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Frenchsociologist Born April 15, 1858(1858-04-15) Épinal, France November 15, 1917(1917-11-15) Died (aged 59) Paris, France
David Émile Durkheim (French pronunciation: [emildyʁkɛm]) (April 15, 1858 – November 15, 1917) was a Frenchsociologist. He formally established the academic discipline and, with Karl Marx and Max Weber, is commonly cited as the principal architect of modern social science.
Durkheim set up the first European department of sociology at the University of Bordeaux in 1895, publishing his Rules of the Sociological Method. In 1896, he established the journal L'AnnéeSociologique. Durkheim's seminal monograph, Suicide (1897), a study of suicide rates amongst Catholic and Protestant populations, pioneered modern social research and served to distinguish social science from psychology or political philosophy. Durkheim refined the positivism originally set forth by Auguste Comte, promoting epistemological realism and the hypothetico-deductive model. For him, sociology was the science of institutions, its aim being to discover structural "social facts". Durkheim was a major proponent of structural functionalism, a foundational perspective in both sociology and anthropology. In his view, social science should be purely holistic; that is, sociology should study phenomenas attributed to society at large, rather than being limited to the specific actions of individuals. Durkheim remained a dominant force in French intellectual life until his death in 1917, presenting numerous lectures and published works on a variety of topics, including social stratification, religion, law, education, and deviance. Marcel Mauss, a notable social anthropologist of the pre-war era, was his nephew. Durkheimian terms such as "collective conscience" have since entered the popular discourse.
1.1 Childhood and education 1.2 Academic career 2.1 Theoretical foundations of sociology 2.2 Social facts 2.3 Method and objectivity 3.1 Education 3.2 Crime 3.3 Law 3.4 Suicide 3.5 Religion
2 Theories and ideas
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3 Sociological studies
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• • • • •
4 See also 5 Selected works 6 References 7 Further reading 8 External links
and some were blood relations. a classicist with a social scientific outlook. As Durkheim indicated in several essays. clear and simple ideas of the Cartesian method. At the ENS. and he finished second to last in his graduating class when he aggregated in philosophy in 1882. Thus in 1885 he decided to leave for Germany. Durkheim found humanistic studies uninteresting. where he studied sociology in Marburg. he read Auguste Comte and Herbert Spencer.  Academic career . While Durkheim chose not to follow in the family tradition. The entering class that year was one of the most brilliant of the nineteenth century and many of his classmates. such as Jean Jaurès and Henri Bergson would go on to become major figures in France's intellectual history. some scholars have argued that Durkheim's thought is a form of secularized Jewish thought. complex things. Much of his work was dedicated to demonstrating that religious phenomena stemmed from social rather than divine factors. At an early age. his father. Durkheim studied under the direction of Numa Denis Fustel de Coulanges. Durkheim entered the ÉcoleNormaleSupérieure (ENS) in 1879. while others argue that proving the existence of a direct influence of Jewish thought on Durkheim's achievements is difficult or impossible. At the same time. There was no way that a man of Durkheim's views could receive a major academic appointment in Paris. The exact influence of Jewish thought on Durkheim's work remains uncertain. he did not sever ties with his family or with the Jewish community. in sharp contrast to the more abstract. and wrote his Latin dissertation on Montesquieu. Many of his most prominent collaborators and students were Jewish. Berlin and Leipzig. Durkheim himself would lead a completely secular life. coming from a long line of devout French Jews. This meant the first of many conflicts with the French academic system. it was in Leipzig that he learned to appreciate the value of empiricism and its language of concrete. grandfather. A precocious student. which had no social science curriculum at the time. Biography  Childhood and education Durkheim was born in Épinal in Lorraine. Thus Durkheim became interested in a scientific approach to society very early on in his career. he decided not to follow in his family's rabbinical footsteps. and great-grandfather had been rabbis.
a case study which provided an example of what the sociological monograph might look like. a Jew and a staunch supporter of the Third Republic with a sympathy towards socialism.A collection of Durkheim's courses on the origins of socialism (1896). In 1892 he published The Division of Labour in Society. he published Suicide. and Italian for the journal. France's defeat in the Franco-Prussian War led to the fall of the regime of Napoleon III. There he taught both pedagogy and sociology (the latter had never been taught in France before). Durkheim's interest in social phenomena was spurred on by politics. From this position Durkheim helped reform the French school system and introduced the study of social science in its curriculum. as many people considered a vigorously nationalistic approach necessary to rejuvenate France's fading power. a situation which galvanized him politically. This in turn resulted in a backlash against the new secular and republican rule. In 1897. in 1928. his controversial beliefs that religion and morality could be explained in terms purely of social interaction earned him many critics. . which had just started France's first teacher's training center. Marcel Mauss. In 1898 he founded the journal L'AnnéeSociologique to publish and publicize the work of what was. his doctoral dissertation and fundamental statement of the nature of human society and its development. The Dreyfus affair of 1894 only strengthened his activist stance. and founded the first European department of sociology at the University of Bordeaux. was thus in the political minority. which was then replaced by the Third Republic. a manifesto stating what sociology is and how it ought to be done. In 1895 he published Rules of the Sociological Method. Durkheim was familiar with several foreign languages and reviewed academic papers in German. edited and published by his nephew. However. by then. Durkheim was one of the founders in using quantitative methods in criminology during his suicide case study. a growing number of students and collaborators (this is also the name used to refer to the group of students who developed his sociological program). Durkheim traveled to Bordeaux in 1887. Durkheim. The 1890s were a period of remarkable creative output for Durkheim. English.
Finally. His leftism was always patriotic rather than internationalist — he sought a secular. the generation of students that Durkheim had trained were now being drafted to serve in the army. But the coming of the war and the inevitable nationalist propaganda that followed made it difficult to sustain this already nuanced position. It was also in this year that he published his last major work. rational form of French life.  Theories and ideas Sociology Portal Theory and History Positivism · Antipositivism Functionalism · Conflict theory Middle-range · Mathematical Critical theory · Socialization Structure and agency Research methods . Despite what some considered. André. his reluctance to give in to simplistic nationalist fervor (combined with his Jewish background) made him a natural target of the now-ascendant French Right. The outbreak of World War I was to have a tragic effect on Durkheim's life. The Elementary Forms of Religious Life. Because French universities are technically institutions for training secondary schoolteachers. Even more seriously. Durkheim consolidated his institutional power by 1912 when he was permanently assigned the chair and renamed it the chair of education and sociology. died on the war front in December 1915 — a psychological blow from which Durkheim never recovered.By 1902 Durkheim had finally achieved his goal of attaining a prominent position in Paris when he became the chair of education at the Sorbonne. Emotionally devastated and overworked. Durkheim collapsed of a stroke in Paris in 1917 and now lies buried at the Cimetière du Montparnasse in Paris. Durkheim's own son. While Durkheim actively worked to support his country in the war. in the aftermath of the Dreyfus affair. and many of them perished in the trenches. to be a political appointment. this position gave Durkheim considerable influence — his lectures were the only ones that were mandatory for the entire student body.
 A second influence on Durkheim's view of society beyond Comte's positivism was the epistemological outlook called social realism. First. all realities are thus merely perceived: they do not exist independently of our perceptions. This view opposes other predominant philosophical perspectives such as empiricism and positivism. he agreed with Comte that the social sciences could become scientific only when they were stripped of their metaphysical abstractions and philosophical speculation. like Comte. and have no causal power in themselves. who effectively sought to extend and apply the scientific method found in the natural sciences to the social sciences. Although he never explicitly exposed it.Quantitative · Qualitative Computational · Ethnographic Topics and Subfields cities · class · crime · culture deviance · demography · education economy · environment · family gender · health · industry · internet knowledge · law · medicine politics · mobility · race & ethnicity rationalization · religion · science secularization · social networks social psychology · stratification Categories and lists [show] Journals · Publications · Outline List of sociologists · Index v•d•e  Theoretical foundations of sociology A fundamental influence on Durkheim's thought was the sociological positivism of Auguste Comte. he acknowledged that the only valid guide to objective knowledge was the scientific method. he accepted that the study of society was to be founded on an examination of facts. realism can be defined as a perspective which takes as its central point of departure the view that external social realities exist in the outer world and that these realities are independent of the individual's perception of them. According to empiricists. Second. Empiricists such as David Hume had argued that all realities in the outside world are products of human sense perception. as well as induce general scientific laws from the relationship among these facts. Third. a true social science should stress for empirical facts. Comte's positivism went a step further by claiming that scientific laws could be deduced from empirical . There were many points on which Durkheim agreed with the positivist thesis.  As an epistemology of science. According to Comte. Durkheim adopted a realist perspective in order to demonstrate the existence of social realities outside the individual and to show that these realities existed in the form of the objective relations of society.
these phenomena cannot be reduced to biological or psychological grounds.  Method and objectivity In his Rules of the Sociological Method (1895). an independent existence greater and more objective than the actions of the individuals that compose society. Durkheim was concerned primarily with how societies could maintain their integrity and coherence in the modern era. conditions and relates to the observer? According to Durkheim. but rather on the study of social facts. he hence sought to create one of the first rigorous scientific approaches to social phenomena. such as religious rituals or family norms. exists independently in society. while at the same time existing in its own right independent of its individual manifestations. observation must be as impartial and impersonal as possible.observations. Durkheim argued that social facts have. Durkheim claimed that sociology would not only discover "apparent" laws. such as suicide. social facts may thus also exercise coercive power on the various people composing society. or again. by reason of which they may control individual behaviors. from the very beginning. Thus unlike his contemporaries Ferdinand Tönnies and Max Weber. which can be discovered through a quantitative or experimental approach (Durkheim extensively relied on statistics). Unlike the facts studied in natural sciences. whether an individual person wants it or not. Sociology's task thus consists of discovering the qualities and characteristics of such social facts. a "social" fact thus refers to a specific category of phenomena: A social fact is every way of acting. Such social facts are endowed with a power of coercion. Being exterior to the individual person. According to Durkheim. every way of acting which is general throughout a given society.e. Along with Herbert Spencer. Durkheim expressed his will to establish a method that would guarantee sociology's truly scientific character. fixed or not. but would be able to discover the inherent nature of society. Individuals composing society do not directly cause suicide: suicide. sui generis.  Social facts Main article: Social fact Durkheim's work revolved around the study of social facts. but also in situations implying the presence of informal rules. as a social fact. and is thus sometimes seen as a precursor to functionalism. Whether a person "leaves" a society does not change anything to the fact that this society will still contain suicides. Hence even the most "individualistic" or "subjective" phenomena. would be regarded by Durkheim as objective social facts. Going beyond this. capable of exercising on the individual an external constraint. Throughout his career. by how they make society "work"). as it can sometimes be observed in the case of formal laws and regulations. he was one of the first people to explain the existence and quality of different parts of a society by reference to what function they served in maintaining the quotidian (i. he focused not on what motivates the actions of individuals (an approach associated with methodological individualism). One of the questions raised by the author concerns the objectivity of the sociologist: how may one study an object that. A social fact must always be studied according to its relation . even though a "perfectly objective observation" in this sense may never be attained. when things such as shared religious and ethnic background could no longer be assumed. Durkheim also insisted that society was more than the sum of its parts. To study social life in modern societies. a term he coined to describe phenomena that have an existence in and of themselves and are not bound to the actions of individuals.
maintain that concrete observation in remote parts of the world does not always lead to illuminating views on the past or even on the present. It has a similar hierarchy. To reinforce social solidarity ○ History: Learning about individuals who have done good things for the many makes an individual feel insignificant. expectations to the "outside world. Durkheim was interested in the way that education could be used to provide French citizens the sort of shared. Partially this was because he was professionally employed to train teachers. 3. rules. Durkheim did not intend to make venturesome and dogmatic generalizations while disregarding empirical observation. He did. To maintain division of labour. For him.  Crime . like many French scholars and the notable British anthropologist Sir James Frazer.  Sociological studies  Education This section does not cite any references or sources. This was not due to provincialism or lack of attention to the concrete. however. or missionaries. He claimed repeatedly that it is from a construction erected on the inner nature of the real that knowledge of concrete reality is obtained. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. ○ Pledging allegiance: Makes individuals feel part of a group and therefore less likely to break rules. though. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. he never undertook any fieldwork. that Durkheim traveled little and that. travelers. at times with disapproval and amazement by non-French social scientists. Durkheim argued that education has many functions: 1. ○ School sorts students into skill groups." It trains young people to fulfill roles.with other social facts. never according to the individual who studies it. facts had no intellectual meaning unless they were grouped into types and laws. encouraging students to take up employment in fields best suited to their abilities. and he used his ability to shape curriculum to further his own goals of having sociology taught as widely as possible. 2. To maintain social role ○ School is a society in miniature. (April 2009) Durkheim was also interested in education. It has been noted. Sociology should therefore privilege comparison rather than the study of singular independent facts. It was to this end that he also proposed the formation of professional groups to serve as a source of solidarity for adults. secular background that would be necessary to prevent anomie in modern societies. The vast information Durkheim studied on the aboriginal tribes of Australia and New Guinea and on the Inuit was all collected by other anthropologists. He thus constructed concepts such as the sacred and totemism exactly in the same way that Karl Marx developed the concept of class. a knowledge not perceived by observation of the facts from the outside. More broadly.
suicide) are based on aggregate statistics (the suicide rate among Protestants and Catholics). Second. According to Durkheim. in his view. Catholic society has normal levels of integration while Protestant society has low levels.. is the basis of human rights and of the values of individual human dignity and individual autonomy.  Law Beyond the specific study of crime. diverging views have contested whether Durkheim's work really contained an ecological fallacy. He believed that crime is "bound up with the fundamental conditions of all social life" and serves a social function. Durkheim explores the differing suicide rates among Protestants and Catholics. Durkheim took most of his data from earlier researchers. Van Poppel and Day (1996) have advanced that differences in suicide rates between Catholics and Protestants were explicable entirely in terms of how deaths were categorized between the two social groups.. law (both civil and criminal) is an expression and guarantee of society's fundamental values. crime [can thus be] a useful prelude to reforms. In his early work he saw types of law. which for Durkheim are not moral stances at all. and is often mentioned as a classic sociological study. notably Adolph Wagner and Henry Morselli. who were much more careful in generalizing from their own data. otherwise. criminal law and punishment. is often misleading. explaining micro events in terms of macro properties. arguing that stronger social control among Catholics results in lower suicide rates. Durkheim was deeply interested in the study of law and its social effects in general. individual originality must be able to express itself. distinguished as repressive versus restitutive law (characterised by their sanctions).." In this sense he saw crime as being able to release certain social tensions and so have a cleansing or purging effect in society. Individualism..a value system that is. and it would too easily congeal into an immutable form. 1895).Durkheim's views on crime were a departure from conventional notions. Many of Durkheim's closest followers. Despite its limitations. such as Marcel Mauss. He stated that crime implies. First. but that in certain cases it directly proposes these changes.g. "not only that the way remains open to necessary change. In the later Durkheimian view. while "sudden deaths" or "deaths from . as is shown by examples of Simpson's paradox. For instance. To make progress. no-one would dare to criticize it. Paul Fauconnet and Paul Huvelin also specialised in or contributed to the sociological study of law. Later.. probably the only one universally appropriate to modern conditions of social solidarity. However. however. in this sense. This type of inference. he emphasised the significance of law as a sociological field of study in its own right.. There are at least two problems with this interpretation. Among classical social theorists he is one of the founders of the field of sociology of law. The study of law was therefore of interest to sociology for what it could reveal about the nature of solidarity. Durkheim emphasised the way that modern law increasingly expresses a form of moral individualism .[even] the originality of the criminal. Durkheim's study of suicide has been criticized as an example of the logical error termed the ecological fallacy. shall also be possible" (Durkheim. later researchers found that the Protestant-Catholic differences in suicide seemed to be limited to Germanspeaking Europe and thus may always have been the spurious reflection of other factors. It is to be sharply distinguished from selfishness and egoism.  Suicide In Suicide (1897). Durkheim's work on suicide has influenced proponents of control theory. as a direct reflection of types of social solidarity. Indeed. Durkheim's conclusions about individual behaviour (e. He further stated that "the authority which the moral conscience enjoys must not be excessive.
 Some. For instance. Hence Durkheim would have committed an empirical rather than logical error. thus. Durkheim explains that this is a state of moral disorder where man's desires are limitless and. Anomic suicides are the product of moral deregulation and a lack of definition of legitimate aspirations through a restraining social ethic. where individual needs are seen as less important than the society's needs as a whole. Durkheim refers to this type of suicide as the result of "excessive individuation". This is symptomatic of a failure of economic development and division of labour to produce Durkheim's organic solidarity. The intensity of the current determines the volume of suicides (. emphasizing that "he intended his theory to explain variation among social environments in the incidence of suicide. He stated one exception. [which could be seen as] an independent [non-social] cause of suicide. people prefer to die than live in a prison with constant abuse and excessive regulation that prohibits them from pursuing their desires. and therefore tended to commit suicide on an increased basis. not the suicides of particular individuals. Durkheim stated that in an altruistic society there would be little reason for people to commit suicide. People do not know where they fit in within their societies.ill-defined or unspecified cause" would often be recorded as suicides among Protestants. particularly males. Those individuals who were not sufficiently bound to social groups (and therefore well-defined values. with less to bind and connect them to stable social norms and goals. Altruistic suicides occur in societies with high integration." More recent authors such as Berk (2006) have also questioned the micro-macro relations underlying Durkheim's work. traditions. this would not be the case for Catholics. namely when the individual is expected to kill themselves on behalf of society – a primary example being the soldier in military service. overlooks Durkheim's conception that these variables are the ones most likely to be effected by the larger social forces and without these forces suicide may not occur within such individuals. norms. Fatalistic suicides occur in overly oppressive societies. causing people to prefer to die than to carry on living within their society. committed suicide at higher rates than married people.. meaning that the individual becomes increasingly detached from other members of his community. They thus occur on the opposite integration scale as egoistic suicide. who. As individual interest would not be considered important. have claimed that Durkheim's only intent was to explain suicide sociologically within a holistic perspective. Durkheim stated that there are four types of suicide: • Egoistic suicides are the result of a weakening of the bonds that normally integrate individuals into the collectivity: in other words a breakdown or decrease of social integration. individual] variables such as depression.. An example Durkheim discovered was that of unmarried people. and goals) were left with little social support or guidance. his disappointments are infinite. Johnson (1965) and Gibbs (1968). Berk notices that Durkheim speaks of a "collective current" that reflects the collective inclination flowing down the channels of social organization.e. This is an extremely rare reason for people to take their own lives. such as Inkeles (1959). but a good example would be within a prison. which could impose meaning and order on the individual conscience. • • • .) Introducing psychological [i.
" Durkheim believed that people ordered the physical world. the clan. Rites of oblation. meaning that he thought of his study of society as dispassionate and scientific. Durkheim believed. His second purpose was to identify links between certain religions in different cultures. for example. Conclusion) to be found in all religions. imitation. Belief in souls. thereby distinguishing religion from magic. The totemic animal.spirits. Belief in supernatural realms and occurrences may not stem through all religions. 2. He argued that these five forms were communal experiences. either local or multi-local 4. just as society is inevitable when individuals live together as a group.  Religion This section does not cite any references or sources. He is famous for suggesting that "God is society. Durkheim thought that the model for relationships between people and the supernatural was the relationship between individuals and the community. adding to itmyths. In his article. More recently the subject has been narrowly defined as the study of religious institutions. What was the relationship between religion and capitalist society? These two issues were typically combined in the argument that industrial capitalism would undermine traditional religious commitment and thereby threaten the cohesion of society. and traditions. communion.a negative or ascetic cult within the religion 5. mythical personalities 3. commemoration or expiation. 'The Origin Of Beliefs' Émile Durkheim placed himself in the positivist tradition. Durkheim noted the effects of various crises on social aggregates – war. Religion is thus an inevitable. . All other religions. was the expression of the sacred and the original focus of religious activity because it was the emblem for a social group. images. he said. He was deeply interested in the problem of what held complex modern societies together. and the social world according to similar principles. Durkheim saw totemism as the most basic form of religion. Durkheim presented five elementary forms of religious life (The Elementary Forms of the Religious Life. It is in this belief system that the fundamental separation between the sacred and the profane is most clear. writ large. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. the study of religion was primarily concerned with two broad issues: 1. His underlying interest was to understand the existence of religion in the absence of belief in any religion's actual tenets. yet there is a clear division in different aspects of life. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed.These four types of suicide are based on the degrees of imbalance of two social forces: social integration and moral regulation. Religion. It was the individual’s way of becoming recognizable within an established society. Sacred/Profane division of the world. economic boom or disaster contributing to anomie. are outgrowths of this distinction. (May 2008) In classical sociology. from the more "primitive" to Judeo/Christian/Moslem. Durkheim’s first purpose was to identify the social origin of religion as he felt that religion was a source of camaraderie and solidarity. certain behaviours and physical things. was an expression of social cohesion. These are: 1. Belief in divinity. leading to an increase in altruism. How did religion contribute to the maintenance of social order? 2. the supernatural world. finding a common denominator. he argued.
Ch. in lieu of forefathers before who tried to replace the dying religions. but that the collapse of religion would not lead to a moral implosion. He also. boost spirit 4. confidence.e. to make livelier or vigorous. all those who adhere to them. as he argues that religion occurs in a social context. Durkheim believed that religion is ‘society divinised’. religion had been the cement of society—the means by which men had been led to turn from the everyday concerns in which they were variously enmeshed to a common devotion to sacred things. was. Disciplinary. vitalise. he argued. He also says that religious phenomena occur when a separation is made between the profane (the realm of everyday activities) and the sacred (the realm of the extraordinary and the transcendent)." (The Elementary Forms of the Religious Life. things set apart and forbidden--beliefs and practices which unite in one single moral community called a Church. happiness. Euphoric. a strong bond 3. i. "A religion is a unified system of beliefs and practices relative to sacred things. urged people to unite in a civic morality on the basis that we are what we are as a result of society. Cohesive.. Durkheim condensed religion into four major functions: 1. Vitalizing. these are different depending what man chooses them to be. bringing people together.In the past. well-being  See also • • • • • • • • • • • Anomie Antipositivism Collective consciousness Collective effervescence Normlessness Organic solidarity Positivism Social fact Social research Social structure Structural functionalism Montesquieu's contributions to the formation of social science (1892) The Division of Labour in Society (1893)  Selected works • • . Durkheim was specifically interested in religion as a communal experience rather than an individual one. favoured by anthropologists of religion today.” He saw religion as a mechanism that shored up or protected a threatened social order. An example of this is wine at communion. a good feeling. His definition of religion. He thought that religion had been the cement of society in the past. 1) Durkheim believed that “society has to be present within the individual. as it is not only wine but represents the blood of Christ. Book 1. forcing or administrating discipline 2.
translation of an Italian text entitled "La sociologia e ilsuodominioscientifico" The Elementary Forms of Religious Life (1912) Who Wanted War? (1914). (February 2008) 24. Chapter 1. he may have transformed his father's philosophical and moral concerns into something new. Sarah A. Routledge. published in L'AnnéeSociologique. 6. 1-2 10. ^ Simpson. Mueller. Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy (August Please help to improve this article by introducing more precise citations where appropriate." – Cf. 13. Ivan. ix 8. 1993. p. Sung Ho (2007).edu/entries/weber/ (Retrieved 17-02-2010) 2.stanford. Kenneth. ed. G. ^ Hayward.E.9 7. in collaboration with Ernest Denis Germany Above All (1915) Education and Sociology (1922) Sociology and Philosophy (1924) Moral Education (1925) Socialism (1928) Published posthumously:  References This article includes a list of references. J. Sociological Review. trans. ^Strenski.S." – . 1–70 Sociology and its Scientific Domain (1900). they must remain inaccessible to scientific description. George (Trans. "Solidarist Syndicalism: Durkheim and DuGuit". Durkheim. Emile Durkheim. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Vol. New York. ^ Gianfranco Poggi (2000). ^ Thompson. Émile  "The Rules of Sociological Method" 8th edition. vol. but its sources remain unclear because it has insufficient inline citations. 1. ^ "While Durkheim did not become a Rabbi. p. 8 (1960) 5. Durkheim. 9. Emile "The Division of Labour in Society" The Free Press. Google Print pp. Durkheim. Ralph Manheim (1960). but only types. Durkheim and the Jews of France. trans. 1964 edition). "Max Weber". If human societies cannot be classified. pp. 1. his version of sociology. Forerunners of Sociology. pp. 3. 1. Émile  "Montesquieu's Contribution to the Rise of Social Science" in Montesquieu and Rousseau.• • • • • • • • • • • • Rules of the Sociological Method (1895) On the Normality of Crime (1895) Suicide (1897) The Prohibition of Incest and its Origins (1897). 2007 entry) http://plato. pp. 4. Solovay and John M. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.) in Durkheim. ^ "Science cannot describe individuals. ^ ab Durkheim. George E. 2002. ^ Kim. Catlin (1938. ^ abc Gianfranco Poggi (2000). 1997.
Whitney. Durkheim. 113-136 29. Vol. Rowman& Littlefield. cognitive flexibility. 509 . and advanced information technologies. A. 17. 25. University of California. Deviance and Social Control. ^ Jones.) 1995. 79 12. ^ "Durkheim was the first to seriously use the comparative method correctly in the scientific sense" Cf.  28. ^ "Suicide [. Tom. 15 22. 433 20. 1994. 14. "Contextualization. N. 151. Nisbet (ed. ^ Gianfranco Poggi (2000)." in Susan Leigh Star (ed. ^ H. 19. ^ Martin. pp. The Ecological Fallacy. 434 21. SAGE. 27. ^ ab Morrison. ^Irzik. 1996. Conflict Sociology: Toward an Explanatory Science. McIntyre. 529 23. Robert Nisbet (1978). Stjepan Gabriel (1993). Boston: MIT press. 2002. 1975.) Émile Durkheim pp. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Émile Durkheim and the reformation of sociology. The Cultures of Computing. 16. Ken (2006): Marx. (Retrieved 14-06-2009) 24. 7–9. ^ Stark. ^ Martin. C. and hypertext: the convergence of interpretive theory. Readings in the Philosophy of Social Science. Ken (2006).. p. ^ Gianfranco Poggi (2000). Emile Durkheim: Law in A Moral Domain. cognitive psychology. Religion. Michael and Lee C. Google Print p. 3. pp. Google Print. Durkheim." Social Forces 60:496-514. Google Print p." Encyclopædia Britannica. 4 (Dec. 13. Robert Alun and Rand J. Roger (1999). Second edition. ^ ab "Émile Durkheim. "Causal Modeling: New Directions for Statistical Explanation". Michael and Lee C. Routledge. in Critical Assessments of Leading Sociologists. Google Print p. Paradigms and Postmodernity.Y. ^Cotterrell. Weber: formations of modern social thought. v. 1995. p. 1. Google Print. "The Enigma of Durkheim's Jewishness". Durkheim. p. W. "Sociology's One Law. S. chs. 8. ^ Morrison. Sociological Review Monograph Series. ^ Freedman. Boston: MIT press. Collins. A History of Sociological Analysis. 1994. Encyclopædia Britannica Online. 1965. 1987). Sociology and Organization Theory: Positivism. pp. Randall. McIntyre. p. 18." Hassard. and Nick Danigelis. 32 26. John. Durkheim. p. 149 15. p. British Centre for Durkheimian Studies. ^ Pickering. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Google Print p. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Cambridge University Press (ISBN 0521484588) Google Print p. Gurol and Eric Meyer. 1981. Stanford University Press. Basic Books.. 54. ^Bottomore. pp. 2. No. 2009. 2001. Rodney and William Sims Bainbridge. 152.. in R. David A. Readings in the Philosophy of Social Science. Selvin.Meštrović. ^ Gianfranco Poggi (2000). Spiro.: Academic Press. ^ Pope. F. "Durkheim's Suicide:Further Thoughts on a Methodological Classic". x. 37 11. Philosophy of Science.] is indeed the paradigm case of Durkheim's positivism: it remains the exemplar of the sociological application of statistics.
Bruce P. American Sociological Review. Giddens. Sociological Theory. Jack D. P. ^Dohrenwend. Social Problems (11th ed. ISBN 978-0521097123). Giddens. Altruism. pp. Merton. Anomie. Sociological Theory.. 1996). L. Emile Durkheim: Selected Writings. 78-79 36. B.. edited by R. Anthony (ed. ISBN 9780521842662). Cotterrell. MA: Allyn and Bacon (ISBN 0205547966). Roger (1999). Chicago: The University of Chicago Press (ISBN 9780226173368). Vol. and L. 1959). and Fatalism: A Conceptual Analysis of Durkheim's Types". Douglas. S. ^ Van Poppel. Martin. 1 (Mar. 2006). 34. ^ Berk. 24. Vol. Cotterrell. ISBN 9780205174805). ISBN 9780804738088). Bernard B.) (1986). No. 2006). Edinburgh University Press / Stanford University Press (ISBN 0804738084. Lemert. 1958. Essentials of Sociology: A Down-to-Earth Approach. "Egoism. D. Emile Durkheim: Justice. ^ abc Thompson. 473  Further reading • • • • • • • • • • Bellah. and Lincoln H. ^ Cf. New York: Basic Books. Susan Stedman (2001). 4 (Aug. and W. Bernard B." American Sociological Review. London: Cambridge University Press (ISBN 0521097126. 60 35." pp. ^ Berk. p. Review 23:14-147. Stanley D. Needham Heights. 24. Frans. Emile Durkheim: Law in a Moral Domain. No.. 1959. ^ Cf. 61. "Personality and Social Structure. ISBN 978-0745616162). The Social Meanings of Suicide. pp. (1996). 24. 249-76 in Sociological Today. Needham Heights. Cottrell. Kenneth. Durkheim Reconsidered. Morality and Politics. No. Anthony (ed.30. A. 30:875-86 33.Ashgate (ISBN 9780754627111). 32. 1965. Vol. Jones. (ed. Emile Durkheim. American Sociological Review. London: Tavistock Publications. p. "Macro-Micro Relationships in Durkheim's Analysis of Egoistic Suicide". Roger (ed. Princeton University Press (ISBN 978-0-691-02812-5). K. MA: Allyn and Bacon (ISBN 0205174809. 3 (Jun. p. No.) (1972). Johnson. "Durkheim's One Cause of Suicide. Vol. and Maxine Baca Zinn (1997). 1982.). (1973). Charles (2006). 1 (Mar. Henslin. ^ Cf. Robert N. Broom.. J. "A Test of Durkheim's Theory of Suicide-- Without Committing the Ecological Fallacy".) (1973). 109-111 37. Day. Cambridge: Polity Press (ISBN 0-7456-0131-6).) (2010). 500 31. Durkheim on Politics and the State. Durkheim's Ghosts: Cultural Logics and Social Things. T. Selected Writings." American Sociological. Polity (ISBN 074561616X. Gibbs. Eitzen. Emile Durkheim: On Morality and Society. Inkeles. "A Theory of Status Integration and Its Relationship to Suicide. James M. "Macro-Micro Relationships in Durkheim's Analysis of Egoistic Suicide". . Cambridge University Press (ISBN 0521842662.
Stjepan (1988). Solidarity and Schism: "The Problem of Disorder" in Durkheimian and Marxist Sociology. S. W. Tekiner. Theory and Science. S.• Lockwood. "German Idealist Foundations of Durkheim's Sociology and Teleology of Knowledge". Kenneth (2002).) (1975). a Historical and Critical Study. W. Pickering. F. F. Durkheim: Essays on Morals and Education. III. ISBN 9780415285308). Online publication. W. (2009). Oxford: Clarendon Press (ISBN 0198277172. Emile Durkheim and the Reformation of Sociology. (ISBN 0847678679) Pickering. Criminology: Theories.) Wadsworth/Thomson Learning (ISBN 049500572X. Thompson. Patterns. Rowan & Littlefield. Routledge&Kegan Paul (ISBN 0-7100-0321-8). Lukes.) Routledge (ISBN 0415285305. (ed. Durkheim on Religion. Siegel. 1.) (1979). Steven (1985). Emile Durkheim: His Life and Work. Durkheim's Sociology of Religion: Themes and Theories. and Typologies (7th ed. F. ISBN 9780495005728). Stanford University Press (ISBN 0804712832. S. Pickering. ISBN 9780804712835). The James Clarke & Co (ISBN 9780227172971). Emile Durkheim (2nd ed. Routledge&Kegan Paul (ISBN 0-7100-8108-1). • • • • • • • •  External links Find more about Émile Durkheim on Wikipedia's sister projects: Definitions from Wiktionary Images and media from Commons Learning resources from Wikiversity News stories from Wikinews Quotations from Wikiquote Source texts from Wikisource Textbooks from Wikibooks About Durkheim: • • • • The Durkheim pages (University of Chicago) Bibliography on Durkheim (McMaster University) Annotated bibliography on Durkheim and Religion (University of North Carolina) Review material for studying Émile Durkheim . Mestrovic. Larry J (2007). (ed. Deniz (2002). David (1992). ISBN 978-0198277170).
go to: http://classiques. E m i l e A l t e r n a t i v e n . including many unpublished essays.html P e r s o n d a t a D u r k h N e ai m m e.Online works: • • • • • • Moral Education Professional Ethics and Civic Morals (collection of lectures) Primitive Classification (with Marcel Mauss) Pragmatism and Sociology (collection of lectures) The Evolution of Educational Thought (selected writings) For all of Durkheim's works in French.ca/classiques/Durkheim_emile/durkheim.uqac.
i1 r8 t5 h8 P É l p a i c n e a l o .a m e s S h o r t d e s c r i p t i o n D A ap tr ei l o f1 5 b. f F r b a i n r c t e h .
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