spinning mill is running with 3shifts. The production process
is non – stop. The first shift timing is from 7 00A.M. to 3.30 P.M., The second shift is from 3.30
P.M .to 12.00MID NIGHT .And the third shift is from 12 MID NIGHT to 7.00 A.M. with a half
-an- hour break for workers but not for production .Nearly 630 workers are working in the mill.

1.2.4 MANAGEMENT

Pondicherry co-operative spinning mills ltd is governed by law and it is managed


by an Administrator, who is I.A.S.officer and he is appointed by the Government of Pondicherry.

1.3 ORGANISATION CHART


ADMINSTRATOR

Managing Director

Administration Production
& Finance Wing

Labour Admn. Manager Controller of Asst. Spinning Asst Spinning Elec. Engineer
Officer Accounts Master Master. (Qlty.
(Maintenance) control)

Clerks Clerks Supervisor for Quality Control Engineering


Prodn & wing wing
Maintenance

Masteries &
Workers
1.4 ORGANISATION STRUCTURE

The organizational functions of the mill is divided into five namely,

• Production wing
• Quality control wing
• Engineering wing
• Maintenance wing
• Accounts and finance wing.
• Administration wing

1.4.1 PRODUCTION WING

The major activity concerned in the mill is production of yarn from raw Cotton. In this
mill, the machineries and materials are equipped to produce yarn from the count range 305 to
1005. The Asst. Spinning Master (Maintenance & production) is in charge for the production
wing. The supervisors in the production will look after the process of production in different
stages. 6 staffs and 540 workers are working in production wing.

1.4.2 QUALITY CONTROL WING


The main responsibility of this wing is to check the quality of yarn and quality of raw
materials. Asst. Spinning Master (Quality Control) is in charge for this wing. All the incoming
raw materials and outgoing yarn are checked in quality point of view. In this wing, nearly 10
staffs are working.

1.4.3 ENGINEERING WING

This wing takes care of all electrical equipments and fittings in the organization. It also
takes all preventive measures. An Electrical Engineer heads this wing. A group of 21 workers are
worked in this department under the control of the Electrical Engineer
1.4.4 MAINTENANCE WING

This wing is functioning under the head of Asst. Spinning Master (maintenance). This
wing is taking care of maintenance of all machineries in the mills. This will take measures to
maintain the machinery in good working condition. One staff and 68 workers are functioning in
this wing.

1.4.5 ACCOUNTS AND FINANCE WING

The finance and accounts wing is playing an important role in this organization. This
wing maintains a systematic record of the daily events of business. It also maintains records of all
financial transactions to find out the profit or loss during the year, and to know the correct
financial status of the mill. All payments and receipts are taken care by this wing. The controller
of accounts heads this department and three staffs are working in this department

1.4.6 ADMINISTARATION WING

Administrative manager is in charge for administrative wing. This department carries on


purchases, sales stores and other administrative functions 31 staff are working in the wing
All the department (wings)are under the direct control and supervision of the Managing
director .the administrative manager and concerned department head shall be consulted by the
Managing director in all matters , where ever and when ever deemed necessary and their
comment shall be consider while framing a policy decision.
NEED FOR THE STUDY

• The success of any manufacturing organization depends largely on the workers, the
employees are considered as the backbone of The Pondicherry Co- Operative Spinning
Mill Ltd, Puducherry

• The study is on employee absenteeism in SPINCO

• The employee absenteeism is booming HR issue in many industries .It helps to know the
employee satisfactions level and it help to find cause of employee absenteeism, based on
certain factor like working condition, leadership style, work stress, leave days, and salary
level.

• This study can be helpful to the management to improve its core weaknesses by the
suggestions and recommendations prescribed in the project.

• The need of this study can be recognized when the result of the related study need
suggestions and recommendations to the similar situation.
CHAPTER-II
REVIEW OF LITERATURE

Absenteeism is a habitual pattern of absence from a duty or obligation. An absence refers


to time an employee is not on the job during scheduled working hours, except for a granted leave
of absence, holiday, or vacation time. However, employee absenteeism is not just an employee
issue it is an organizational problem and therefore becomes everyone's responsibility.

2.1 Says FRANCES DAVIES

Absenteeism can have an enormous effect on the productivity of an organization. The


average American worker takes six days sick leave a year, and although this is significantly less
than in places such as Europe it is still having a big impact on US staffing resources and
productivity. The loss of productivity due to short/long-term illness, disability is therefore
proving to be a major headache for companies. Effective absence management programs can be
the best remedy for reducing absenteeism.

“Every time an employee is absent from work there is a loss of productivity to the
organization,” explains Sharon Kaleta, President and CEO of the Disability Management
Employers Coalition (DMEC). “One person absent from work may not create a problem, but
several people absent for one or more days can have a significant financial impact to the
organization.

• IMPACT OF ABSENTEEISM

There are many forms of absenteeism, ranging from short-term illness, long-term illness,
unauthorized absence and persistent lateness, to other authorized absences such as annual leave,
paternity leave, time off to care for dependents and compassionate leave. Other causes might also
include low morale, stress and poor working conditions, many of which are preventable.

The effect absenteeism can have on a business can be wide-ranging, but particularly
affects those employees left to pick up the pieces. According to Wayne Wendling, Senior
Director of Research at the International Foundation of Employee Benefit Plans.

The workings of a company have changed and employees are now much more
interconnected than previously – and, as a result, organizations are much more dependent on their
employees.

“When someone is absent, the entire web of interaction among employees can be
disturbed in terms of workflows and the availability of information,” he explains. “Part of that is
overcome as more files are now open to people who can fill in and help with the tasks that the
individual may have been performing. However, there is a definite ‘ripple effect’ through the
organization when someone is unexpectedly ill. The productivity of others is also being
impacted.”

• WORKING WELL

There are many measures that an employer can take to help mitigate the rippling effects of
absenteeism on the workforce. Sometimes it really is the little things that make the most
difference. Allowing employees to visit doctors and dentists, health surveillance, health education
and stress management interventions are all good examples. “Once they are measuring absence
and then reducing it, they will find that a fitter workforce will perform better and productivity
will increase – giving them a competitive edge in any business environment,” enthuses Bawden.
One of the most effective ways to combat absenteeism, however, is to maintain a happy
working environment where people actually enjoy coming to work. “Have a workplace that
people love to come to work in and they feel they are doing something meaningful,” Wendling
recommends.

Although not always preventable, absenteeism is something that can be mitigated to a


certain degree, and absence management programs can definitely help. Fostering a caring
working environment where workers are supported during any illness or disability can only work
in the favor of the company – and ensures that work isn’t something for employees to be sick of.

Report Author: ANNE COUGHLAN


Senior Research Executive, IBEC Research and Information Service

• IBEC ‘WORKPLACE ABSENCE SURVEY 2004

The report contains data from the IBEC ‘WORKPLACE ABSENCE SURVEY 2004,’
which was based on responses received from 557 private sector companies employing 147,000
employees.

Absence affects more than just the person who is absent.


The absent employees themselves and their dependants may have a reduced income as a
result of absence, besides incurring possible additional medical expenses. Employers are affected
by direct costs such as sick pay, overtime and staff replacement costs, plus the indirect costs
associated with the effects of absence on, for example, production and quality, management time
and the potential loss of customers. The co-workers of an absent employee may have to work
under increased pressure,in order to meet deadlines.

Many organizations appear to accept a certain level of absence i.e. where a proportion of
their employees are away on any particular day. The recent IBEC study found that over half of
the respondents did not consider they had a problem with absence. However, more than four out
of ten companies in the survey considered their absence levels to be a cause for concern. As only
a portion of absence days are subject to organization control – it is important to determine what
portion of employee absence is avoidable.

Employees can feel they have been treated unfairly when they perceive other
absent employees as ‘getting away with it’. Absence can also be a symptom of a more serious
underlying problem, such as bullying and/or harassment, communication breakdown, stress, etc.,
which could, if not investigated, lead to significant costs to the organization, as well as causing
long-term damage to the employee.

A recent IBEC survey showed that personal problems were cited as a cause of absence in
a significant number of companies, for both males and females. Nowadays, apart from sickness,
employees can be absent from work for any one of a number of reasons, either under statutory
leave entitlement (such as – annual leave, maternity or adoptive leave, parental leave), or under
arrangements agreed at an individual company level (such as compassionate or bereavement
leave, study and/or exam leave, marriage leave, training, etc.).

2.2 HOW TO DEAL WITH EMPLOYEE ABSENTEEISM

 For Employees Who Are Absent

For Supervisors/Managers:

Recently, I was asked by a manager how he should deal with the fact that on any given
day 10% of his employees are absent from work. I informed the manager that the problem of
employee absenteeism is a problem best resolved by taking the following four positive
interventions versus taking a negative or punitive approach.

• Change Management Style:


We are all aware of the fact that when employees call in ill, it does not mean they are
truly too physically ill to work. One reason, outside of illness, that employees are absent is stress,
and the number one reason employees are stressed has to do with their relationship with their
manager/supervisor.

Management styles that are too authoritarian tend to promote high levels of absenteeism
among employees. Authoritarian managers are managers who have poor listening skills, set
unreachable goals, have poor communication skills, and are inflexible. In other words, they yell
too much, blame others for problems, and make others feel that it must be their way or the
"highway." Authoritarian managers tend to produce high absenteeism rates. By identifying
managers who use an authoritarian style, and providing them with management training, you will
be taking a positive step not only toward reducing absenteeism, but also reducing turnover, job
burnout, and employee health problems such as backaches and headaches.

• Change Working Conditions:

The employees in your company probably work in a well-lighted climate controlled


building. The working conditions I am referring to relate to coworker relationships. Not only does
relationship stress occur between the employee and manager, but it also exists between employees.
Frequently I hear employees say they did not go to work because they are fearful of or angry with
another employee. These employees usually report they just could not deal with "so and so" today,
so they called in ill. Companies that adopted policies and values that promote employee respect and
professionalism, and promote an internal conflict resolution procedure, are companies that reduce
employee stress. A reduction in employee stress reduces employee absenteeism.

• Provide Incentives:

Giving employees incentives for reduced absenteeism is not the same as rewarding or
giving employees bonuses for reduced absenteeism. An incentive provides an employee with a
boost to their motivation to avoid unnecessary absenteeism. It simply helps the employee decide
to go to work versus staying home and watching Jerry Springer.

The types of incentive programs used by companies are numerous. Some companies
allow employees to cash-in unused sick days at the end of every quarter, others give an employee
two hours of bonus pay for every month of perfect attendance; and still others provide employees
with a buffet lunch, a certificate of achievement, or even a scratch-off card concealing prizes. The
type of incentive program that your company uses should be one created especially for your
company. You can create an incentive program tailored to your unique company by allowing
employees to help you develop the incentive program.

The duration of the incentive program is also very important. Some companies find that
they can simply reward employees with perfect attendance once a year, while others decide once
a month is best, and still others decide once a week works best.

• Develop an Attendance Policy:

Every company should have an attendance policy. An attendance policy allows a manager
to intervene with an employee who is frequently absent. Besides stress as a primary reason for
employee absenteeism, other causes relate to alcoholism, domestic violence, and family problems.
If you confront an employee about his or her frequent absenteeism, and they inform you it is due to
personal problems, consider referring the employee to an Employee Assistance Program (EAP).

If the employee's absenteeism relates to a medical problem or a family member with a


medical problem, you may have to consider allowing the employee to use the benefits allowed to
them under the American's with Disability Act (ADA) or the Family and Medical Leave Act
(FMLA). Early identification of these employees will get them back to work as fast as possible.
Lastly, make sure that you have an attorney review your attendance policy to make sure it does
not violate any State or Federal labor laws. By incorporating the above four strategies into your
company you will not only reduce absenteeism you will reduce employee burnout, turnover, poor
morale, and workplace negativism.

By
GARY VIKESLAND, MA LP CEAP

For Employees Who Are Frequently Absent

One of the most important steps you can take if you are frequently absent is to keep your
employer informed. Employees who are frequently absent without good cause are generally
absent due to numerous frivolous reasons. Employees who are absent for good cause have
legitimate reasons, e.g. sickness or family member illness, and the employee needs time off to
resolve their personal problems. Most employers generally understand the need to be gone from
work due to a legitimate reason; therefore, it is important to communicate clearly and accurately
so your employer does not assume you are out for frivolous reasons.

As an employee you are allowed to take up to 12 weeks of unpaid leave under the federal
Family and Medical Leave Act (FMLA). The 12 weeks of leave may be taken continuous or
intermittently, thereby allowing the employee to work on a less than full-time schedule.

• FMLA can be used for the care of a child after birth, adoption, or foster care placement.

• FMLA is available to care for an immediate family member (spouse, child, and parent) who
has a serious health condition.

• FMLA can be used for your own serious health concerns. It does not cover for the common
cold, flu, ear aches, upset stomach, common headache, or routine dental care.

In order to be covered by FMLA you must be considered an "eligible" employee. An


eligible employee must have 12 months (1,250 hours) of employment, and your employer must
employ 50 or more employees within 75 miles of the worksite. Employees must provide 30 days
of advance notice for foreseeable events. There are different exemptions present for both school
teachers and state/local government employees.

If you are an eligible employee, your employer must maintain your benefits, allow you to
return to the same or equivalent position, and not decrease your pay or benefits at the conclusion
of 12 weeks. If you believe you are eligible for FMLA, inform your supervisor or HR department
that you are requesting FMLA coverage. Your employer is required to provide you with written
notice, within two business days, informing you if you are eligible or not.

By
GARY VIKESLAND, MA LP CEAP

2.3 ABSENTEEISM
Information regarding absenteeism among workers in an industrial establishment on account
of reasons other than strikes, lockouts, lay-off, weekly rest or suspension, provide a sound
database for gauging the employee’s morale, commitment and level of job satisfaction which
have a direct bearing on productivity of the establishment. It is one of the indicators to monitor
and evaluate various labour welfare programs and labour policies.

2.3.1 Instill enthusiasm to curb absenteeism, the Hindu

EVERY organization, irrespective of size and composition, is plagued by the problem of


absenteeism. Managers know that employees are not always genuinely sick when they fail to turn
up for work, yet they cannot stop them from calling in sick or saying that they have to attend to
some personal work. There could be a hordes of reasons for absenteeism. Sometimes an
employee may not simply turn up for work because his morale is low or he is just not motivated
to work.

It is observed that if employees were happy doing their work, they would be less inclined
to take even a day off. Many employers think that paying their workers handsomely or providing
better working conditions or improving job security can reduce absenteeism. But such benefits do
not guarantee a reduction in employee absenteeism. The solution actually lies in understanding
and meeting the emotional needs of workers and trying to find out what really motivates them to
come to work and give their best.

A wise manager would endeavor to understand the needs of workers at the recruiting
stage itself. The manager can try and choose the right person for the right job. Getting to know
the applicant well by focusing on the human side rather than on their qualifications and
experience can do this. Efforts should be made to find out the kind of work and responsibilities
that make an employee happy, the enthusiasm for work and ability to get along with other people.
The manager must ascertain that the job suits the candidate.
The next step would be to build employee's trust. As an employer if you have taken
efforts to choose the right candidates for the job, then it is equally important that you believe in
them and trust them to do their job. This trust, though, has to be communicated to the employees.

If the employer believes that the employees cannot do their jobs well, cannot take
decisions on their own and do not do a fair day's work then this is what they will actually do. On
the contrary, if the manager's perception of employees is that they are efficient workers,
independent thinkers and able decision makers, then they will go to any extent to prove it.

The most important step to counter absenteeism is for the manager to constantly give the
employees feedback and motivate them to perform better. But most are woefully lacking in this
ability, they simply are not comfortable telling their staff about their performance.

So it is important that managers provide feedback to employees on a regular basis on


what they are doing well and the areas of improvement. If you notice something that requires
mention tell the employee about it and tell it immediately lest the significance of the feedback
should be lost.

If you postpone your feedback on things the employee is not doing rightthen it will be
assumed what is being done is right or that you do not notice such things or you do not care.
Some more tips on giving the right kind of feedback:

• Do it in private, on a one-to one basis


• Focus your feedback on one or two things
• Do not personally attack the employee
• Be honest and prompt with feedback

Reducing employee absenteeism is in the employer's hands. If the staff has to be


motivated enough to think twice about taking a day off, their work has to be made interesting. In
short, they need regular feedback and be made to feel that they play an important part in the
business.
This can be done by giving the employees greater responsibility, training and developing
their skills and focusing on what they are doing right. Involving employees both formally and
informally in the aspects of the business will create a sense of belonging. These measures make
employees feel good about what they are doing and thus increase job satisfaction. Organizations
would be prudent if they tackle absenteeism before it becomes a contagion.

Title: LABOUR ABSENTEEISM


Author(s): Michael J. Peel, Nick Wilson
Journal: International Journal of Manpower
Year: 1990
Publisher: MCB UP Ltd

Abstract: Using a random sample of 49 UK engineering companies, the influence of profit


sharing, share-option schemes and the perceived degree of employee participation in decision
making on inter-firm lab our absenteeism rates are investigated. After controlling for a number of
firm-specific factors, suggested as theoretically appropriate in the extant literature, the key
empirical results indicated that firms which had adopted sharing schemes appeared to experience
significantly lower absenteeism rates than their non-sharing counterparts..

2.4 GUIDE LINES FOR ABSENTEEISM CONTROL

There are two types of absenteeism, each of which requires a different type of approach.

2.4.1 INNOCENT ABSENTEEISM

Innocent absenteeism refers to employees who are absent for reasons beyond their
control; like sickness and injury. Innocent absenteeism is not culpable which means that it is
blameless. In a lab our relations context this means that it cannot be remedied or treated by
disciplinary measures.

2.4.2 CULPABLE ABSENTEEISM


Culpable absenteeism refers to employees who are absent without authorization for
reasons which are within their control. For instance , an employee who is on sick leave even
though he/she is not sick, and it can be proven that the employee was not sick, is guilty of
culpable absenteeism. To be culpable is to be blameworthy. In a lab our relations context this
means that progressive discipline can be applied.

For the large majority of employees, absenteeism is legitimate, innocent absenteeism


which occurs infrequently. Procedures for disciplinary action apply only to culpable absenteeism.
Many organizations take the view that through the process of individual absentee counseling and
treatment, the majority of employees will overcome their problems and return to an acceptable
level of regular attendance.

2.4.3 IDENTIFYING EXCESSIVE ABSENTEEISM

Attendance records should be reviewed regularly to be sure that an employee's sick-leave


days are excessive compared to other employees. If a supervisor suspects that an employee is
excessively absent, this can be confirmed through reviewing the attendance records.
If all indications show that an employee is excessively absent, the next step is to gather as
much information as possible in order to get a clearer picture of the situation. The employees'
files should be reviewed and the employee’s immediate supervisor should document all available
information on the particular employee's history.

2.4.4 INDIVIDUAL COMMUNICATION

After all available information has been gathered, the administrator or supervisor should
individually meet with each employee whom has been identified as having higher than average or
questionable (or pattern) absences. This first meeting should be used to bring concerns regarding
attendance to the employee's attention. It is also an opportunity to discuss with the employee, in
some depth, the causes of his or her attendance problem and possible steps he or she can take to
remedy or control the absences. Listen carefully to the employee's responses.

2.4.5 PROOF OF ILLNESS


Sometimes it is helpful in counseling employees with excessive innocent or culpable
absenteeism to inquire or verify the nature and reasons of their absence.
The extent to which an employer may inquire into the nature of and reasons for an employee's
absence from the workplace is a delicate issue. The concepts of an employee's privacy and an
employer's need for information affecting the workplace often come into conflict. Seldom is the
conflict more difficult to resolve than where personal medical information is involved.
Unions will often strongly object to any efforts by management to inquire more deeply into the
nature of an employee's illness. You will need to consider the restraints of any language in
collective agreements in relation to this issue.

2.5 COUNSELING INNOCENT ABSENTEEISM

The procedure an employer may take for innocent absenteeism is as follows:

1. Initial counseling(s)
2. Written counseling(s)
3. Reduction(s) of hours and/or job reclassification
4. Discharge

2.5.1 Initial Counseling:

If the absences are intermittent, meet with the employee each time he/she returns to work.
If absence is prolonged, keep in touch with the employee regularly and stay updated on the status
of his/her condition. (Indicate your willingness to assist.)
You may require the employee to provide you with regular medical assessments. This will
enable you to judge whether or not there is any likelihood of the employee providing regular
attendance in future. Regular medical assessments will also give you an idea of what steps the
employee is taking to seek medical or other assistance. Formal meetings in which verbal
warnings are given should be given as appropriate and documented. If no improvement occurs
written warning may be necessary.

2.5.2 Written Counseling

If the absences persist, you should meet with the employee formally and provide him/her
with a letter of concern. If the absenteeism still continues to persist then the employee should be
given a second letter of concern during another formal meeting. This letter would be stronger
worded in that it would warn the employee that unless attendance improves, termination may be
necessary.

2.5.3 Reduction(s) of hours and or job reclassification

In between the first and second letters the employee may be given the option to reduce
his/her hours to better fit his/her personal circumstances. This option must be voluntarily
accepted by the employee and cannot be offered as an ultimatum, as a reduction in hours is a
reduction in pay and therefore can be looked upon as discipline.

2.5.4 Discharge

Only when all the previously noted needs and conditions have been met and everything has
been done to accommodate the employee can termination be considered. An Arbitrator would
consider the following in ruling on an innocent absenteeism dismissal case.

1. Has the employee done everything possible to regain their health and return to work?
2. Has the employer provided every assistance possible? (i.e. counselling, support, time off.)
3. Has the employer informed the employee of the unworkable situation resulting from their
sickness?
4. Has the employer attempted to accommodate the employee by offering a more suitable
position (if available) or a reduction of hours?
5. Has enough time elapsed to allow for every possible chance of recovery?

Corrective Action for Culpable Absenteeism

As already indicated, culpable absenteeism consists of absences where it can be


demonstrated that the employee is not actually ill and is able to improve his/her attendance.

Presuming you have communicated attendance expectations generally, have identified the
employee as a problem, have met with him/her as part of your attendance program, made your
concerns on his specific absenteeism known and have offered counselling as appropriate, with no
improvement despite your positive efforts, disciplinary procedures may be appropriate.

The procedures for corrective/progressive discipline for culpable absenteeism are generally
the same as for other progressive discipline problems. The discipline should not be prejudicial in
any way.

The general procedure is as follows: [Utilizing counseling memorandum]

1. Initial Warning(s)
2. Written Warning(s)
3. Suspension(s)
4. Dismissal

 Verbal Warning
Formally meet with the employee and explain that income protection is to be used only when an
employee is legitimately ill. Advise the employee that his/her attendance record must improve
and be maintained at an improved level or further disciplinary action will result. Offer any
counseling or guidance as is appropriate. Give further verbal warnings as required. Review the
employee's income protection records at regular intervals. Where a marked improvement has
been shown, commend the employee. Where there is no improvement a written warning should
be issued.

 Written Warning
Interview the employee again. Show him/her the statistics and point out that there has been no
noticeable (or sufficient) improvement. Listen to the employee to see if there is a valid reason
and offer any assistance you can. If no satisfactory explanation is given, advise the employee that
he/she will be given a written warning. Be specific in your discussion with him/her and in the
counseling memorandum as to the type of action to be taken and when it will be taken if the
record does not improve. As soon as possible after this meeting provide the employee personally
with the written warning and place a copy of his/her file. The written warning should identify any
noticeable pattern

 Suspension (only after consultation with the appropriate superiors)


If the problem of culpable absenteeism persists, following the next interview period and
immediately following an absence, the employee should be interviewed and advised that he/she is
to be suspended.

The length of the suspension will depend again on the severity of the problem, the
credibility of the employee's explanation, the employee's general work performance and
length of service. Subsequent suspensions are optional depending on the above condition.

 Dismissal (only after consultation with the appropriate superiors)


Dismissals should only be considered when all of the above conditions and procedures have
been met. The employee, upon displaying no satisfactory improvement, would be dismissed on
the grounds of his/her unwillingness to correct his/her absence
CHAPTER-III

OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY

The main objective of the study is to find the various studies on absenteeism of man hour

and suggestion to reduce absenteeism.

• To analyze the master attendance and to find the rate of absenteeism.

• To improve the production level by reducing absenteeism.

• To find the reason for major absenteeism in particular department.


• To suggest controlling tools to reduce absenteeism.

• To find out the reason for avoidable and unavoidable absenteeism.

• To know the types of facilities and welfare activities for the employee’s benefit.

CHAPTER – IV

RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

4.1 RESEARCH DESIGN

“A research design is the arrangement of conditions for collection and analysis data in a
manner that aims to combine relevance to the researcher purpose with economy in procedure”.

It constitutes the blueprint for the collection, measurement and analysis of data. As such
the design includes an outline of what the researcher will do form writing the hypothesis and its
operational implication to the final analysis of data.
More explicitly, the design decisions happen to be in respect of;

 What is the study about?


 Why is the study being made?
 Where will the study be carried out?
 What type of data is required?
 Where can the data are found?
 What periods of time will the study include?
 What will be the sample design?
 How will the data be analyzed?
 In what style will the report be prepared?
 What techniques of data collection will be used?

The Research Design undertaken for the study is Descriptive one. A study, which
wants to portray the characteristics of a group or individuals or situation, is known as Descriptive
study. It is mostly qualitative in nature.

4.2 TYPES OF DATA COLLECTED

 Primary Data

Questionnaires are prepared and personal interview was conducted. Most of the
questions are consist of multiple choices. The structured interview method was undertaken. The
interview was conducted in English as well as in Tamil. Proper care was taken to frame the
interview schedule in such a manner it should be easily understood in view of educational level
of the employees. Generally 25 questions are prepared and asked to the employees of the
Pondicherry Co-operative Spinning Mill Public Ltd., Puducherry.

 Secondary Data
Secondary data was collected from Internets, various books, Journals, and Company
Records.

4.3 QUESTIONNAIRE CONSTRUCTION

Questionnaires were constructed based on the following types


• Open ended questions
• Close ended questions
• Multiple choice questions

4.4 DEFINING THE POPULATIONS

The Population or Universe can be Finite or infinite. The population is said to be finite if
it consist of a fixed number of elements so that it is possible to enumerate it in its totality. So In
this projects consist of finite population. nearly 630 workers working in the mill

4.5 SAMPLING PLAN

A sampling plan is a definite design for obtaining a sample from the sampling frame. It
refers to the technique or the procedure the researcher would adopt in selecting some sampling
units from which inferences about the population is drawn. Sampling design is determined before
any data are collected.

Convenient Sampling technique was adopted. In this method the researcher select those
units of the population in the sample, which appear convenient to him or the management of the
organization where he is conducting research.

4.6 SAMPLE SIZE


Nearly 50 samples are taken in Pondicherry Co-operative Spinning Mill Public Ltd..,

4.7 FIELD WORK

The field works is done at Pondicherry Co-operative Spinning Mill Public Ltd.,
Thirubuvanai, Puducherry.

4.8 PERIOD OF SURVEY

The period is from July 2007 to August 2007.

4.9 DESCRIPTION OF STATISTICAL TOOLS USED

 Percentage method
 Chi-square test
 Correlation
 Weighted average method
 Analysis of variance (TWO-WAY ANOVA)

4.9.1 PERCENTAGE METHOD

In this project Percentage method test was used. The percentage method is used to know
the accurate percentages of the data we took, it is easy to graph out through the percentages. The
following are the formula

No of Respondent
Percentage of Respondent = x 100
Total no. of Respondents

From the above formula, we can get percentages of the data given by the respondents.
4.9.2 CHI-SQUARE ANALYSIS

In this project chi-square test was used. This is an analysis of technique which analyzed
the stated data in the project. It analysis the assumed data and calculated in the study. The Chi-
square test is an important test amongst the several tests of significant developed by statistical.
Chi-square, symbolically written as x2 (Pronounce as Ki-Spare), is a statistical measure used in
the context of sampling analysis for comparing a variance to a theoretical variance.

Formula
(O-E) 2
χ 2=
E

O = Observed frequency

E = Expected frequency

4.9.3 CORRELATION

Correlation analysis deals with the association between two or more variables. It
does not tell anything about cause and effect relationship. Correlation is classified in two
types as

 Positive and

 Negative correlation.

SPEARMAN Correlation method, it also can be said as Rank Correlation. It is

defined by the symbol ‘r’


6 ∑ di²
FORMULA r = 1- ______________
n (n²-1)
Correlation value shall always lie between +1 and-1. When r =1, it shows there is perfect
positive correlation between variables. When r = 0, There is no correlation.

4.9.4 WEIGHTED AVERAGE METHOD

 Weighted average can be defined as an average whose component items are multiplied by
certain values (weights) and the aggregate of the products are divided by the total of
weights.
 One of the limitations of simple arithmetic mean is that it gives equal importance to all
the items of the distribution.
 Certain cases relative importance of all the items in the distribution is not the same.
Where the importance of the items varies.

It is essential to allocate weight applied but may vary in different cases. Thus weightage is a
number standing for the relative importance of the items.

4.9.5 ANALYSIS OF VARIANCE (ANOVA)

Analysis of variance is an extremely useful technique concerning research. This is used


when multi sample are involved.

Anova is extremely a procedure for testing the difference among different groups of data
for homogeneity. “The essence of ANOVA is that the total amount of variation in a set of data is
broken down into two types such as

• ONE-WAY ANOVA
• TWO-WAY ANOVA
If we take only one factor and investigate the differences amongst its various categories
having numerous possible values one-way anova can be used. When we investigate two factors at
the same time then we can use two-way anova.

Steps involved in ANOVA are

1. Name of the Row samples as x1, x2, x3, x4……


2. Name of the Column samples as y1, y2, y3, y4……
3. Calculate the sum of all items by T = ∑ x1 + ∑ x2 + ∑ x3….

4. Correction factor CF = T²
N
5. Calculate Total sum of squares SST = ∑ x1² + ∑ x2² + ∑ x3²….

6. Sum of squares between column samples SSC = (∑ y1) ² + (∑ y2) ² + (∑ y3) ² T²


n n n N
7. Sum of squares between column samples SSR = (∑ x1) ² + (∑ x2) ² + (∑ x3) ² T²
n n n N

8. Calculating Residual or Error SSE = [ SST- (SSC+SSR) ]


The basic principle of the Anova is to test for differences amongst the means of the
population by examine the amount of variation within the samples, relation to the amount of
variation between the samples.

TWO-WAY ANOVA TABLE

Degrees of
SOURCE OF Sum of Squares Mean Square (MS) F-ratio
Freedom (d.f)
VARIATION

Between SSC MSC


SSC V1
Columns MSC = F1 =
Treatment K-1 MSE
SSR V2
Between SSR
Rows MSR =
Treatment R-1
MSR
F2 =
SSE MSE
Residual or SSE (K-1) (R-1)
MSE =
Error
(K-1) (R-1)

• If the calculated value (C.V) of F1 < tabulated value (T.V) of F1 then H0 is ACCEPTED.
• If the calculated value (C.V) of F1 > tabulated value (T.V) of F1 then H0 is REJECTED.

CHAPTER-V
ANALYSIS AND INTREPRETATION

5.1 ANALYSIS USING PERCENTAGE METHOD


TABLE 5.1.1
RESPONDENT BASED ON AGELEVEL

S.No Age No. of Respondents Percentage

1 18-25 04 08

2 26-35 18 36

3 36-45 22 44
4 Above 45 06 12

Total 50 100
Source: primary data

Inference:

The above table infers that, 08 % belongs to the age group of 18-25 years, 36 % belongs
to the age group of 26-35 years, 44 % belongs to the age group of 36-45 years and 12 % belongs
to the age group of above 45 year
CHART-5.1.1

AGE
5
0

4
0

3
0

2
0
Percent

1
0

0
1
8-2
5 2
6-3
5 3
6-4
5 a
bove4
5

AGE

TABLE 5.1.2
RESPONDENTS BASED ON THEIR EDUCATION

S.No Education No. of Respondents Percentage

1 SSLC 10 20

2 HSC 22 44

3 ITI 18 36

4 Others 00 00

Total 50 100
Source: primary data
Inference:

The above table infers that,


20 %belongs to SSLC, 44 % belongs to HSC, 36 %belongs to ITI and
0 % belongs to other degrees.

CHART-5.1.2

EDUCATION
50

40

30

20
Percent

10

0
sslc hsc iti

EDUCATION

TABLE 5.1.3
RESPONDENTS BASED ON THEIR EXPERIENCE

S.No Experience No. of Respondents Percentage

1 Below2years 11 22

2 3-5 years 07 14

3 Above 5 years 32 64

Total 50 100
Source: primary data
Inference:
The above table infers that
22 % to below 2 years; 14 % belongs to 3-5years, 64 %belongs to above 5 years

CHART-5.1.3

EXPERIENCE
70

60

50

40

30

20
Percent

10

0
below 2years 3-5years above 5 years

EXPERIENCE

TABLE 5.1.4

RESPONDENTS BASED ON THEIR NUMBER OF WORKING DAYS

S.No Working Days No. of Respondents Percentage

1 20-22 10 20

2 23 -25 15 30

3 25-28 22 44

4 29-31 03 06
Total 50 100
Source: primary data

Inference:
The above table infers that
20 % belongs to 20-22 days, 30 % belongs to 23-25 days, 44 % belongs to 25- 28days, and
06 % belong to above 29-31 days.

CHART-5.1.4

NUMBEROFWORKINGDAYS
50

40

30

20
Percent

10

0
20-22 23-25 25-28 29-31

NUMBEROFWORKINGDAYS

TABLE 5.1.5

Respondents Based On Their Leave In A Month


Taken leave in
S.No month No. of Respondents Percentage

1 0 10 20

2 1 -5 23 46

3 6-10 04 08

4 10-15 10 20

5 16-20 03 06
Total 50 100
Source: primary data

Inference:
The above table infers that
20 %belongs to 0 days, 46 % belongs to 1-5days, 08 %belongs to 6-10 days, 20 %belongs to
10-15 days, and 06 %belongs to 16-20 days.
CHART-5.1.5

LEAVEINMONTH
50

40

30

20
Percent

10

0
0 1-5 6-10 10-15 16-20

LEAVEINMONTH

TABLE 5.1.6
RESPONDENTS BASED ON THEIR NUMBER OF WORKING YEARS IN THE
COMPANY

S.No WORKING YEARS No. of Respondents Percentage

1 <5YEARS 16 32

2 <10 years 30 60

3 >10 years 04 08
Total 50 100
Source: primary data

Inference:
The above table infers that
32 % belongs to <5 years, 60 % belongs to <10years and
08 %belongs to >10 years.
CHART-5.1.6

number of working years in the company


70

60

50

40

30

20
Percent

10

0
<5years <10years >10years

number working years in the company

TABLE 5.1.7

RESPONDENTS BASED ON THEIR WORK LOAD

S.No Work load No. of Respondents Percentage

1 Highly satisfied 04 08

2 Satisfied 03 06

3 Neutral 13 26

4 Dissatisfied 25 50

5 Highly Dissatisfied 05 10
Total 50 100
Source: primary data
Inference:
The above table infers that
08 % belongs to highly satisfied, 06 % belongs to satisfied
26 %belongs to neutral, 50 % belongs to dissatisfied and10 % belongs to highly
dissatisfied.
CHART-5.1.7

WORKLOAD
60

50

40

30

20
Percent

10

0
highlysatisfied neutral highlydissatisfied
satisfied dissatisfied

WORKLOAD

TABLE 5.1.8

RESPONDENTS BASED ON THEIR WORKING HOURS

S.No Working Hours No. of Respondents Percentage

1 Highly satisfied 10 20

2 Satisfied 12 24

3 Neutral 05 10

4 Dissatisfied 13 26
5 Highly Dissatisfied 10 20
Total 50 100
Source: primary data

Inference:
The above table infers that,
20 %belongs to highly satisfied, 24 % belongs to satisfied, 10 % belongs to neutral,
26 %belongs to dissatisfied and 20 % belongs to highly dissatisfied.
CHART-5.1.8

WORKINGHOURS
30

20

10
Percent

0
highly satisfied neutral highlydissatisfied
satisfied dissatisfied

WORKINGHOURS

TABLE 5.1.9
RESPONDENTS BASED ON THEIR MANAGEMENT POLICY

S.No Management policy No. of Respondents Percentage

1 Highly satisfied 20 40

2 Satisfied 10 20

3 Neutral 05 10

4 Dissatisfied 10 20

5 Highly Dissatisfied 05 10
Total 50 100
Source: primary data

Inference:
The above table infers that
40 % belongs to highly satisfied, 20 %belongs to satisfied 10 % belongs to neutral, 20 %
belongs to dissatisfied and 10 % belongs to highly dissatisfied.

CHART-5.1.9

MANAGEMENT POLICY
50

40

30

20
Percent

10

0
highly satisfied neutral highlydissatisfied
satisfied dissatisfied

MANAGEMENTPOLICY

TABLE 5.1.10

RESPONDENTS BASED ON THEIR WORKING ENVIRONMENT

S.No Working environment No. of Respondents Percentage

1 Highly satisfied 28 56

2 Satisfied 10 20

3 Neutral 04 08
4 Dissatisfied 05 10

5 Highly Dissatisfied 03 06

Total 50 100
Source: primary data

Inference:
The above table infers that
46 % belongs to highly satisfied, 20 %belongs to satisfied, 08 %belongs to neutral, 10 %
belongs to dissatisfied and 06 %belongs to highly dissatisfied.

CHART-5.1.10

WORKINGENVIRONMENT
60

50

40

30

20
Percent

10

0
highlysatisfied neutral highlydissatisfied
satisfied dissatisfied

WORKINGENVIRONMENT

TABLE 5.1.11

RESPONDENTS BASED ON THEIR RELATIONSHIP WITH THEIR SUPERVISOR


Relation ship with their
S.No supervisor No. of Respondents Percentage

1 Highly satisfied 02 04

2 Satisfied 05 10

3 Neutral 10 20
4 Dissatisfied 20 40

5 Highly Dissatisfied 13 26

Total 50 100
Source: primary data

Inference:
The above table infers that
04 % belongs to highly satisfied, 10 %belongs to satisfied, 20 % belongs to neutral,
40 %belongs to dissatisfied and 26 % belongs to highly dissatisfied.

CHART5.1.11

RELATIONSHIPWITH THEIRSUPERVISOR
50

40

30

20
Percent

10

0
highly satisfied neutral highlydissatisfied
satisfied dissatisfied

RELATIONSHIPWITH THEIRSUPERVISOR

TABLE 5.1.12

RESPONDENTS BASED ON THEIR LEAVE AFFECTING THEIR COMPANY


OUTPUT

S.No Leave affect company No. of Respondents Percentage

1 Yes 39 78

2 No 11 22
Total 50 100
Source: primary data

Inference:
The above table infers that
78 %says yes, 22 %says no.

CHART-5.1.12

leave affecting their company output


100

80

60

40

20
Percent

0
yes no

leave affecting their company output

TABLE 5.1.13

RESPONDENTS BASED ON THEIR EMPLOYEES SKILL

S.No Employee skill No. of Respondents Percentage

1 Good 35 70

2 Fair 10 20
3 Poor 05 10

Total 50 100
Source: primary data
Inference:
The above table infers that
70 % belongs to Good, 2 0%belongs to Fair and 10 % belongs to Poor

CHART-5.1.13

EMPLOYEES SKILL
80

60

40

20
Percent

0
good fair poor

EMPLOYEES SKILL

TABLE 5.1.14

RESPONDENTS BASED ON THEIR SALARY PAID

S.No Salary paid No. of Respondents Percentage

1 Sufficient 20 40

2 In sufficient 10 20
Neutral
3 05 10
Moderately
4 Insufficient 15 30

Total 50 100
Source: primary data

Inference:
The above table infers that
40 % belongs to Sufficient, 20 % belongs to Insufficient, 10 %belongs to Neutral and 30%
belongs to moderately insufficient.
CHART-5.1.14

SALARY PAID
50

40

30

20
Percent

10

0
sufficient insufficient neutral moderately sufficien

SALARY PAID

TABLE 5.1.15

RESPONDENTS BASED ON THEIR COMPENSATION PROVIDED

S.No Compensation provided No. of Respondents Percentage

1 Highly satisfied 03 06

2 Satisfied 04 08
3 Neutral 10 20

4 Dissatisfied 27 54

5 Highly Dissatisfied 06 12

Total 50 100
Source: primary data

Inference:
The above table infers that 06 % belongs to highly satisfied, 08 %belongs to
satisfied, 20 % belongs to neutral, 54 %belongs to dissatisfied and 12 % belongs to highly
dissatisfied.
CHART-5.1.15

COMPENSATIONPROVIDED
60

50

40

30

20
Percent

10

0
highlysatisfied neutral highlydissatisfied
satisfied dissatisfied

COMPENSATIONPROVIDED

TABLE 5.1.16

RESPONDENTS BASED ON THEIR EXISTING JOB

S.No Existing job No. of Respondents Percentage

1 Highly satisfied 03 06

2 Satisfied 04 08

3 Neutral 10 20
4 Dissatisfied 27 54

5 Highly 06 12
Dissatisfied
50
Total 100
Source: primary data

Inference:
The above table infers that
06 %belongs to highly satisfied, 08 % belongs to satisfied, 20 % belongs to neutral,
54 % belongs to dissatisfied and12 % belongs to highly dissatisfied.

CHART-5.1.16

SATISFIED WITH THEIR EXISTING JOB


60

50

40

30

20

10

0
HIGHLY SATISFIED SATISFIED NEUTRAL DIS SATISFIED HIGHLY
DISSATISFIED

SATISFIED WITH THEIR EXISTING JOB

TABLE 5.1.17

RESPONDENTS BASED ON THEIR FACILITIES PROVIDED BY THE COMPANY

S.No Facilities provide by the company No. of Respondents Percentage

1 Highly satisfied 07 14

2 Satisfied 23 46
3 Neutral 12 24

4 Dissatisfied 06 12

5 Highly Dissatisfied 02 04

Total 50 100
Source: primary data
Inference:
The above table infers that
14 %belongs to highly satisfied, 46% belongs to satisfied, 24% belongs to neutral
l2 %belongs to dissatisfied and 4 % belongs to highly dissatisfied.

CHART-5.1.17

FACILITIESPROVIDEDBYTHECOMPANY
50

40

30

20
Percent

10

0
highly satisfied neutral highlydissatisfied
satisfied dissatisfied

FACILITIESPROVIDEDBYTHECOMPANY

TABLE 5.1.18

RESPONDENTS BASED ON THEIR FLEXIBILITY AND INDEPENDENCE

S.No Flexibility & independence No. of Respondents Percentage

1 Highly satisfied 05 10

2 Satisfied 04 08
3 Neutral 31 62

4 Dissatisfied 06 12

5 Highly Dissatisfied 04 08

Total 50 100
Source: primary data

Inference:
The above table infers that 10 % belongs to highly satisfied, 08% belongs to satisfied,
62%belongs to neutral, 12 % belong to dissatisfied and 08 % belongs to highly dissatisfied.

CHART-5.1.18

FLEXIBILITYANDINDEPENDENCE
70

60

50

40

30

20
Percent

10

0
highlysatisfied neutral highlydissatisfied
satisfied dissatisfied

FLEXIBILITYANDINDEPENDENCE

TABLE 5.1.19

RESPONDENTS BASED ON THEIR PROCEDURE FOR TAKING LEAV E

S.No Procedure for taking leave No. of Respondents Percentage

1 Giving a Leave Letter 39 78


2 Not Giving a Leave Letter 04 08

3 Asking Permission 07 14

4 No Leave 0 0

Total 50 100
Source: primary data

Inference:
The above table infers that
78 % belongs to giving a leave letter; 08 % belongs to not giving leave letter
14 % belongs to asking permission and 0 % belongs to no leave

CHART 5.1.19

PROCEDUREFORTAKINGLEAVE
100

80

60

40
Percent

20

0
givingaleavelette not givingleavelet askingpermission

PROCEDUREFORTAKINGLEAVE

TABLE 5.1.20

RESPONDENTS BASED ON THEIR REASON FOR TAKING LEAVE

S.No Reason for taking leave No. of Respondents Percentage


1 Personal Problem 15 30

2 Health Problem 20 40

3 Finance Problem 07 14

4 Working Environment 04 08

5 Others 04 08

Total 50 100
Source: primary data

Inference:
The above table infers that 30% belongs to Personnel problem, 40% belongs to Health
problem, 14 % belongs to Finance problem, 08 % belongs to working environment and 08 %
belongs to others
CHART-5.1.20

REASONFORTAKINGLEAVE
50

40

30

20
Percent

10

0
personn
e lproblem financeproblem others
hea
lthpro
b lem workingenvironme
n t

REASONFORTAKINGLEAVE

TABLE 5.1.21

RESPONDENTS BASED ON THEIR ABSENT DUE TO TRANSPORTATION


PROBLEM

S.No Absent due to transportation No. of Respondents Percentage


problem

1 In Some cases 23 46

2 Often 05 10

3 Rare 12 24

4 Not at All 10 20

Total 50 100
Source: primary data

Inference:
The above table infers that, 46 %belongs to in some cases, 10% belongs to often,
24 % belongs to rare and, 20 %belongs to not at all
CHART-5.1.21

.
ABSENT DUE TO TRANSPORTATION PROBLEM
50

40

30

20
R
C

N
P
E

10

in some case often rare not at all

ABSENT DUE TO TRANSPORTATION PROBLEM

TABLE 5.1.22

RESPONDENTS BASED ON THEIR INFECTIOUS DISEASE


S.No Infectious diseases No. of Respondents Percentage

1 Yes 11 22

2 No 39 78

Total 50 100
Source: primary data
Inference:
The above table infers that
22 % says yes, 78 % says no.

CHART-5.1.22

AFFECTED BY INFECTIOUS DISEASES


100

80

60

40

20
Percent

0
yes no

AFFECTED BY INFECTIOUS DISEASES

TABLE 5.1.23
RESPONDENTS BASED ON LEAVE WHENEVER YOU WANT
Leave No. of Respondents Percentage
S.No

1 Yes 04 08

2 No 46 92

Total 50 100
Source: primary data

Inference:
The above table infers that
08 % says yes, 92 % says no.
CHART 5.1.23

TO GET LEAVE WHENEVER YOU WANT


100

80

60

40

20
Percent

0
yes no

TO GET LEAVE WHENEVER YOU WANT

TABLE 5.1.24
RESPONDENTS BASED ON INSUFFICIENT REST PAUSE
S.No Insufficient rest pause No. of Respondents Percentage

1 More 29 58

2 Less 05 10

3 Tolerable 16 32

Total 50 100
Source: primary data
Inference:
The above table infers that
58 % belongs to more, 10 % belongs to less and 32 % belongs tolerable.

CHART-5.1.24

REST PAUSE IS ONE OF THE REASON


70

60

50

40

30

20
Percent

10

0
more less tolerable

REST PAUSE IS ONE OF THE REASON

TABLE 5.1.25
RESPONDENTS BASED ON MOTIVATION TECHNIQUE

S.No Motivation technique No. of Percentage


Respondents

1 Incentives 29 58

2 Bonus 0 0

3 Allowance 21 42

Total 50 100
Source: primary data

Inference:
The above table infers that
58% belongs to incentives, 0 % belongs to bonus and 42 % belongs to allowance.

CHART-5.1.25

MOTIVATION TECHINIQUE
60

50

40

30

20
Percent

10

0
incentives allowances

MOTIVATION TECHINIQUE

TABLE 5.1.26

RESPONDENTS BASED ON THEIR PERSONAL PROBLEM


S.No Personal problem No. of Respondents Percentage

1 In Some cases 31 62

2 Often 04 08

3 Not at All 15 30

Total 50 100
Source: primary data

Inference:
The above table infers that
62 % belongs to in some cases, 08 % belongs to often and
30 % belongs to not at all.
CHART-5.1.26

PERSONAL PROBLEM
70

60

50

40

30

20
Percent

10

0
in some cases often not at all

PERSONAL PROBLEM

TABLE 5.1.27
RESPONDENTS BASED ON THEIR COUNSELING PROVIDED BY THE COMPANY
S.No Counseling provided by the No. of Respondents Percentage
company

1 Yes 31 62

2 No 19 38

Total 50 100
Source: primary data

Inference:
The above table infers that
62% says yes, 38 % says no.
CHART-5.1.27

counseling provided by the company


70

60

50

40

30

20
Percent

10

0
yes no

counseling provided by the company

TABLE 5.1.28
RESPONDENTS BASED ON THEIR PREFERENCE OF SHIFTS TO REDUCE
ABSENTEEISM
Sl.No Preference of shift No. of Respondents Percentage

1 General Shift 22 44

2 Weekly Shift 21 42

3 Monthly Shift 07 14
Total 50 100
Source: primary data

Inference:
The above table infers that
44 % prefers general shift, 42 % prefers weekly shift and 14 % prefers monthly shift

CHART-5.1.28

WHICHSHIFT DO YOUPREFER
50

40

30

20
Percent

10

0
general shift weekly shift monthlyshift

WHICHSHIFT DO YOUPREFER

TABLE 5.1.29
RESPONDENTS BASED ON THEIR FREEDOM TO CHANGE THE SHIFTS
S.No Freedom to change No. of Respondents Percentage
the shift

1 Yes 13 26

2 No 11 22

3 Rare 26 52
Total 50 100
Source: primary data
Inference:
The above table infers that 26 % belongs to yes, 22% belongs to no and 52 %belongs to rare

CHART-5.1.29

FREEDOM TO CHANGE
60

50

40

30

20
Percent

10

0
yes no rare

FREEDOM TO CHANGE

TABLE 5.1.30

RESPONDENTS BASED ON THEIR NEED OF ADDITIONAL LEAVE

S.No Need of additional leave No. of Respondents Percentage


1 Yes 25 50

2 No 25 50
Total 50 100
Source: primary data
Inference:

The above table infers that


50 % says yes, 50%says no.

CHART-5.1.30

NEED OF ADDITIONAL LEAVE


60

50

40

30

20

10
Percent

0
yes no

NEED OF ADDITIONAL LEAVE

TABLE 5.1.31

RESPONDENTS BASED ON THEIR EXPECTED FACILITIES NEEDED

S.No Expected facilities needed No. of Respondents Percentage


1 Medical 11 22
Facilities

2 Transport Facilities 30 60

3 Others 09 18
Total 50 100
Source: primary data
Inference:
The above table infers that
22 %belongs to medical facilities, 60 %t belongs to transport facilities and
18 % belongs to others.
CHART-5.1.31

TYPE OF FACILITES
70

60

50

40

30

20
Percent

10

0
medicalfacilites transport facilites others

TYPE OF FACILITES

5.2 ANALYSIS USING CHI-SQUARE- χ 2

TO FIND WHETHER THERE IS DIFFERENCE BETWEEN THE OPINION OF


RESPONDENTS REGARDING THEIR WORKING HOURS
Null Hypothesis

There is no significant difference in the variable among the employees about their
working hours.

TABLE 5.2.1

S.No Working Hours No. of Respondents

1 Highly satisfied 10

2 Satisfied 12

3 Neutral 05

4 Dissatisfied 13

5 Highly Dissatisfied 10

Total 50
Source: primary data

FORMULA
(O-E) 2
χ 2=
E
O = Observed frequency
E = Expected frequency

COMPUTATION OF CHI-SQUARE ( χ 2 )
TABLE No: 5.2.2
S.No O E (O-E) (O-E)2 (O-E)2 /E

1 10 10 0 0 0

2 12 10 2 4 0.4

3 05 10 -5 25 2.5

4 13 10 3 9 0.9

5 10 10 0 0 0

TOTAL 3.8
Source: Primary Data

The calculated value is 3.8


Degree of freedom = (n-1) = (5-1)
=4
Level of significance = 5%
Table value 4 of DGF and 5% level of significance = 9.48
3.8 < 9.48 - Calculated Value is lesser than Tabulated Value.
Hence, Null hypothesis is ACCEPTED.

INFERENCE
Thus Chi-Square test infers that there is no significant difference in the variable
among the employees about their working hours.

5.3 ANALYSIS USING CORRELATION ANALYSIS

TO FIND WHETHER THERE IS CORRELATION BETWEEN AFFECTED BY INFECTIOUS


DISEASES Vs LEAVE AFFECTING THE COMPANY OUTPUT
Let X be the respondent affected by Infectious diseases.
Let Y be the Leave affecting the company output.

TABLE 5.3.1

S.no Factors X Y
1 Yes 11 39
2 No 39 11
Total 50 50
Source: Primary Data

RANKS
TABLE 5.3.2

S.no Rank of X Rank of Y di² = (Xi-Yi)²


1 2 1 1
2 1 2 1
Total ∑(Xi-Yi)² 2

1-6 ∑ di²
Formula r = 1- ,By substituting the data to the formula, we get r = -1
N (n²-1)

INFERENCE

The value obtained is in negative, where it infers that a change in one variable has an
opposite change in another variable. From the correlation analysis it is inferred that, if the
employees get affected by Infectious diseases then the company output will be get decreased.

5.4 ANALYSIS USING ANOVA

TO FIND WHETHER THERE IS DIFFERENCE BETWEEN THE OPINION OF RESPONDENTS


REGARDING THEIR SALARY PAID VS ABSENT DUE TO TRANSPORTATION

Null Hypothesis
i. There is no any significance difference between Salary paid.
ii. There is no any significance difference between absent due to Transportation.

TABLE 5.4.1

Absent due to
Transportation In some
S.no Often Rare Not at all Total
cases
Salary paid

1 Sufficient 7 1 8 4 20

2 In-Sufficient 6 1 1
2 10
3 Neutral 3 2 0
0 5
4 Moderately Sufficient 7 1 3
4 15
Total 23 5 12
10 50
Source: Primary Data

STEPS

Number of all items N = 16


Sum of all items are T= 50

Correction factor CF = = 156.25
N
Total sum of squares SST = 153.75
Sum of squares between column samples SSC = 43.25
Sum of squares between column samples SSR = 31.25
Residual or Error SSE = 79.25
ANOVA TABLE 5.4.2

Sum of Degrees of
Source Of Mean Square (MS) F-ratio
Squares Freedom (d.f)
Variation
Treatment
between Salary 43.25 3 14.41
paid
Treatment 1.637
between
31.25 3
Absent due to
10.41
Transportation

Residual or
79.25 9 8.80
Error 1.182

Tabulated value for (3,9) d.f at 5% level of Significance is 3.86

INFERENCE

i. Calculated value (1.637) < Tabulated value (3.86)


• Therefore H0 is ACCEPTED.
• This shows that there is no any significance difference between Salary paid.

ii. Calculated value (1.182) < Tabulated value (3.86)


• Therefore H0 is ACCEPTED.
• This shows that there is no any significance difference between Absent due to
Transportation

5.5 ANALYSIS USING WEIGHTED AVERAGE METHOD

TO FIND THE RANKS OF DIFFERENT FACTORS WHICH ARE LISTED BELOW


ACCORDING TO THE OPINION OF RESPONDENTS
TABLE No: 5.5.1

FACTORS Highly Satisfied Neutral Dissatisfied Highly


Satisfied Dissatisfied

WORKING 10 12 05 13 10
HOURS
MANAGEMENT
POLICY 20 10 05 10 05
WORKING
ENVIRONMENT 28 10 04 05 03
RELATION
WITH 02 05 10 20 13
SUPERVISOR
Source: Primary Data

Table 5.5.2

POINT 5 4 3 2 1
WEIGHTAGE

FACTORS H.S S N D H.D TOTAL AVG RANK


WORKING
HOURS 50 48 15 26 10 149 2.98 3
MANAGEMENT
POLICY 100 40 15 20 05 180 3.6 2
WORKING
ENVIRONMENT 140 40 12 10 03 205 4.1 1
RELATION
WITH 10 20 30 40 13 113 2.26 4
SUPERVISOR
Source: Primary Data

INFERENCE

The above table infers that the company gives more weight age first to the working
environment, second to the management policy, third to the working hours, and finally to the
relationship with supervisors. This shows that the employees are very much satisfied with their
working environment.

CHAPTER-VI

6.1 FINDINGS OF THE STUDY


1. The age group of employees from group of 36-45 persons is 44%
2. The employee education from HSC is 44%
3. The Experience of the employee from above 5 years is 64%
4. The number of working days by employee is 25-28 is 44%
5. The number leave taken in a month averagely 1-5 is 45%
6. The employee working years <10 years is 60%
7. The work load given to employee at dissatisfied level is 50%
8. The working hours is at dissatisfied to employee is 26%
9. The employee are highly satisfied with management policy is 40%
10. The employee are highly satisfied with working environment is 46%
11. About 40%are dissatisfied with supervisor
12. The absenteeism will affect the company out put at 78%
13. The employee skills in the work is good at 70%
14. About 40%were dissatisfied with compensation provide at the time of absent.
15. Exiting job is satisfied to employee is at 34%.
16. About 46%were satisfied with facilities provided by the company.
17. The flexibility and indepence is neutral is 62%.
18. About 78% were giving a leave letter and taking a leave.
19. The employees are absent due to Health problems 40%.
20. About 46% were absent due to transportation problem
21. The study shows that the infected diseases affected to employees are none at 78%.
22. About 45% says that they take leave whenever they need.
23. The rest pause is more at 58%.
24. The employees are motivated by incentives is 58%
25. In some cases the employees are absent due to personnel problem is 62%.

26. About 62% says they need counseling in the company.


27. About 42% percent prefer weekly shift.
28. The employees change the shift fort the convinces at rare at 52%.
29. About 50% says they need additional leave and 50% says they did not need additional
leave.
30. The most of the respondence says that they need transport facilities at 60%
31. From the Chi-Square test it is inferred that there is no significant difference in the variable
among the employees about their working hours.
32. From the correlation analysis it is inferred that, if the employees get affected by Infectious
diseases then the company output will be get decreased.
33. From the Analysis of variance it is inferred that there is no any significance difference
between Salary paid and between Absent due to Transportation.
34. From the weighted average method it is inferred that the company gives more weight age
first to the working environment, second to the management policy, third to the working
hours, and finally to the relationship with supervisors. This shows that the employees are
very much satisfied with their working environment.

CHAPTER- VI

6.2 SUGGESTION AND RECOMMENDATION


 In order to minimize the rate of absenteeism the company could take care of employee’s
health’s especially in production unit.
 Introducing attendance management programme.
 I suggest that by taking disciplinary action which will minimize absenteeism.
 Introducing medical facilities for employees and employee’s family member.
 Providing transport facilities for all employees
 Motivating the employee by monetary and non monetary awards for those who are
completed 100% attendance.
 To improve safety awareness among employee by educating them on health aspects
conducting safety work shop and to reduce noise pollution in few department.

CHAPTER-VII

CONCLUSION
The study is carried out to determine the level of employee‘s absenteeism in THE
PONDICHERRY CO- OPERATIVE SPINNING MILL LTD.

Even though company is providing with sufficient facilities to the employee’s to an


extent. The company may provide some more facilities like proper ventilation, medical facilities
transport facilities and welfare actives which would reduce absenteeism and enhances the
employees to work more efficiently and effectively for achieving the orginisational objectives.

CHAPTER-VIII

8.1 LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY


Even though the studies have conducted properly more is some limitation occurring
more over factory

 Time constrain was a major limitation of the study


 Some of the respondent are not co- operative to fill the answer for the question
 The area of operation in THE PONDICHERRY CO –OPERATIVE SPINNING
MILL LTD.
 The study is based upon small population like 50 sample

8.2 SCOPE FOR THE FURTHER STUDY


• A s the data is collected from The pondicherry co –operative spinning mill ltd.
Thirubuvani, this result cannot correlate to the entire spinning mill industry. So further
researcher may concentrate on other regions.
• This project conducted survey to measure the level of employee’s absenteeism.
• This project is help full for those further those who are under going the project in the
concept of employee’s absenteeism and to know the reason for the absenteeism in
• The pondicherry co –operative spinning mill ltd. Thirubuvani

APPENDICES

ANNEXURE- 1

QUESTIONNAIRE
A STUDY ON EMPLOYEE’S ABSENTEEISM IN SPINCO,
PUDUCHERRY

Personal Details:
1. I) Name :
I I) EID No :
III) Address :
IV) Department :
V) Martial Status :
VI) Annual Income :

VII) Age:
a) 18 – 25 b) 26 – 35 c) 36 – 45 d) above 45

VIII) Education:
a) SSLC b) HSC c) ITI d) Others, please
Specify______

IX) Experience
a) Below 2 years b) 3 - 5 years c) above 5 years

Other Details:

2. Number of working days per month:


a) 20 - 22 b) 23 - 25 c) 25 - 28 d) 29 - 31

3. How many days do you take leave in a month?


a) 0 b) 1 - 5 c) 6 - 10 d) 1 0 - 1 5
e) 16 - 20
4. How long you are working in the company?
a) < 5 years b) < 10 years c) > 10 years
5. Rate the factors below according to the satisfaction level….

Highly Satisfied Neutral Dissatisfied Highly


Satisfied Dissatisfied

WORKLOAD
WORKING
HOURS
MANAGEMENT
POLICY
WORKING
ENVIRONMENT
RELATIONSHIP
WITH
SUPERVISORS

6. Does your leave will affect the company out put?


a) Yes b) no

7. How much your company utilizing the employee skills?


a) Good b) Fair c) Poor

8. About the salary paid by the company?


a) Sufficient b) Insufficient c) Neutral d) Moderately sufficient

9. Are you satisfied your compensation at the time of your leave?


a) Highly Satisfied b) Satisfied c) Neutral d) Dissatisfied
e) Highly dissatisfied

10. Are you satisfied with your existing job?


a) Highly Satisfied b) Satisfied c) Neutral d) Dissatisfied
e) Highly dissatisfied

11. How do you feel about your facilities provided by the company?
a) Highly Satisfied b) Satisfied c) Neutral d) Dissatisfied
e) Highly dissatisfied
12. Flexibility and Independence allowed?
a) Highly Satisfied b) Satisfied c) Neutral d) Dissatisfied
e) Highly dissatisfied
13. What is the procedure for taking leave in your organization?
a) Giving a leave letter b) Not giving a leave letter
c) Asking a permission d) No leave

14. Reason for taking leave?


a) Personal Problem b) Health problem c) Finance problem
d) Working environment e) Others

15. How often do you absent due to transportation problem?


a) In some cases b) Often c) Rare d) Not at all

16. Are you affected by infectious diseases?


a) Yes b) No

17. Is it possible to get leave whenever you want?


a) Yes b) No

18. Do you tell insufficient rest pause is one of the reasons for absent?
a) More b) Less c) Tolerable

19. What type of motivation techniques adopted for employees regular to the work?
a) Incentives b) Bonus c) Allowances

20. Does the company helps in your personal problem?


a) In some cases b) Often c) Not at all

21. Do you need counseling in the company for your personal matter affecting you in taking
leave often?
a) Yes b) No

22. To reduce absenteeism which shifts do you prefer if it is adopted?


a) General Shift b) Weekly Shift c) Monthly shift

23. Do you have freedom to change your shift for your convenience?
a) Yes b) No c) Rare

24. Do you need additional leave?


a) Yes b) No

25. What type facilities do you except from the management to reduce absenteeism?
a) Medical facilities b) Transport facilities c) Others, please
specify____
26. Any suggestion to reduce absenteeism_____________________________

ANNEXURE-2
BIBILIOGRAPHY

BOOKS:
 Kothari, C.R., Research Methodology - Methods & Techniques, New Age international

(P) Ltd., Publishers, New Delhi ,Second Edition ,2004.

 Gupta, S.P., Statistical Methods, Sultan Chand & Sons Publishers, New Delhi, Thirty

Fourth Editions, 2005.

 Prasath L.M.,Human resources management , Sultan Chand & Sons Publishers, , New

Delhi, Thirty Fourth Editions, 2005.

 Reddy& Rao –Absenteeism in India , Deep , publication , New Delhi

 Aswathappa.k, Human Resource and Personnel Management, Tata Mc Graw Hill, New
Delhi, 1999.

WEBSITES:

• www.google.com
• www.wikepidia.com
• www.absenteeism.com