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SUMMER PROJECT REPORT Submitted by B. MARAGATHAM
REGISTER NO: 27348323
Under the guidance of
Mrs. R. HEMALATHA, M.B.A.
Faculty, Dept. of Management Studies
in partial fulfilment for the award of the degree of
MASTER OF BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION
DEPARTMENT OF MANAGEMENT STUDIES
SRI MANAKULA VINAYAGAR ENGINEERING COLLEGE PONDICHERRY UNIVERSITY PUDHUCHERRY, INDIA
SRI MANAKULA VINAYAGAR ENGINEERING COLLEGE PONDICHERRY UNIVERSITY
DEPARTMENT OF MANAGEMENT STUDIES
This is to certify that the project work entitled “A STUDY ON PAYABLES MANAGEMENT AT WHIRLPOOL OF INDIA LTD.” is a bonafide work done by B. MARAGATHAM [REGISTER NO : 27348323] in partial fulfilment of the requirement for the award of Master of Business Administration by Pondicherry University during the academic year 2007-2008
HEAD OF THE DEPARTMENT
Viva -Voice Examination held on___________________
EXTERNAL EXAMINER 1. 2.
I take this opportunity to express my gratitude and profound thanks to our Chairman Sri. N. Kesavan and Managing Director M. Dhanasekaran under Vice-Chairman Sri. S.V. Sugumaran, Treasurer and our respected Principal Dr. V.S.K. Venkatachalapathy. It is my privilege to express my deep sense of gratitude and reverence to MR. JAYAKUMAR, Head of the Department of Management studies for his constant encouragement, immense patient, constructive criticism and inspiring guidance during the course of this study. My sincere thanks are due to MRS. R. HEMALATHA, Faculty Guide, Department of Management Studies, and for encouragement and suggestions to do this project work. I owe my gratitude to MR. N. RAMESH, Finance Manager, Whirlpool of India Ltd For his help and support throughout the project. I extended my sincere thanks to MR. RAMASUBRAMANIAN, SENIOR executive (finance) for his timely assistance. I thank MR.VISHNU PRATAP, Executive (Finance) for the help he has rendered during the project. my sincere thanks to all the staffs in finance department for the help and kind co-operation they have given during my project period
The project is titled as “A STUDY ON PAYABLES MANAGEMENT AT WHIRLPOOL OF INDIA LTD”. The aim is to analyse payables position of the company by using the financial tools and techniques also it tries to assess the liquidity position Payables management : The administration of a company's outstanding debts, or liabilities, to vendors for purchases of goods and services made on credit Importance of payables management:
♦ ♦ ♦ ♦
Payables help to achieve financial goals It helps to manage payment on time and maximize cash flows Payables helps to maintain smooth relation with vendors by paying them on time Measures the average length of time between purchase of goods and payment for them.
This study based on financial statement such as payables ratio, cash flow analysis1by using all these tools combined it enables to determine payables in a effective manner The project helps to identify and give suggestion on the area of weaker position in “whirlpool of India ltd”
ii iii iv v PAGE.NO 1 2
ABSTRACT LIST OF TABLES LIST OF CHARTS CHAPTER I
INTRODUCTION 1.1 COMPANY PROFILE 1.2 INTRODUCTION TO THE STUDY
II III IV V VI VII VIII
REVIEW OF LITERATURE OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY RESEARCH METHODOLOGY DATA ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION FINDINGS OF THE STUDY 7.1 SUGGESSTIONS, AND RECOMMENDATIONS 7.2 CONCLUSION 8.1 LIMITATIONS 8.2 SCOPE FOR STUDY ANNEXURE BIBLIOGRAPHY
35 39 40 41 51 52 53 54 55
LIST OF TABLES
5.1 5.2 5.3 5.4 5.5 5.6 5.7
NAME OF THE TABLES
PAYABLES TURNOVER RATIO
42 43 45 46 47 48 49
DEBT PAYMENT PERIOD ENJOYED RATIO CASH FROM OPERATIONS-2001 CASH FROM OPERATIONS-2002 CASH FROM OPERATIONS-2004 CASH FROM OPERATIONS-2005 CASH FROM OPERATIONS-2006
LIST OF CHART
NAME OF CHART
DEBT PAYMENT PERIOD
CHAPTER –I INTRODUCTION
1.1 1.1.1 COMPANY PROFILE Historical overview of whirlpool corporation : Whirlpool Corporation was founded by Louise Upton in 1911. The company was known as Upton Machine Company in its initial years. It produced wringer washers and sold its first order of washers to Sears Roebuck & Co. in 1916. In 1920s, the Upton machine company had become the exclusive supplier for sears electric & gasoline powered washing machines. While the past 8 decades have seen many sweeping and irreversible changes have obviously altered the very direction and scope of the company Sears remain Whirlpool’s largest customer even today. In 1936, Upton machine company inching its way into the global market place and entered into Europe and Asia through the relationship of American Steel Exports Company. In 1950, the company was renamed and officially known as the Whirlpool Corporation. The company added Automatic Dryers, Refrigerator, Ranges and Air Conditioners to its product line. Innovation always a Whirlpool Corporation hallmark was especially evident in 1956 with the “Whirlpool Miracle Kitchen” and expanded its manufacturing locations nationwide during the period. In 1957, the company established the Appliance Buyers Credit Corporation (Later to be known as Whirlpool Finance Corporation) to extend credit to thousands of families who are seeking for latest Appliances. In 1958, the company made its first investment outside its home. Its investment in Brasmotor, South America for an equity stake in the Brazilian Appliance market, which later defined its successful global expansion and growth. Today, Whirlpool dominates the whole Latin America. In 1962, Whirlpool Corporation won the contract to develop the feeding and waste management systems for NASA’s Gemini project, which made Whirlpool brand name, was strong and well established in the North America market. In 1969, the company was the first to introduce a residential trash compactor, the first new to market Appliances. During the same year the company further
9 consolidated its position by entering the Canadian market with equity interest in Ingles Limited. In 1970, the company established Cool Line, the first toll-free Consumer service support line. In 1980, Whirlpool Corporation began its globalization initiatives to expand its business into rapidly growing markets throughout North America, South America, Europe and Later Asia. At this juncture, the company was firmly in a position to lead and shape the home Appliances industry worldwide. The company current vision was created in 1986 and changed only once since its creation In 1987, Whirlpool Corporation and Sundaram Clayton of India formed TVS Whirlpool limited to make compact washers for the Indian market (Whirlpool Corporation would acquire majority ownership in 1994). Later, the company builds a manufacturing plant (Washer Unit) in Pondicherry, India. The company remained active in North America as well, expanding its brand base by purchasing the Kitchen Aid division of the Hobart Corporation in 1986 and acquiring the Roper Brand name in 1989. In 1989, the Whirlpool Corporation and N.V.Philips of the Netherlands formed a joint venture company and having the way for Whirlpool entry in European market. The three-tiered brand structure now gave customers a clear choice of high-end (Kitchen Aid), Popular (Whirlpool) and Value-Oriented (Roper) home Appliances. The Whirlpool Overseas Corporation was formed in 1990 to pursue global opportunities outside Europe and the United States. During 1990s, the company created two new subsidiaries to sell and service appliances in Hungary (Whirlpool Hungarian Trading Limited) and Slovakia (Whirlpool Tatramat). Later, Whirlpool Europe opened sales subsidiaries in Poland, the Czech Republic, Romania, Bulgaria and Russia. In mid 1990s, Whirlpool Asia established a corporate headquarters and product development or technology center in Singapore and opened regional offices in Hong Kong, New Delhi, Singapore and Tokyo. Later, the company purchased majority interests in five joint ventures across India and China to expand the Asian manufacturing base.
10 In 1991, Inglis-Brand based in Canada became part of the Whirlpool family and the corporate technology organization was formed in the same year. Whirlpool Corporation won the “Star of Energy Efficiency” award from the Alliance to save energy, was named “Appliance Partner of the Year” by U.S.Department of Energy and took home the climate protection and stratospheric Ozone Protection Awards from the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). In 1995, the T.V.S.Whirlpool Limited acquired Kelvinator of India. During the year, the company was renamed as Whirlpool Washing Machines Limited. In 1996, Whirlpool of India was formed after attaining the majority of ownership In 1998, Whirlpool Corporation unveiled its Resource Saver® Wash System, a highefficiency, top-loading washing machine with a spray rinse system and water temperature sensor that helped reduce energy consumption and water usage. Throughout Western Europe, Whirlpool Corporation became a stand-alone brand, and the company became the exclusive supplier of major home appliances to IKEA 1.1.2 Profile of the Company Whirlpool Corporation : Whirlpool Corporation is the world’s leading manufacturer and marketer of major home appliances. The company manufactures in 13 countries on 4 continents namely :-Canada, United States, Mexico, Argentina, Brazil, Slovakia, Germany, Sweden, France, Italy, South Africa, China and India and markets products in more than 170 countries under major Brands (26 including Affiliates) names such as Whirlpool, Kitchen Aid, Roper, Estate, Bauknects, Ignis, Laden, Inglis, Braotemp, Crolls, Acros and Consul. Whirlpool is also the principal supplier to Searo, Roebuck and company of many major home appliances marketed under the Kenmore brand names. Head quartered AT Benton Harbour, Michigan, U.S.A, Whirlpool Corporation is the world’s leading manufacturer and marketer of major home appliances. Washing Machines, Dryer, Dish-washers, Refrigerators, Freezers, Cookers, Micro-wave Ovens, Room air-conditioners, Small Kitchen Appliances, etc., Whirlpool of India Limited, a fully owned by Whirlpool Inc, US, ($12 billion), a leading global consumer durable player. WOIL manufactures and markets refrigerators and washing machines. The company has diversified its product range into Air Conditioners and Microwave Ovens.
The growth in the consumer durable industry has slowed down due to lack of demand. The year 2000 has been a bad year for the industry as the overall growth was flat. The refrigerators registered a flat growth; washing machines saw a negative growth while the air conditioner segment performed well exhibiting a growth rate of 20%. Whirlpool Corporation has a management system called WES (Worldwide Excellence System) and a value to aged performance system called HPC (High Performance Culture), which drives, are the actions and initiatives of unit. Whirlpool Corporation is working towards TPM as part of our strategic initiatives. Manufacturing facilities : Whirlpool has invested heavily in its manufacturing facilities in India. While the factories in Faridabad and Pondicherry have been upgraded to meet the exacting world class standard of Whirlpool, the one under the construction at Ranjangaon, Pune will set the standards as one of the world’s front runners in environmental sensitive and eco-friendly manufacturing units.
Faridabad : The refrigerator facilitated at Faridabad in Haryana manufactures direct cool. Refrigerators ranging from 165 liters to 310 liters. Infusion of technology and up gradation of machinery along with streamlining of processed has enhanced the plant capacity from 7,00,000 units to 8,50,000 units annually. Whirlpool’s focus at this plan in on manufacturing refrigerators that are made to suit Indian conditions and requirements, while matching Whirlpool global quality standard.
Ranjangaon : A state of art gallery for the manufacturers of the Global No Frost refrigerator at Ranjangaon near Pune, this Rs. 300 crore plant built to exacting world-class standards, underlines Whirlpool’s commitments to India. It has been designed in accordance with the ecological and environmental criteria that have become such a concern in today’s scenario the world over.
Whirlpool of India, Pondicherry, Journey • • • • • • • • • • • Emerged in 1989 1st Plant of Whirlpool in India in Thirubhuvanai Village Joint Venture between TVS and Whirlpool TVS Management till 1995 100% EOU Plant Set-Up Feb ‘2004 220 Crores Turnover Assembly of Washing Machines & Small Appliances Has got capacity to produce 5.00 lakhs units a year Today we target 3.00 lakhs unit a year 25% of the annual volumes is exported A “UL’ certified Unit & 100% EOU unit
Employment • • • Preference given to Local Community & Pondicherry Recruited 80% from Local villages & Pondicherry Best Pay Master in Pondicherry.
Manpower • • • 220 permanent Employees Both Technical & non-technical employees Excellent focus on People Development
External Relationship • • Good relationship with the local Government Whirlpool -One of the highest revenue generation for the Government, towards
In-House Facilities to Employees Medical • • Medical Centre - with all facilities 24 hours Ambulance
13 • • • • All Employees & Family members are covered under Medical Insurance In-House Canteen facilities Company subsidized Healthy & Hygienic food
Recreation • • • In-House Recreation Centre Gym and other indoor sports Conducts Annual Sports event
Unit Profile : Whirlpool of India Limited is a fully owned company by Whirlpool Corporation, USA Head quarters at Benton Harbor, Michigan USA. Whirlpool Corporation is the worlds leading manufacturers and marketer of home appliances. Washing Machines, Dryers, Dish Washers, Refrigerators, Freezers, Cookers, Microwave Ovens, Room Air Conditioners, Small kitchen Appliances, etc. WOIL, washer unit, Pondicherry was the first manufacturing venture of the Whirlpool Corporation, USA, the world’s largest manufacturer of home appliances. In 1987, this unit was formed as a joint venture with M/s Sundaram Clayton limited, a TVS group companies and was named as TVS Whirlpool Limited. This unit is located on a 100 acre sprawling area manufacturing automatic and semi automatic washing machine. This unit is certified ISO 9001 facility by UL. It has also been cleared for “S” mark certification from Japanese Quality standards for Exports to Japan after our facility approval. In WOIL, washer unit has a total of 11 departments comprising of 220 employees on the whole. Out of which 67 is management executives and rest 153 are production operators.
14 DEPARTMENTS: • Administration Department o Finance Department o Human Resource Department o Production Department o Medical Department o Stores Department o Plant Maintenance Department (PMD) o Regional Technology Center (RTC) o Process Engineering Development (PED) • Quality Assurance Department
WHIRLPOOL BRANDS : North American Brands : United States : Canada Mexico : Whirlpool, Kitchen Aid, Roper, Estate, Gladiator : Whirlpool, Inglis, Kitchen Aid
Whirlpool, Acros, Supermatic, Crolls
Principal Products : Air Purifiers, Automatic Dryers, Automatic Washers, Built-in Ovens, Dehumidifiers, Dishwashers, freezers, Hot Water Heaters, HVAC, Microwave Ovens, Ranges (Gas and Electric, Freezers, Side-by-Side), Room Air Conditioners, Trash Compactors, washers.
Kitchen Aid® Products : Blenders, Food Processors, Hand Mixers, Hot-water Dispensers, Stand Mixers, Toasters, Coffee Makers, Juicers
Primary Markets Served : United States, Canada and Mexico
European Brands Whirlpool, Bauknecht, Ignis, Laden in France, KIC in South Africa
Principal products : Built-in Ovens, Cookers (Gas and Electric, Freestanding, Built-in and Surface Units), Dishwashers, Dryers, Freezers (Upright and Chest), Microwave Ovens, Refrigerators (Builtin, Combis and Side-by-Side), Washers (Front and Top Loading)
Primary Markets Served : Europe, Middle East, Africa, Asia Pacific
Latin American Brands : Brastem, Consul,Eslabon De Lujo, Embraco
Principal Products : Freezers, Gas and Electric Ranges, Micro Ovens, Refrigerators, Room Air Conditioners, Washers, Compressors
Primary Markets Served : Brazil, Argentina, Chile and the other markets of the Southern Zone
Asian Brands : Whirlpool - Owned Affiliate - Owned : : Whirlpool, Bauknecht, Ignis, Kitchen Aid, Raybo. Narcissus, SMC, TVS.
Principal products : Automatic and Semi-Automatic Washers, Microwave Ovens, No Frost Refrigerators
16 Primary Markets Served : China, India and Asia Pacific.
INTRODUCTION TO THE STUDY
The basis for financial planning, analysis and decision-making is the financial
information contained in the cash flow and fund flow statements is used by management, creditors, investors and others to form judgement about the operating performance and financial position of the firm. Users of financial statements can get further insight about financial strength and weaknesses of the firm if they properly analyse information reported in these statements. With this objective the project was undertaken inorder to analyse forms ability to meet trade creditors claims over a very short period of time. This would further help the management to know about financial strength of the firms to make the best use and be able to spot out financial weaknesses of the firm to take suitable corrective action.
IMPORTS PROCEDURE AND TERMS OF PAYMENT AT WHIRLPOOL OF INDIA LTD.,
Purchase order is created by Procurement in Ranjangoan and with one copy sent to
vendor. If the payment term is against documentary credit, Letter of Credit is opened at Delhi and sent to the supplier. When the material gets shipping by the supplier, negotiable documents are received either directly or through bank after acceptance. Negotiable documents (i.e.) Bill of Lading (or) Airways bill is given to the Customs House Agent for clearance of goods. Customs House Agent informs Import Clerk of Financial Accounting Team the payment advice of the duty charge, customers charge etc by E-mail. Then imports staff creates the custom clearing payment voucher in SAP & Prepares a payment request document to bank for triggering payment. Financial Manager and Financial Head is required to sign on the request according to Board resolution. The goods are received in the factory and goods receipt note (GRN) entry is passed in the SAP system which updates the stock also Customs House Agent will send the original documents to Import staff in Ranjangoan. He inputs the details of the bills into a manual control working paper and then pass the bill to Duty Entry team for recording duty entries in SAP. On the basis of GRN entry, invoice verification is done in the system by same imports staff. Import clerk prepares a cross check list for double check SAP record against actual document details for freight charges, duties, goods amount LIC creates an entry against vendor by Debit expense, tax, credit agent name. Copy of Invoice, copy of Bill of lading and exchange control copy of bill of entry is sent to New Delhi for payment of import material. On due date the above mentioned documents along with application for remittance are sent to bank. In case of Advance payment, purchase order entered in system (which has been cleared by authorized person) & Performa invoice is sent along with application for remittance.
Statutory payment for Imports Statutory payment is initiated for clearing agent charges, Customs payment and shipping charges due to import from foreign vendors. It is processed as advanced payment. Voucher is created in SAP before cheque request. Deputy Manager of planning plans and decides the day to make payment and he submits the request by emailing to Finance Manager with Import clearing details. Then clerk at Import Department prepares a spreadsheet based cheque request to Finance Manager. Finance Manager reviews the cheque request with email details and then he as well as Finance Head will sign off the cheque request before faxing the request to Citi Bank of Pune for initiate payment. For statutory payment there is no limitation of the authority on the approval by Finance Head. Advance payment For vendor advance payment, copy of approved purchase order entered in system (Which has been cleared by authorized person) showing advance term and Performa Invoice, Request form are sent along with application for remittance. Advance payment of Purchase order or deviation from purchase order is approved my Management. 1.4 Whirlpool is a manufacturing sector which by its raw material from : 1. Domestic Market 2. Imports
Domestic Trade and Terms of Payment In economics, a market is a mechanism which allows people to trade. The domestic market therefore includes all trade mechanisms within one country, excluding exports and imports. Market can also be thought of as a group of people who might buy a given product. In this sense, a company might be doing well in the college age market, but poorly with elders. While a person could make any number of arbitrary distinctions between different groups of potential customers, whether these people live ( or operate ) within the same country is more important than many other divisions. Doing business within a company's domestic market avoids import and export tariffs.
19 TERMS OF PAYMENT Cash Payment Currency is an important means of payment in India, with 19% of M3 represented by currency, as against its share of 6 to 7% in advanced countries. It is supplemented by cheques and drafts for payments in commercial transactions. Bills of Exchange A negotiable instrument is a specialized type of contract for the payment of money which is unconditional and capable of transfer by negotiation. Note that a negotiable instrument is not a per se contract as contract formation requires an offer, acceptance and consideration, none of which are elements of a negotiable instrument (in the US). The rights of the payee (or holder in due course) are better than those provided by ordinary contracts as follows: • The rights to payment are not subject to set-off, and do not rely on the validity of the underlying contract giving rise to the debt (for example if a cheque was drawn for payment for goods delivered but defective, the drawer is still liable on the cheque) • • • • • No notice needs to be given to any prior party liable on the instrument for transfer of the rights under the instrument by negotiation Transfer free of equities -- the holder in due course can hold better title than the party he obtains it from The bill of exchange involves 3 parties: The drawer - the one who issues the document, and through which he invites the drawee to pay. The drawee - who has to pay the sum of money at the due date; he must have a liability towards the drawer and this liability constitutes the provision and the due amount • The beneficiary - to whom the drawee has to pay. The beneficiary can be the drawer himself or a third party to whom he might owe money (pay at order clause). • Negotiation enables the transferee to become the party to the contract, and to enforce the contract in his own name. Negotiation can be effected by indorsement
20 and delivery (order instruments), or by delivery alone (bearer instruments). The two primary classes of negotiable instruments are as follows: • The promissory note, which is a written promise by the maker to pay money to the payee. The most common type of promissory note is a bank note, which is defined as a promissory note made by a bank and payable to bearer on demand; and • The bill of exchange, which is a written order by the drawer to the drawee to pay money to the payee. The most common type of bill of exchange is the cheque, which is defined as a bill of exchange drawn on a banker and payable on demand. Bills of exchange are used primarily in international trade, and are written orders by one person to his bank to pay the bearer a specific sum on a specific date sometime in the future. Prior to the advent of paper currency, they were a more significant part of trade. DEMAND DRAFT The Demand Draft is a pre-paid Negotiable Instrument, wherein the drawee bank undertakes to make payment in full when the instrument is presented by the payee for payment. The demand draft is made payable on a specified branch of a bank at a specified centre. In order to obtain payment, the beneficiary has to either present the instrument directly to the branch concerned or have it collected by his / her bank through the clearing mechanism.
21 1.5 IMPORT PROCEDURE AND TERMS OF PAYMENT
Import Process [As governed by the Foreign Trade (Development & Regulation) Act, 1992]. With the globalization of Indian economy and consequent upon comfortable balance of payment position Government of India has liberalized the Import Policy and practically all Controls on imports have been lifted. Imports may be made freely except to the extent they are regulated by the provisions of Import Policy or by any other law for the time being in force. Inquiry The person wanting to import some goods into India, has first of all to send a letter of inquiry to a foreign exporter. Through the letter of inquiry, the importer asks for information as to: • • • Availability of goods The price at which such goods would be available The terms and conditions in regard to delivery, payment, etc. on his part, he must give all the details as to the goods wanted by him, viz., quality, quantity, size, design, pattern, color, etc. If necessary he may also ask for some samples, patterns, etc., to be sent to him. Quotation In reply to his inquiry, the importer would receive a quotation. The quotation contains particulars as to the goods available in ready stock with the foreign exporter, their quality, size, suitability, etc. then there is a mention of the price at which the goods would be supplied. There are also other terms and conditions prescribed by the exporter. Now the importer has to make his choice. Must he take the lunge and place the order ? Should he write to some other supplier? It he already has quotations from some other suppliers, he must ascertain who among the suppliers has offered the most favorable terms. In case he wants some modifications in the terms, or a clarification, he must write to the exporter before placing his order.
22 Import Licence and Quota As earlier stated, the government to play safe with its foreign exchange reserves, always endeavours to ensure a favourable balance of payments. With this end in view, it has enacted the Imports and Exports (Control) Act, to exercise control over both imports and exports. But for understandable reasons, the government pursues a far more restrictive policy with regard to imports. With a view to using imports as an instrument of growth within the country, the government announces its import policy every six months. Under it, the quantity of items that can be imported into the country within a given time is specified. There is also reference to the countries from where such items can be imported. To comply with the regulations, the intending importer has first to apply to the Controller of Imports for a quota certificate. But for this he has to produce evidence of his past performance on this score. If the controller is satisfied with it, he issues the necessary quota certificate. The certificate lays down the type and quantity of goods be imported and their value. This done, the importer has now to make an application for the issue of an import licence. The application must be accompanied by the income tax verification certificate. Also, he has to produce the proof of his having paid the necessary import licence fee. Upon this, the Controller carries out his own scrutiny and if satisfied in every respect, he issues the licence to the importer. One copy of the licence is then sent to the customs authorities and another to the exchange control authorities. • General and Individual Licence: A license under which goods may be imported from any country is a general licence. The licence that allows imports only from specified countries is called an individual licence. • Open General Licence (OGL): For the goods mentioned in the open general licence list, import licence is issued freely. For the import of goods not covered by this list, licences have to be secured in the normal course.
Foreign Exchange Booking Imports have to be paid for in the currency of the exporter’s country, this means the importer has to secure the necessary foreign exchange to pay for the goods to be imported by him. Foreign exchange for this purpose is allocated by the exchange control department of the Reserve Bank of India. But its distribution is through the foreign exchange banks or commercial banks authorized in this behalf. As a safety device against unfavourable fluctuations in the rate of exchange (already explained in the discussion on export procedure), the importer may arrange with his bank to buy the necessary foreign exchange on a future date but at the rate agreed upon at the time of the contract. Order Having secured the necessary quota, licence and foreign exchange, the importer now sends his order to the foreign exporter. The order may be sent directly to the exporter or it may be sent to him through an indent house. For an importer who is new to this business or who operates on a small scale, it is always good to deal with his foreign exporters through an indent house. In any case, the order must give full particulars of the goods required, viz., quality, price, size, design, pattern, color, trade mark, etc. LETTER OF CREDIT Letters of credit accomplish their purpose by substituting the credit of the bank for that of the customer, for the purpose of facilitating trade. There are basically two types: commercial and standby. The commercial letter of credit is the primary payment mechanism for a transaction, whereas the standby letter of credit is a secondary payment mechanism.
24 COMMERCIAL LETTER OF CREDIT Commercial letters of credit have been used for centuries to facilitate payment in international trade. Their use will continue to increase as the global economy evolves. Letters of credit used in international transactions are governed by the International Chamber of Commerce Uniform Customs and Practice for Documentary Credits. The general provisions and definitions of the International Chamber of Commerce are binding on all parties. Domestic collections in the United States are governed by the Uniform Commercial Code. A commercial letter of credit is a contractual agreement between a bank, known as the issuing bank, on behalf of one of its customers, authorizing another bank, known as the advising or confirming bank, to make payment to the beneficiary. The issuing bank, on the request of its customer, opens the letter of credit. The issuing bank makes a commitment to honor drawings made under the credit. The beneficiary is normally the provider of goods and/or services. Essentially, the issuing bank replaces the bank's customer as the payee. Elements of a Letter of Credit • • • • • • • A payment undertaking given by a bank (issuing bank) On behalf of a buyer (applicant) To pay a seller (beneficiary) for a given amount of money On presentation of specified documents representing the supply of goods Within specified time limits Documents must conform to terms and conditions set out in the letter of credit Documents to be presented at a specified place
Beneficiary The beneficiary is entitled to payment as long as he can provide the documentary evidence required by the letter of credit. The letter of credit is a distinct and separate transaction from the contract on which it is based. All parties deal in documents and not in goods. The issuing bank is not liable for performance of the underlying contract between the customer and beneficiary. The issuing bank's obligation to the buyer, is to examine all documents to insure that they meet all the terms and conditions of the credit. Upon requesting demand for payment the beneficiary warrants that all conditions of the agreement have been
25 complied with. If the beneficiary (seller) conforms to the letter of credit, the seller must be paid by the bank. Issuing Bank The issuing bank's liability to pay and to be reimbursed from its customer becomes absolute upon the completion of the terms and conditions of the letter of credit. Under the provisions of the Uniform Customs and Practice for Documentary Credits, the bank is given a reasonable amount of time after receipt of the documents to honor the draft. The issuing banks' role is to provide a guarantee to the seller that if compliant documents are presented, the bank will pay the seller the amount due and to examine the documents, and only pay if these documents comply with the terms and conditions set out in the letter of credit. Typically the documents requested will include a commercial invoice, a transport document such as a bill of lading or airway bill and an insurance document; but there are many others. Letters of credit deal in documents, not goods. Advising Bank An advising bank, usually a foreign correspondent bank of the issuing bank will advise the beneficiary. Generally, the beneficiary would want to use a local bank to insure that the letter of credit is valid. In addition, the advising bank would be responsible for sending the documents to the issuing bank. The advising bank has no other obligation under the letter of credit. If the issuing bank does not pay the beneficiary, the advising bank is not obligated to pay. Confirming Bank The correspondent bank may confirm the letter of credit for the beneficiary. At the request of the issuing bank, the correspondent obligates itself to insure payment under the letter of credit. The confirming bank would not confirm the credit until it evaluated the country and bank where the letter of credit originates. The confirming bank is usually the advising bank.
26 Common Defects in Documentation • • • • • • • • • • • • Bill of Lading evidences delivery prior to or after the date range stated in the credit. Stale dated documents. Changes included in the invoice not authorized in the credit. Inconsistent description of goods. Insurance document errors. Invoice amount not equal to draft amount. Ports of loading and destination not as specified in the credit. Description of merchandise is not as stated in credit. A document required by the credit is not presented. Documents are inconsistent as to general information such as volume, quality, etc. Names of documents not exact as described in the credit. Beneficiary information must be exact. Invoice or statement is not signed as stipulated in the letter of credit.
When a discrepancy is detected by the negotiating bank, a correction to the document may be allowed if it can be done quickly while remaining in the control of the bank. If time is not a factor, the exporter should request that the negotiating bank return the documents for corrections. If there is not enough time to make corrections, the exporter should request that the negotiating bank send the documents to the issuing bank on an approval basis or notify the issuing bank by wire, outline the discrepancies, and request authority to pay. Payment cannot be made until all parties have agreed to jointly waive the discrepancy. • • • Latest shipping date and the maximum time allowed between dispatch and presentation. If the letter of credit calls for documents supplied by third parties, make reasonable allowance for the time this may take to complete. After dispatch of the goods, check all the documents both against the terms of the credit and against each other for internal consistency.
27 Advice Note and Documentary Bills The importer on his part having sent the order as also the proof that he means to pay for the goods. It is now for the exporter to arrange an early dispatch of goods. No sooner the exporter dispatches the goods then he communicates it to the importer through an advice note also contains a reference as to when the importer might except to receive the goods. Soon, the shipping documents, viz, bill of lading insurance policy, certificate of origin, consular invoice, etc, follow. Along with these, the exporter also sends a bill of exchange drawn on the importer. The bill, called a documentary bill (because of the above documents having been attached to it), is presented to the importer through the exporter’s bank. In case it is a D/A (document against acceptance) bill, the importer can take delivery of the documents by signing his acceptance on it. On the other hand, if it is a D/P (document against payment) bill, he can get the documents only after he has paid the amount mentioned in the bill. Delivery Order Having secured the documents of the title to the goods, the importer has now to keep waiting for the announcement in the newspapers about arrival of the ship carrying his consignment. After the ship has arrived, the importer obtains and endorsement for delivery of the goods from the shipping company. Such endorsement is made on the bill of lading. The shipping company may also issue a separate delivery order for this purpose. but before doing so the shipping company ensures that the freight has been fully paid. In case the freight has been paid by the exporter, the importer will be given the delivery order straightaway. However, if the exporter has not made the payment and, consequently, it is the importer who will now have to pay the freight before getting the deliver order. Application to Import After securing the delivery order, the importer now turns to the customs office to see if any customs duty has to be paid on the goods. To this end, he submits a copy of the port trust dues receipt and two copies of the bill of entry to the customs office. These documents contain all particulars as to the value, quantity, type, etc., of the goods.
28 If the goods received by the importer are free goods, on which no import duty is payable, the customs authorities mark FREE on the bill of entry and the importer can now take away the goods. On the other hand, if the goods are dutiable, i.e., there is provision for payment of import duty on them, the customs authorities mark DUTY on the bill of entry in which case the goods will be released only after the requisite duty has been paid on them. Import duty may be specific or advalorem. It is specific when it is levied on the basis of quantity, measure or weight of the goods. The value of the goods does not count for this purpose. Import duty is advalorem when it is levied on the basis of the value of goods. The value for this purpose means the market value and not what is given in the invoice. However, if the market value cannot be ascertained, then the invoice price constitutes the basis for determining the import duty. Sometimes, the importer may not be able to furnish all the particulars as to the goods imported by him. This happens where the foreign exporter does not provide all the particulars relating to the goods exported by him. The importer in such a case is allowed to fill in a special form called bill of sight. In this the importer states all that he knows about his purchase and records his in ability to provide the remaining details until he has inspected the goods. The customs authorities then allow him to open the packages and complete the bill of entry on the basis of the information thus gathered. Regular import. For those who import goods ob a regular basis may be a problem paying the import duty every time they receive a consignment. To get over this, they open an account with the customs office and keep on depositing money in it from time to time. Whenever they receive any dutiable goods. The customs office debits their account with the amount of duty payable by them.. the bill of entry in such a case is maked deposit system so that the goods are cleared without paying the requisite import duty, there and the. Bonded Warehouse. Then there may be importers who are not in a position to pay the import duty all at once.
The goods received by such importers are kept in a bonded warehouse and released only upon payment of duty. Delivery of Goods All the necessary formalities having been gone through, the importer is now well set to get the goods delivered to him. He presents the delivery order form to the foreman in charge of the shed where the ship is docked. The delivery order is then signed and a gate pass issued to him. The bill of lading is then surrendered at the time of actual delivery of goods. The fact of the receipt of goods is acknowledged on the bill of lading itself. Having secured the possession of goods, the importer now makes a move for the gate through which, upon surrendering the gate pass, he is allowed to take out the goods Clearing Agents Of course, it is not necessary for the importer to go through all the tedious and timeconsuming formalities himself. For this purpose, this purpose, he can avail of the services offered by the clearing agents for a nominal fee. Payment This marks the last stage of an import transaction. If the importer has not paid the price in advance, he may adopt of the following method for the payment of the price Letter credit: The importer pays the amount to his bank which, in turn, agrees to honour the cheques or bills drawn by the exporter in his own country. Bill of exchange: In case the exporter has drawn a D/A (documents against acceptance) bill, the importer gives his acceptance to the bill before taking deliver of the documents to the title. He then makes arrangements to honor the bill on its maturity. However, if the exporter has chosen to draw a D/P (documents against payment) bill, the importer has to pay the price before taking delivery of the documents of title.
30 Payment to the Exporter’s Agent: If the exporter has an agent operating in the importer’s country, he sends the documents of title through such agent. Here again, the importer has to pay the price before the documents of title are delivered to him. CUSTOMS CLEARANCE OF IMPORTED GOODS Customs Authorities and the Clearing agents play the key role in the import of goods. All goods imported into India have to pass through the procedure of Customs clearance as they cross Indian border. The goods are examined, appraised, assessed, evaluated and then allowed to be taken out of charge of the Customs for use by the importer. The entire process of customs clearance is complex and to carry out this procedure smoothly, the help of accredited customs clearing agents has to be taken. The importers need to present a Bill of Entry on receipt of the advise of the arrival of the vessel. The B/E is noted in Import Department, with corresponding endorsement made against the consignment entry in the IGM along with the date. The B/E will then be presented in the Appraising Department with all the relevant documents like invoice, Bill of Lading, Import license and catalogue literature. The appraising procedure may be of two types. The First Check Procedure-Applicable only when appraisers/assessing group finds it difficult to complete the assessment on the basis of the documents made available. The Scrutinizing Appraiser in the group gives the examination order. The goods are then examined in the docks and the B/E returned to the Scrutinizing Appraiser for completion and license debit. In this case the Customs 'out of charge' is given by the Accounts Department soon after the recovery of duty The Second Check Procedure-Under this 80 to 90 percent of the consignments are cleared. If the documents are adequate for determining the classification, value, ITC license, the form is completed by the Appraiser and then countersigned by The Assistant Collector. It is then forwarded to the License Department for licensing debit and audit. Then it is returned to the importers for payment of duty in the Accounts/Cash department. After recovery of duty the original B/E is retained in the Accounts Department and the duplicate and other copies are returned to the importer for getting the goods examined in the docks.
31 In the docks, the Shed Appraiser/Examiner shall examine the goods and if in order, shall give the out of charge for taking delivery from the custodian of the goods viz. Port Trust, after payment of Port Trust charges. Irrespective of the procedure, examination of cargo for assessment purpose is chiefly the function of the Appraising Department having special staff of examiners in the docks/Air cargo shed. The records of the examination and weighment should be declared, attested and dated at the time of the examination. If the examination spreads over more than one day, the result on each day's progress should be disclosed. These apart some of the Customs house in India have introduced the simplified computer procedure for speedy clearance of consignment through B/E. Custom Authorities The customs administration vests in CBEC for implementing the provisions of the Customs Act.1962. There are two main wings of Customs House. In the 'Appraisement' wing the job of collection of revenue is assigned, while the 'Preventive' one aims at prevention of smuggling. The Customs authority functions under the Ministry of Finance (MoF) with the Central Board of Excise & Customs at the apex. The board is headed by a Chairman and assisted by Members. The Member (Customs) looks after the following matters: Customs Law and its interpretation and application, policy and broad procedures (other than those concerning anti-smuggling). Enforcement of Import Export prohibitions. Foreign Travel and Cases on imports and exports Baggage concessions and rules; Customs Valuations; Tariff classification and Tariff advice; customs procedures, Customs House Agents Valuations; Tariff Classification and Tariff advices; Customs procedures, Customs House Agents Regulations; Warehousing inland Bonded warehouses’ FTZs, EPZs, 100% EOUs etc. Matters relating to Drawback; Customs Co-operations Council. GATT and Supervision and control over Customs ESCAP and international talks and agreements, organizations concerning customs; All other works on Customs not specified elsewhere; Commissionerate of Mumbai, Calcutta, Chennai, Kandla, Bangalore, Cochin, Delhi, Visakhapatnam, Goa and Tuticorin and Customs Divisions of other Central Excise
32 Commissioners, Assistant Commissionerates regarding Customs work handled by them Chemical laboratories and Directorate of Drawback. The Ministry of Finance (MOF) issues Customs Notifications to levy duty on the imported goods. The changes are made each year on the Day of the Fiscal Budget. Customs clearance of the imported goods is done by the customs Authorities functioning under the overall charge of MOF. The hierarchy of the Authorities: Central Board of Excise & Customs (CBEC) in the MoF. Under which operates; Customs Commissionerates of Mumbai, Calcutta, Chennai, Kandla. Banglaore, Cochin, Delhi, Vizag, Goa and Tuticorin. Directorate of Draw Back Field level; Principal Commissioners Customs. Commissioners, Addl. Commissioners, Dy. Commissioners, Asst. Commissioners, Port of clearance. Classification of Customs Tariff The basic legislation is the Indian Customs Act, 1962 read with Customs Tariff Act, 1975. Section 12 of the Customs Act,'62 empowers levy of duties on goods imported into or exported from India. However, the rates at which the different import export duties shall be leviable have been respectively specified in the First and Second Schedule to the Customs Tariff Act, 1975called the import Tariff and Export Tariff respectively. With effect from Feb. 28, 1986, the new tariff import schedule based on international convention of Harmonised Commodity and Coding system, commonly known as Harmonised Coding System came into being. The basic features of the Import Tariff. Nomenclature are outlined below: The headings, the Section and Chapter Notes and the interpretive Rules, Customs duties are levied in three ways-Specific rate-at the rate prescribed per unit of item i.e. weight or number of length; Ad-valorem duty-levied on the value of the item; Specific and advalorem-levied in both ways.
33 (a) Types & Levy of Customs duties Customs duties are levied on the imported goods and in a few cases on export goods at the rates specified in the schedules to the Customs Tariff Act, 1975. The taxable event is import into or export from India. Import duties generally consist of the following : • • • • • • • Basic Duty Additional Customs Duty equal to Central Excise duty leviable on like goods Countervailing Duty Surcharge @ 10% of Basic Duty Special Additional Duty @ 4% to be computed on the aggregate of (i) Additional duty of Customs @ Rs.1/- per litre on imported motor spirit (petrol) Anti dumping duty/safeguard duty for import of specified goods.
produced manufactured in India.
assessable value, (ii) basic duty, (iii) surcharge and (iv) additional duty of Customs and high speed diesel oil.
Basic duty: all goods imported into India are chargeable to duty as prescribed in the 1st Schedule of Customs Tariff Act. This Schedule is amended from time to time of Customs Tariff Act. This duty can be levied either as a percentage of value of goods or at a specified rate. Surcharge: It is levied at the rate of 10% of the basic rate on all commodities except crude oil and petroleum products, GATT-bound items, gold and silver. Additional Duty: Also known as countervailing duty, is levied on the cost of imported goods and is equal to excise duty levied on like goods when manufactured in India. The objective is to ensure that the protection provided by the import duty to domestic industry is not eroded. Special Additional Duty: It is levied at the rate of 4%. Anti-dumping Duty: This is levied on specified goods imported from specified countries to protect indigenous industry from injury resulting from USA, Korea and so on. Customs Duty Assessment: The assessment of goods to duty is done on the basis Whether the goods covered by the B/E are such as are regularly imported, or are required to be tested by the customs house laboratory for fulfillment of license conditions, or The
34 appraisers desires to see the representative sample before completing the bill of entry for the purpose of verification of the value/description, etc. or The required document is not forthcoming. Customs Duty Rates: When the import invoice is in any currency other than Indian rupees, customs fix the exchange rate for conversion into the Indian rupees at a predetermined rate which is published in customs houses on a daily basis. Imports from specified countries enjoy preferential duty. This is generally the result of special status accepted under bilateral trade agreements or otherwise. However, the incidence of customs duties on various goods imported is obtained as follows: Total duty payable = (Landed cost including CIF of the item concerned + Basic customs duty under the Customs Tariff Act + Surcharge thereon + Additional duty + Special Additional duty as per Finance Act). Getting Import License checked-The appraising official checks the license for their description, value, validity period, importers name, etc. It is for the importer to establish that the goods satisfied the description in the license unless he is able to establish the fact he would not be entitled to lawful import thereof. If the appraising official is satisfied that the license is in order, he will send the license with B/E to license section for registration and audit. The department maintains a register for every license accepted and debited showing the last balance on the license. The importer is likely to know the term of license, the type of goods and whether they can be lawfully imported as per the terms of the license. In case there is any error on the part of the appraising authority then possession of even a valid license will not confer any right upon the importers to import such goods again on the basis of similar licenses. Bill of Entry-This is a document on the strength of which clearance of imported goods can be effected. Its form has been standardized by the Central Board of Excise and Customs. All goods discharged from a vessel, from foreign or coastal Ports, are cleared on this prescribed forms presented under the B/E Regulations, 1971.
It should be presented for 'noting' in the import dept. of the customs house after the import General Manifest which gives a detailed description item wise of the goods brought by the concerned vessel is filed by the steamer Agent. Warehousing Of Imported Goods An importer may not like to clear or may have certain problems in clearing the imported goods immediately on payment of duty for home consumption. In that case the importer can deposit the goods in a Public or Private Bonded Warehouse, provided he is satisfied with the arrangement. Thus, the importer can avail the facility of deferring payment of duty on imported goods pending their actual clearance. Towards this the importer should file a set of yellow colored B/E known as warehousing B/E. Self-Assessment Scheme: Applicable to goods without any ITC license/CCP or any restrictions thereof. The objective is to enable importers effecting repetitive imports of some commodities to assess their own B/E and determine their duty liability and pay the duty accordingly. Any importer, including Govt. bodies and PSUs, with proven identity and track record can avail of this. This process does away with the procedure of processing, and the time consumed by the appraising and licensing sections. When the duty is paid, the goods would be cleared in the docks, provided the goods are partly examined and payment of duty verified. Green Channel: This fast-track facility has been introduced to simplify and expedite the process of cargo clearance. Instead of going in for a hundred per cent examination only a part of the cargo is checked. Bulk importers, Govt. Depts. & PSUs, consignment of a single product of well known brand name and importers with identified and unblemished track record are allowed to avail this facility.
36 Facility of import of restricted items by service providers: Service providers shall be entitled to import restricted items up to 10% of the foreign exchange earned by them during the preceding licensing year for import of essential goods related to their line of business, including office and other equipment required for their own professional use. Import Of Samples Bona fide technical and trade samples of items, even those in the restricted in ITC(HS)Classifications of Export and Import items is allowed without a license for a value not more than Rs. 1 lakh (CIF) in one consignment save vegetable seeds, bees and new drugs by any importer. Tea samples not above Rs.2000 (CIF) in one consignment is allowed without a license by any person connected with Tea industry. Prototype Import: This may be allowed on payment of duty without a license to an actual user, industrial engaged in the production of or having industrial license/LoI or research, as the case may be, provided the number of items imported does not exceed 10 in number in a year. 1.6 100% EXPORT ORIENTED UNITS
The Government amended in November 1983 a concession scheme to facilitate the setting up of export-oriented units (EOUs) in order to enable them to meet requirements of foreign demand in terms of pricing, quality, precision etc. EOUs can be set up anywhere in the country and may be engaged in the manufacture and production of software, floriculture, horticulture, agriculture, aquaculture, animal husbandry, pisciculture, poultry and sericulture or other similar activities. A 100 per cent export-oriented unit is an industrial unit offering for export its entire production, excluding the permitted levels of domestic tariff area sales. EOUs may be set up with a foreign equity participation of up to 100 per cent. For setting up a 100 per cent EOU the following conditions are applicable:
37 (i) The entire production and operation of 100 per cent EOUs must be in a customs bonded factory, unless specifically exempt from physical bonding; Goods will be imported into the customs bonded factory. (ii) The unit shall undertake to manufacture in the bonded area and to export its entire production for a period of 10 years ordinarily and 5 years in case of products liable to rapid technological change. Regarding the export obligations of 100 per cent EOUs, the following conditions apply: EOUs need not export their manufactured goods themselves but may use an export house/trading house/star trading house or other EOUs subject to certain conditions; EOUs may execute export orders also through third parties given that the goods will be directly transferred from the customs bonded factory to the port of shipment and all export benefits will be to EOUs only. (iii) an approved EOU will execute a bond/legal undertaking with the Development Commissioner concerned; Failure to fulfil the obligations stipulated in the letter of approval or intent will render the unit liable to penalty. (vi) EOUs have to adhere to the minimum value addition conditions incorporated in the letter of permission/letter of intent/industrial license issued to them; In general, such minimum value addition will be 35 per cent for automatic approvals and 20 per cent for other cases. (v) EOUs have to maintain a proper account of the imports, consumption and utilization of all imported materials and exports made by the unit; These accounts will be submitted periodically to the Development Commissioner. Wherever an existing industrial unit is operating both as a domestic unit as well as an approved 100 per cent EOU, it should have two distinct identities with separate accounts. (vi) EOUs are permited to sell part of the production in the domestic tariff area subject to certainimits
39 (viii) the f.o.b. value of exports of an EOU can be clubbed with the f.o.b. value of exports of its parent company in the domestic tariff area to attain export house, trading house or star trading house status for the parent company; (ix) supplies produced in the domestic tariff area under global tender conditions, against payment in foreign exchange, against advance licenses and other import licenses, and to other EOUs with the permission of the Development Commissioner, will be counted towards the fulfillment of export obligations. On completion of the bonding period, it shall be open to the unit to continue under the scheme or to opt out of the scheme. Debonding will, however, be subject to the industrial policy in force at the time the option is exercised. Where debonding is sought before the stipulated export obligation period of 5 to 10 years, or where EOUs are unable to fulfill their export commitments out of various reasons, it is considered premature debonding. This is subject to payment of all leviable duties without the benefit of depreciation, and also subject to penalties and other conditions as decided by the Board of Approvals for 100 per cent EOUs. Customs duties on capital goods as well as customs dutes on unused raw materials, components, consumables and spares are leviable on debonding after the export period PROCEDURE Units undertaking to export their entire production of goods and services may be set up under the Export Oriented Unit (EOU) Scheme, Export Processing Zone (EPZ) Scheme, Electronic Hardware Technology Park (EHTP) Scheme or Software Technology Park (STP) Scheme. Such units may be engaged in manufacture, production of software, agriculture, aquaculture, animal husbandry, floriculture, horticulture, pisciculture, viticulture, poultry and sericulture. Units engaged in service activities may qalso be considered. Existing DTA units having an export obligation under the EPCG scheme, may also apply for conversion into an EOU. On such a conversion, the export obligation under the EPCG scheme will be met concurrently from the exportsby the unitsas an EOU. The entire operations of the EOU/STP/EHTP will be in a custom bonded factory, unless otherwise specifically exempted from physical bonding.
In accordance with the policy to give a special thrust to export of computer software, such units would be encouraged to be set up under any of the aforementioned export oriented schemes. Software units may undertake exports using data communication links or in the form of physical exports (which may be through courier service also), including export of professional services. Importability of goods An EOU/EPZ/EHTP/STP unit may import free of duty all types of goods, including capital goods, required by it for manufacture, production , processing, or in connection therewith, provided they are not prohibited items in the Negative List of Imports. However, import of Basmati paddy/brown rice shall be prohibited. The units shall also be permitted to import capital goods on loan from clients for specified periods for executing specified projects. STP/EHTP/EPZ may import free of duty all types of goods for creating a central facility for use by software development units in STP/EHTP/EPZ. An EOU engaged in agriculture, animal husbandry, floriculture, horticulture, pisciculture, viticulture, poultry or sericulture may import free of duty only such goods as are permitted to be imported duty free under a Customs Notification issued in this behalf. Second hand Capital goods All second hand goods, other than capital goods, shall be restricted for imports and may be imported only in accordance with a Public Notice or a license issued in this behalf. Leasing of Capital goods An EOU/EPZ/EHTP/STP unit may, on the basis of a firm contract between the parties, source the capital goods from a domestic/foreign leasing company. In such a case, the EOU/EPZ/EHTP/STP unit and the domestic/foreign leasing company shall jointly file the import documents to enable import of the capital goods free of duty
41 Net Foreign Exchange Earning as a percentage of exports (NFEP) and minimum export performance The Unit shall be a net foreign exchange earner. The minimum level of foreign exchange earning as a percentage of exports(NFEP) as defined below and the minimum export performance shall be as specified in Appendix 1 of the Policy. Items of manufacture for export specified in the Letter of Permission/Letter of Intent alone shall be taken into account for calculation of net foreign exchange earning as a percentage of exports and export performance. However, for STP units export obligation norms alone, as notified, would apply. Notwithstanding the above, electronic hardware units shall be allowed to be set up without stipulation of a minimum net foreign exchange earning as a percentage of exports. Legal Undertaking The unit shall execute a legal undertaking with the Development Commissioner concerned and in the event of failure to fulfil the obligations, as stipulated in Appendix I of the Policy, it would be liable to penalty in terms of the legal undertaking and/or under any other law for the time being in force. Automatic Approvals Project applications for EOU/EPZ units satisfying the conditions mentioned in the appropriate press note of the Ministry of Industry may be given automatic approval within fifteen days by the concerned Development Commissioner of the EPZ. Other cases In other cases, approval may be granted by the Board(s) of Approval (BOA) set up for this purpose or Secretariat for Industrial Assistance , as the case may be.
42 1.7 • • • • • • • • FACTORS INFLUENCING PAYABLES OR PAYMENT LAGS The bills may not be properly accounted. Changes in tax amendment. Changes or variation in price level. When bills are over- paid (i.e) double payment. Transport Risk - the risk of loss of, or damage to, the goods whilst in transit from the Seller to the Buyer. Quality Risk - the risk the goods are not in accordance with samples, or quality is not as specified. Delivery Risk - merchandise not arriving within the time required. Exchange Risk -a change in the final amount paid in Australian Dollars due to exchange rate movements.
CHAPTER - II REVIEW OF LITERATURE
Review of Literature is the abstract from published or unpublished Bibliographies, Academic journals, Conference proceedings, Government reports, Books, Articles, etc., 2.1 MANAGEMENT OF ACCOUNTS PAYABLE Accounts payable includes trade credit and accrued expenses which together provide finance to the operations of a ongoing basis. Managing accounts payables Accounts payable originates from the production budget of an enterprise but enters into the books of accounts when material are delivered and taken to stores. While timing of purchases or placing an order is the domain of materials procurement manager, he will be able to increase the value to the firm if he works in close collaboration with the finance manager. The quantity discount for large purchases acts as a powerful incentive for a purchase manager, even to the point of allurement, to place large orders. While the goal of accounts payable management is to provide as much spontaneous financing as possible at zero cost, a firm has to operate within a given terms of purchase (which is mostly dependent upon market practice). This determines the cost to the firm of financing obtained from the suppliers. Terms of purchase Terms of purchase generally consists of a credit period and a cash discount for early payment. If the term is quoted as 2/10 net 30, it means that a 2 percent discount on the billed amount will be payable if paid with ten days; otherwise normal credit period of 30 days will be available. There may or may not be any penal clause attached to the terms. Penalty comes in the form of upfront payment on the bill amount, if it is not paid by the due date.
44 Stretching Accounts Payable Cost-benefit analysis of an accounts payable policy will invariably rest on minimizing the net present value (NPV) of disbursement. The model will obviously include cash discount as a benefit – variable. But minimisation of NPV of an accounts payable disbursement provides an incentive to the finance manager to stretch the payment beyond the due date, i.e. to increase the float. Longer the time for payment, lower is the net present value of such payment and higher the value of the firm. A responsible company should : Have a clear, consistent policy that it pays bills in accordance with the contract. Ensure that the finance and purchasing departments are both aware of this policy and adhere to it. Agree payment terms at the outset of a deal and stick to them. Not extend or alter payment terms without prior agreement. Provide suppliers with clear guidance on payment procedures. Ensure that there is a system for dealing quickly with complaints and disputes and advise suppliers without delay when invoices or parts of invoices are contested. 2.2 NINE STRATERGIES FOR WRITING ACCOUNTS PAYABLE PROCEDURE WHICH IS GIVEN BY CHRIS ANDERSON Accounts payable focus is on increasing the size of the asset, while maintaining a solid credit rating. Strategies developed by CHRIS ANDERSON focused on reducing payables expenses and increase the efficiency of payables by implementing new design or procedure • • • • • • • • • Eliminate papers Integrate ERP Systems Increase Payment Terms. Take Payment Discounts. Review Purchases Communicate with Suppliers Eliminate Disputes. Reduce Errors Train personnel
45 2.3 TECHNIQUES FOR EFFECTIVE PAYABLES MANAGEMENT WHICH IS GIVEN BY MARCY FISHER Payables is a balance sheet item which equals the sum of all money owed by a company and the due within one year, also called current liabilities or current debt 1. Not all bills should be paid on time. The firm goal is to hold on cash. 2. Maintain alternative vendor sources where practical. 3. Use available payment deferrals and negotiate for lower prices and great discount 4. Try to make credit period shorter 2.4 TIPS FOR USING CASH WISELY WHICH IS GIVEN BY H.PAUL PHILIP Payables management : The administration of a company's outstanding debts, or liabilities, to vendors for purchases of goods and services made on credit • • • • • Take full advantage of creditor payment terms. If a payment is due in 30 days, don't pay it in 15 days. Use electronic funds transfer to make payments on the last day they are due Communicate with your suppliers so they know your financial situation. If you ever need to delay a payment, you will need their trust and understanding Carefully consider vendors' offers of discounts for earlier payments Do not always focus on the lowest price when choosing suppliers. Sometimes more flexible payment terms can improve your cash flow more than a bargainbasement price 2.5 MANAGING ACCOUNTS PAYABLE WHICH IS GIVEN BY JOHN WILSEY, NEW YORK 1991 The main purpose of accounts payables department is to process and account for invoices and cash disbursement. Responsibilities for accounts payable management include: • • Monitoring routine system processes such as voucher creation and cash disbursements Ensuring the proper retention of reports, documents, and other records.
46 • • • • • Maintaining internal controls. Hiring and managing staff employees. Coordinating activities with related departments such as internal audit, purchasing, general accounting, and treasury. Reporting relevant matters to executive financial management. Executing their directives with respect to the above responsibilities.
CHAPTER – III OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
• • • • • The main objective is to know the efficiency of payables management of an organization. To understand and payable processing procedure of the company and supplier relationship. To understand cash management in payables. To analyse factors influencing payables. To identify the causes for delays in payment process.
CHAPTER – IV RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
4.1 COLLECTION OF DATA
Primary data The primary data are those, which are collected afresh and for the first time, and thus happen to be original in character .The primary data are to be originally collected. Sources : Some type of information were gathered through oral conversation with Mr. Ramasubramanian (Finance Executive). Secondary Data Secondary data are those which have already been collected by someone else and which have already been passed through the statistical process. Sources : Collected from Balance Sheet, Books, Journals, Internet, and Articles. 4.2 Tools used • • 4.3 Payable turnover ratio Cash flow analysis Period of study : The analysis is based on financial statement covering a
period of (2001 – 2002 to 2005 – 2006 at Whirlpool of India Ltd.).
CHAPTER - V DATA ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION
5.1 PAYABLES MANAGEMENT The administration of a company’s outstanding debts or liabilities, to vendor for purchase goods and services made on credit. Techniques 1. 2. 5.1.1 Payables turnover ratio. Average number of days of payables outstanding.
Payables turnover ratio. The payables turnover ratio measures the umber of times
your business recycles, or "turns over" its payables in a year. A higher ratio suggests you pay your accounts payable sooner. Too high of a ratio may suggest you pay "too soon." To calculate payables turnover, divide purchases by average accounts payable. If vendors did not offer discounts or penalize you in any way, you would naturally stretch out payments, which lowers your payables turnover ratio. For business-relationship reasons (as well as the possibility of late fees), however, it's important to evaluate the tradeoff in paying late with the risk of alienating your vendors. 5.1.2. Average number of days of payables outstanding. Average number of days of payables outstanding (days payable) measures the number of days it takes, on average, to pay the balance of your accounts payable. This ratio is simply the inverse of the payables turnover ratio. To calculate days payable, divide the number of days in a year (365) by the payables turnover ratio.
PAYABLES TURNOVER RATIO = NET CREDIT PURCHASES AVERAGE CREDITORS
TABLE NO. 5.1
PAYABLE TURNOVER RATIO
YEAR 2001-2002 2002-2004 2004-2005 2005-2006
NET CREDIT PURCHASE (Rs.) 61063.14 65930.64 51969.24 69239.07
AVERAGE CREDITORS (Rs.) 26489.57 26694.79 25446.35 27331.68
RATIO IN TIMES 2.31 times 2.46 times 2.04 times 2.53 times
51 DEBT PAYMENT PERIOD ENJOYED RATIO = MONTHS OR DAYS IN A YEAR PAYABLES TURNOVER TABLE NO : 5.2 DEBT PAYMENT PERIOD ENJOYED RATIO YEAR DAYS IN A YEAR 2001-2002 2002-2004 2004-2005 2005-2006 365 365 365 365 CREDITOR/PAYABLES TUROVER RATIO 2.31 times 2.46times 2.05times 2.53times NO. OF DAYS 158days 148days 179days 145days
Average number of days payables outstanding is 158 days (158+148+179+145/4). Interpretation : It is found that the credit period allowed to the company is 90 days. The Average Debit payment period enjoyed by the company is 158 days. Which implies that the company is efficiently using its credit period. CHART NO : 5.2 DEBT PAYMENT PERIOD
DEBT PAYMENT PERIOD
600 500 400 300 200 100 0 20012002 20022004 20042005 20052006
NO OF DA PAY RATI DAYS
52 5.2 5.2.1 CASH FLOW ANALYSIS MANAGING CASH FLOW IN PAYABLES A healthy cash flow is an essential part of any successful business. Some business people claim that a healthy cash flow is even more important than y business's ability to deliver its goods or services! That may be placing a bit too much importance on your cash flow, but consider this, if an organization fail to satisfy a customer and lose that customer's business, it can always work harder to please the next customer. But if it fails to have enough cash to pay your suppliers, creditors, or your employees, then it is out of business! No doubt about it, proper management of your cash flow is a very important step in making your business successful. 5.2.2 UNDERSTANDING HOW CASH FLOW WORKS
In its simplest form, cash flow is the movement of money in and out of the business. It could be described as the process in which the business uses cash to generate goods or services for the sale to the customers, collects the cash from the sales, and then completes this cycle all over again. Inflows : Inflows are the movement of money into the cash flow. Inflows are most likely from the sale of your goods or services to the customers. If you extend credit to the customers and allow them to charge the sale of the goods or services to their account, then an inflow occurs as you collect on the customers' accounts. The proceeds from a bank loan is also a cash inflow. Outflows: Outflows are the movement of money out of the business. Outflows are generally the result of paying expenses. If the business involves reselling goods, then your largest outflow is most likely to be for the purchase of retail inventory. A manufacturing business's largest outflows will mostly likely be for the purchases of raw materials and other components needed for the manufacturing of the final product. Purchasing fixed assets, paying back loans, and paying accounts payables are also cash outflows.
CASH FLOW STATEMENT (OPERATIONS ACTIVITIES) FOR THE YEAR ENDED DECEMBER 2001 (RS IN LACS)
Net profit before Tax & Extraordinary adjustment for non cash items Add : Depreciation Miscellaneous expenditure written off Prov for bad & Doubtful debts advances Prov. for diminution in value of investment Foreign Exchange fluctuations Interest & Finance charges Less : Non-operating income Profit on sale of fixed asset Profit on redemption of unit Interest income Dividend Income Fund from operations Add : Decrease in current assets Bills receivables Inventories Increase in current liabilities Payables Cash generated from operation Direct Taxes Cash used before extra ordinary items Payment relating to SAP Cash from operations 3910.48 453.84 361.05 36.66 47.90 4726.11 139.65 0.55 77.86 4.92
786.03 1785.79 6653.01 4081.19 17384.78 7.55 17392.33 (918.81) 16473.52
CASH FLOW STATEMENT (OPERATIONS ACTIVITIES) FOR THE YEAR ENDED DECEMBER 2002 (RS IN LACS)
Net profit before Tax & Extraordinary adjustment for non cash items Add : Depreciation Miscellaneous expenditure written off Prov for bad & Doubtful debts advances Prov. for diminution in value of investment Foreign Exchange fluctuations Interest & Finance charges Loss on sale of fixed asset Less : Non-operating income Interest income Dividend Income Fund from operations Add : Decrease in current assets Increase in current liabilities Payables Less : Increase in current asset Receivables Inventories Cash generated from operation Direct taxes Cash used before extra ordinary items Payment relating to SAP Cash from operations 12348.73 2065.84 4118.69 634.28 374.75 8.18 378.57 3511.28 388.33 397.05 0.41 -
(397.46) 9869.38 9693.58 19562.96
14414.57 5148.39 95.00 5243.39 (3925.70) 1317.69
CASH FLOW STATEMENT (OPERATIONS ACTIVITIES) FOR THE YEAR ENDED DECEMBER 2004 (RS IN LACS)
Net loss before Tax & Extraordinary adjustment for non cash items Add : Depreciation Miscellaneous expenditure written off 4596.89 1535.35
55 Prov for bad & Doubtful debts advances Interest & Finance charges Loss on sale of fixed asset Less : Non-operating income Interest income Dividend Income Profit on redemption of units Provision for diminution in value of investment Foreign exchange fluctuation gain Fund from operations Add : Decrease in current assets Receivables Inventories Less : Decrease in current liabilities Payables Cash generated from operation Add : Direct taxes Cash used before extra ordinary items Payment relating to SAP Cash from operations (8138.45) (369.21) 165.25 (203.96) (52.42) (256.38) 198.82 3773.55 292.18 76.54 0.28 10.15 29.15 150.85
1695.86 957.69 2653.55 7769.24
CASH FLOW STATEMENT (OPERATIONS ACTIVITIES) FOR THE YEAR ENDED DECEMBER 2005 (RS IN LACS)
Net loss before Tax & Extraordinary adjustment for non cash items Add : Depreciation Miscellaneous expenditure written off Prov for bad & Doubtful debts advances Interest & Finance charges Loss on sale of fixed asset Less : Non-operating income Interest income Dividend Income Profit on redemption of units Provision for diminution in value of investment Foreign exchange fluctuation gain Fund lost in operations Less : Increase in current asset 3216.88 1232.54 461.68 2557.90 89.44 31.50 0.35 11.00 0.01 6.51
56 Bills receivable Inventories Decrease in current liabilities Payables Cash generated from operation Add : Direct taxes Cash used before extra ordinary items Payment relating to SAP Cash from operations (4348.31) (13701.49) 18650.75 (203.96) 65.57 (18495.18) 5386.46 6396.35
CASH FLOW STATEMENT (OPERATIONS ACTIVITIES) FOR THE YEAR ENDED DECEMBER 2006 (RS IN LACS)
Net loss before Tax & Extraordinary adjustment for non cash items Add : Depreciation Miscellaneous expenditure written off Prov for bad & Doubtful debts advances Interest & Finance charges Loss on sale of fixed asset Foreign exchange fluctuation loss Less : Non-operating income Interest income Fund from operations Add : Decrease in current asset Receivables Inventories Decrease and current liabilities Payables Less : Direct Taxes Payment relating to VRS Cash from operations 331.66 4013.25 2455.07 1600.33 3655.24 1366.24 579.87 1710.03 41.99 88.87
7442.23 2109.16 (15.75) 2093.41
4055.40 6148.81 2375.75 3773.06 4344.91 8117.97
From the above tables ,the Fund from operations calculated shows positive balance for all the years except for the year 2005. Though it is in positive it shows a declining balance for the remaining years (2003-2006). From the analysis it is inferred that though fund are invested in a satisfactory manner, its declining balance will affect the company’s growth in future The table shows Cash from operations for the first two years 2001 and 2002. This indicates that the company is self sufficient in funding its daily operations, whereas for the remaining three years 2003-2006, the tables shows cash lost in operations. This indicates company has spent more on inventories and there is increased receivable, implying that the major portion of cash is locked in the form of inventories and receivables, which in turn will affect the working capital of the firm. From the above analysis it is understood that the company’s payables management is not satisfactory
CHAPTER – VI FINDINGS OF THE STUDY
Credit period allowed to the company for the payment of debt is 90 days and the average payment period enjoyed by the company is 158 days which is satisfactory. The declining fund from operations except for the year 2005 indicates that the fund generated from operations is not satisfactory. In the first two years (2001-2002) cash from operations indicates that the company was self-sufficient in funding its daily operations. In the forthcoming year (2004-2006) there is cash lost in operations. It is understood that the company is highly relying on the outsider’s funds to manage its payables and other daily activities. Thus it implies cash management of the organisation is not satisfactory. It is understood from the study as the company’s cash management is not satisfactory the management is not able to make prompt payment to its suppliers which may affect their cordial relationship in the future. Also it is understood that the reason for cash loss is due to receivables, inventories and payment of interest. This in turn affect the payables. In the year 2002 and 2005, the cash is locked in the form of increased receivables and inventories which in turns affect the payables. It is found lag in payments may be due to changes in tax amendment and avriation in price levels.
CHAPTER-VII 7.1 SUGGESTIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS
Payables though managed efficiently in the company, it is important to evaluate the trade-off paying late with the risk of alienating vendors Funds should be properly invested, so that the working capital of the company improves to show a positive fund from operations In the year 2002 and 2005 it is found that receivables has increased ,which means cash is due from customers. The company can sell the receivables to a factor for instant cash
From the critical analysis throughout the study, it is evident that the overall payables position of the company with regards to cash management is not satisfactory But still it is seen that the organization is more efficiently using its credit period, the longer the company stretching out the payments. Though it is advantageous to the company it is important to maintain smooth relationship with the vendors. Payables management is affected by increased cash flows in inventories and receivables, so the company is required to plan and control these activities in such a way that there is positive cash flow which would help the management to pay its suppliers promptly i.e. on time It is seen that the longer the company’s stretches out its payment the more efficient is organization in using the credit facilities given by the suppliers.
CHAPTER-VIII 8.1 LIMITATIONS
The non uniformity in the accounting period of the years under the study made it difficult to interpret the data concisely. Difficulty of getting access to some important data due to its sensitivity and secretive nature. It tool time to collect information about payables.
SCOPE FOR FURTHER STUDY
It helps the management to know their financial strength and weaknesses. It helps the potential lenders or creditors who want a clear picture of the company’s ability to repay. It helps the investor who need to judge whether the company is financially sound. The project work helped to put the theoretical knowledge gained in financial accounting and financial management help to widen the knowledge about payables.
• KHAN M.Y. AND P.K.JAIN, Financial Management [Fourth Edition-2006] TATA MCGRAW-HILL, Publishing Company Limited, New Delhi • I M PANDEY, Financial Management, VIKAS Publishing House Pvt.Ltd.
WEBSITES o www.encyclopedia.com o www.investorpedia.com o www.commerce.nic.in o www.cbec.gov.in
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