Central Asia

Central Asia is a region of Asia from the Caspian Sea in the west, China in the east, Afghanistan in the south, and Russia in the north. It is also sometimes known as Middle Asia or Inner Asia, and is within the scope of the wider Eurasian continent. Various definitions of its exact composition exist and no one definition is universally accepted. Despite this uncertainty in defining borders, it does have some important overall characteristics. For one, Central Asia has historically been closely tied to its nomadic peoples and the Silk Road. As a result it has acted as a crossroads for the movement of people, goods, and ideas between Europe, West Asia, South Asia, and East Asia. In modern context, all definitions of Central Asia consensually include the five former Soviet republics of Kazakhstan (pop. 16.0 million), Kyrgyzstan (5.5 million), Tajikistan (7.3 million), Turkmenistan (5.1 million), and Uzbekistan (27.6 million) for a total population of 61.5 million as of 2009. Other areas often included are the Republic of Mongolia, Afghanistan, northern and western Pakistan, north-eastern Iran, Jammu and Kashmir, and western portions of the People's Republic of China including Xinjiang, Tibet, Qinghai, Gansu, western Sichuan, northwestern Yunnan and Inner Mongolia, as well as southern parts of Siberia, Russia. During pre-Islamic and early Islamic times, Central Asia was a predominantely Iranian region that included sedentary Sogdians, Chorasmians and seminomadic Scythians, Alans. The ancient sedentary population played an important role in the history of Central Asia. After expansion by Turkic peoples, Central Asia became also the homeland for many Turkic peoples, including the Uzbeks, Kazakhs, Kyrgyz, and Uyghurs, and Central Asia is sometimes referred to as Turkestan.

the Soviet state never included Kazakhstan in Muslim Central Asia.300 square kilometers which includes some of the most sparsely populated regions in the world. There were some 10.6 million Russians living in Central Asia in 1992. List of countries of Central Asia 1.5 million. From its beginning in 1917. Uzbekistan . Kyrgyzstan. Uzbekistan. but there has been a large-scale exodus of Russians from Tajikistan and Uzbekistan Because of fears of ethnic violence and Islamic fundamentalism. Its population of only 51 million people includes more than 100 different ethnic groups. and Uzbeks from substantial minorities in all other four republics. Central Asia covers an area of 3. The largest ethnic group is the Uzbeks.Today Central Asia comprises five independent republics. Kazakhstan 2. Turkmenistan 5. Today. Uzbekistan has a population of 20. Kazakhstan. however.994. Turkmenistan and Tajikistan. from Germans and Austrians to Tibetans and Koreans. preferring to give it a non-Asian identity by linking it closely to Russia and Siberia. Tajikistan 4. Kyrgyzstan 3. the Kazakhs themselves and the world at large believe they are very much part of the region.

Turkmenistan.300 km² is greater than Western Europe. while Russian is also officially used as an "equal" language (to Kazakh) in Kazakhstan's institutions.727. The Kazakh language is the state language. It .2% (2009 est. Uzbekistan.) country comparison to the world: 56 $180.3 billion (2009 est. and many different beliefs are represented in the country. and also borders on a significant part of the Caspian Sea.) $174.8% services: 51. Islam is the primary religion. It possesses enormous fossil fuel reserves as well as minerals and metals. It is also ranked the world's largest landlocked country. its territory of 2. Kazakhstan allows freedom of religion. It is neighbored clockwise from the north by Russia.composition by sector: • • • agriculture: 6% industry: 42.Kazakhstan-Astana (Capital) Kazakhstan officially the Republic of Kazakhstan. to Astana. GDP (purchasing power parity): • • • • • $182. It is located in Eurasia and ranked as the ninth largest country in the world. Kyrgyzstan. Kazakhstan's largest city.5 billion (2008 est. is one of the six independent Turkic states. The capital was moved in 1997 from Almaty.) 1 INR = 3.7 billion (2007 est. China.2138 KZT Kazakhstan Tenge GDP .) Economy: • The economy of Kazakhstan is the largest economy in Central Asia.

both species grow wild there. GDP has been among the highest in the world. metals and grain. up from 1.6% in 2000. GDP grew 9.7% of GDP in 1999 to 0. Kazakhstan's economy grew sharply. .1% surplus in 2000. and grew by 10. with the budget moving from a cash deficit of 3. Since 2001. with the steepest annual decline occurring in 1994. as well as neighboring Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS) nations have helped to propel this amazing growth.7% in 1999. The increased economic growth also led to a turnaround in government finances.6%. In 1995-97 the pace of the government program of economic reform and privatization quickened. However since 2000. agricultural machinery. In 2006. • Business with booming Russia and China. • The mountains in the south are important for apples and walnuts. which took over all launches to the International Space Station from the Space Shuttle.also has considerable agricultural potential with its vast steppe lands accommodating both livestock and grain production. • The breakup of the USSR and the collapse of demand for Kazakhstan's traditional heavy industry products have resulted in a sharp contraction of the economy since 1991. extremely high GDP growth had been sustained. • Current GDP per capita shrank by 26% in the Nineties. Kazakhstan's industrial sector rests on the extraction and processing of these natural resources and also on a relatively large machine building sector specializing in construction equipment. as well as developed space infrastructure. and some military items. resulting in a substantial shifting of assets into the private sector. tractors. aided by increased prices on world markets for Kazakhstan's leading exports--oil.

up to date technology and advanced qualifications of personnel to match. Thus. Using the Almaty airport for the re-fueling of Boeing 747 aircrafts allows for economic benefits to the airlines as the aircrafts' capacity may be increased. Poorvi Marg Vasant Vihar New Delhi-110057 Telephone: +91-11-41669464 . The high status of the leading airport of the Republic makes it necessary to provide services that are continually improved and modern. The Great Silk Road from China to other parts of the globe passes through our city since the earliest times. Kazakhstan) has an advantageous geographical location on the route from South-Eastern Asia to Europe and back. is one of the priority directions in the Almaty airport’s management action plan. Currently the Almaty International Airport personnel works hard to improve the facilities making able the technical landing of and cargo transportations with such large aircrafts as Boeing 747.Almaty International Airport The Almaty International Airport (Almaty. Embassy of the Republic of Kazakhstan 61. 41669465 Fax: +91-11-41669467 .

Batken 3. Mongolia. landlocked and mountainous.3 billion (2009 est. Turkmenistan.Chuy 4. Located in Central Asia.Issyk-Kul 9. "Kyrgyz".Naryn 6.) country comparison to the world: 56 . a legendary hero who united forty regional clans against the Uyghers. is believed to have been derived from the Turkic word for "forty". At the time. Kyrgyzstan is divided into seven provinces administered by appointed governors. in the early 9th century AD. Uzbekistan to the west. and independent cities.City of Bishkek 2.City of Osh GDP (purchasing power parity): • • $182. Its capital and largest city is Bishkek. and parts of Russia and China. Bishkek. Azerbaijan. are as follows: 1. the Uyghers dominated much of Central Asia (including Kyrgyzstan). The capital.Osh 7. Kyrgyzstan is bordered by Kazakhstan to the north. Tajikistan to the southwest and People's Republic of China to the east.Talas 8. The provinces.Kyrgyzstan-Bishkek (Capital) Kyrgyzstan officially the Kyrgyz Republic is one of the six independent Turkic states together with Turkey. in reference to the forty clans of Manas. and the second large city Osh are administratively independent cities (shaar) with a status equal to a province. Uzbekhistan and Kazakhstan.Jalal-Abad 5.

light industry (cotton and wool processing. other deposits of iron. fruits (apples. grapes). cattle. mining. furniture. food processing). gold.• • • • $180.1%.) note: data are in 2009 US dollars 1 INR = 1. 2006. cotton. slate). molybdenum.6 billion: cotton. locally exploitable coal. $3. meat. energy. 2003. and antimony. apricots. tobacco. $1. Inflation rate at end of 2008: 24. textiles.4%. GDP per capita (2008 est. GDP growth rate in 2008: 7. vegetables (potatoes. glass. Partners--Switzerland . oil.75 billion.) Economy • • • • • • GDP: 2008 (est. beans).composition by sector: • • • agriculture: 6% industry: 42. goats.8% services: 51. $4. • Trade: Exports (2008)--$1. shoes. • Agriculture: Products--tobacco. bauxite. significant deposits of gold and rare earth metals. transformers). hydropower. berries. tin. sheep.). mercury.8 billion. peaches. wool.2% (2009 est. shoes. mercury.6%. • Industry: Types--small machinery (electric motors.5 billion (2008 est. 2007.) $174.7 billion (2007 est.6 billion. and natural gas. wool. uranium. copper. Unemployment rate (as of the end of 2008): 11. $2. wheat.0151 KGS Kyrgyzstan Som GDP . construction materials (cement.9 billion. sugar beets. machinery.): $870. Natural resources: Abundant hydropower.

625. Fog can cause heavy delays especially for long haul flights.0%.[1] It is also the site of the Transit Center at Manas. Russia 19. machinery and equipment. ICAO: UAFM) is the main international airport in Kyrgyzstan located 25 km (16 mi) north-northwest of the capital Bishkek. Imports--$3. of which $2.16 billion. Kazakhstan 11. a US Air Force base supporting Operation Enduring Freedom and the International Security Assistance Force in Afghanistan.3%. The airport is operational 24 hours and its ILS system is ICAO CAT 2. U. • Total external debt mid-2008 was $3.27. Afghanistan 2. foodstuffs.S. Anand Niketan New Delhi-110021 Telephone: +91-11-2410 8008 . In 2007.3%. Uzbekistan 14.19 billion was public debt.3 billion: oil and gas. 2688 1903 Fax: +91-11-2410 8009 .2%. Partners--Russia 44.3%. formerly known as Manas Air Base.6%. France 6. China 14.4%. Uzbekistan 4.7%.4%.8%. Manas International Airport Manas International Airport (IATA: FRU.500 passengers passed through the airport. 3.172 tonnes of cargo were also processed in 2007. Embassy of the Kyrgyz Republic C 93. Kazakhstan 11.3%. an increase of 21% over the previous year. 23.

Because of a lack of employment opportunities in Tajikistan. separated by the narrow Wakhan Corridor. Mountains cover over 90% of this Central Asian republic. Uzbekistan to the west. primarily in Russia and Kazakhstan. but estimated at around 1 million. who share language. • Mineral resources include silver. newly established political stability and foreign aid have allowed the country's economy to grow. culture and history with Afghanistan and Iran.Tajikistan-Dushanbe (Capital) Tajikistan is a mountainous landlocked country in Central Asia. and tungsten. uranium. Tajikistan also lies adjacent to Pakistan and the Gilgit-Baltistan region. Less than 7% of the land area is arable. hydropower facilities. After independence. Tajikistan became a constituent republic of the Soviet Union in the 20th century. Trade in commodities such as cotton and aluminium has contributed greatly to this steady improvement. Cotton is the most important crop. nearly half of the labor force works abroad. and small . and People's Republic of China to the east. Once part of the Samanid Empire. supporting families in Tajikistan through remittances. Kyrgyzstan to the north. Most of Tajikistan's population belongs to the Persian-speaking Tajik ethnic group. • The exact number of labor migrants is unknown. Economy • Tajikistan has one of the lowest per capita GDPs among the 15 former Soviet republics. gold. but this sector is burdened with debt and obsolete infrastructure. Tajikistan suffered from a devastating civil war which lasted from 1992 to 1997. Industry consists only of a large aluminum plant. Afghanistan borders it to the south. known as the Tajik Soviet Socialist Republic (Tajik SSR). Since the end of the war.

the US funded a $36 million bridge which opened in August 2007 and links Tajikistan and Afghanistan. GDP (purchasing power parity): • • • $13.6% in 2004. • While Tajikistan has experienced steady economic growth since 1997. A debt restructuring agreement was reached with Russia in December 2002. • Tajikistan has also received substantial infrastructure development loans from the Chinese government to improve roads and an electricity transmission network.8 billion (2009 est. The civil war (1992-97) severely damaged the already weak economic infrastructure and caused a sharp decline in industrial and agricultural production. and the external debt burden. including a $250 million write-off of Tajikistan's $300 million debt. due to the global economic downturn.4% as a result of the world recession. • Tajikistan's economic situation remains fragile due to uneven implementation of structural reforms.finished in 2009 with Russian investment .34 billion (2008 est. In 2009 GDP growth dropped to 3. Economic growth reached 10.) . To help increase north-south trade. more than half of the population continues to live in poverty. as the effects of higher oil prices and then the international financial crisis began to register .obsolete factories mostly in light industry and food processing. If finished according to Tajik plans.) country comparison to the world: 137 $13. but dropped below 8% in 2005-08. • Completion of the Sangtuda I hydropower dam . Rogun will be the world's tallest dam.and the Sangtuda II and Rogun dams will add substantially to electricity output. seasonal power shortages. weak governance.mainly in the form of lower prices for key export commodities and lower remittances from Tajiks working abroad. corruption.

It is based in Dushanbe Airport.0955 TJS Tajikistan Somoni GDP .2615 4282 Fax: +91-11. Vasant Vihar New Delhi-110057 Telephone: +91-11.) note: data are in 2009 US dollars 1 INR = 0. and retains a secondary focus point at Khujand's Khudzhand Airport Embassy of Tajikistan D-1/13.• • • $12.7% (2009 est.37 billion (2007 est.2615 4282 .2% services: 57.) Tajik Air Tajik Air (Tajikistan Airlines) is the national airline of the former Soviet republic of Tajikistan.1% industry: 22.composition by sector: • • • agriculture: 20.

Uzbekistan to the east and northeast. Until 1991. It possesses the world's fourth largest reserves of natural gas resources. Turkmenistan is one of the six independent Turkic states. Turkmenistan's GDP growth rate of 6.58 billion (2009 est. it was a constituent republic of the Soviet Union.65 billion (2008 est. this system was considered not to meet even the most basic standards of democracy. Iran to the south and southwest. 2007. also known as Turkmenia (Russian: Туркмения) is one of the Turkic states in Central Asia.) . Although it is wealthy in natural resources in certain areas. most of the country is covered by the Karakum (Black Sand) Desert.) $28. but these figures are subject to wide margins of error.82 billion (2007 est. GDP (purchasing power parity): • • • • $33. It is bordered by Afghanistan to the southeast.1% in 2009 ranks 16th in the world. Gurbanguly Berdimuhamedow was elected the new president on February 11. Until recently the Turkmen government was a single-party system.Turkmenistan-Ashgabat (Capital) The Republic of Turkmenistan[citation needed] (Turkmen: Türkmenistan Respublikasy[citation needed]). 2006.[5] Turkmenistan was ruled by President for Life Saparmurat Niyazov (called "Türkmenbaşy" — "leader of the Turkmens") until his sudden death on December 21. Kazakhstan to the north and northwest and the Caspian Sea to the west. the Turkmen Soviet Socialist Republic (Turkmen SSR).) country comparison to the world: 101 $31.

• In addition. In particular.• • note: data are in 2009 US dollars 1 INR= 308 TMM Turkmenistan Manat GDP . the global recession and a contract dispute with Russia that had virtually stopped exports via this major export route for about 9 months • slowed Turkmenistan's economy in 2009.5% services: 59. President BERDIMUHAMEDOW unified the country's dual currency exchange rate. and initiated development of a special tourism zone on the Caspian Sea.4% (2009 est. With an authoritarian ex-Communist regime in power and a tribally based social structure.1% industry: 30.composition by sector: • • • agriculture: 10. Turkmenistan's economic statistics were state secrets. One-half of its irrigated land is planted in cotton. In the past. ordered the redenomination of the manat. the rate of GDP growth is uncertain. • Turkmenistan has taken a cautious approach to economic reform. reduced state subsidies for gasoline. Privatization goals remain limited.) Economy • Turkmenistan is largely a desert country with intensive agriculture in irrigated oases and sizeable gas and oil resources. formerly it was the world's 10th-largest producer. The new government has established a State Agency for Statistics. hoping to use gas and cotton sales to sustain its inefficient economy. but GDP numbers and other figures are subject to wide margins of error. Poor harvests in recent years have led to an almost 50% decline in cotton exports. . Since his election.

Saparmyrat Niyazov. The airport. Embassy of Turkmenistan C-11.• Although foreign investment is encouraged. New Delhi-110021 Telephone: +91-11. is one of two international airports in Turkmenistan.000-foot (3. Airports: Ashgabat Airport also known as Saparmurat Turkmenbashy International Airport.2467 6527 . opened in 1994 and was named after the country's first president. with its air traffic control tower and a 12.2467 6526 Fax: +91-11. It is located approximately 10 km (6 mi) northwest of the capital Ashgabat (Ashkhabad). West End Colony.700 m)-long precision-approach runway (12L-30R). numerous bureaucratic obstacles impede international business activity.

Uzbekistan's economy relies mainly on commodity production. potassium. it has . Once part of the Persian Samanid and later Timurid empires. Uzbekistan continues to maintain rigid economic controls. provided about 40% of foreign exchange earnings in 2009.25 per day. is one of the six independent Turkic states. gold. It is a doubly landlocked country in Central Asia. formerly part of the Soviet Union. Economy • Uzbekistan is a dry. • Other major export earners include gold and cotton. Kyrgyzstan and Tajikistan to the east. Once part of the Persian Samanid and later Timurid empires. one of the family of Turkic languages. and natural gas. In Uzbekistan about 45% of the population live on less than US$1. Uzbekistan is now the world's second-largest cotton exporter and fifth largest producer. The policy of gradual. Uzbekistan's domestic policies on human rights and individual freedoms are often criticised by international organizations. including cotton. It shares borders with Kazakhstan to the west and to the north. uranium. Most of Uzbekistan’s population today belong to the Uzbek ethnic group and speak the Uzbek language.Uzbekistan-Tashkent(capital) Uzbekistan. which often repel foreign investors. 11% of the land is intensely cultivated. the region was conquered in the early 16th century by Uzbek nomads. Export of hydrocarbons. Uzbekistan was incorporated into the Russian Empire in the 19th century and in 1924 became a constituent republic of the Soviet Union. known as the Uzbek Soviet Socialist Republic (Uzbek SSR). Despite the declared objective of transition to a market economy. in irrigated river valleys. More than 60% of the population lives in densely populated rural communities. the region was conquered in the early 16th century by Uzbek nomads. including natural gas and petroleum. landlocked country. Most of Uzbekistan’s population today belong to the Uzbek ethnic group and speak the Uzbek language. who spoke an Eastern Turkic language. It has been an independent republic since December 1991. and Afghanistan and Turkmenistan to the south. who spoke an Eastern Turkic language. one of the family of Turkic languages. strictly controlled transition has nevertheless produced beneficial results in the form of economic recovery after 1995.

composition by sector: • agriculture: 26.68 billion (2008 est. and oil and gas. Instead. Uzbekistan took steps to rejoin the Collective Security Treaty Organization (CSTO) and the Eurasian Economic Community (EurASEC). telecom. and has landed a significant US investment in the automotive industry. may boost growth prospects. Uzbekistan has seen few other effects from the global economic downturn. both organizations dominated by Russia.• • • • • come under increasing international criticism for the use of child labor in its annual cotton harvest. A sharp increase in the inequality of income distribution has hurt the lower ranks of society since independence.8 Uzbekistan Sum GDP .) • note: data are in 2009 US dollars • 1 Indian Rupee = 28. offering attractive financing and tax advantages. Potential investment by Russia and China in Uzbekistan's gas and oil industry. but no new expropriations occurred in 2008-09. providing for full currency convertibility.68 billion (2007 est. Russian President Vladimir PUTIN and Uzbekistan President KARIMOV signed an "alliance.S.55 billion (2009 est. Russian businesses have shown increased interest in Uzbekistan. The Central Bank often delays or restricts convertibility. primarily due to its relative isolation from the global financial markets. which it subsequently left in 2008. strict currency controls and tightening of borders have lessened the effects of convertibility and have also led to some shortages that have further stifled economic activity.) • $66. In the past Uzbek authorities had accused US and other foreign companies operating in Uzbekistan of violating Uzbek tax laws and have frozen their assets. In 2003. and international corporations. In November 2005. Although growth slowed in 2009.7% . especially in mining. the Uzbek Government has actively courted several major U. In 2006. especially for consumer goods. However. as well as increased cooperation with South Korea in the realm of civil aviation. the government accepted Article VIII obligations under the IMF." which included provisions for economic and business cooperation.) • country comparison to the world: 78 • $72. GDP (purchasing power parity): • $77.

Embassy of the Republic of Uzbekistan EP 40. Dr.php .in/overseas/foreign_emb_india. airlines ticket counters etc. Airport consists of international and domestic terminals located in separate buildings.) Tashkent International Airport Tashkent International Airport is the main international airport of Uzbekistan and the largest airport in Central Asia .gov.7% services: 33. 2410 5640 Fax: +91-11-2467 0773 References: https://www. currency exchange offices.5% (2009 est. It is located 12 km (7. 2467 0775. restaurants and bars. Radhakrishnan Marg Chanakyapuri New Delhi-110021 Telephone: +91-11-2467 0774. S. airport serves more than 2 million passengers a year. Other facilities include waiting lounges.5 mi) from the center of Tashkent. duty free shops. CIP and VIP halls.• • industry: 39.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/kz. This ICAO Category II airport is the primary hub of Uzbekistan Airways. After the reconstruction of the main terminal in 2001 its capacity reached 1000 passengers/hour.html http://india.cia. Sometimes the airport is also referred as Vostochny-Tashkent.

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