You are on page 1of 83

1.

1 INTRODUCTION

Due to rapid industrialization, industrial workers are exposed to several types of hazards
and accidents. Every year lakhs of workers are injured due to mechanical, chemical, electrical
and radiation hazards and it leads to partial or total disablement. So in recent years, greater
attention is given to health and safety due to pressure from government, trade unions, labour
laws and awareness of employers.

The efficiency of workers depends to a great extends on the environment in which the
work. Work environment consists of all the factors, which act and react on the body and mind of
an employee. The primary aim is to create an environment, which ensures the greatest ease of
work and removes all causes of worries.

Occupational health and safety is a discipline with a broad scope involving many specialized
fields. In its broadest sense, it should aim at:
a) The promotion and maintenance of the highest degree of physical, mental and social
well-being of workers in all occupations.
b) The prevention among workers of adverse effects on health caused by their working
conditions.
c) The protection of workers in their employment from risks resulting from factors adverse
to health.
d) The placing and maintenance of workers in an occupational environment adapted to
physical and mental needs.
e) The adaptation of work to humans.

Successful occupational health and safety practice requires the collaboration and
participation of both employers and workers in health and safety programmes, and involves the
consideration of issues relating to occupational medicine, industrial hygiene, toxicology,
education, engineering safety, ergonomics, psychology, etc.

1
Occupational health issues are often given less attention than occupational safety issues
because the former are generally more difficult to confront. However, when health is addressed,
so is safety, because a healthy workplace is by definition also a safe workplace. The converse,
though, may not be true - a so-called safe workplace is not necessarily also a healthy workplace.
The important point is that issues of both health and safety must be addressed in every
workplace.

Work plays a central role in people's lives, since most workers spend at least eight hours
a day in the workplace, whether it is on a plantation, in an office, factory, etc. Therefore, work
environments should be safe and healthy. Unfortunately some employers assume little
responsibility for the protection of workers' health and safety. In fact, some employers do not
even know that they have the moral and often legal responsibility to protect workers.

Health of the workers:


Health is a state of complete physical, mental and social wellbeing and not merely the
absence of diseases. It’s a positive and dynamic concept which means something more than the
absence of illness.

Statutory provisions:
2
According to factories Act, 1948, the statutory provisions regarding the health of the
workers are stated in the sections 11 to 20. They are

Cleanliness (sec 11):


Every factory shall be kept clean by daily sweeping or washing the floors and workrooms
and by using disinfectants where every necessary. Walls, doors and windows shall be repainted
or varnished at least once in every 5 years.

Disposal of wastes and effluents (sec 12):


The waste materials produced from the manufacturing process must be effectively
disposed of wastes.

Ventilation and temperature (sec 13):


There must be provision for adequate ventilation for the circulation of fresh air. The
temperature must be kept at a comfortable level. Hot parts of machines must be separated and
insulated. The State Government may make rules for the keeping of thermometers in specified
places and the adoption of methods which will keep the temperature low.

Removal of Dust and fumes (sec 14):


If the manufacturing process used gives off injurious or offensive dust and steps must be
taken so that they are not inhaled or accumulated. The exhaust fumes of internal combustion
engines must be conducted outside the factory.

Artificial humidification (sec 15):


The water used for this purpose must be pure. The State Government can frame rules
regarding the process of humidification etc. The water used for humidification shall be taken
from a public supply or other source of drinking water and must be effectively purified before
use.

Overcrowding (sec 16):

3
There must be no overcrowding in a factory. In factories existing before the
commencement of the Act there must be at least 9.9 cubic meters of space per worker. For
factories built afterwards, there must be at least 4.2 cubic meters of space. The chief inspector of
factories can also prescribe the maximum number of workers who can work in each work room.

Lighting (sec 17):


Factories must be well lighted. Effective measures must be adopted to prevent glare or
formation of shadows which might cause eye strain.

Drinking water (sec 18):


Arrangements must be made to provide a sufficient supply of wholesome drinking water.
All supply points of such water must be marked “drinking water”.
No such points shall be within 20 ft. (or 7.5 meters) of any latrine, washing place etc.
Factories employing more than 250 workers must cool the water during the hot weather.

Toilet facilities (sec 19):


Every factory must provide sufficient number of latrines and urinals. There must be
separate provisions for male and female workers.
Latrines and urinals must be kept in a clean and sanitary condition. In factories
employing more than 250 workers, they shall be of prescribed sanitary types.

Spittoons (sec 20):


A sufficient number of spittoons must be provided at convenient places, in a clean and
hygienic condition. The State Government may take rules regarding their number, location and
maintenance.

Safety of the workers:

4
Safety is a measures or techniques implemented to reduce the risk of injury, loss and
danger to persons, property or the environment in any facility or place involving the
manufacturing, producing and processing of goods or merchandise.

Statutory provisions:
According to factories Act, 1948, the statutory provisions regarding the safety of the
workers are stated in the sections 21 to 41. They are

Fencing of machinery (Sec 21):


In every factory, every dangerous part of any machinery, every moving part of a prime
mover and every flywheel connected to prime mover the head-race and tail-race of every water
wheel and water turbine, and every part of an electric generator, motor or rotary converter, every
part of transmission machinery, must be securely fenced by safeguards of substantial
construction.

Work on or near machinery in motion (Sec 22):

5
It is necessary to examine any part of the machinery while it is motion. The examination
and lubrication of the machinery, while in motion, should be carried out only by a specially-
trained adult worker wearing tight-fitting clothing.

Employment of young persons on Dangerous machines (Sec 23):


A young person should not be allowed to work at dangerous machines unless, has been
sufficiently instructed and received sufficient training.

Striking gear and devices for cutting off power (Sec 24):
In every factory, suitable striking gear or other efficient mechanical appliance has to be
provided, maintained and used to move driving belts.

Self-acting machines (Sec 25):


No travelling part of a self-acting machine in any factory and no material carried thereon
shall be allowed to run on its outward or inward traverse within a distance of 18 inches from any
fixed structure which is not a part of the machine, if a person is liable to pass over the space over
which it runs.

Casing of new machinery (Sec 26):


All machinery driven by power, every set-screw, bolt or key or any revolving shaft,
spindle, wheel or pinion, spur, worm and other toothed or friction-gearing has to be properly
encased or guarded in order to prevent danger to the workmen.

Prohibition of employment of women and children near cotton openers (Sec 27):
Women and child workers are prohibited to be employed in any part of a factory for
pressing cotton in which a cotton opener is at work.

Hoists, lifts, lifting machines (Sec 28&29):

6
Lifting machines, chains, ropes and lifting tackles must be of good mechanical
construction, sound material and adequate strength and free from defects. They are to be properly
maintained and thoroughly examined by a competent person at least once in every 6 months.

Revolving machinery (Sec 30):


The maximum safe working peripheral speed of every grindstone or abrasive wheel shall
be permanently affixed. Safe working peripheral speed of every revolving vessel, cage, basket,
flywheel, pulley or disc has also to be ensured.

Pressure plant (Sec 31):


In any factory operation is carried on at a pressure above the atmospheric pressure,
effective arrangements shall be taken to ensure that the safe working pressure is not exceeded.

Floors, stairs and means of access (Sec 32):


In every factory all floors, steps, stairs, passages and gangways shall be of sound
construction and properly kept and maintained.

Pits, sumps, openings in floors (Sec 33):


Every fixed vessel, sump, tank, pit or opening in the ground or in a floor, which may be a
source of danger shall be either securely covered or securely fenced.

Excessive weights (Sec 34):


No person is to be employed in any factory to lift, carry or move any load so heavy as is
likely to cause him injury.

Protection of eyes (Sec 35):


The state government may require the provision of effective screens or suitable goggles if
the risk of injury to the eyes is caused from particles or fragments thrown off in the
manufacturing process or from exposure to excessive light.

Precautions against dangerous fumes (Sec 36):

7
In any factory, no person shall be allowed to enter any chamber, tank, vat, pipe, flue or
other confined space in which dangerous fumes are likely to be present to an extent involving
risks to persons.

Explosive or inflammable dust, gas (Sec 37):


All practicable measures have to be taken to prevent explosion by, effective enclosure of
plant and machinery, removal or prevention of the accumulation of dust, gas etc and exclusion or
effective enclosure of all possible sources of ignition.

Precaution in case of fire (Sec 38):


Every factory has to be provided with adequate means of escape in case of fire. Effective
and clearly audible means of giving warning in the case of fire have to be provided. A free
passage-way giving access to each means of escape in case of fire has to be maintained.

Power to require specifications of defective parts or tests of stability (Sec 39):


The factory inspector to serve on the manager of a factory to furnish specifications of
defective parts or he may order the manager to carry out tests as he may specify and to inform
him of the results.

Safety of buildings and machinery (Sec 40):


Every factory should adopt the measures to ensure the safety of the buildings and
machinery. The factory must employ the required safety officers according to the number of
workers working in the factory.
Power to make rules (Sec 41):
The state government has the power to make rules to supplement the provisions relating
to safety contained in the act.

Occupational accidents/disease:

8
Work-related accidents or diseases are very costly and can have many serious direct and
indirect effects on the lives of workers and their families. For workers some of the direct
costs of an injury or illness are:
a) the pain and suffering of the injury or illness;
b) the loss of income;
c) the possible loss of a job;
d) Health-care costs.

It has been estimated that the indirect costs of an accident or illness can be four to ten times
greater than the direct costs, or even more. An occupational illness or accident can have so many
indirect costs to workers that it is often difficult to measure them. One of the most obvious
indirect costs is the human suffering caused to workers' families, which cannot be compensated
with money.
Identifying hazards in the workplace:

9
Use a variety
of sources
for
information
about
potential or
existing
hazards in
your
workplace

Some occupational diseases have been recognized for many years, and affect workers in
different ways depending on the nature of the hazard, the route of exposure, the dose, etc. Some
well-known occupational diseases include:
a) Asbestosis (caused by asbestos, which is common in insulation, automobile brake linings,
etc.)
b) Silicosis (caused by silica, which is common in mining, sandblasting, etc.)
c) Lead poisoning (caused by lead, which is common in battery plants, paint factories, etc.)
d) Noise-induced hearing loss (caused by noise, which is common in many workplaces,
including airports, and workplaces where noisy machines, such as presses or drills, etc.)

Importance of management commitment on health and safety:

10
A successful
health and
safety
programme
requires
strong
management
commitment
and worker
participation

In order to develop a successful health and safety programme, it is essential that there be
strong management commitment and strong worker participation in the effort to create and
maintain a safe and healthy workplace. An effective management addresses all work-related
hazards, not only those covered by government standards.

All levels of management must make health and safety a priority. They must
communicate this by going out into the worksite to talk with workers about their concerns and to
observe work procedures and equipment. In each workplace, the lines of responsibility from top
to bottom need to be clear, and workers should know who is responsible for different health and
safety issues.

Importance of training:

11
Effective
training is
a key
component
of any
health and
safety
programm
e

Workers often experience work-related health problems and do not realize that the problems
are related to their work, particularly when an occupational disease, for example, is in the early
stages. Besides the other more obvious benefits of training, such as skills development, hazard
recognition, etc., a comprehensive training programme in each workplace will help workers to:
a) Recognize early signs/symptoms of any potential occupational diseases before they
become permanent conditions.
b) Assess their work environment.
c) Insist that management make changes before hazardous conditions can develop.

Health and safety programmes:


Effective workplace health and safety programmes can help to save the lives of workers by
reducing hazards and their consequences. Health and safety programmes also have positive
effects on both worker morale and productivity, which are important benefits. At the same time,
effective programmes can save employers a great deal of money. For all of the reasons given
below, it is crucial that employers, workers and unions are committed to health and safety.

a) Workplace hazards are controlled - at the source whenever possible.


b) Records of any exposure are maintained for many years.
12
c) Both workers and employers are informed about health and safety risks in the workplace.
d) There is an active and effective health and safety committee that includes both workers
and management.
e) Worker health and safety efforts are ongoing.

1.2 COMPANY PROFILE

Wheels India Limited, Padi.


13
About company:

Wheels India is promoted by the TVS Group and was started in the early 60's to
manufacture automobile wheels. Today, Wheels India has grown as a leading manufacturer of
steel wheels for passenger cars, utility vehicles, trucks, buses, agricultural tractors and
construction equipment in India. The company supplies 2/3rd of the domestic market requirement
and exports 18% of the turnover to North America, Europe, Asia Pacific and South Africa.

The company also has a technical-financial collaboration with Titan Europe.

Wheels India designs and manufactures wheels for the specific requirements of the customer.
Our activities are driven by the following objectives:

• Maintain leadership in the domestic market and presence in export markets.

• Ensure customer satisfaction through timely delivery of quality products and services, at
competitive prices.

• Continuously improve & innovative product design, process technology and work
environment to offer better products.

• Bring about involvement of all workers in achieving the above objectives.

1.2.1 Table showing the Plant locations

Annual
Plants Manpower
Capacity

Padi, Pune, Rampur, Bawal,Sriperumbudur and Pantnaga 10 million


1, 760
r wheels

Location:
The company has strategically located plants that give it a logistical advantage and allows
flexibility in manufacturing.

14
Organization chart

15
Capabilities:

Product Development

a) Design and develop wheels for a wide range of applications, backed by four decades
of enriching experience from field,
16
internal trials, and ESA (Experimental Stress Analysis) &
FEM (Finite Element Method).

b) Caters to OEM, after-market and niche segments.

c) Continuously enhancing the value of the product, based on


feedback from customers and outcome of our in-house
facilities
listed below:

d) Wheels testing lab to evaluate endurance capabilities,


by conducting radial fatigue test, bending fatigue test,
multiaxis fatigue test and connecting member test.

e) CAE (Computer Aided Engineering) lab to do surface


& solid modelling, finite element analysis, life
prediction, data acquisition & experimental stress
analysis.

f) Fully equipped chemical, metallurgical and physical


lab.

Process Design

a) Is in final phase of development of a new process to


manufacture tube type truck rim from plates.

b) Has developed process technology to optimize


tubeless truck rim design with lesser material input.

c) Process technology development, upgradation and


optimization to achieve products with tighter
specifications to meet growing demands of the newer
generation vehicles.

d) Continuous research on process improvements to


minimize cost of production.

Tool Design & Manufacture

a) Has a qualified and experienced team specialising in tool design for forming /
rolling steel.

b) Fully equipped in-house tool room facility with state-of-the-art machinery and
17
design tools.

c) Computer aided tool modelling & manufacturing software


facilities, for manufacturing complicated tool profiles.

1.2.2 Table showing the Products

Wheels India has the ability to design the complete range of steel-wheels to suit customer
requirements, incorporating necessary styling and performance characteristics.

Product Type
Wheels for Heavy Vehicles
(Trucks, Buses, Light Commercial Vehicles, Trailers, Tippers etc.)

Wheels for Light Vehicles


(Passenger Cars, Mini Vans, SUV's & MUV's)

Wheels for Agricultural Applications


(Tractors, Combines, Farm Equipments etc.)

Wheels for Off-Road Construction Equipments

Wire Wheels
(For Contemporary & Classic Cars, MUV's & SUV's)

Air Suspension

18
Wheels India has developed "Air Suspension Systems" which are being marketed under the
brand name TVS-WILRIDE.

a) TVS-WILRIDE is the pioneer in Air Suspension Systems in


India.

b) TVS-WILRIDE has been specially designed for Indian road


conditions.

c) There are approximately 1000 buses on the roads, using TVS-


WILRIDE Air Suspension Systems.

d) Our initial technical know-how was aquired from DUNLOP,


UK
(now acquired by Trelleborg).

e) TVS-WILRIDE Air Suspension Systems are currently being


manufactured by Wheels India Limited, in a technical
agreement with TRELLEBORG.

TVS-WILRIDE Air Suspension Systems

A superior suspension concept...

a) Reduces vibration.

b) Improves ride comfort in any seat located in the


vehicle.

c) Extends a longer life to the body and chassis components.

d) Reduces fatigue to the driver.

e) Lowers natural frequency to provide a higher ride comfort.

19
1.2.3 Table showing the financials of the company

Unaudited Financial Results (Provisional) for the quarter ended 30th September, 2009(Rs. In lakhs)

Year
Quarter Ended Half Year Ended Ended(Audit
Particulars ed)
30.09.2009 30.09.2008 30.09.2009 30.09.2008 31.03.2009
Net Sales/ Income from Operations 27507 34920 50074 71665 112802
Other Operating Income 200 390 347 798 1391
Expenditure
a) (Increase)/Decrease in stock in trade
(1059) 227 (1458) (150) 1226
and work in progress
b) Consumption of raw materials 19703 24257 35659 50881 80689
c) Workers cost 2670 2748 4941 5393 8969
d) Depreciation 894 998 1741 1901 3378
e) Other Expenditure 3910 4883 7363 10230 14720
f) Total 26118 33113 48246 68255 108982
Profit from Operations before Other
1589 2197 2175 4208 5211
income , Interest and Exceptional Items
Other Income - - - - -
Profit before Interest and Exceptional
1589 2197 2175 4208 5211
Items
Interest 938 1156 1900 1994 4677
Profit/(Loss) after Interest but before
651 1041 275 2214 534
Exceptional Items
Exceptional Items - - - - -
Profit/(Loss) from Ordinary Activities
651 1041 275 2214 534
before tax
Tax Expense
*(Net of Minimum Alternate Tax Credit164* 273 36* 798 312
entitlement of Rs 47 lakhs)
Net Profit/(Loss) from Ordinary
487 768 239 1416 222
Activities after tax
Extraordinary Items (Previous year-Net
- - - 1894
of tax expense Rs.515 lacs)
Net Profit/ (Loss) for the period 487 768 239 1416 2116
Paid - up Equity share capital
987 987 987 987 987
(Face Value Rs. 10/-)
Reserves
18272
(Revaluation Reserves - NIL)
Basic and Diluted Earnings per Share4.93* 7.78* 2.42* 14.35* 2.25
20
before Extraordinary Items(Rs.)
Basic and Diluted Earnings per Share
after Extraordinary Items(Rs.)4.93* 7.78* 2.42* 14.35* 21.43
*(not annualised)
Public shareholding
-No of Shares 1411196 1411196 1411196 1411196 1411196
-Percentage of
14.30 14.30 14.30 14.30 14.30
shareholding
Promoters and Promoter Group
Shareholding
a)Pledged/ Encumbered
Number of Shares NIL - - - NIL
Percentage of Shares promoter group NA - - - NA
Percentage of Shares to total share
NA - - - NA
capital
b)Non Encumbered
Number of Shares 8458248 - - - 8458248
Percentage of Shares promoter group 100.00 - - - 100.00
Percentage of Shares to total share
85.70 - - - 85.70
capital

1.The above results were reviewed by the Audit Committee and approved by the Board of Directors in
their meeting held on 29.10.2009
2. In pursuance of the option exercised by the company under the Notification of the Ministry
of Corporate Affairs dated 31st March, 2009 relating to the adjustment of exchange
differences on long term foreign currency monetary items, the profit for the quarter
under review is higher by Rs. 337.31 lakhs and for the half year ended sep, 09
the profit is lower by Rs 248.44 lakhs. Hence the figures for the quarter and half year are not
comparable with the corresponding quarter and half year of the previous year
3. The Company operates in only one segment viz. Automotive Components.
4. Previous year's figures have been regrouped wherever necessary to conform
to this year's classification.
5. Statutory auditors of the Company have carried out a limited review
of the above financial results.
6.Investors'Complaints:Pending as at the beginning and end of the quarter - NIL
Received and disposed off during the quarter - NIL

Chennai SRIVATS RAM


30th October,2009 Managing Director

21
1.2.4 Table showing the Customer list for Wheels
Export Customers Domestic Customer
CATERPILLAR - Various Plants Caterpillar India Private Limited
KOMATSU - Various Plants Komatsu India Private India Limited
VOLVO JCB India Limited
JCB Barath Earth Movers Limited
TCM Telecon
Shin Caterpillar Mitsubishi Ltd. Hindustan Motors
Kawasaki Heavy Industries Ingersoll Rand
Hyundai Heavy Industries L&T
Mitsubishi Heavy Industries ESCORTS
DOOSAN INFRACORE TIL
Case New Holland PL Haulwel Trailers
BELL Equipment INDITAL

1.3 OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY

22
A. Primary objective:

To ascertain the health and safety measures adopted in Wheels India ltd.

B. Secondary objective:

1) To study the awareness of the workers about health and safety in the work place.

2) To find the occurrence of accidents happened at the work place.

3) To identify the role of management in implementing health and safety.

4) To find out the satisfaction level of the respondents towards health and safety
measures.

5) To give suggestions to improve the health and safety in the organization.

1.4 NEED FOR THE STUDY


23
Health and Safety measures are inevitable to any organization where workers are
involved. It’s an organization’s responsibility to provide to its workers beyond the payment of
wages for their services. The worker’s health and safety on and off the job within the
organization is a vital concern of the employer. The working environment in a factory adversely
affects the worker’s health and safety because of the excessive heat or cold, noise, odors, fumes,
dust and lack of sanitation and pure air etc., which leads to accident or injury or disablement or
loss of life to the workers. Providing a health and safer environment is a pre-requisite for any
productive effort. These must be held in check by providing regular health check-up, protective
devices and compensatory benefits to the workers. This research deals with the study on the
health and safety measures provided to the workers at Wheels India ltd, Padi, chennai.

1.5 SCOPE OF THE STUDY

24
This study would give an overview of the health and safety measures existing at Wheels
India ltd, Padi, chennai. Since health and safety are two important elements essential for
improving the productivity of an organization, a study on the existing health and safety measures
would help the organization to perform better. This study would throw light on the perception of
the workers regarding health and safety. Wheels India ltd can identify the areas where it can be
improved, so as to improve the performance of the workers. This study would also help to
analyze the satisfaction level of the workers towards health and safety measures and suggest
provisions to improve health and safety.

1.6 LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY

25
1) The study is applicable only to Wheels India ltd, Padi, chennai. Therefore the results
cannot be generalized for the whole industry.
2) Due to time constraints the sample size had to be confined to 135.
3) The respondents have replied to the queries recalling from their memory. Therefore recall
bias and personal bias are possible.
4) Since the data was collected using a schedule, the interviewer unable to understand and
record the responses correctly.
5) The respondents were unable or unwilling to give response.

1.7 CHAPTER SCHEME

26
Chapter 1 deals with introduction which gives brief description of the study. It also deals with
company profile, objectives, need, scope, importance and limitations of the study.

Chapter 2 deals with review of literature. Literature review is a discussion of the literature in a
given study, argued, and established about area of study. It is a concise overview of the topic,
and it is usually chronologically or thematically. A literature review is written in essay format.

Chapter 3 deals with research methodology. It also deals with the Research design, sampling
design, nature of data, Method of data collection, and the tools applied in the study.

Chapter 4 deals with the Analysis and interpretation of the study.

Chapter 5 deals with the findings, suggestions, and conclusion of the study. Findings from each
analysis have been listed separately. Suitable suggestions were given by the researcher.
Conclusion gives the result of the study for which the study was conducted.

27
1) Johannson B; Rask K; Stenberg M (2010)1, this study was to carry out a broad survey
and analysis of relevant research articles about piece rate wages and their effects on health
and safety. A total of 75 research articles were examined extensively and 31 of these were
found relevant and had sufficient quality to serve the purpose of this study. The findings of
these relevant articles are summarized and analysed in the survey. More recent research
shows a clear interest for health, musculoskeletal injuries, physical workload, pains and
occupational injuries. The fact that 27 of the 31 studied articles found negative effects of
piece rates on different aspects of health and safety does not prove causality, but together
they give very strong support that in most situations piece rates have negative effects on
health and safety.

2) Tompa, Emile PhD; Dolinschi, Roman MA; de Oliveira (2009)2, we reviewed the
occupational health and safety intervention literature to synthesize evidence on financial
merits of such interventions. A literature search included journal databases, existing
systematic reviews, and studies identified by content experts. We found strong evidence that
ergonomic and other musculoskeletal injury prevention intervention in manufacturing and
warehousing are worth undertaking in terms of their financial merits. The economic
evaluation of interventions in this literature warrants further expansion. The review also
provided insights into how the methodological quality of economic evaluations in this
literature could be improved.

3) Conor CO Reynolds; M Anne Harris; Peter A Cripton; Meghan Winters (2009)3,


Bicycling has the potential to improve fitness. Understanding ways of making bicycling safer
is important to improving population health. We reviewed studies of the impact of
transportation infrastructure on bicyclist safety. To assess safety, studies examining the
following outcomes were included: injuries; injury severity; and crashes. Results to date
suggest that sidewalks and multi-use trails pose the highest risk, major roads are more
hazardous than minor roads, and the presence of bicycle facilities (e.g. on-road bike routes,
on-road marked bike lanes, and off-road bike paths) was associated with the lowest risk.
Street lighting, paved surfaces, and low-angled grades are additional factors that appear to
improve cyclist safety.

28
4) Lucia Artazcoz; Imma Cortes; Vincenta Escriba-aguir; Lorena Cascant (2009)4, the
objectives of this study was to identify family and job characteristics associated with long
work hours. The sample was composed of all salaried workers aged 16–64 years (3950 men
and 3153 women) interviewed in the 2006 Catalonian Health Survey. Factors associated with
long working hours differed by gender. In men, working 51–60 h a week was consistently
associated with poor mental health status, self-reported hypertension, job dissatisfaction,
smoking, shortage of sleep. Among women it was only related to smoking and to shortage of
sleep. The association of overtime with different health indicators among men and women
could be explained by their role as the family breadwinner.

5) Dee W. Edington; Alyssa B. Schultz (2008)5, The aim was to present the literature
which provides evidence of the association between health risks and the workplace economic
measures of time away from work, reduced productivity at work, health care costs and
pharmaceutical costs. A search of PubMed was conducted and high quality studies were
selected and combined with studies known to the authors. A strong body of evidence exists
which shows that health risks of workers are associated with health care costs and
pharmaceutical costs. A growing body of literature also confirms that health risks are
associated with the productivity measures. The paper shows that measures of success will
continue to be important as the field of worksite health management moves forward.

6) David E. Cantor (2008)6, The purpose of this paper was to review the literature and call
for additional research into the human, operational, and regulatory issues that contribute to
workplace safety in the supply chain. This paper identifies several potential research
opportunities that can increase awareness of the importance of improving a firm's workplace
safety practices. This paper identifies 108 articles which informs, how the logistics and
transportation safety has evolved. The paper identifies 14 future research opportunities within
the workplace safety in the supply chain, that have been identified can have a positive effect
on practitioners confronted with safety issues.

29
7) Lucia Artazcoz; Imma Cortes; Vincenta Escriba-aguir; Lorena Cascant (2007)7, To
provide a framework for epidemiological research on work and health that combines classic
occupational epidemiology and the consideration of work in a structural perspective focused
on gender inequalities in health. Gaps and limitations in classic occupational epidemiology,
when considered from a gender perspective, are described. Classic occupational
epidemiology has paid less attention to women’s problems than men’s. Research into work
related gender inequalities in health has rarely considered either social class or the impact of
family demands on men’s health. The analysis of work and health from a gender perspective
should take into account the complex interactions between gender, family roles, employment
status and social class.

8) Shouji Nagashima; Yasushi Suwazono; Yasushi Okubo; Mirei Uetani (2007)8, The
aim was to clarify the influence of working hours on both mental and physical symptoms of
fatigue and use the data obtained to determine permissible working hours. The survey of day-
shift male workers, using the Self-Rating Depression Scale (SDS) and Cumulative Fatigue
Symptoms Index (CFSI). A total of 715 workers participated. In the group working 260–279
h/month, the odds ratios for SDS and ‘irritability’ and ‘chronic tiredness’ of the CFSI were
increased. In the group working 280 h/month, the odds ratios on CFSI for ‘general fatigue’,
‘physical disorders’, ‘anxiety’ and ‘chronic tiredness’ were likewise increased. The research
clarified that working hours should be <260 h/month in order to minimize fatigue symptoms
in male day workers.

9) L Ala-Mursula; J Vahtera; A Kouvonen; A Vaananen; A Linna (2006)9, The


associations of working hours (paid, domestic, commuting, and total) with sickness, absence,
and to examine whether these associations vary according to the level of employee control
over daily working hours. The study among 25,703 full-time public sector workers in 10
towns in Finland. Long domestic and total working hours were associated with higher rates
of medically certified sickness absences among both genders. Low control over daily
working hours predicted medically certified sickness absences for both the women and men.

30
In combinations, high control over working hours reduced the adverse associations of long
domestic and total working hours with medically certified absences. Employee control over
daily working hours may protect health and help workers successfully combine a full-time
job with the demands of domestic work.

10) A Baker; K Heiler; S A Ferguson (2002)10, The occupational health and safety
implications associated with compressed and extended work periods have not been fully
explored in the mining sector. Absenteeism and incident frequency rate data were collected
over a 33 month period that covered three different roster schedules. The only significant
change in absenteeism rates was an increase in the maintenance sector in the third data
collection period. The current study did not find significant negative effects of a 12-hour
pattern, when compared to an 8-hour system. However, when unregulated and excessive
overtime was introduced as part of the 12-hour/5-day roster, absenteeism rates were
increased in the maintenance sector.

11) N Nakanishia; H Yoshidaa; K Naganoa; H Kawashimob; K Nakamurac


(2001)11, to evaluate the association of long working hours with the risk of hyper-tension. The
work site is in Osaka, Japan. 941 hypertension free Japanese male white collar workers aged
35–54 years were prospectively examined by serial annual health examinations. 424 men
developed hypertension above the borderline level. After controlling for potential predictors
of hypertension, the relative risk for hypertension above the borderline level, compared with
those who worked < 8.0 hours per day was 0.48, for those who worked 10.0–10.9 hours per
day was 0.63. These results indicate that long working hours are negatively associated with
the risk for hypertension in Japanese male white collar workers.

12) N. Haworth; C. Tingvall & N. Kowadlo (2000)12, In response to an increasing


awareness of the role of work-related driving in crashes and the related costs, many private
and government organisations have developed programs to improve fleet safety. The purpose
of this project is to investigate the potential to introduce road safety based initiatives in the
corporate environment. From the review, that the fleet safety initiatives which have potential

31
to be effective are, Selecting safer vehicles, Some particular driver training and education
programs, Incentives, Company safety programs. It is assumed that the degree of influence is
likely to decrease as the type of vehicle moves from the fleet towards the private end of the
continuum.

13) Graves carol gevecker; Matanoski genevieve m; Tardiff robert g (2000)13,


Carbonless copy paper (CCP), introduced in 1954. Its safety to workers who handle large
amounts of CCP has been addressed in numerous studies and reports. This review
encompasses the world's literature on CCP and provides a weight-of-evidence analysis of the
safety of CCP to workers in the United States. Since 1987, has produced neither primary skin
irritation nor skin sensitization under normal conditions of manufacture and use. Finally, very
few published complaints have come from the manufacturing sector where the closest and
most voluminous contact occurs. Based on the weight of the evidence, NIOSH is anticipated
to conclude that CCP is not a hazard to workers and has only a small possibility of producing
mild and transient skin irritation.

14) Karen J.M. Niven (2000)14, A literature review was described which aimed to
evaluate economic evaluations of health and safety interventions in healthcare. Problems
were identified with valuing benefits in health and safety because they frequently take many
years to emerge and are difficult to measure. Understanding of economic techniques within
the health and safety professions was limited, resulting in wide-ranging assumptions being
made as to the positive economic impact of health and safety interventions. Healthcare
managers, health economists, and health and safety professionals have not traditionally
worked together and have inherent misunderstandings of each other roles. The review
concludes that the aim of future research should be to assist the National Health Service
(NHS) to make valid decisions about health and safety investment and risk control methods.

15) A Spurgeon; J M Harrington; C L Cooper (1997)15, The European Community


Directive on Working Time, which should have been implemented in member states of the
European Community by November 1996. This paper reviews the current evidence relating
to the potential effects on health and performance of extensions to the normal working day.
32
Research to date has been restricted to a limited range of health outcomes--namely, mental
health and cardiovascular disorders. Other potential effects which are normally associated
with stress--for example, gastrointestinal disorders, musculoskeletal disorders, and problems
associated with depression of the immune system, have received little attention. It is
concluded that there is currently sufficient evidence to raise concerns about the risks to health
and safety of long working hours.

16) Simon Chapple and Tracy Mears (1996)16, Most OECD countries rely on a
mixture of market forces, tort liability, compulsory insurance and government regulation to
deal with workplace safety and health issues. There are also other non-efficiency reasons for
government involvement in workplace safety and health. However, while markets may not be
efficient, government intervention can fail to make any improvement and/or not satisfy cost-
benefit criteria. While the empirical evidence is not clear cut, the balance of the evidence
suggests that wages may include some consideration for health and safety risks. Evidence
also suggests that workers’ compensation systems increase the frequency and duration of
claims for non-fatal injuries, but may decrease the number of fatal injuries.

17) Peter Hasle and Hans Jorgen Limborg (1995)17, The scientific literature
regarding preventive occupational Health and Safety Activities in Small Enterprises has been
reviewed in order to identify effective preventive approaches and to develop a future research
strategy. There is a lack of evaluation of intervention studies, both in terms of effect and
practical applicability. However, there is sufficiently strong evidence to conclude that
workers of small enterprises are subject to higher risks than the larger ones, and that small
enterprises have difficulties in controlling risk. The most effective preventive approaches
seem to be simple and low cost solutions, disseminated through personal contact. It is
important to develop future intervention research strategies, which study the complete
intervention system of the small enterprises.

18) International Council on Nanotechnology, Rice University18, The report,


"Current Knowledge and Practices regarding Environmental Health and Safety in the
Nanotechnology Workplace", offers a review and analysis of existing efforts to develop "best
33
practices." This report finds that efforts to catalogue workplace practices have not
systematically documented current environment, health and safety practices in a variety of
workplace settings and geographies. Moreover, it finds that some existing documents are not
publicly available.

19) Maynard, Andrew D19, Article from newsletter by Andrew Maynard


summarizing the current level of development and government investment in nanotechnology
research and development, how nanotechnology presents a potential challenge to
conventional approaches to understanding health hazards in the workplace, and how the
United States National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health is working to address
current and potential adverse health impacts in the workplace from nanotechnology.

20) Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment, and Health20, This article seeks
to address a number of important questions concerning the potential health and workplace
safety risks raised by the manufacturing, handling, and distributing of engineered
nanoparticles. The article addresses the following questions; (1) the hazards classification of
engineered nanoparticles, (2) exposure metrics, (3) the actual exposures workers may have to
different engineered nanoparticles in the workplace, (4) the limits of engineering controls and
personal protective equipment in protecting workers in regard to engineered nanoparticles,
(5) the kind of surveillance programs that should be put in place to protect workers, (6)
whether exposure registers should be established, and (7) if engineered nanoparticles should
be treated as new substances and evaluated for safety and hazards.

34
3.1 RESEARCH DESIGN:
A Research design is an arrangement of condition for collection and analysis of data in a
manner that aims to combine relevance to the research purchase with economy in procedure.
Fundamental to the success of any research project is the sound research design. The research
design took for the study was Descriptive Research Design.

3.2 SAMPLING DESIGN:


3.2.1 Population:
Workers of Wheels India Ltd, Padi, Chennai. i.e., 1760.

3.2.2 Sampling Method:


Stratified Sampling

3.2.3 Sample Frame:


From the pilot study, it was observed that a maximum of 7 respondents could be covered
per day on average.
No. of days available for survey : 20 days
No. of respondents per day : 7
No. of respondents for entire period : 20*7=140 respondents

3.2.4 Sample Size:


Zone : Chennai
Expected samples : 140
Actual samples collected : 135

Limitations:
(i) Due to time and cost constraints, the study was restricted to chennai only.
(ii) The duration available for survey per day was 3 hours only. i.e., 2:00pm to 5:00pm.

35
(iii)Due to refusals and rejections only 135 interview schedule questionnaires could be
Collected.

3.2.5 Pilot Survey:


It is a preliminary survey undertaken to test whether a survey questionnaire has been
properly designed. The pilot survey was conducted for 7 samples per day.

3.2.6 Sources of Data:

3.2.6.1 Primary Data Collection:


These are fresh data which are collected for the first time. The data collection used for
this study is Interview schedule questionnaire.

3.2.6.2 Secondary Data Collection:

Secondary data consist of information that already exists somewhere and have been
collected for specific purpose in the study. The secondary data for this study are newspapers,
journals, magazines, internet etc.

3.2.7 Geographical Area:

The study area taken for this study was Wheels India Ltd, Padi, Chennai.

3.2.8 Time Dimensions:

1st Jan to 10th Jan : Internal study of the company.

11th Jan to 31st Jan : Review of literature and Theoretical perspective.

1th Feb to 28th Feb : Establishment of Questionnaire and pilot study.

1st Mar to 31th Mar : Data analysis, data interpretation, application of

Statistical tools.

1st Apr to 10th Apr : Findings, suggestions and conclusion.

11th Apr to 20th Apr : Report preparation.

36
3.2.9 Data Collection Instruments:
This study is conducted by collecting primary data using 135 interview schedule
questionnaires, each consist of 26 questions. All the questions are closed ended questions and
almost all questions were directive.

3.2.9.1 Closed Ended Question:


Dichotomous : 06
Multiple choices : 08
Likert Scale : 08
Ranking Scale : 01
SUB TOTAL : 23

Respondent Profile : 03

TOTAL : 26

3.2.10 Statistical Tools Used:

 Chi-square analysis

 Correlation

 Spearman’s rank correlation

 Anova

37
4.1 PERCENTAGE ANALYSIS:

4.1.1 Table showing the age of the respondents

S NO RANGE NO. OF RESPONDENTS PERCENTAGE %

A Below 25 - -

B 26 - 30 36 27

C 31 – 35 72 53

D 36 – 40 27 20

E Above 40 - -

Total 135 100

4.1.1 Figure showing the age of the respondents

INFERENCE:
In the survey, more than one-fifth of the respondents are comes under the age limit of
26 – 30 years and nearly three-fifth of the respondents are having the age limit of 31 – 35 years
and the remaining one-fifth respondents falls between the age limit of 36 – 40 years. There are
no respondents having the age limit, Below 25 and Above 40 in the survey.
38
4.1.2 Table showing the experience (in years) of the respondents

S NO RANGE NO. OF RESPONDENTS PERCENTAGE %

A Below 5 - -

B 6 - 10 58 43

C 11 – 15 63 47

D 16 – 20 14 10

E Above 20 - -

Total 135 100

4.1.2 Figure showing the experience (in years) of the respondents

INFERENCE:
In the survey, more than two-fifth of the respondents are having the experience of 6 – 10
years and nearly three-fifth of the respondents are having the experience of 11 – 15 years and the
remaining some respondents are having experience of 16 – 20 years. There are no respondents
having the experience, Below 5 and Above 20 in the survey.

4.1.3 Table showing the awareness of health and safety


39
S NO RANGE NO. OF RESPONDENTS PERCENTAGE %

A YES 63 47

B NO 72 53

Total 135 100

4.1.3 Figure showing the awareness of health and safety

INFERENCE:
In the survey, only less than half of the respondents are aware of the health and safety
measures but more than half of the respondents respond that they are not aware of the health and
safety measures adopted in the company.

4.1.4 Table showing the effective arrangements for communicating health and safety
matters

40
S NO RANGE NO. OF RESPONDENTS PERCENTAGE %

A YES 49 36

B NO 86 64

Total 135 100

4.1.4 Figure showing the effective arrangements for communicating health and safety
matters

INFERENCE:
In the survey, only one-third of the respondents say that they have effective arrangements
for communicating health and safety matters but nearly two-third of the respondents says that
they have no effective arrangements for communicating health and safety matters in the
company.

4.1.5 Table showing the medical facility

41
S NO RANGE NO. OF RESPONDENTS PERCENTAGE %

A YES 72 53

B NO 63 47

Total 135 100

4.1.5 Figure showing the medical facility

INFERENCE:
In the survey, more than half of the respondents say that the company is providing
medical facilities to the workers but less than half of the respondents respond the company is not
providing any medical facilities to the workers.

4.1.6 Table showing the health and safety training

S NO RANGE NO. OF RESPONDENTS PERCENTAGE %

42
A YES 72 53

B NO 63 47

Total 135 100

4.1.6 Figure showing the health and safety training

INFERENCE:
In the survey, more than half of the respondents respond that they attended the health and
safety training programme conducted in the company but less than half of the respondents says
that they are not attended any health and safety training programme conducted in the company.

4.1.7 Table showing the frequency of training offered

S NO RANGE NO. OF RESPONDENTS PERCENTAGE %

A Once in 5 year 32 24

B Once in 3 year 76 56

43
C Yearly once 27 20

D Monthly - -

E Rarely - -

Total 135 100

4.1.7 Figure showing the frequency of training offered

INFERENCE:
In the survey, more than one-fifth of the respondents say that the training is offered once
in 5 years and nearly three-fifth of the respondents respond that the training is offered once in 3
years and the remaining one-fifth respondents says that the training is offered yearly once. No
respondents say that the training is offered monthly or rarely.

4.1.8 Table showing the drinking water facility

S NO RANGE NO. OF RESPONDENTS PERCENTAGE %

A Always 14 10

B Sometimes 67 50

C Often 45 33

44
D Rarely 9 7

E Not at all - -

Total 135 100

4.1.8 Figure showing the drinking water facility

INFERENCE:
In the survey, less than one-fifth of the respondents say that always they have proper
drinking water and half of the respondents respond that sometimes they have proper drinking
water and more than one-fifth respondents says often they have proper drinking water and some
of the respondents says rarely they have proper drinking water facility inside the work place.

4.1.9 Table showing the stress towards work

S NO RANGE NO. OF RESPONDENTS PERCENTAGE %

A Always 9 7

B Sometimes 45 33

C Often 72 53

D Rarely 9 7

45
E Not at all - -

Total 135 100

4.1.9 Figure showing the stress toward work

INFERENCE:
In the survey, only very few respondents say that always they have stress and nearly
two-fifth of the respondents respond that sometimes they have stress and nearly three-fifth of the
respondents says often they have stress and very few respondents says rarely they have stress
towards work.

4.1.10 Table showing the awareness about first aid activities and contents of the first aid kit

S NO RANGE NO. OF RESPONDENTS PERCENTAGE %

A Strongly agree 113 84

B Agree 22 16

C Neutral - -

D Disagree - -

E Strongly disagree - -

46
Total 135 100

4.1.10 Figure showing the awareness about first aid activities and contents of the first aid
kit

INFERENCE:
In the survey, more than four-fifth of the respondents strongly agrees that they are aware
about the first aid activities and contents of the first aid kit but less than one-fifth respondents
simply agrees that they are aware about the first aid activities and contents of the first aid kit. No
respondents say that they are not aware about the first aid activities and contents of the first aid
kit.

4.1.11 Table showing the effective disciplinary procedures implementation

S NO RANGE NO. OF RESPONDENTS PERCENTAGE %

A Strongly agree 76 56

B Agree 59 44

C Neutral - -

D Disagree - -

E Strongly disagree - -

47
Total 135 100

4.1.11 Figure showing the effective disciplinary procedures implementation

INFERENCE:
In the survey, nearly three-fifth of the respondents strongly agrees that the company
implements effective disciplinary procedures but more than two-fifth respondents simply agrees
that the company implements effective disciplinary procedures to maintain health and safety in
the organization. No respondents say that the company is not implementing effective disciplinary
procedures.

4.1.12 Table showing the working temperature is reasonable to work

S NO RANGE NO. OF RESPONDENTS PERCENTAGE %

A Strongly agree 32 24

B Agree 103 76

C Neutral - -

D Disagree - -

E Strongly disagree - -

Total 135 100

48
4.1.12 Figure showing the working temperature is reasonable to work

INFERENCE:
In the survey, more than one-fifth of the respondents strongly agree that the working
temperature is reasonable to work but nearly four-fifth respondents simply agree that the
working temperature is reasonable to work. No respondents say that the working temperature is
not reasonable to work.

4.1.13 Table showing the enough space to work

S NO RANGE NO. OF RESPONDENTS PERCENTAGE %

A Strongly agree 22 16

B Agree 81 60

C Neutral 32 24

D Disagree - -

E Strongly disagree - -

Total 135 100

49
4.1.13 Figure showing the enough space to work

INFERENCE:
In the survey, less than one-fifth of the respondents strongly agree that they have enough
space to work but three-fifth respondents simply agree that they have enough space to work and
more than one-fifth of the respondents say that they have no idea about the overcrowding. No
respondents say that they are not having enough space to work.

4.1.14 Table showing the latrines and urinals are cleaned and maintained properly

S NO RANGE NO. OF RESPONDENTS PERCENTAGE %

A Strongly agree 22 16

B Agree 77 57

C Neutral 36 27

D Disagree - -

E Strongly disagree - -

Total 135 100

4.1.14 Figure showing the latrines and urinals are cleaned and maintained properly

50
INFERENCE:
In the survey, less than one-fifth of the respondents strongly agree that the latrines and
urinals are cleaned and maintained properly but nearly three-fifth respondents simply agree that
the latrines and urinals are cleaned and maintained properly and more than one-fifth of the
respondents say that they have no idea about the maintenance of latrines and urinals. No
respondents say that the latrines and urinals are not cleaned and maintained properly.

4.1.15 Table showing the environment is safe to work

S NO RANGE NO. OF RESPONDENTS PERCENTAGE %

A Strongly agree 54 40

B Agree 45 33

C Neutral 36 27

D Disagree - -

E Strongly disagree - -

Total 135 100

4.1.15 Figure showing the environment is safe to work

51
INFERENCE:
In the survey, two-fifth of the respondents strongly agree that their environment is safe to
work but less than two-fifth respondents simply agree that their environment is safe to work and
more than one-fifth of the respondents say that they have no idea about their environment is safe
to work. No respondents say that their environment is not safe to work.

4.1.16 Table showing the enough training given to workers before handling the machines

S NO RANGE NO. OF RESPONDENTS PERCENTAGE %

A Strongly agree 63 47

B Agree 50 37

C Neutral 22 16

D Disagree - -

E Strongly disagree - -

Total 135 100

4.1.16 Figure showing the enough training given to workers before handling the machines

52
INFERENCE:
In the survey, more than two-fifth of the respondents strongly agree that enough training
is given to the workers but less than two-fifth respondents simply agree that enough training is
given to the workers and less than one-fifth of the respondents say that they have no idea about
enough the training given to the workers. No respondents say that enough training is not given to
the workers before handling machines.

4.1.17 Table showing the health checkup for workers

S NO RANGE NO. OF RESPONDENTS PERCENTAGE %

A Yearly - -

B Half yearly 32 24

C Quarterly 94 69

D Monthly 9 7

E Rarely - -

Total 135 100

4.1.17 Figure showing the health checkup for workers

53
INFERENCE:
In the survey, more than one-fifth of the respondents say that the company provides
health check-up half yearly and more than three-fifth of the respondents respond that the
company provides health check-up quarterly and less than one-fifth respondents says that the
company provides health check-up monthly. No respondents say that the health check-up was
provided yearly or rarely.

4.1.18 Table showing the machines maintained properly

S NO RANGE NO. OF RESPONDENTS PERCENTAGE %

A Always 4 3

B Sometimes 54 40

C Often 63 47

D Rarely 14 10

E Not at all - -

Total 135 100

4.1.18 Figure showing the machines maintained properly

54
INFERENCE:
In the survey, only very few respondents say that always they are maintaining the
machines properly and two-fifth of the respondents respond that sometimes they are maintaining
the machines properly and more than two-fifth respondents says often they are maintaining the
machines properly and less than one-fifth of the respondents says rarely they are maintaining the
machines properly.

4.1.19 Table showing the accidents happened

S NO RANGE NO. OF RESPONDENTS PERCENTAGE %

A Always 4 3

B Sometimes 23 17

C Often 81 60

D Rarely 27 20

E Not at all - -

Total 135 100

4.1.19 Figure showing the accidents happened

55
INFERENCE:
In the survey, only very few respondents say that always the accidents are happened and
less than one-fifth of the respondents respond that sometimes the accidents are happened and
three-fifth respondents says often the accidents are happened and one-fifth of the respondents
says rarely the accidents are happened.

4.1.20 Table showing the ranking accidents by their occurrence

S NO RANGE NO. OF RESPONDENTS PERCENTAGE %

A Fallen from height 4 3

B Finger injuries 50 37

C Electric shocks 63 47

D Fire accidents 18 13

Total 135 100

4.1.20 Figure showing the ranking accidents by their occurrence

56
INFERENCE:
In the survey, only very few respondents ranked fallen from height are occurred and less
than two-fifth of the respondents ranked finger injuries are occurred but more than two-fifth of
the respondents ranked electric shocks are happened and less than one-fifth of the respondents
ranked fire accidents are happened.

4.1.21 Table showing the company providing safety requirements

S NO RANGE NO. OF RESPONDENTS PERCENTAGE %

A YES 99 73

B NO 36 27

Total 135 100

4.1.21 Figure showing the company providing safety requirements

57
INFERENCE:
In the survey, nearly four-fifth of the respondents say that the company is providing
safety requirements for work and more than one-fifth of the respondents only respond that the
company is not providing any safety requirements for work.

4.1.22 Table showing the safety committee formed

S NO RANGE NO. OF RESPONDENTS PERCENTAGE %

A YES 41 31

B NO 94 69

Total 135 100

4.1.22 Figure showing the safety committee formed

58
INFERENCE:
In the survey, nearly two-fifth of the respondents respond that the safety committee is
formed in the company but more than three-fifth of the respondents say that the safety committee
is not formed in the company.

4.1.23 Table showing the safety inspections held in the company

S NO RANGE NO. OF RESPONDENTS PERCENTAGE %

A Yearly 27 20

B Monthly 90 67

C Weekly 18 13

D Daily - -

E Rarely - -

Total 135 100

59
4.1.23 Figure showing the safety inspections held in the company

INFERENCE:
In the survey, one-fifth of the respondents say that the safety inspections are held yearly
once and more than three-fifth of the respondents respond that the safety inspections are held
monthly once and less than one-fifth respondents says that the safety inspections are held weekly
once. No respondents say that the safety inspections are held daily or rarely in the company.

4.1.24 Table showing the satisfactory level of workers towards health and safety measures

S NO RANGE NO. OF RESPONDENTS PERCENTAGE %

A Very much satisfied - -

B Satisfied 117 87

C Neutral 18 13

D Dissatisfied - -

E Highly dissatisfied - -

Total 135 100

4.1.24 Figure showing the satisfactory level of workers towards health and safety measures

60
INFERENCE:
In the survey, more than four-fifth of the respondents say that they are simply satisfied
with the health and safety measures adopted in the company and less than one-fifth of the
respondents say that they have no idea about the satisfaction level from health and safety
measures. No respondents are very much satisfied and dissatisfied with the health and safety
measures adopted in the company.

4.1.25 Table showing the role of management in implementing health and safety

S NO RANGE NO. OF RESPONDENTS PERCENTAGE %

A Excellent - -

B Best 54 40

C Better 67 50

D Good 14 10

E Poor - -

Total 135 100

4.1.25 Figure showing the role of management in implementing health and safety

61
INFERENCE:
In the survey, two-fifth of the respondents say that the role of management in
implementing health and safety is best and more than two-fifth of the respondents say that the
role of management is better and less than one-fifth of the respondents respond that the role of
management in implementing health and safety is good. No respondents say that the role of
management in implementing health and safety is excellent or poor.

4.2 CHI-SQUARE ANALYSIS:


4.2.1 Analysis between awareness of workers and Health and safety training.

Null hypothesis (H0): There is a relationship existing between the awareness of workers and the
Health and safety training.
Alternative hypothesis (H1): There is no relationship existing between the awareness of
workers and the Health and safety training.

4.2.1.1 Table showing the awareness of workers and health and safety training.

Yes No Total
Number Of
63 72 135
Respondents
72 63 135

62
Total 135 135 270

FORMULA:

χ2 = ∑ (Oi -Ei )2 / Ei

Where,
O = Observed Frequency
E = Expected Frequency = Row Total x Column Total
Grand Total
i = 1, 2, 3………n

4.2.1.2 Table showing the analysis between awareness of workers and health and safety
training.

Oi Ei (Oi – Ei) (Oi – Ei)2 (Oi – Ei)2/ Ei

63 67.5 -4.5 20.25 0.3

72 67.5 4.5 20.25 0.3

72 67.5 4.5 20.25 0.3

63 67.5 -4.5 20.25 0.3

Total 1.2

Degree of freedom:
= (r - 1) (c -1)
= (2-1) (2-1)
=1
63
χ2 Table value at 5% Level of significance = 3.841
χ2 Calculated value = 1.2
χ2 CV < χ2 TV
So, H0 is accepted, H1 is rejected.

INFERENCE:
Hence, there is a relationship between the awareness of workers and the Health and safety
training.

4.2.2 Analysis between effective disciplinary procedures and safe work environment.

Null hypothesis (H0): There is a relationship existing between the effective disciplinary
procedures and safe working environment.
Alternative hypothesis (H1): There is no relationship existing between the effective disciplinary
procedures and safe working environment.

4.2.2.1 Table showing the effective disciplinary procedures and protected working
environment.
Strongly Strongly
Agree Neutral Disagree Total
Agree Disagree
Number Of
76 59 0 0 0 135
Respondents
54 45 36 0 0 135

Total 130 104 36 0 0 270

64
FORMULA:

χ2 = ∑ (Oi -Ei )2 / Ei

Where,
O = Observed Frequency
E = Expected Frequency = Row Total x Column Total
Grand Total
i = 1, 2, 3………n

4.2.2.2 Table showing the analysis between effective disciplinary procedures and protected
working environment.

Oi Ei (Oi – Ei) (Oi – Ei)2 (Oi – Ei)2/ Ei


76 65 11 121 1.861
59 52 7 49 0.942
0 18 -18 324 18
0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0
54 65 -11 121 1.861
45 52 -7 49 0.942
36 18 18 324 18
0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0
Total 41.606

Degree of freedom:
65
= (r - 1) (c -1)
= (2-1) (5-1)
=4

χ2 Table value at 5% Level of significance = 9.488


χ2 Calculated value = 41.606
χ2 CV > χ2 TV
So, H0 is rejected, H1 is accepted.

INFERENCE:
Hence, there is no relationship existing between the effective disciplinary procedures and safe
working environment.

4.3 CORRELATION ANALYSIS:


Analysis between the maintenance of machines and the accidents happened.
X – Maintenance of machines.
Y – Accidents happened.

4.3.1 Table showing the analysis between the maintenance of machines and the accidents
happened.

X Y X2 Y2 XY

4 4 16 16 16

54 23 2916 529 1242

63 81 3969 6561 5103

14 27 196 729 378

0 0 0 0 0

135 135 7097 7835 6739

66
FORMULA:

r= (N ∑xy - ∑x ∑y)
√ (N ∑x2 – (∑x) 2) √ (N ∑y2 – (∑y) 2)

= 5(6739) – (135) (135) / √ (5 (7097) – (18225)) √ (5 (7835) – (18225))


= 0.813

INFERENCE:

Correlation for the maintenance of machines and the VALUE RESULT


accidents happened. 0.813 GOOD

4.4 SPEARMAN’S RANK CORRELATION:


Analysis between the health check-up provided and stress towards work.
X - Health check-up provided.
Y - Stress towards work.

4.4.1 Table showing the analysis between the health check-up provided and stress towards
work.

X Y R1 R2 D = R1 – R2 D2

0 9 4.5 3.5 1 1

32 45 2 2 0 0

94 72 1 1 0 0

9 9 3 3.5 -0.5 0.25

0 0 4.5 5 -0.5 0.25

TOTAL 1.5

67
FORMULAE:
When the ranks are equal,

r = 1 – 6 (∑D2 + 1/12(m3 – m) +……)


N (N2 – 1)
N = Number of values in a group.
m = Number of times a value is repeated.

Therefore,
r = 1 – 6 (1.5 + 1/12(23 – 2) + 1/12(23 - 2)
5 (52 – 1)
= 1 – 0.125
= 0.875

INFERENCE:

VALUE RESULT
Health check-up provided and stress towards work.
0.875 GOOD

68
4.5 ANOVA:
Analysis between the health and safety measures provided to the workers.

Null hypothesis (H0): There is no significant difference existing between the health and safety
measures provided to the workers.
Alternative hypothesis (H1): There is a significant difference existing between the health and
safety measures provided to the workers.

4.5.1 Table showing the number of respondents and the workings.

69
Strongly Strongly
MEASURES Agree Neutral Disagree TOTAL TOTAL
agree disagree
First-Aid 113 22 0 0 0 135 13253

Temperature 32 103 0 0 0 135 11633

Enough space 22 81 32 0 0 135 8069

Maintaining
22 77 36 0 0 135 7709
latrines, urinals
Training before
handling 63 50 22 0 0 135 6953
machines

TOTAL 252 333 90 0 0


675
TOTAL 18730 26083 2804 0 0
47617

1. Correction factor = (T1) 2 / n = (675) 2 /25 = 18225


2. Sum of the squares of columns:
SSC = ∑ (Cj) 2 / R – CF
= [(252)2 / 5 + (333)2 / 5 + (90)2 / 5 + (0)2 / 5 + (0)2 / 5] – 18225
= 18274
Degree of freedom = C – 1
=5–1
=4
3. Sum of the squares of total:
SST = T2 – CF

70
= 47617 – 18225
= 29392
4. Sum of the squares of residual error:
SSE = SST – SSC
= 29392 – 18274
= 11118
Degree of freedom = C (R – 1)
= 5 (5 – 1)
= 5*4
= 20

4.5.2 Table showing the analysis of variance.

Sources of variation Sum of squares Degree of freedom Mean sum of squares

Between columns 18274 4 4568.5

Residual error 11118 20 556

Total 29392 24

F calculated value = 4568.5 / 556 = 8.217


Degree of freedom (4, 20) and Level of significance = 5%
F table value = 2.87
Fcal < Ftab = H0 is accepted
Here, the calculated value is greater than the table value. Hence we reject the null hypothesis
(Ho) and accept the alternative hypothesis (H1).

INFERENCE:
There is a significant difference existing between the health and safety measures provided to the
workers.
71
5.1 FINDINGS

5.1.1 Percentage Analysis:


1) 53% of the respondents are having the age limit of 31 – 35 years and 27% of the
respondents are comes under the age limit of 26 – 30 years and 20% of the respondents
are falls between the age limit of 36 – 40 years.
2) 47% of the respondents are having the experience of 11 – 15 years and 43% of the
respondents are having the experience of 6 – 10 years and only 10% of the respondents
are having the experience of 16 – 20 years.

72
3) 53% of the respondents respond that they are not aware of the health and safety measures
and only 47% of the respondents are aware of the health and safety measures.
4) 64% of the respondents say that they have no effective arrangements for communicating
health and safety matters; only 36% agrees that they have effective arrangements for
communicating health and safety matters.
5) 53% of the respondents say that the company is providing medical facilities but 47% of
the respondents respond that the company is not providing medical facilities to the
workers.
6) 53% of the respondents respond that they attended the health and safety training
programme but 47% of the respondents says that they are not attended any health and
safety training programme conducted in the company.
7) 56% of the respondents respond that the training is offered once in 3 years and 24% of
the respondents respond that the training is offered once in 5 years and 20% of the
respondents say that the training is offered yearly once.
8) 50% of the respondents respond that sometimes they have proper drinking water and 33%
of the respondents says often they have proper drinking water and 10% of the
respondents say that always they have proper drinking water and 7% of the respondents
says rarely they have proper drinking water facility inside the work place.
9) 53% of the respondents says often they have stress and 33% of the respondents respond
that sometimes they have stress and 7% of the respondents say that always they have
stress and only 7% of the respondents says rarely they have stress towards work.
10) 84% of the respondents strongly agree that they are aware about the first aid activities
and contents of the first aid kit and 16% of the respondents simply agree that they are
aware about the first aid activities and contents of the first aid kit.
11) 56% of the respondents strongly agree that the company implements effective
disciplinary procedures and 44% of the respondents simply agree that the company
implements effective disciplinary procedures.
12) 76% of the respondents simply agree that the working temperature is reasonable
to work and 24% of the respondents strongly agree that the working temperature is
reasonable to work.

73
13) 60% of the respondents simply agree that they have enough space to work and
24% of the respondents have no idea about the overcrowding and 16% of the respondents
strongly agree that they have enough space to work.
14) 57% of the respondents simply agree that the latrines and urinals are cleaned and
maintained properly and 27% of the respondents have no idea about the maintenance of
latrines and urinals and 16% of the respondents strongly agree that the latrines and urinals
are cleaned and maintained properly.
15) 40% of the respondents strongly agree that their environment is safe to work and
33% of the respondents simply agree that their environment is safe to work and 27% of
the respondents say that they have no idea about the safe working environment.
16) 47% of the respondents strongly agree that enough training is given to the
workers and 37% of the respondents simply agree that enough training is given to the
workers and 16% of the respondents say that they have no idea about enough the training
given to the workers.
17) 69% of the respondents respond that the company provides health check-up
quarterly and 24% of the respondents say that the company provides health check-up half
yearly and 7% of the respondents say that the company provides health check-up
monthly.
18) 47% of the respondents says often they are maintaining the machines properly and
40% of the respondents respond that sometimes they are maintaining the machines
properly and only 10% of the respondents says rarely they are maintaining the machines
properly and 3% of the respondents say that always they are maintaining the machines
properly.
19) 60% of the respondents say often the accidents are happened and 20% of the
respondents say rarely the accidents are happened and 17% of the respondents respond
that sometimes the accidents are happened and only 3% of the respondents say that
always the accidents are happened.
20) 47% of the respondents ranked electric shocks are happened and 37% of the
respondents ranked finger injuries are occurred and 13% of the respondents ranked fire
accidents are happened and only 3% of the respondents ranked fallen from height are
occurred.

74
21) 73% of the respondents say that the company is providing safety requirements for
work but 27% of the respondents respond that the company is not providing any safety
requirements for work.
22) 69% of the respondents say that the safety committee is not formed in the
company and only 31% of the respondents respond that the safety committee is formed in
the company.
23) 67% of the respondents respond that the safety inspections are held monthly once
and 20% of the respondents say that the safety inspections are held yearly once and 13%
of the respondents say that the safety inspections are held weekly once.
24) 87% of the respondents say that they are simply satisfied with the health and
safety measures and 13% of the respondents say that they have no idea about the
satisfaction level from health and safety measures.
25) 50% of the respondents say that the role of management is better and 40% of the
respondents say that the role of management is best and 10% of the respondents respond
that the role of management in implementing health and safety is good.

5.1.2 Statistical Analysis:


5.1.2.1 Chi - Square Analysis:
1) There is a relationship between the awareness of workers and the Health and safety
training.
2) There is no relationship existing between the effective disciplinary procedures and safe
working environment.

5.1.2.2 Correlation:
Since the correlation value is 0.813, there is a high degree of positive relationship that
exists between the maintenance of machines and the accidents happened.
5.1.2.3 Spearman’s Rank Correlation:
Since the correlation value is 0.875, the relationship that exists between the health check-
up provided and stress towards work is good.

75
5.1.2.4 Anova:
There is a significant difference existing between the health and safety measures provided
to the workers.

5.2 SUGGESTIONS

1) The company has to create the awareness for the workers regarding health and safety.
2) They have to provide effective arrangements to the workers for communicating their
health and safety matters.
3) It is better to provide frequent health and safety training, atleast once in a year.

76
4) The company has to provide enough drinking water facility available at all the time.
5) The management has to take necessary steps to reduce the stress level of the workers.
6) Orientation programmes can be conducted to make the workers to feel that their work
environment is safe to work.
7) The maintenance department has to maintain the machines properly to reduce lead-time.
8) Proper training has to be given to the workers to avoid frequent accidents.
9) Meditation practices can be given to avoid electric shocks, finger injuries etc. due to lack
of concentration.
10) Safety committee has to be formed to monitor the health and safety issues.
11) The company has to conduct the regular inspections to ensure higher level of
safety in the workplace.
12) Cordial relationship has to be maintained between the management and the
workers to implement the health and safety policies and measures in a smooth manner.

5.3 CONCLUSION

It is revealed from the study that, the health and safety measures adopted in Wheels India
ltd, Padi, Chennai are provided to the workers according to the provisions of the factories act. It
reveals that the awareness of the workers about health and safety in the workplace is inadequate.
Also repeated accidents like electric shocks, finger injuries are occurred in the workplace.

77
Suitable ideas were suggested to avoid those accidents and to improve the health and safety
measures. The role of management in implementing health and safety in the organization is very
effective. Most of the workers were satisfied with the health and safety measures adopted in the
company. If the company implements effective disciplinary procedures; it will help the company
to go with their policies and also to maintain health and safety in the organization.

BIBLIOGRAPHY

Books:
1) Arun monappa (1994), “Industrial relations”, 8th edition.
2) Ajay garg (1995), “Labour laws”, 8 th revised edition.
3) C.B.Mamoria, Satish mamoria, Gankar (2009), “Dynamics of industrial relations”, 19th
edition.
78
4) C.B.Guptha (2000), “Human Resource management".
5) C.R.Kothari (1997), “Research methodology- methods and techniques”, 2nd edition.
6) Joseph M Putti (1980), “The management of securing and maintaining the
workforce”, S Chand & Co Ltd. Ram Nagar, New Delhi.
7) O.R.Krishnaswami, M.Ranganatham, “Methodology of research in social sciences”,
Himalaya publishing house.
8) P.N.Arora, S.Arora, "Statistics for management" Himalaya publishing house.
9) Richard I. Levin, David S. Rubin (2002), “Statistics for Management”, 7th edition.
10) Sewa singh chauhan (1993), “Labour welfare administration in India”, 1st
edition.

Websites:
1) www.hr.com

2) www.humanresources.about.com

3) www.ilo.com

4) www.britannica.com

5) www.definition-info.com

References:
1) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20106469
2) http://journals.lww.com/joem/Abstract/2009/09000/A_Systematic_Review_of_Occupatio
nal_Health_and.6.aspx
3) http://www.ehjournal.net/content/8/1/47
4) http://jech.bmj.com/content/63/7/521.abstract

79
5) http://www.emeraldinsight.com/Insight/viewContentItem.do;jsessionid=9F2CDBC6B511
1CA6756D2D26B9121610?contentType=Article&contentId=1718276
6) http://www.emeraldinsight.com/Insight/viewContentItem.do?
contentType=Article&contentId=1728145
7) http://jech.bmj.com/content/61/Suppl_2/ii39.abstract
8) http://occmed.oxfordjournals.org/cgi/content/abstract/57/6/449
9) http://oem.bmj.com/content/63/9/608.abstract
10) http://oem.bmj.com/content/60/1/43.abstract
11) http://jech.bmj.com/content/55/5/316.abstract
12) http://www.monash.edu.au/muarc/reports/muarc166.html
13) http://cat.inist.fr/?aModele=afficheN&cpsidt=1519328
14) http://ethics.iit.edu/NanoEthicsBank/popular_search.php?
cmd=search&words=workplace+safety&mode=normal
15) http://oem.bmj.com/content/54/6/367.abstract
16) http://www.dol.govt.nz/publication-view.asp?ID=53
17) http://www.cdc.gov/niosh/docs/2007-123/pdfs/2007-123.pdf
18) http://cohesion.rice.edu/CentersAndInst/ICON/emplibrary/Phase%20I
%20Report_UCSBICON%20Final.pdf
19) http://www.icohweb.org/newsletter/icoh_newsletter_2004_04.pdf
20) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pu bmed/19030766?dopt=Abstract

INTERVIEW SCHEDULE
1) Name (Optional) :

2) Age
(a) Below 25 (b) 26-30 (c) 31-35 (d) 36-40 (e) Above 40

80
3) Experience (in years)
(a) Below 5 (b) 6-10 (c) 11-15 (d) 16-20 (e) Above 20

4) Are you aware of the health and safety measures adopted in the company?
(a) Yes (b) No

5) Do you have effective arrangements for communicating health and safety matters?
(a) Yes (b) No

6) Does the company provide medical facility to the workers?


(a) Yes (b) No

7) Have you attended any health and safety training in your company?
(a) Yes (b) No

8) How frequent training is offered in the company?


(a) Once in 5 year (b) once in 3 year (c) yearly once (d) Monthly (e) Rarely

9) Do you have proper drinking water facility inside your work place?
(a) Always (b) Sometimes (c) Often (d) Rarely (e) Not at all

10) Do you have any stress towards work?


(a) Always (b) Sometimes (c) Often (d) Rarely (e) Not at all

81
Q.NO PARAMETERS STRONGLY STRONGLY
AGREE AGREE NEUTRAL DISAGREE DISAGREE

Do you know the first aid


11) activities and contents of the
first aid kit?
The company implements
effective disciplinary
12)
procedure to maintain health
and safety?
The working temperature is
13)
reasonable to work?
Do you have enough space to
14)
work?
The latrines and urinals are
15) cleaned and maintained
properly?
Do you think that your
16)
environment is safe to work?
Is enough training given to the
17) workers before handling the
machines?

18) How often the company provide health checkup for workers?
(a) Yearly (b) Half yearly (c) Quarterly (d) Monthly (e) Rarely

19) Are the machines maintained properly?


(a) Always (b) Sometimes (c) Often (d) Rarely (e) Not at all

20) How often the accidents happen?


(a) Always (b) Sometimes (c) Often (d) Rarely (e) Not at all

21) Rank the accidents by their occurrence?

82
ACCIDENTS RANKING
Fallen from height
Finger injuries
Electric shocks
Fire accidents

22) Are they providing the safety requirements for work?


(a) Yes (b) No

23) Whether safety committee formed in the company?


(a) Yes (b) No

24) How often the safety inspections are held in your company?
(a) Yearly (b) Monthly (c) Weekly (d) Daily (e) Rarely

25) Satisfactory level of the health and safety measures taken in the company?
(a) Very much satisfied (b) Satisfied (c) Neutral (d) Dissatisfied (e) Highly dissatisfied

26) The role of management in implementing health and safety?


(a) Excellent (b) Best (c) Better (d) Good (e) poor

OPINIONS AND SUGGESTIONS:

83