HOUSING LOWENERGY EFFICIENT HOUSING IN THE LOW-INCOME SOUTH HOUSING SECTOR IN SOUTH AFRICA Project Document (revised

2008)

Danida Thubelisha Department of Housing
April 2008

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TABLE OF CONTENTS
LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS ................................................................................................................................................... IV 1. INTRODUCTION AND BACKGROUND TO THE PROJECT .............................................................................................. VI 2. OVERALL APPROACH: N2 GATEWAY HOUSING DEVELOPMENT AS THE FOCAL POINT................................................ VIII 3. OBJECTIVES & OUTPUTS....................................................................................................................................... VIII 4. ACTIVITIES ......................................................................................................................................................... IX 5. BUDGET ................................................................................................................................................................ XI 6. EXECUTIVE SUMMARY ........................................................................................................................................... XII 7. PROJECT DOCUMENT (REWRITTEN 2008).............................................................................................................. 13

7.1 National Socio-Economic Context............................................................................................................. 13 INSTITUTIONAL FRAMEWORK ................................................................................................................................. 15 8.1 Public Sector Institutions ........................................................................................................................... 15 9. REGULATORY FRAMEWORK................................................................................................................................... 18 9.1 Legislation and Policies............................................................................................................................. 18 10. SUSTAINABILITY & ENERGY EFFICIENCY PRIORITIES – A CASE FOR SWH IN LOW-INCOME HOUSING .................... 22 10.1 Energy Efficiency Strategy ........................................................................................................................ 22 10.2 SWH: N2 Gateway Application.................................................................................................................. 22 11. APPROPRIATE ENERGY EFFICIENT TECHNOLOGIES & APPROACHES .............................................................. 26 11.1 National Norms & Standards..................................................................................................................... 26 11.2 Appropriate Technologies ......................................................................................................................... 30 12. A PROCESS TO FOLLOW FOR ENERGY EFFICIENT HOUSING ................................................................................ 38 12.1 Application: N2 Gateway ........................................................................................................................... 38 13. FINANCE MECHANISMS..................................................................................................................................... 40 13.1 Government Subsidies .............................................................................................................................. 40 13.2 Financing mechanisms.............................................................................................................................. 41 14. COMMUNICATION AS A CRITICAL COMPONENT OF SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT ................................................... 45 14.1 Communication is Core to the Energy Efficiency Strategy ........................................................................ 45 14.2 Housing Consumer Education Framework................................................................................................ 45 14.3 Education as a Tool................................................................................................................................... 46 14.4 Status Quo ................................................................................................................................................ 46 15. RECOMMENDATIONS AND CONCLUSIONS .......................................................................................................... 47 15.1 Regulations on Energy Efficiency.............................................................................................................. 47 15.2 Enforcibility................................................................................................................................................ 47 15.3 Financing................................................................................................................................................... 47 15.4 Light Bulbs................................................................................................................................................. 47 15.5 A Uniform Regulatory System ................................................................................................................... 47 15.6 Local Government..................................................................................................................................... 48 15.7 Sustainable Settlements............................................................................................................................ 48 15.8 Identifying Actions and Opportunities........................................................................................................ 49 15.9 IEP and DSM............................................................................................................................................. 49 15.10 Energy efficiency and electrification .......................................................................................................... 49 15.11 Energy efficiency and transportation ......................................................................................................... 50 15.12 Thermal performance and integrated design............................................................................................. 50 15.13 Education, capacity building and skills training ......................................................................................... 51 15.14 Revised Norms and Standards ................................................................................................................. 51 15.15 A Case for Better Planning........................................................................................................................ 51 16. BIBLIOGRAPHY& REFERENCES ......................................................................................................................... 54 17. APPENDIX 1: CONSULTATIONS .......................................................................................................................... 56 17.1 Interviews .................................................................................................................................................. 56 17.2 Interview Focus ......................................................................................................................................... 57 18. APPENDIX 2: SUPPLIERS .................................................................................................................................. 72 18.2 List of other suppliers ................................................................................................................................ 72 19. APPENDIX 3: SOLAR WATER HEATING PRODUCTS ............................................................................................. 73 19.1 Solardome SA ........................................................................................................................................... 73 8.
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19.2 Sonpower .................................................................................................................................................. 73 19.3 ITS solar.................................................................................................................................................... 73 19.4 Sun power ................................................................................................................................................. 73 19.5 Frantel distribution..................................................................................................................................... 74 19.6 Gilder Geyser ............................................................................................................................................ 74 19.7 Atlantic Solar ............................................................................................................................................. 74 19.8 Solar max .................................................................................................................................................. 74 19.9 Extenda Summer....................................................................................................................................... 75 19.10 Solar beam................................................................................................................................................ 75 19.11 Suntank ..................................................................................................................................................... 76 19.12 Solien ........................................................................................................................................................ 76 20. APPENDIX 4: COSTS ASSOCIATED WITH ENERGY EFFICIENCY MEASURES ............................................................ 77 20.1 Energy Cost............................................................................................................................................... 77 20.2 Payback Periods ....................................................................................................................................... 77 20.3 Payback Periods - All ................................................................................................................................ 77 21. APPENDIX 5: CHIEF TECHNICAL ADVISOR - TERMS OF REFERENCE ................................................................... 78 21.1 Background ............................................................................................................................................... 78

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LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS
AC ARI CBA CBO CCT CDM Alternating Current Acute respiratory illnesses Cost Benefit Analysis Community Based Organisations City of Cape Town, http://www.capetown.gov.za Clean Development Mechanism (one of the pilot Flexible Mechanisms of facilitating flow of climate-change linked investment from the developed to the developing countries) Central Energy Fund, http://www.cef.org.za/ Compact Flourescent Lighting Carbon Monoxide Carbon Dioxide Council for Scientific and Industrial Research Danish International Development Assistance Development Bank of Southern Africa, http://www.dbsa.org/ Department of Environment Affairs and Tourism, http://www.deat.gov.za/ Department of Minerals and Energy Department of Housing Demand Side Management Domestic solar water heating (with electric back-up) Department of Trade and Industry Energy Development Corporation, Energy and Development Research Centre, University of Cape Town Energy Efficiency Energy efficient housing Environmental Impact Assessment Environmental Impact Plan Energy service company Environmentally Sound Lowcost Housing Task Team European Union Gross Domestic Product GEAR Macro-economic strategy for Growth, Employment and Redistribution Global Environmental Facility Greenhouse gas(es) Industrial Development Corporation, http://www.idc.co.za/ Integrated Decision Support Model Integrated Energy Planning International Institute of Energy Conservation Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change Kilowatt hours - Unit for measurement of electrical energy Liquefied Petroleum Gas National Building Regulations Nation Electricity Regulator Non-Governmental Organisation National Home Builders’ Registration Council Net Present Value Pollution, Environment, Community Development and Energy Resources, Africa Provincial Housing Development Board Peoples Housing Process Public-Private Partnership Project Steering Committee Photovoltaic Reconstruction and Development Programme (mainly refers to the low-income house type/design commonly built for the housing programme after 1994 renewable energy Request for Proposal Rural Housing Loan Fund Roof insulation South Africa Bureau of Standards, http://www.sabs.co.za/ South African Housing Fund Spatial Development Initiatives

GEF GHG IDC

IEDS IEP IIEC IPCC kWh

CEF CFL CO CO2 CSIR Danida DBSA DEAT

LPG NBR NER NGO NHBRC NPV PEER Africa

DME DoH DSM DSWH DTI EDC EDRC

PHDB PHP PPP PSC PV RDP

EE EEH EIA EIP ESCO ESLCHTT EU GDP

RE RFP RHLF Roof ins SABS

SAHF SDI

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SEED Shared wall SHF SHS SMSEs SWH TIASA TREC TSP UDS W

WHO

Sustainable Environmental Energy and Development Shared wall of the row house Social Housing Foundation Solar home system (photovoltaic - PV) Small and Medium Scale Enterprises Solar Water Heating Thermal Insulation Association of South Africa Tradable Renewable Energy Certificate Total suspended particulates Urban Development Strategy Watt (unit for measurement of power: also expressed as Joules per second -J/s) World Health Organisation

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1.

INTRODUCTION AND BACKGROUND TO THE PROJECT

South Africa and Denmark have co-operated on environmental initiatives since 1995. The co-operation covered many of the main environmental concerns related to South Africa including sustainable energy. Since August 2001, extensive consultations have been held with the South African Government on the future direction of environmental cooperation. It had been decided to prioritise future environmental co-operation on consolidating and strengthening the co-operation initiatives within Urban Environmental Management (UEM) and energy. The South African National Department of Housing received a funding commitment from the Danish International Assistance (Danida) environmental programme for a project on the Mainstreaming of Energy Efficiency in Low-income Housing. The pilot project seeks to fully integrate the aspect of energy efficiency within the subsidised housing sector, which is a national housing subsidy scheme of the South African government. Subsidised housing is specifically aimed at low-income groups throughout the country, and largely focused on urban and peri-urban areas. At the completion of the pilot project, affordable energy efficiency technologies for low-income housing will have been tested within a precinct of around 2,000 homes in one of the sub-projects within the N2 Gateway Programme, managed by Thubelisha Homes on behalf of the National Department of Housing (South Africa). The actual number of homes that will be converted to energy efficient dwellings will depend on the overall cost per house and the available funding. This project will inform the rolling out of energy efficient low-income housing in the rest of South Africa. It is also planned that the experiences through this project and the recommendations and conclusions of this project will inform the South African regulatory framework in the formation of standards and policies to be incorporated in the National Building Regulations and other relevant legislation. The ultimate beneficiaries of the project are poor families living in low-income government subsidised houses. Their quality of life will, as a result of the project, be improved through improved health and reduced expenditure on energy for heating of homes during the winter months. Poor households are spending up to 30% of income on energy sources whilst their affluent counterparts spend only around 2% of income on energy. Poor quality homes contribute to this high expenditure, since it means that much of the energy used for heating is wasted. Thus poor thermal performance of low-income housing contributes to the proportionately greater financial burden of energy on the poor. Energy security for poor households can help reduce poverty, increase livelihoods and improve living standards. The project seeks to fully integrate the aspect of energy efficiency within the subsidised housing sector, which is a national housing subsidy scheme of the South African government. Subsidised housing is specifically aimed at low-income groups throughout the country, and largely focused on urban and peri-urban areas. The Danida funding is earmarked to develop and pilot affordable energy efficient low-income house designs and materials with the view to ultimately contribute to poverty reduction in two ways: (i) (ii) it will reduce the cost of heating houses in the winter season, and it will improve the indoor air quality by reducing the use of non-renewable source of energy (e.g. fire wood) and hence improve the health of the poor families.

In terms of the South Africa-Danida Cooperation Agreement, the project’s immediate objectives are: 1 Awareness of regulators, local authorities, private sector, practitioners and low-income consumers. 2 Adequate information sharing and dissemination. 3 Affordable technologies developed i.t.o. intervention approaches, selected, piloted, evaluated in lowincome houses and prepared for large-scale dissemination. 4 Inform, through lessons learnt, the Regulatory Framework for energy efficient low-income houses.
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Numerous housing projects in South Africa already exist where energy efficiency forms the core of all building, development and sustainability considerations. The best practice from projects such as the Lyndoch Project where 12 subsidised low-income houses were fitted with solar water heaters, north orientation, compact fluorescent lights, adobe brick construction, on-site sanitation system, an on-site biogas digestor, water recycling, thermal efficient design in the buildings on-site, etc., and the Atlantis (Witsands) Project where 400 energy efficient low-income houses (with data loggers) were constructed. In this project all possible energyefficient solutions in the low-income housing designs were used as far as the housing subsidy parameters allowed. While this Project Document (rewritten 2008) deals with energy efficiency in low-income housing in its broadest sense, the outputs related to the immediate objectives as stated in the SA-Danida Co-operation Agreement, were adapted to focus on the N2 Gateway Housing Development Project. The N2 Gateway Energy Efficiency Housing Development Project is on a much larger scale than any previous initiated energy efficient schemes in South Africa. Although this housing development project consists of new dwellings, the full gambit of energy efficiency measures to ensure a 100% compliancy is not possible: the project planning has advanced beyond a pure greenfields project as the plans have already been drawn up and approved; the bulk infrastructure is in place and the implementation consortium is at the ready to commence. However, in terms of the Breaking New Ground strategy, the construction directives include all the general energy efficiency measures such as ceilings, plastered walls, etc. For the present project, the focus will be on the necessary components to accommodate a solar water heating system, e.g. gutters, will be included in line with critical technical components. Although energy efficient measures such as on-site sanitation, biogas digestion, water recycling, rainwater harvesting, etc. will not form the core of the pilot, these additional energy efficient measures will be feasibility appraised through participatory communication processes with the community and sector experts. This Project Document (rewritten 2008) builds on a previous Project Document: Energy Efficient Housing in the Low-income Housing Sector in South Africa (2003) and includes in Annex a comprehensive overview of the tenets of energy efficiency in low-income housing through practical and user-friendly descriptions of the following components: • • • • • • • • The Policy and Regulatory Environment Sustainability and Energy Efficiency Priorities Finance Mechanisms Appropriate Energy Efficient Technologies Community Engagement (Communication) as a critical component of sustainable development A Process to follow for energy efficient housing Recommendations Suppliers, Products and Costs: Solar Water Heating.

The project document is the culmination of applied research conducted by agencies, organisations and individuals supplemented with outputs of interviews with field experts and interpretations of regulations, laws and government strategies. Credit is given for all work referred to and used in the text (see Bibliography and References in Annex). The document has been prepared with the assistance of Minnie Hildebrand, Research & Management Agency, Johannesburg.

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2.

OVERALL APPROACH: N2 GATEWAY HOUSING DEVELOPMENT AS THE FOCAL POINT

The overall approach will be that the N2 Gateway Housing Development will be used as focal point providing specific experiences that broadly will be similar to other housing developments regardless of the type of system involved. The pilot project forms part of the wider N2 Gateway Project, with the new and renewable energy systems helping to achieve other objectives such as affordable warmth, good asset management and sustainable development. And the pilot project will form the basis for dissemination to other housing developments and to the policy and regulatory framework levels. While Thubelisha Homes, as the Implementation Agency that implements projects on behalf of the National Department of Housing will be responsible for the general implementation of the technical components of the pilot project, the NDoH will take responsibilities for the “soft issues” surrounding any pilot project, which includes, the research and documentation such as the Lessons Learnt Report and the dissemination thereof. The sections below address the responsibilities for Key Activities and Outputs of both the IA and the NDoH. The use of renewable energy technology should always be combined with improving energy efficiency. The carbon reductions achieved from energy efficiency measures will generally be greater than those from renewables. In addition, it is important to reduce energy demand in the dwellings to a level where renewables can make a significant contribution. Reiterating the purpose of the Thubelisha Homes N2 Gateway Energy Efficiency Pilot Project objective being to install solar water heaters (SWH) systems in approximately 2,000 dwellings and ensure that within budgetary constraints as many energy efficiency components are present in the construction of the dwelling as the present plans provided for. This pilot project is not a pure greenfields project as the plans have been drawn up and passed, the bulk infrastructure is in place and the construction teams are on site. Thus, there are spatial and construction energy efficiency measures that cannot be included in the pilot project. However, as Thubelisha Homes’ building specifications incorporate the bulk of the construction energy efficiency measures, such as ceilings, plastered walls, etc. the dwellings will comply to certain standards. Where, for instance, the SWH system requires additional construction components, such as ensuring that the roof can hold the weight of the SWH system as well as a full tank of water or guttering for the water overflow, the financial aspects of these components will be considered and costed as part of the SWH installation. As the donor funding from Danida is for a specific amount, the number of dwellings that will be fitted with SWH and other supporting construction components may have to be determined by the overall cost of installation.

3.

OBJECTIVES & OUTPUTS

The outpus have been re-defined for each of the four immediate objectives: Outputs related to Immediate Objective 3 (Application of EE technologies in the N2 Gateway housing project): 1. Approximately 2,000 Solar Water Heaters installed 2. O&M procedures implemented for communities 3. Energy efficiency monitoring system implemented Outputs Related to Immediate Objective 1 (Awareness for N2 Gateway communities): 4. Communications and awareness strategy and materials developed 5. Community Engagement / Awareness / Training campaigns implemented 6. Lessons learnt document Outputs Related to Immediate Objective 2 and 4 (Dissemination and Policy Influencing): 7. Dissemination of lessons learned document
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8. The lessons-learnt document to inform the Regulatory Framework.

4.

ACTIVITIES

The following key activities will be undertaken for each output during project implementation and finalisation: Pre-Project Planning 1. Completion and endorsement of the Project Document (rewritten 2008) by stakeholders such as Danida, the NDoH and Thubelisha Homes. 2. Procure and appoint a Chief Technical Advisor (CTA) a. Establish a Project Steering Committee: Thubelisha, Danida, NDoH and the City of Cape Town (Energy Department) b. Contract specialist consultants, who can estimate costs and obtain preliminary quotations for the different outcomes stated above. Output 1 Approximately 2,000 Solar Water Heaters installed – lead by IA 1. The Chief Technical Advisor, in conjunction with the Thubelisha Homes’ Project Management Team, will cconsider the choice of appropriate technologies taking all the existing components of the project into consideration being: that the project consists of new dwellings, that the project planning (plans and approvals) is in an advanced stage – except for the energy efficiency components, that the rudimentary project budgets have already been completed, and that the contracting of the construction component has been done. 2. The Chief Technical Advisor will develop an Implementation Plan, including implementation budgets and reporting to the appropriate structures. 3. To inform the Energy Efficiency Implementation Plan, the CTA will identify the current and projected energy demand. Evaluate space heating, water heating and electric power requirements (for appliances and lighting). Estimate the contributions that may be made by renewable energy, Identify the fuel use and the carbon savings expected from renewable energy technologies, Compare the carbon emissions reductions achievable from the various renewable energy technology options, taking into account the type of fuel or energy to be offset, Consider affordabilities, evaluate residents’ benefits and identify alternative funding methods to assist the indigent so that they are not further burdened. Consider finance mechanisms described in Annex, Consider the different Community Engagement (Communications) options and contract suitable consultant or NGOs to develop the materials and strategy. 4. Partnerships formed, technologies and performance criteria appraised 5. Appropriate technologies, designs, and products identified, assessed and the suite of interventions and technologies selected for implementation. Feasibility studies undertaken for each assessed technology. 6. Technologies selected, procured and installed Output 2 O&M Manual – lead by IA 1. Draft O&M Manual – Thubelisha Homes, through the CTA to draft the manual 2. Hand over the O&M Manual to the Energy Efficiency Department of the City of Cape Town Output 3 Energy efficiency monitoring system implemented - lead by NDoH 1. Draft a monitoring framework 2. Establish a monitoring team 3. Energy efficiency monitoring system implemented for 12 months post installation: a. technical efficacy and b. electricity consumption by low-income households
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Output 4 Communications and awareness strategy and materials developed – lead by IA 1. The IA to develop communications and awareness strategy and materials 2. Two-prong strategy to be developed IA: a. Technical information developed and disseminated in printed form b. Social advocacy campaign including community meetings, advice service desk and printed material to be distributed. Output 5 Community Engagement / Awareness campaigns implemented – lead by IA 1. Embark on an education and awareness campaign: community meetings, advice service desk and printed material to be distributed 2. The Lessons Learnt research and documentation has to include this output from inception. Output 6 Lessons learnt document - lead by NDoH 1. Draft document as an on-going activity from inception of the project to 12 months post installation of the solar technology 2. Finalisation of Lessons Learnt Report Output 7 Dissemination of lessons learned document – lead by NDoH 1. Presentation of Final Lessons Learnt Report to Project Steering Committee through 1-day workshop which is open to the Press 2. Dissemination to all key stakeholders Output 8 The lessons-learnt document to inform the Regulatory Framework – lead by NDoH 1. Ensuring that the Lessons Learnt Report is placed on the national policy agenda through internal NDoH procedures

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5.

BUDGET

IMPLEMENTATION OF SOLAR HEATERS ON THE N2 GATEWAY, WESTERN CAPE 1500 units installed Pre-Project Planning Project Document kr 164,891 Chief Technical Advisor kr 974,310 Pre-Project Direct Expenses - travel and subsistence kr 38,972 Specialist Consultants (appropriate technologies and financial projections) Output 1 Solar Water Heaters Solar Water Heaters installed Output 2 O&M Manual – lead by IA Draft O&M Manual Output 3 Energy efficiency monitoring system implemented - lead by NDoH 1. Draft a monitoring framework 1. Establish a monitoring team Energy efficiency monitoring system implemented for 12 months Output 4 Communications and awareness strategy and materials developed – lead by IA Develop communications and awareness strategy and materials [design and printing of communication materials] a. Technical information developed and disseminated in printed form [printing of technical information] b. Social advocacy campaign including community meetings, advice service desk and printed material to be distributed. Output 5 Community Engagement / Awareness campaigns implemented – lead by IA Education and awareness campaign: community meetings, advice service desk and printed material to be distributed Output 6 Lessons learnt document - lead by NDoH Draft document as an on-going activity from inception of the project to 12 months 1. Finalisation of Lessons Learnt Report Dissemination of lessons learned document – lead by NDoH 1. Presentation of Final Lessons Learnt Report to Project Steering Committee through1-day workshop which is open to the Press 2. Dissemination to all key stakeholders Output 8 The lessons-learnt document to inform the Regulatory Framework – lead by NDoH Ensuring that the Lessons Learnt Report is placed on the national policy agenda through internal NDoH procedures TOTAL BUDGET (EXCL VAT) FOR IMPLEMENTATION AGENCY (THUBELISHA) COMPONENTS Thubelisha Homes - Implementation Agents - Administration fee of 5% of overall costs TOTAL BUDGET (EXCL VAT) TOTAL BUDGET (EXCL VAT) FOR BOTH IMPLEMENTAITON AGENT AND NDoH COMPONENTS kr 12,298,948 kr 614,947 kr 12,913,895 kr 13,453,013 kr 116,917 kr 207,853 kr 324,770 kr 9,743,100 kr 129,908 kr 38,972 kr 29,229 kr 233,834 kr 193,563 kr 77,945 kr 178,624 kr 77,945 kr 187,068

kr 110,422 kr 9,743

NOTES: 1. GREYED OUT AREAS ARE ACTIVITIES THAT THE NATIONAL DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING WOULD TAKE RESPONSIBILITIES FOR - THESE COSTS ARE NOT INCLUDED IN THE FINAL BUDGET AND IS REFLECTED FOR INFORMATION PURPOSES ONLY. 2. EXCHANGE RATE USED = 0.64954
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6.

EXECUTIVE SUMMARY
and the available funding. This pilot project will inform the rolling out of energy efficient low-income housing in the rest of South Africa. It is also envisaged that the experiences through this pilot project and the recommendations and conclusions of this document will inform the South African regulatory framework in the formation of standards and policies to be incorporated in the National Building Regulations and other relevant legislation. The ultimate beneficiaries of this pilot project are poor families living in low-income government subsidised houses. Their quality of life will, as a result of the project, be improved through improved health and reduced expenditure on energy for heating of homes during the winter months. Poor households are said to be spending up to 30% of income on energy sources whilst their affluent counterparts spend only 2% of income on energy. Poor quality homes contribute to this high expenditure, since it means that much of the energy used for heating is wasted. Thus poor thermal performance of low-income housing contributes to the proportionately greater financial burden of energy on the poor. Energy security for poor households can help reduce poverty, increase livelihoods and improve living standards. This document is the culmination of applied research conducted by other agencies, organisations and individuals with supplementation from the author in terms of the outputs of interviews, commissioned sections that were dependent on field experts and interpretations of the regulations, laws and government strategies. The author endeavoured to give credit for all work referred to and used in the text and apologises for any eventualities. All authors are acknowledged and noted in the Bibliography and References. Shortcomings in the document had been pointed out, such as the lack of detailed success stories and case studies pertaining to communities where energy efficiency housing works to the benefit of the poor. These omissions are currently being addressed and will be annexed at a later stage.

South Africa and Denmark have co--operated on environmental initiatives since 1995. The cooperation covered many of the main environmental concerns related to South Africa including sustainable energy. Since August 2001, extensive consultations have been held with the South African Government on the future direction of environmental cooperation. It had been decided to prioritise future environmental co-operation on consolidating and strengthening the co-operation initiatives within Urban Environmental Management (UEM) and energy. The South African National Department of Housing received a funding commitment from the Danish International Assistance (Danida) environmental programme for a project on the Mainstreaming of Energy Efficiency in Low-income Housing. The project seeks to fully integrate the aspect of energy efficiency within the subsidised housing sector, which is a national housing subsidy scheme of the South African government. Subsidised housing is specifically aimed at lowincome groups throughout the country, and largely focused on urban and peri-urban areas. In terms of the South Africa-Danida Co-operation Agreement, the project’s immediate objectives are: 1. Awareness of regulators, local authorities, private sector, practitioners and lowincome consumers. 2. Adequate information sharing and dissemination. 3. Affordable technologies developed i.t.o. intervention approaches, selected, piloted, evaluated in low-income houses and prepared for large-scale dissemination. 4. Inform, through lessons learnt, the Regulatory Framework for energy efficient low-income houses At the completion of the pilot project, affordable energy efficiency technologies for low-income housing will have been tested within a precinct of 3,900 homes in one of the sub-projects within the N2 Gateway Programme, managed by Thubelisha Homes on behalf of the National Department of Housing (South Africa). The actual number of homes that will be converted to energy efficient dwellings will depend on the overall cost per house

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7.

PROJECT DOCUMENT (REWRITTEN 2008)
energy used for heating is wasted. Thus poor thermal performance of low-income housing contributes to the proportionately greater financial burden of energy on the poor. Energy security for poor households can help reduce poverty, increase livelihoods and improve living standards. The energy used in low-income households is primarily for cooking. In census 2001 it was reported that 50% of South Africans use electricity for cooking, 26% use wood, 18% use illuminating paraffin, 3% use coal, 2% use LPG and 1% use animal dung.1 For poor people access to fuel is treated as a matter of survival and not a luxury. Poverty determines energy use, thus, one’s energy portfolio is dependent on one’s income levels. Erratic and/or unreliable income flows negatively affects energy choices. Most of the time, energy for the poor is all about survival. No wood means no cooking and no cooking means no food. Although energy for heating – the house or water – is secondary to cooking, the pattern is similar. In the current N2 Gateway Project, the low-income houses do not have any hot water facility, and the buildings are not energy efficient. The grid electricity provided in the project is insufficient to power a geyser or appliances that demands more than the 20 Amp and 50 kilowatt-hours (kWh) of free monthly electricity allocation. (Although users have access to a basic quantity of 50 KWh per household per month in terms of the policy, users pay the normal tariff for any consumption exceeding 50 KWh per month.) It is thus apparent that contrary to initial expectations, grid electrification will not satisfy all energy needs of low-income households. The exorbitant amounts associated with electrical appliances, their lack of multi-functioning and the relatively high costs for thermal end-uses like cooking and space heating are some obvious constraints to the greater application of electricity. Through numerous policies, it is clear that the government is starting to view the environment and energy efficiency as a priority focus area whereas poor community people do not think about it in

This project document builds on a previous version done in 2003, which covers a much broader scope as a greenfields programme. The project brief and Scope of Work for the Project Document (Rewritten 2008) states that the document has to be practical and user-friendly with a specific focus on the feasibility and sustainability of solar water heating systems. The Scope of Work furthermore stipulates the exploration of energy efficient measures spanning the ecological home environment in integrated sustainable settlements pertaining to financial, technical environmental and social benefits of appropriate technologies and approaches. The Scope of Work determined that the rewrite hinges on existing research – as a literature review of national and international best practice – and interviews with involved stakeholders. The Scope of Work furthermore identified the N2 Gateway Project as the focus point for piloting energy efficient measures in approximately 3,000 existing dwellings. The research team did a very comprehensive literature scan – reflected in the Bibliography and References – as well as 19 focused interviews, of which 16 were face-to-face interviews and 3 were done telephonically. This Project Document (Rewritten 2008) is thus the culmination of applied research conducted by other agencies and organisations and reflected as examples of best practice. All authors are acknowledged and noted in the Bibliography and References. The duration of the contract between Research & Management Agency and Thubelisha Homes was one month.

7.1

National Socio-Economic Context

The Use of Energy Sources Poor households are said to be spending up to 30% of income on energy sources whilst their affluent counterparts spend only 2% of income on energy. Poor quality homes contribute to this high expenditure, since it means that much of the

1

Minister Lulu Xingwana, Dept Minerals and Energy, Keynote Address at the Cooking Roundtable, November 2005. 13

their survivalist state. This disjoint of priorities means that the government will need to embark on a very concerted communication, awareness and education campaign, specifically focused on reaching the poor. This communication campaign has to include a component whereby inhabitants are educated in the social norms demanded by living in structured environments as opposed to informal settlements, e.g. disposal of waste into sewerage pipes, cooking on open fires inside the home, keeping the glazing in windows intact, avoiding unnecessary draughts in winter, etc. “The results of neglecting sustainable energy services in low-income housing is highlighted by the continuing social, economic and environmental poverty of beneficiaries of housing delivered under the National Housing Programme. This situation is fully acknowledged by the Department of Housing which is increasingly committed to a vision of Sustainable Human Settlements, yet is constrained by a lack of funding, low awareness of sustainable energy interventions within the broader marketplace, and negligible support from the South African energy sector. From the energy perspective, South Africa is moving into a period of crisis in energy supply, due to a period of sustained growth in the economy. Interventions to reduce demand for grid electricity will both assist in mitigating the impact of supply side constraints, and substitute the use of greenhouse gas intensive coal generated power with energy efficiency and renewable energy resources.”2 South Africa is heavily reliant on fossil fuels, amongst others coal, for its energy needs. While the country is well endowed with alternative energy resources these has remained largely untapped. The country has very favourable exposure to sunshine all year round with the daily average global solar radiation level in South Africa ranging between 4.5 and 6.4 kWh/m2 compared to 2.5 kWh/m2 in Europe. This makes solar energy an attractive option as a primary source of energy especially in the low-income groups. Achieving a sustainable level of energy security for low-income
Tyler, Emily, Creating a National Financial Facility for Sustainable Energy Upgrades in Low-income Housing in South Africa, A Concept Proposal by SouthSouthNorth (SSN) supported by the Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Partnership (REEEP), 2007
2

households can play a central role in poverty reduction, fostering improved livelihoods and quality of life. The Role of the Private Sector There is no tradition in South Africa to focus on energy efficiency in relation to the low-income housing sector. Poor families register for lowincome houses with Municipalities and as the lists are long, it is time, efficiency and profitability rather than quality, which are the dominant features of the low-income housing market. Most community-based projects focusing on energy efficiency are donor and not market driven and they deal with the formal sector in the development of low-income solutions to improved in-door climate. The private sector has thusfar had little or no reason to consider the low-income housing sectors as a profitable market. The association of manufacturers of insulation (TIASA) has approximately 30 members who focus on the commercial and the high-income housing market. However, a few members have interacted on projects in energy efficiency in the low-income sector of the housing market The low-income families do improve their houses and a market for construction materials exists in the low-income housing sector. But this demand is not directed towards improved energy-efficiency for the following reasons: 1. The poor families are generally not aware of the potential benefits of energy efficient housing; 2. The manufacturers and distributors do not market their products vis-à-vis the lowincome households because of the low purchasing power; 3. Due to relatively high costs associated with low sales and economies of scale in production, the investments in energy efficiency has a long pay back period. Recent calculations show that low-income investments in energy efficient housing have a pay back period of 5-10 years.

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8. 8.1

INSTITUTIONAL FRAMEWORK Public Sector Institutions
8.1.2 National Home Builders Registration Council (NHBRC)

This section provides a brief overview of some of the key existing public sector institutions that are of greatest relevance to the development and concretising of an ethos of energy efficiency in South Africa and for Danida’s on-going involvement in this sector.

8.1.1

The National Department of Housing

The SABS, the Architects Council of South Africa and the South African Association of Consulting Engineers contributed to the formation of the NHBRC. The organisation ensures that householders are protected under the ‘Housing Consumers Protection Measures Act’. The NHBRC has produced a homebuilder’s manual.

NDoH main function is to determine policy including national norms and standards in respect of housing development. The Department’s responsibilities amongst others include: 1. Establishment of a national institutional and funding framework for housing development. 2. Negotiations for the national apportionment of the state budget for housing development. 3. Obtaining funds for land acquisition, infrastructure development, housing provision and end user finance. 4. Setting broad national housing delivery goals. 5. Evaluating the performance of the housing sector against set goals and equitableness and effectiveness requirements. 6. Creating an environment conducive to enabling provincial and local government to achieve their delivery goals in respect of housing development. 7. Drafting and Publishing of the National Housing Code. The National Housing Code provides National Norms and Standards in Respect of Permanent Residential Structures that have to be adhered to by all beneficiaries of the housing subsidy programme. The primary thrust of the Code is around certain aspects of human health and safety. Provincial Departments of Housing administer and enforce these norms as and when housing subsidy applications are approved and houses constructed.

8.1.3

Department Industry

of

Trade

and

The Department of Trade and Industry (DTI) is responsible for making amendments or additions to the National Building Regulations (NBR), which must be adhered to by all in the housing sector. It consults the SABS for determining the appropriateness of the regulations, and for the development of codes of practice, where appropriate. This code is said to be revised every four years to allow incorporation of new thinking and innovation in the industry.

8.1.4

Dept Environmental Affairs & Tourism

The National Department of Environmental Affairs and Tourism (DEAT) is responsible for ensuring compliance by all sectors to the environmental protection and conservation. Of importance the department is tasked with the responsibility of ensuring adherence to global protocols on the environment in which South Africa is a signatory.

8.1.5

Department of Minerals and Energy

DME is charged with the responsibility of reshaping governance principles and changing citizens’ attitudes and towards the use and importance of national energy resources. The department has been charged with ensuring the promotion of access for all to affordable and sustainable energy services. It should also ensure a balanced use of natural energy resources with environmental considerations.

15

The following graphs3 depict the Roles and

Responsibilities pertaining to the Regulatory

Framework and Implementation obligations of the different energy efficient stakeholders:
Energy Efficiency Strategy of the Republic of South Africa, Department of Minerals and Energy, March 2005
3

16

8.1.6

Multi-Sectoral Structures

There are a number of inter-governmental coordination structures also at different levels. Some of them are in a form of thematic clusters and some are functional in nature. In line with this thinking of corporative governance, NDoH facilitated the establishment of an Environmentally Sound Low-income Housing Task Team (ESLCHTT) in 1998. This is an inter-departmental team with representatives from five departments: Housing (DoH), Health (DH), Minerals and Energy (DME), Water Affairs and Forestry (DWAF), and Environmental Affairs and Tourism (DEAT). The scope of issues to be tackled by the team includes:
ECONOMI C POLITICAL HOUSING PRODUCTION/ HABITATION TECHNOLOGICAL

section on Regulatory Frameworks and the roles and responsibilities noted in this section.

8.1.7

Provinces and Municipalities

Provinces are mandated to promote and facilitate the provision of adequate housing within the framework of national housing policy. Every provincial government is tasked to amongst others: 1. It can assume the role of developer 2. Determine provincial policy in respect of housing development; 3. Coordinate housing development in the province and determine provincial housing development priorities in accordance with the national housing policy; 4. Take all necessary steps to support and strengthen the capacity of municipalities to effectively exercise their power to perform their duties in respect to housing developments. Provinces can determine their own provincial policy and thus they do have some autonomy with regard to certain building specifications. Local Government is mandated to ensure that the inhabitants in their areas of jurisdiction have access to adequate housing on a progressive basis; that conditions not conducive to the health and safety of the inhabitants in the municipal areas of jurisdiction are prevented and removed; that services are provided in manner which is economically efficient; and the creation and maintenance of public environment conducive to housing development which is financially and socially viable. Local government is responsible for the enforcement of all NBR performance criteria, outside of and including those cited in the guidelines and standards manuals. The capacity of municipalities in enforcing the NBR varies from adequate to inadequate. Over and above housing, municipalities must ensure that its citizens progressively have healthy and safe conditions prevailing within their areas of jurisdiction, and that there is economically efficient provision of other services such as water, sanitation, electricity, roads, storm water drainage and transport.

SOCIOCULTURAL

BIOPHYSICAL

Figure 1: Inter-systems linkage of housing production and habitation - Source: Adapted from Irurah et al

Promotion of environmentally sound housing initiatives 2. Developing national policy on environmentally efficient low cost housing 3. Encouraging environmentally sound practices in the housing sector. 1. This inter-departmental team is responsible for the oversight of synergies to ensure the execution of the government’s policies, strategies and plans. There is a serious disjoint in the different policies, strategies, guidelines and plans from the different Departments. It is crucial that this interdepartmental team addresses this. The fact that the energy efficiency environment is in an immature state whilst policies, plans and strategies have been accepted and formalised perhaps points to a critical issue in government, being a lack of implementation capacity. The political will had been expressed as noted in the

17

9. 9.1
9.1.1

REGULATORY FRAMEWORK Legislation and Policies
Breaking New Ground
ecological integrity. Section 26 of the Constitution states that everyone has the right to have access to adequate housing. The State is required to take reasonable legislative and other measures, within its available resources to achieve the progressive realisation of this right (section 26(2)). On the environment front everyone has these rights: To an environment that is not harmful to their health and well-being; and 1. to a protected environment, for the benefit of present and future generations, through reasonable legislative and other measures that: (i) (ii) (iii) prevent pollution and ecological degradation; promote conservation; and secure ecologically sustainable development and use of natural resources while promoting justifiable economic and social development.

In September, 2004, the NDoH launched its new housing policy: “Breaking New Ground”. This policy brings a radical shift from the “quantity over quality” mindset entrenched in Reconstruction and Development Plan (RDP) housing delivery, and points to participative, multi-dimensional approaches which allow people to become part of sustainable human settlements, rather than simply recipients of an RDP house. In this policy, the subsidy recipient market has expanded as well, allowing those who are too well off to receive a subsidy – but who cannot afford a down payment on a home – to access housing as well. Guidelines and regulations play an important role in facilitating this ‘Breaking New Ground’ policy and encouraging ecological design in building interventions. Without legislation, the building sector would be highly unlikely to initiate and achieve efficiency goals. The government is currently examining ways of incorporating energy efficiency into National Building Standards. The South African Bureau of Standards (SABS) is also developing energy efficiency standards for residential and commercial buildings. Ultimately, energy efficiency standards will become part of the Building Code of South Africa.4 The new (2007) revised National Norms and Standards for the Construction of Stand-Alone Residential Dwellings Financed through National Housing Programmes, inter alia, include the following provisions pertaining to energy efficiency in low-income housing:

The Constitution clearly stipulates that South Africans should all have access to housing: especially the poor. However, no mention is made regarding the quality of the houses themselves. The quality issue is later covered in the subsequent policy documents i.e. the Urban Development Strategy

9.1.3

The RDP

9.1.2

The Constitution of the Republic of South Africa (Act 108 of 1996)

The Constitution is the supreme law of the country. It contains the Bill of Rights that articulates the basic rights of all South Africans. Section 24 of the Constitution addresses environmental quality and

Since 1994, social and economic policies have largely been informed by two strategies, the White Paper on Reconstruction and Development (1994) and the macro-economic strategy Growth, employment and Redistribution (GEAR). The Reconstruction and Development Programme (RDP) identified housing as a major intervention for meeting the basic needs of poor South Africans. RDP is also a means to achieving the goals of poverty eradication and social development expressed in the macro-economic policy of Growth, Employment and Redistribution (GEAR). The RDP base document notes that although energy is a basic need, the vast majority of South Africans depend on inferior and expensive fuels. A need was realised for an energy policy that could
18

4 Making the Case for Ecological Design in South Africa, The Sustainability Institute, Lyndoch, South Africa, 2007

concentrate on the provision of energy services to meet the basic needs of the poor, stimulate productive capacity and urgently meet the energy needs of community services. The RDP office was later disbanded and NDoH was tasked with the responsibility of taking over the finalisation of the Urban Development Strategy (UDS), which is aimed at ensuring the future sustainable development of cities and towns.

9.1.5

White Paper on Energy (1998)

9.1.4

The Housing Act of 1997

The housing sector is regulated predominately by the Housing Act 1997, which compels all spheres of government to give priority to the needs of the poor in respect of housing development. It mandates National, Provincial and local spheres of government to ensure that poor segments of the society access housing development. According to the Act, the government must: 1. Provide housing that is economically, fiscally, socially, financially affordable and sustainable;

The legislative mandate on energy efficiency is contained in the White Paper on Energy (1998) wherein it is stated that government will promote access to basic energy services for poor households, in order to ameliorate the negative health impacts arising from the use of certain fuels. Also that government will pursue energy security by encouraging a diversity of both supply sources and primary energy carriers. The Paper states that government commits itself to the promotion of energy efficiency in households. Government undertook to create energy efficiency consciousness and intends to establish energy efficiency norms and standards and voluntary guidelines for the thermal performance in housing. South Africa is also a signatory of Habitat Agenda, which emphasises on the need to develop sustainable and environmentally efficient human settlements. The Agenda promotes environmentally sound housing with particular emphasis on energy efficiency, water efficiency and greening of urban environments. The White Paper identifies government’s short and medium term goals. Energy efficiency is listed under medium term priorities and it is said that: 1. Government intends creating appropriate institutional capacity to implement energy efficient programmes; 2. Energy efficiency will be promoted in all sectors of the economy. Since 1998 when the White Paper on Energy was tabled, the government neither had created the appropriate institutional capacity to implement energy efficient programmes, nor had they set about to actively promote energy efficiency in any sector of the market: consumers, designers, architects, urban planners, etc.

2. Ensure the development and maintenance of socially and economically viable communities and of safe and healthy living conditions; 3. And to take due cognisance of the impact of housing on the environment. The Act requires that all three levels of housing governance prioritise the housing needs of the poor. The South African Housing Act seeks to incorporate all the requirements of adequate shelter as defined in the Habitat Agenda. Although ‘adequate housing’ is neither defined in the Constitution nor in the Housing Act, the latter defines ‘housing development’ as ‘providing adequate protection against all the elements’. This objective has largely been unmet, considering the thermal inefficiency of housing structures in South Africa. Lastly, the Act insists that all counterpart departments promote socially and economically sustainable housing developments, including consideration of health and safety issues. Contained in the Act is a provision for the NDoH to publish a National Housing Code.

9.1.6

National Building Regulations and Building Standards (Act 103 of 1977)

These standards and guidelines reproduce some of the National Building Regulations (NBR). The primary concerns of the NBR are certain aspects of human health and safety; it does not consider efficiency issues in the performance criteria. The national Department of Trade and Industry determine these regulations that set out
19

performance standards, which are legally enforceable. The South African Bureau of Standards (SABS) code of practice is not legally enforceable but does provide guidance on how to achieve performance standards set out by the NBR. The SABS the guidelines also make provision for unconventional approaches which can be certified through the awarding of an Agrément Certificate. The National Building Regulations are reviewed every 4 years.

9.1.9

National Technical Norms and Standards

9.1.7

‘The Red Book’ / ‘Guidelines for Human Settlement Planning & Design’

With effect from 1 April 2007 the new draft National Norms and Standards replaces the Norms and Standards contained in the National Housing Code of 2000. The minimum National Technical Norms and Standards apply to the creation of serviced residential stands and houses to be constructed through the application of the National Housing Programme. All residential developments that will be undertaken through the finance provided in terms of the National Housing Programmes must comply. In terms of the provisions of the Housing Act, 1997 which came into effect on 1 April 1998, “housing development” means: ”the establishment and maintenance of habitable, stable and sustainable public and private residential environments to ensure viable households and communities in areas allowing convenient access to economic opportunities, and to health, educational and social amenities in which all citizens and permanent residents of the Republic will, on a progressive basis, have access a. To permanent residential structures with secure tenure, ensuring internal and external privacy and providing adequate protection against the elements; and b. To potable water, adequate sanitary facilities and domestic energy supply”. Against this background, the Minister of Housing introduced the revised National Norms and Standards, including prescripts regarding the housing typologies that will be financed through National Housing Programmes in future. The National Norms and Standards contain all the technical specification for a basic subsidy house. Section 10.1 addresses the components dealt with in the new National Norms and Standards.
9.1.10

The Council for Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR) was contracted in 1995 by the then National Housing Board to produce the ‘Red Book’. The CSIR Division of Building and Construction Technology managed this project. Great emphasis is placed on spatial planning issues and engineering and municipal services. The guidelines include energy considerations, specifically thermally-efficient housing design and the use of renewable energy.

9.1.8

The Housing Code

The Housing Code accommodates all national policy relating to housing, and the National Norms and Standards for housing. The Urban Vision expressed in the Housing Code explicitly calls for environmentally sustainable lifestyles that incorporate renewable resources and considers intra- and inter-generational environmental equity. National Norms and Standards in the National Code apply to subsidised housing. Where houses are constructed by builders registered with the “National Home Builders Registration Council’ the additional set of Guidelines and Standards, National Building Regulations determined by local governments and ‘The Red Book’ or ‘Guidelines for Human Settlement Planning and Design’ (CSIR) will apply. It must be noted that although the Housing Code stipulates that the Guidelines are mandatory, the Department of Housing has declared them not legally enforceable.

Energy Efficiency Strategy5

In March 2005, the first Energy Efficiency Strategy for South Africa was adopted by Parliament. It is the first consolidated Governmental document geared towards the development and

5 Energy Efficiency Strategy of the Republic of South Africa (March 2005)

20

implementation of energy efficiency practices in this country. The Strategy takes its mandate from the White Paper on Energy Policy, published in 1998, and links energy sector development with national socio-economic development plans as well as being in line with other Government departmental initiatives. In addition, it provides clear and practical guidelines for the implementation of efficient practices within the economy, including the setting of governance structures for activity development, promotion and coordination. The Strategy allows for the immediate implementation of low-income and no-cost interventions, as well as those highercost measures with short payback periods. These will be followed by medium-term and longer-term investment opportunities in energy efficiency. The Strategy acknowledges that there exists significant potential for energy efficiency improvements across all sectors of the economy and the vision of the Strategy is to contribute towards affordable energy for all, and to minimise the negative effects of energy usage upon human health and the environment. This will be achieved by encouraging sustainable energy development and energy use through efficient practices. The three cornerstones of sustainable development are embraced within the strategic goals of the Strategy document: these being environmental, social and economic sustainability. The Strategy sets a national target for energy efficiency improvement of 12% by 2015. This target is expressed in relation to the forecast national energy demand at that time, and therefore allows for current expectations of economic growth. It is accepted that this target will be challenging, but at the same time it is considered to be readily achievable. Energy efficiency improvements will be achieved largely via enabling instruments and interventions. These will include inter alia economic and legislative means, efficiency labels and performance standards, energy management activities and energy audits, as well as the promotion of efficient practices. The Strategy will cover all energy-using sectors and will be implemented through Sectoral Implementation Plans.

Systems will be put into place in order to periodically monitor progress against the target that will be reviewed at the end of each phase. In order to meet the objectives of the Strategy, it is intended that energy efficiency interventions will be implemented through a phased approach. The timing of the three Phases is as follows: 1. Phase 1: March 2005 to February 2008; 2. Phase 2: March 2008 to February 2011; 3. Phase 3: March 2011 to February 2015. It is the broad intention of the Strategy that these phases will be linked to the economic characteristics of each activity. For example, it is probable that a low-income intervention with a rapid payback would be implemented during the early stages of Phase 1. The adoption of this Strategy by Government in 2005 clearly states its intention to embark on a serious road to energy efficiency and the development of sustainable settlements. It is also clear, however, that the Strategy is not delivering on its intentions as energy efficiency is still low on the general housing development agenda.

9.1.11 Impact of Regulatory Framework on N2 Gateway Project
Thubelisha Homes fulfils the function of implementation agency and project managers of low-income housing for the NDoH. It is first and foremost responsible to the Minister of Housing for the success or failure of NDoH-driven housing. Thus, all components of the South African Regulatory Framework impacts on the organisation. It is difficult, however, for Thubelisha to follow a Strategy from, for instance the Department of Minerals and Energy, if the same components are not included in the NDoH policies. It is not within Thubelisha Homes’ jurisdiction to make policies or statements pertaining to existing policies. However, while Thubelisha Homes does not have the political jurisdiction to make policy, it is in a very good position to inform the Regulatory Framework as a whole, including influencing energy efficiency policies and strategies.

21

10. SUSTAINABILITY & ENERGY EFFICIENCY PRIORITIES – A CASE FOR SWH IN LOW-INCOME HOUSING 10.1 Energy Efficiency Strategy
According to the Energy Efficiency Strategy of the Republic of South Africa (March 2005) “South Africa is by far the largest emitter of Green House Gasses (GHGs) in Africa and one of the most carbon emission-intensive countries in the world, annually emitting some 7 tonnes of carbon dioxide per capita due to the energy intensive economy and high dependence on coal for primary energy. affordable energy such issues will be difficult to resolve.”6 In the light of the priorities set to address the priorities of poverty and disease as noted in the Energy Efficiency Strategy and to combat the emission of GHGs, it is critical that measures are considered that will simultaneously address these issues. A starting point is to consider energy efficient solar water heating systems in low-income housing developments.

Certain energy efficiency initiatives have potential for financial support under the CDM.
One of the fundamental steps necessary to enable successful implementation of any

10.2 SWH: N2 Gateway Application
Thubelisha Homes is embarking on a concerted effort to introduce energy efficiencies into all their low-income homes. The first project of magnitude is the N2 Gateway Project where approximately 3,000 homes will be fitted with, amongst other, Solar Water Heating systems. This section gives an overview of issues and costs to influence their decision in terms of an appropriate technology. In the 2006 Danida financed a study to do financial

Strategy is the need to understand the barriers confronting it, and how to overcome those. Some traditional barriers are self-evident. In addition to these, however, is a barrier relating to the state of the country itself; being that energy efficiency is seen to be a relatively low priority when compared with other pressing national issues such as quality of life and education. Energy plays an integral part in the solution of these problems, and that without clean and

6

Energy Efficiency Strategy of the Republic of South Africa March 2005 22

modelling to install Solar Water Heating (SWH) systems in the N2 Gateway Programme. Although the consultant’s brief changed to include the greater Cape Town, the financial modelling done by Agama Energy and Lereko Sustainability into financing solar water heaters in low-income housing is a benchmark document7. The financial modelling was aimed at enabling the initiative to secure necessary funds from banks, and build the financial case that will enable the City of Cape Town to obtain the DME Demand Side Management (DSM) subsidy in order to make the installation of SWH a viable and sustainable option. The primary reason for buying a SWH system is thought to be the long-term financial benefits of a more predictable and cheaper hot

supplied by electrically operated storage water heaters, commonly called geysers, which is currently supplied at approximately 3 c/litre (this value includes only the electricity component and no capital cost). These costs are applicable for domestic-scale SWH systems of between 100 litre/1.4 m2and 300 litre/4.2m2 of hot water between-storage capacity and collector area. These costs are the direct financial costs of hot water and do not include the indirect (or external) costs of the service. SWH systems have significant additional benefits in terms of reduced negative environmental impacts, increased social equity and enhanced economic impacts (largely due to economic risk mitigation). In general, the service costs for solar heated water are primarily dependent on the mode of

water energy service. The following section extracts selected fragments of the document to substantiate the belief that SWH is an affordable technology option in the N2 Gateway Energy Efficiency Pilot Project. All credit for this section goes to the authors of Modelling and Analysis of Financial Structuring for SWH Projects. Hot water for domestic requirements in urban areas, can be supplied by solar water heating systems at a service cost to customers of between 1.2 and 3.5 c/litre (for water supplied at 45°C at the point of use, usually the tap or shower). This compares favourably with the cost of hot water
7 Modelling and Analysis of Financial Structuring for SWH Projects, for Danida by Agama Energy and Lereko Energy, April 2007

implementation and financial model for service delivery. In addition, within the context of the mode of implementation and financial modelling, these costs are dependent on the individual input variables to the financial models. relevant case study of the success of SWH can be seen in the study of Lwandle, a solar water heating project near Somerset West. This project is the largest residential water heating project in South Africa to date and it forms part of the City of Cape Town’s Cape Care Route. The project was implemented between 1998 and 2000 as an integral part of a Hostels-to-Homes upgrade project and provides hot water for 300 community showers. It is the largest single SWH
8A

8

Sustainability Institute, Lyndoch, Stellenbosh 23

project in Southern Africa with a total collector area of 884 m2 and storage volume of 59 250 litres. The project has operated successfully despite there being no routine maintenance of the SWH systems. Ad-hoc repairs have been undertaken by the local SWH contractor on a few occasions over the eight year operating period. The overall success of the project is attributable to the high level of awareness and participation by the community in the original decisions to implement solar heated water. The project finance for the implementation was

R17.50/month in 1999) [10] by the residents to the City of Cape Town.

10.2.1 Modes of implementation
There are essentially two modes of implementation of SWH systems, namely: 1. An ownership-based mode in which the householder acquires the SWH system 2. An energy services mode in which the ownership of the SWH system is retained by an energy services provider who assumes all responsibility for supply, installation,

raised as a combination of capital derived from an allocation by the Lwandle community from their housing subsidy and a loan from the Development Bank of Southern Africa (DBSA). The community contribution amounted to approximately R1 million of the R4 million total project cost. The loan funding of approximately R2.8 million was sourced from the Development Bank of South Africa (DBSA) and was secured by the (then) Helderberg Sub-structure of the City of Cape Town. The loan repayments have been serviced from a contribution from rent payments amounting to approximately R27/month (escalated from

maintenance and replacement of equipment in return for a service fee.

the

10.2.2 Estimates
The SWH technology that is deemed most suitable for low-income housing – and taking economies of scale into account would be a 100 litre/1.4 m2, low pressure, direct close-coupled evacuated tube system, no electrical backup. The Section on appropriate technologies provides insight into other energy efficiency directives and options. It addresses the issue of appropriate
24

technologies in a holistic manner and point to gaps in the new Norms and Standards.

The proposed system for implementation by Thubelisha Homes in the N2 Gateway Project is not a dual-system SWH as the switch-over to electricity will place an additional operation cost burden on the indigent. Basic assumptions Certain basic assumptions have been made pertaining to the provision of SWHs. 1. Hot water is assumed to be at 60 C, with a final mixed temperature of o 45 C. 2. An annual averageo cold water inlet temperature of 16.2 C. 3. An average daily solar radiation of 2 6.1 kWh/m 4. Low-income = 20 litres of hot water per person per day The costs of materials for the three systems, complete, is approximately R3,000 for the noted SWH. The average costs of installation for the system is R500 and the maintenance costs, based on replacement of pressure valves every five (5) years, electrical heating elements every five (5) years, anode every three (3) years and average per year is R156/annum. The energy services model is predicated on a large-scale rollout of SWHs within a dedicated area, such as perhaps a concession area, by an energy services company. The energy services company would capitalise the business which would involve raising the funds to both cover hardware and installation costs, operating and maintenance costs, and general overheads. The household pays a monthly service fee, either on a metered consumption basis or a flat rate.
o

25

11. APPROPRIATE ENERGY EFFICIENT TECHNOLOGIES & APPROACHES
This Section looks at all the components of the planning and implementation of energy efficiency measures in low-income housing. The Section hinges in part on the energy efficiency measures noted in the National Norms and Standards as contained in the revision effective 01 April 2007. The sections from the National norms and Standards pertaining to energy efficiency are shaded and the debates and gaps follow. Technologies are described at the end of the section. Only solar water heating technologies are described in depth. Other components are merely noted. Designs for affordable housing must allow for dwellings to be thermally efficient. More often than not, in the rush to deliver housing in large numbers in view of the immense backlog, a unique opportunity to provide environmentally sustainable and energy efficient units is overlooked. Low-income housing is not designed to take advantage of the gentle South African climate. Houses tend to be cold in winter and hot in summer, and require significant energy consumption and household expenditure in winter. As a result, the energy consumption patterns of low-income households have emerged as one of the most important factors influencing the national electricity demand and the high levels of air pollution mainly due to coal used for space heating. If sound energy principles are not incorporated into the design of low-income housing, beneficiaries are condemned to a future of high energy consumption. This situation is exacerbated by local air quality problems, compromised family health, worker productivity, and increased greenhouse gas concentrations. Energy efficiency can be defined as the realisation of a higher energy service per given unit of energy input ensuring that households can improve their standard of living without consuming more energy. An energy efficient house is naturally thermally comfortable, makes the best use of available energy and does not require large amounts of energy in its day-today running, while minimising negative environmental impact. Energy efficient housing can be enhanced by two aspects, design considerations for thermally efficient housing and materials and technologies for the construction of energy efficient housing.

11.1 National Norms & Standards
for Integrated and Sustainable Human Settlements includes integrated energy planning (IEP). IEP demands that the energy sector be integrated with the social, economic, political, environmental and spatial sectors. Energy efficient housing is largely informed by natural elements such as the sun, wind and rain. Local climatic conditions such as rainfall and prevailing winds should be considered. Optimising the use of direct natural sunlight provide a low-income or no-cost intervention and is applicable in all climatic regions
9Planning

11.1.1 Integrated Defined

Energy

Planning

IEP is a sound methodology within which energy policy planning and implementation takes place as it endeavours to incorporate those sectors mentioned above. However, energy efficiency for low-income housing is mostly driven by economical and political factors. IEP would offer more if the planning and implementation of energy efficient measures were largely driven and integrated with environmental, social and spatial considerations. IEP should consider the social, economic, political, environmental and spatial sectors.10

9 EDPC, Household End-Use Approach, University of Cape Town 10 Eberhard, A 1994, Integrated Energy Planning: A methodology for policy analysis and research, SA Energy

Policy Research and Training Project, Paper No 2, Energy for Development Research Centre, University of Cape Town 26

Spatial Considerations The economic disadvantage of locations away from urban opportunities necessitates a trade-off between access and pricing. This hinders efficiency because people are willing to pay dearly for energy services and products from the informal economy which is expensive. These services would otherwise be more easily accessible and cheaper to obtain within the formal urban economy. In these circumstances, the poor often find themselves in spaces on the city's periphery which would (under normal circumstances) have been declared unsuitable for urban development unless appropriate interventions (like land fill) were commissioned to make these suitable. Informal urban settlements in the Cape are often located on wetlands or land with high water tables and have inadequate drainage services to overcome such problems. This, together with wind leaks and damp penetration, increases the need for space heating. The predominance of macro scale determinants informing the urban building process prevents this process from responding to the natural conditions prevailing in certain local areas. Macro scale determinants can only be stated broadly and therefore often fail to inform site specific conditions which informants at a micro scale are able to do. A good example of this is the insistence in the literature upon understanding the development of local areas and dwelling structures in terms of six (cold interior, temperate interior, hot interior, temperate coastal, subtropical coastal and arid interior) or three broad climatic zones (temperate, hot-humid and hot-dry). The development of local urban areas is dependent not only on climatic conditions but on many other natural elements as well. These are likely to differ from area to area within the same climatic zone and include micro-climate considerations and those of geology, hydrology, local vegetation and landscape requirements. If these were to be carefully considered in the urban building process, not only will thermal efficiency improve but development would take place in response to and with respect for the prevailing environmental conditions within which local areas are located.

Lighting and Ventilation can regulate heat flow through windows. Big-sized windows should be north-oriented to allow maximum heating. Windows can be shaded by indigenous deciduous trees in the summer, which will lose its leaves in winter to allow the sunshine through. Roof overhang shades the window in summer, and allows the sunshine in during winter. Windows facing east and west should be limited. Daylighting Daylighting uses natural light available during sunlight hours, achieved through: Appropriately located (north zone) glazed (clear glass) openings of appropriate size. Necessary to provide appropriate sunshading in summer to prevent overheating. Skylights can also be used to build light levels. Passive thermal control Climatic conditions which influence indoor temperature and thermal comfort include: intensity of direct and diffuse solar radiation, air temperature, relative humidity and air movement. Thermal properties of building materials which contribute to passive thermal control include density (store heat during hot periods and dissipate heat during cool periods), thermal resistance (minimize heat flow from hotter to colder zones), specific heat, absorptance (capture radiant heat for storage during overheated period and release during overcooled period), emissivity, transmission and reflectance (reflect away radiated heat to avoid overheating). Energy Consumption Designers should ensure that housing is able to safely accommodate the use of fuels and appliances, and advise households on appropriate and safe fuel use. Orientation of houses should be an integral part of planning and design - houses should face towards geographic north and have most windows facing north to have the least heat gain in summer and the least heat loss in winter. The longer axis of the dwelling should be orientated to run as near to east/west as possible.
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The plan should be designed to maximise interior space while minimising exterior wall area, from which heat loss will occur in winter, i.e. houses designed so that the smallest wall area is exposed to outside and units are as close to square shape as possible. Windows and doors placed on the north side of the house will ensure that sunlight enters and warms the floor. The roof overhang must be built on the northern side to shade windows in summer and living spaces should be arranged so that the rooms where people spend most time are located on northern side. Uninhabited rooms (bathrooms and storerooms) can be used to screen unwanted western sun or to prevent heat loss on south-facing facades. Various problems are being experienced with current space heating practices in South Africa. Space heating would not be such a major consideration for low-income urban households in terms of fuel usage if they resided in dwellings with adequate insulation and their thermal performance was properly matched with human comfort with reference to the climatic conditions within which they are located. Should the thermal performance of the dwelling be improved, access to electricity to operate heat pumps, for example, would simply be a bonus. Additional space heating may then easily be regarded as a luxury.

that windows are replaced very infrequently so another opportunity to install high-performance glazing may not arise for a number of years. Secondary glazing is a good option where thermal performance needs to be improved and the existing character of the dwelling needs to be maintained. Draught-stripping of existing badly fitting windows and doors is inexpensive and simple to install. It can greatly improve comfort as well as reducing heat loss. Typical features of high-performance windows and doors include: Double or triple glazing: The number of panes and the width of the air gap influence the performance and energy efficiency of the house. The gap between panes should be in the region of 16 mm or more (unless gas filling is used). Low-e coating: This is a special coating on the inside of the inner pane which is applied during manufacturing. It helps to reflect radiant heat back into the room. Gas filling: Instead of being filled with air, the gap between panes can be filled with argon, krypton or xenon. Filling the gap with one of these gases instead of air reduces the amount of heat that is conducted through the window. Xenon is the most effective, but argon is the cheapest and most widely available. Insulated window frames: Heat loss occurs through the window frame as well as through the glass. An insulated frame further reduces heat loss and improves comfort. Draught-stripping: The use of compression seals reduces air leakage around the frame. Roof: light coloured cement roof tiles minimise heat gain through roof and roof insulated with treated polystyrene board. A 600 mm roof overhang shades north facade from direct midday sunlight during summer, and allows winter sun to warm the interior directly. A fascia board with a height of about 100 mm extends the shading. Heat loss through the roof is the greatest, so the benefits of installing ceilings include: reduction in spending on indoor heating by 50%, improved air quality and thus health, more stable internal temperatures - all leading to increased productivity.
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Glazing: Major areas of glazing placed in rooms that are used most and these placed on northern side of the building to allow solar heat to penetrate the glazing during winter months. Windows and doors Although double or triple glazing, draught stripping or door and window frame insulation are not common practices in South Africa, it is included in this section specifically as an enticement to change existing and entrenched bad habits. A major source of energy loss is through windows and doors. Energy-efficient windows, when correctly selected and installed, will help to minimise the heating costs and will also increase comfort. Although savings from installing new windows are not as high as other measures (e.g. cavity wall insulation), it is important to recognise

Walls can be insulated by building a cavity wall (two parallel walls with an air gap between) is seen as most effective method (but is also most expensive). Another method is to plaster walls, or to use panels (also called construction boards). These panels are either used as an add-on to the walls and thus function as an insulation layer or to fulfil the wall function themselves and have a structural function.

11.1.2 Retrofitting
Capital costs approx R2,000 per household - and energy savings cover this cost over a 20 year period. Insulation reduces the flow of heat in and out of the house i.e. keeps it cooler on a hot day and warmer on a cold day. The expense of ceilings or tiled roofs, as well as the loft space used up, indicates the need for a more cost-effective air-flow system (e.g solar chimney) which can be installed to regulate air flow in roof spaces. When applying new and renewable energy technologies to existing dwellings it is important to reduce the energy demand. Low-income dwellings in South Africa do not have adequate levels of insulation. They typically use conventional electric lighting (i.e. with tungsten lamps) and older electrical appliances. All of these factors can raise the electric power demand to levels that renewable energy systems may not be able to meet. Improving energy efficiency is therefore a strongly recommended precursor to the installation of renewable energy systems. Energy efficiency should be improved on a ‘whole house’ basis wherever possible, including: 1. Insulation. 2. Reduced thermal bridging. 3. Improved air-tightness. 4. Controlled ventilation. 5. Efficient heating and hot water systems. 6. Responsive heating and hot water controls. 7. Efficient lighting and appliances. Cavity wall insulation is the single most costeffective, low risk energy efficiency measure available for the existing housing stock, after loft insulation. It can be installed without major disruption to occupants and it needs no maintenance.

Flooring material should be of high thermal mass, such as concrete, bricks or clay, to trap heat and solar radiation coming in through the windows. The heat is slowly released at night. Concrete screeded floors finished with ceramic tiles, providing suitable thermal mass to retain warmth in winter (from direct sunlight) and coolness in summer (from cool nights). The use of darker coloured ceramic floor tiles in northfacing rooms and lighter coloured floor tiles on southern side should be the norm.

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11.2 Appropriate Technologies
11.2.1 Solar Water Heating (SWH)
Although SWH is currently the favoured lowincome energy efficient water heating system on the agenda, the following background information compiled by a Central Energy Fund report, sketches the environment within which the South African housing implementation agencies have to operate.

countries with supportive government policies/incentives, while SA currently has none. 4. Significant low risk and low investment jobs can be created for SMMEs in the business side of distribution, installation and maintenance of Solar Water Heaters in South Africa. This is also an opportunity for gender parity. 5. History has shown that manufacturing of SWHs is capital and risk intensive, offering

Source: http://www.sunhotsolar.co.za/
Background
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fewer job opportunities. 6. There was a drastic historic attrition of SWH manufacturers, retailers and installers in South Africa in recent years. During the course of this SWH 2003 project, two known manufacturers went out of business. Still the remaining manufacturers state that they have considerable surplus capacity.
Technology

1. South Africa has internationally one of the best climates for the application of Solar Water Heating, characterised by very high radiation levels in the inland areas and relatively warm inlet water temperatures. The coastal areas are less favourable, but still good by international standards. However, the market penetration is low and stagnant. 2. Internationally, Solar Water Heating thrives in countries with long-term government incentive legislation, even with a fraction of sunshine in SA, and where energy prices for water heating are perceived to be high. 3. A significant portion of the South African shipments goes to neighbouring developing
11 Holm, Dieter, Market Survey of Solar Water Heating in South Africa for the Energy Development Corporation (EDC) of the Central Energy Fund (CEF) 2005

Typically, SWHs fit into two broad categories: close-coupled, and integral, units. Close-coupled units are more efficient than the integral type, while costing up to four times the initial cost price.12 Solar Water Heaters (SWH) are a simple reliable technology requiring minimal maintenance of

City Of Cape Town, Low-Cost Urban Housing Upgrade, Kuyasa, Khayelitsha, Solar Water Heater Model by AGAMA Energy (Pty) Ltd, P O Box 606, Constantia

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technical support. They use 2 basic principles: hot water rising and black objects absorbing heat, and comprise 3 components: collect, store and transfer. SWH can be active (use pump) or passive (natural convection), direct or indirect (best for all conditions). SWH can effect significant savings on electricity usage as geysers comprise 50% of total household energy consumption. Compact systems (Passive systems)13 A passive system also known as a monobloc (thermosyphon) system, a compact system consists of a tank for the heated water, a solar collector, and connecting pipes all pre-mounted in a frame. The water flows upward when heated in the panel. When this water enters the tank (positioned higher than the solar panel), it expels some cold water from inside so that the heat transfer takes place without the need for a pump. A typical system for a four-person home in a sunny region consists of a tank of 150 to 300 litres and three to four square metres of solar collector panels. A special type of compact system is the Integrated Collector Storage (ICS, Batch Heater) where the tank acts as both storage and solar collector. They are simple and efficient but only suitable in moderate climates with good sunshine. Direct ('open loop') compact systems are not suitable for cold climates if they are made of metals. At night the remaining water can freeze and damage the panels, and the storage tank is exposed to the outdoor temperatures that will cause excessive heat losses on cold days. Some compact systems have a primary circuit. The primary circuit includes the collectors and the external part of the tank. Instead of water, a nontoxic anti-freezing liquid is used. When this liquid is heated up, it flows to the external part of the tank and transfers the heat to the water placed inside. ('closed loop'). However, direct ('open loop') systems are slightly cheaper and more efficient. A compact system can save up to 4.5 tonnes annually of greenhouse gas emissions. In order to achieve the aims of the Kyoto Protocol, several countries are offering subsidies to the end user. Some systems can work for up to 25 years with minimum maintenance. These kinds of systems can be redeemed in six years, and achieve a
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positive balance of energy (energy used to build them minus energy they save) of 1.5 years. Most part of the year, when the electric heating element is not working, these systems do not use any external source for power (as water flows due to thermosyphon principle). Flat solar thermal collectors are usually used, but compact systems using vacuum tube collectors are available on the market. These generally give a higher heat yield per square meter in colder climates but cost more than flat plate collector systems. Pumped systems (Active systems) How the solar water heating system is pumped and controlled determines whether it is a zero carbon or a low carbon system. Low carbon systems principally use electricity to circulate the fluid through the collector. The use of electricity typically reduces the carbon savings of a system by 10% to 20%. Conventional low carbon system designs use a mains powered circulation pump whenever the hot water tank is positioned below the solar panels. Most systems in northern Europe are of this type. The storage tank is placed inside the building, and thus requires a controller that measures when the water is hotter in the panels than in the tank. The system also requires a pump for transferring the fluid between the parts. The electronic controllers used by some systems permit a wide range of functionality such as measurement of the energy produced; more sophisticated safety functions; thermostatic and time-clock control of auxiliary heat, hot water circulation loops, or others; display or transfer of error messages or alarms; remote display panels; and remote or local data-logging. Newer zero carbon solar water heating systems are powered by solar electric (photovoltaic or PV) pumps. These typically use a 5-20W PV panel which faces in the same direction as the main solar heating panel and a small, low flow diaphragm pump to pump the water. The most commonly used solar collector is the insulated glazed flat panel. Less expensive panels, like polypropylene panels (for swimming pools) or higher-performing ones like evacuated tube collectors, are sometimes used.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Solar_hot_water 31

11.2.2 N2 Gateway Application
Existing homes in the N2 Gateway Project have no water heating systems and use different types of fuel to heat their water for washing and cleaning. SWH is a relatively inexpensive method that will substantially improve the livelihoods of the people living in low-income housing.

only provide a small amount of electricity, they are generally grouped together into a module for convenience. A full domestic system may well have several modules, together with other system components such as an AC/DC inverter, batteries (for storing the energy until it is needed), a central control unit, mounting structure or materials for fixing the array, wiring, fuses and isolator. Types of photovoltaic cells Different semiconductor materials are used to produce photovoltaic cells. A semi-conducting material is one which only conducts electricity under certain conditions, e.g. when sunlight falls on it. The most widely used material is silicon. Silicon is one of the most abundant non-metallic elements on earth. It is used extensively in the manufacture of components for televisions, radios and computers, and is consequently much cheaper than other potential PV cell materials. Producing electricity from light A PV cell consists of a junction between two thin layers of dissimilar semi-conducting materials. These materials are usually based on silicon, although PV cells can also be made from other materials. Two thin layers of silicon are treated with small amounts of chemical substances to give the PV cell its special properties and allow it to produce electricity. The first layer, known as the ‘p’ type layer, is created by doping the silicon with tiny amounts of boron. This causes a shortage of electrons and hence a positive charge. The second layer is known as the ‘n’ type layer and, like the ‘p’ type, is doped with small amounts of an impurity – in this case phosphorus. This creates a surplus of electrons and hence a negative charge. The barrier between these two layers is known as the p-n junction. When energy in the form of light is applied at this point, the electrons are given enough energy to move across the junction. This in turn creates an energy variation, otherwise known as a ‘potential difference’ or ‘voltage’. If a circuit is made, this potential difference drives the flow of electrons around the circuit, and an electrical current is produced. Monocrystalline Monocrystalline silicon is usually grown from a small seed crystal that is slowly withdrawn from a
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11.2.3 Photovoltaic (PV) Systems14
“While nobody will say that PV can today present a cost-effective alternative to coal-fired electricity in South Africa, or that PV will take the place of large generative capacity, there are specific applications in which PV can and should be deployed that would make a substantial difference to the cause (small margin of Eskom spare capacity) and impact (negative effect of Eskom power failures on business and consumers through the interruption of power supply). Within a few years PV can be cost competitive to coal-fired electricity if present Eskom cost increases continue. There are specific segments within business and residential markets where PV, in partnership with renewable energy such as solar water heating will make a real difference to the present crisis.”15 The term photovoltaic (PV) means the generation of electricity from light. It is derived from the Ancient Greek for light ‘photos’, and ‘volt’ which is the term for electromotive force. Photovoltaic cells convert energy from the sun into electricity through semi conductor cells. The electricity is generated in the form of direct current (DC) which can either be used directly depending on the application, or converted into alternating current (AC) for household use or for exporting to the local electricity network/national grid. The brighter the sunlight, the more power is produced– although PV cells still produce a reduced level of power when the sun is hidden by clouds. Shading from other objects (such as nearby buildings and trees) is a key issue, as PV cells are more likely to show a drop in system output than solar thermal panels. Ideally panels should face as close to due south as possible, and be unshaded for most of the day. Because individual PV cells

Renewable energy sources for homes in urban environments, Energy Savings Trust, CE69, 2007 15 Professor Vivian Alberts, University of Johannesburg,
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2008

molten mass of polycrystalline silicon. It is then cut into very thin wafers. All the atoms within the crystal are arranged in an orderly pattern. Once cut, the wafers can then be ‘doped’ with impurities to produce a cell which will convert sunlight into electricity. Monocrystalline silicon PV modules are more efficient than polycrystalline, but more expensive due to the manufacturing process which is both time and energy intensive. Polycrystalline Similar to monocrystalline but instead of one single crystal, several different crystals are used. This process produces cheaper PV cells than monocrystalline, but with slightly lower efficiencies. Amorphous silicon In this process, silicon is made into a thin, continuous strip of material or film. Cells can be produced more quickly and cheaply than mono or polycrystalline, but efficiencies will be between three and five times lower. Amorphous silicon modules are ideally suited to applications where there is a large amount of surface area available for mounting, since they perform much better in diffuse sunlight than mono or polycrystalline modules. The table below shows typical conversion efficiencies of silicon based PV modules: Efficiency (%) Module type Durability (yrs) 12-15 Monocrystalline 10-13 Polycrystalline 3-6 Amorphous 25-30 20-25 15-20

regarding their selection and integration into urban areas. In urban environments there is usually a limited amount of space available for mounting PV modules. In these situations mono or polycrystalline modules have the advantage over amorphous silicon because; being more efficient, less surface area is required to provide the same output. Conversely, amorphous/thin film modules can be deposited on a wide range of rigid and flexible substrates, making them ideal for integration into new-build dwellings. A key advantage of PV in the urban environment is their potential to be integrated into the fabric of the building. No extra land space is required and the visual aesthetics of a building can be altered – either to be unobtrusive, or to give a clear indication of ‘green’ credentials. In the urban environment, grid-connected PV is likely to be more practical and cost-effective than a stand-alone system. The system is connected to the local electricity network and any excess electricity not consumed by the household can be sold back to the electricity supplier. During periods when the modules are not generating, electricity will need to be imported. PV modules are commercially available in a range of different types for integration into urban dwellings and locations. They vary from traditional aluminium framed modules and roof mounted systems, to products like roof tiles and semitransparent conservatory/atrium roof systems. The flexibility of the technology enables products to be

Efficiency is a measure of the electrical energy output from the system. A lower efficiency means more PV modules are needed to produce the same electricity output. Suitability to urban environments PV is perhaps the most suitable of all renewable energy technologies for widespread use in urban environments. Because electricity is generated at the point of use, the energy loss and costs associated with transmission and distribution are avoided. There are however some important considerations
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used which have the same structural and weather properties as traditional construction materials. Furthermore, their modular construction allows any size of system to be installed. In the residential market solar can play a key role. Solar water heating, used in conjunction with gas for cooking, would combine very well with solar PV. PV systems can and should be used to power essential electrical appliances and lights in homes. Key to rolling out PV installation in the domestic/residential sector would be: 1. Capital subsidy for targeted PV segments. 2. Finance facility to overcome upfront capital costs. 3. Enactment of various policies to enable harvesting of substantial value of carbon credits and/or Tradable Renewable Energy Certificates.

sector. This can be reduced by 70% using CFL bulbs. Low-energy lighting, using compact fluorescent lamps (CFLs), can be fitted at any time. Lowenergy lighting is most cost-effective when fitted in rooms that are most often used e.g. living room, kitchen and hallway. CFLs last twelve times longer than conventional tungsten lamps. They use as little as 25% of the energy used by tungsten bulbs. Good quality CFLs with ‘high-frequency ballasts’ light up instantly, don’t flicker, and produce full brightness quickly. There are different fittings to suit a variety of lamp types. • • ‘Plug-in’ CFLs fit in tungsten lamp holders. 2- or 4-pin CFLs have light fittings designed specially for them. They are also cheaper to buy. 4-pin CFLs can be dimmed (requires specialist equipment).

11.2.4 N2 Gateway Application
16Though

more expensive than electricity, it must be considered that PV produces a fixed cost of electricity for 25 years. PV will be cheaper than grid power within 12 years and will produce electricity at half the projected Eskom cost at that time. Key benefits include: 1. PV power is not subject to failures. In recent outages, electricity at any cost would have been acceptable.

Fluorescent tubes Contain high-frequency ballasts as standard, which avoids flicker. Dimmable high-frequency ballasts are available. Slimline 26 mm diameter fluorescent tubes give energy savings of around 8-10% compared with older 38 mm fluorescent tube for the same colour rendering, and are cheaper to buy. They are suitable for kitchens, workshops and garages. 2.12.3 Tungsten halogen Only suitable for spotlighting/task lighting, and should not be used for general household lighting. They are 50-100% more efficient than standard type bulbs and last about twice as long.

2. There would have been no Eskom capacity shortage if SA had implemented solar (PV and thermal) decades ago, as China did. PV should also be used in public infrastructure such as traffic lights and street lights. While the total consumption of these segments is minor in the total market, these applications would make a significant difference during power failures recently experienced.

11.2.5 Compact Fluorescent Light
The easiest and most cost-effective way to reduce energy consumption is by using Compact Fluorescent Lights (CFL). Lighting makes up 12% of total electricity use in the low-income housing

11.2.6 N2 Gateway Application
As light bulbs are one of the easiest interventions to implement a measure of energy efficiency, it will take very little effort from Thubelisha Homes to embark on a mass light bulb replacement drive throughout the N2 Gateway Project and to ensure

16 Interview Professor Vivien Alberts, University of Johannesburg, 2008

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that all light fittings installed – residential and public – can accommodate CFLs.

largely untapped. Jointly, such projects could help make the fuel mix in South Africa significantly cleaner. Wind Power While both Eskom and the Darling Wind farm are installing the first turbines, these do not begin to reach the estimated potential. There are various estimates of the potential, ranging between 2 and 24 TWh/year, which means that current facilities exploit less than 1% of the potential. Biomass and Biodiesel Existing use of renewable energy in South Africa primarily means biomass. Except for a few small hydroelectric facilities and a small number of other renewable energy demonstration projects, biomass use has been the only significant source of renewable energy until very recently. Quantitative research on national biomass consumption, however, has been very limited, with the Department of Minerals and Energy Biomass Initiative being the most authoritative report. Potential projects might use biomass for production of liquid fuels, or for electricity generation. Biodiesel has been commercially produced in several European countries for close on 15 years, and in the United States for the past 5 years. Considerable expansion in the production of biodiesel is anticipated in these countries. Since it has already been accepted in developed countries, biodiesel technology can quickly and easily be implemented in South Africa. For Thubelisha Homes, this energy source can prove suitable in all their developments. It can feasibly provide for the electricity needs of the indigent without them having to be burdened with the costs of grid electricity. On a macro scale, the production potential of biodiesel (without impacting negatively on food production) is large, while impressive numbers of jobs can be created in the process. Using some 2.3 million hectares of land, it has been estimated that 1.4 billion litres of biodiesel could be produced. Assuming that half of this production could be achieved in the next 10 years, these results in 700 million litres. Assuming 40 MJ/litre, this would be an additional 7,778 GWh, which is 17% of current diesel use for road and rail transport. We suggest a target of 10% of annual
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11.2.7 Energy efficiency & cooking - LPG
Many are reluctant to utilise LPG not only for cooking but other end purposes as well mainly because of their perception that this fuel carries a high degree of danger. The government plans to construct approximately 3,000 houses in the next five years. The proposed housing programme provides an opportunity to change this perception of the potential occupants of new dwellings and to encourage them to utilise LPG for cooking and other end-uses. In addition to electrification, gas cylinders can also be provided for in the planning and construction of new houses. In this way, new households (in the urban poor sector of South Africa) will be left with a choice of fuel usage for different activities. households17

11.2.8 Technologies for Sustainable Human Settlements
Developing Sustainable Human Settlements is much more than the heating system, light bulbs or the position of the dwelling. It has to do with the spatial development of communities – density or sprawl, the way in which dwelling types are mixed, distance from productive centres, water supply, sanitation, and the way planners look at establishing vibrant communities, able to work and function optimally in their communities. The previous sections described indepth the applicable water heating technologies, specifically for the N2 Gateway and other similar projects. The following section is a brief overview of other technical components that have a marked influence on energy efficiencies in communities and in their homes. Renewable energy technologies18 There is some experience with RETs in South Africa, but the potential for renewable energy is still

17

EDPC, Household End-Use Approach, University of Cape Town

Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) Investor Guide United Nations Industrial Development Organization Vienna, 2003

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diesel consumption from renewable sources to be reached within 10 years. Landfill Gas Historically, there has been little or no attention paid to the draining of gases from landfill sites in South African Priority sectors and CDM project opportunities in South Africa. Emission reduction19 Residential cumulative MtCO2 over 30 years Replace incandescents Efficient lighting practices Efficient wood/coal stove Hot plate to gas cooking Hybrid solar water heaters Solar water heaters Heat pumps for hot water Insulation of geysers Efficient use of hot water Thermally efficient housing Electric to gas space heating Solar home system Distributed wind generation Paraffin to gas cooking 11 18 5 5 88 2 19 25 22 9 25 2 – 2

Sustainable Water21 Sustainable water has the following components: Water Efficient Low Cost Housing South Africa has limited and erratic rainfall, and is essentially a dry, drought-prone country. Evaporation rates are exceptionally high, and the ground-water reserves in South Africa are small and increasingly fragile. Year by year, additional sources of water are becoming both more difficult to find and more expensive to develop. Through the increasing demand resulting from population growth and urbanisation, industrial development and agricultural needs, water is becoming an increasingly scarce commodity. If this increasing demand exceeds the potential supply, we will be faced with a permanent water crisis. In the current policy environment water is now regarded as a national resource. The effective management of this scarce resource is critical to the continued development. It is, therefore, essential that everyone, including housing developers and designers; plays a part in conserving water. Layout: In small buildings, such as low cost houses, very little consideration is given to the

Appliance labelling & standards 25

CDM projects can encourage the collection and productive use of methane and other landfill gases. Existing and future landfill sites can be designed to maximize this resource in a sustainable and environmentally beneficial way. Secondary benefits include the sedimentation of the material in the landfill and hence the prolonged life of the landfill before municipal waste is disposed of further and further afield, with the associated increases in costs and emissions. Currently a number of landfill CDM projects are being pursued.20

19

De Villiers & Matibe, in Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) Investor Guide United Nations Industrial Development Organization Vienna, 2003
21 National Department Of Housing Guidelines For Environmentally Sound Low Cost Housing

20 Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) Investor Guide United

Nations Industrial Development Organization Vienna, 2003

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layout of plumbing systems. This is mainly due to the fact that building design is often completed and construction started before the plumbing contractor is employed. In such cases, optimal layout is difficult to achieve. One of the primary causes of persistent water wastage in domestic dwellings is the “dead leg” in the hot water system, a long pipe run from the water heater to a supply point. This causes much cooled water to be drawn off before hot water is discharged. Energy waste is also of concern in this scenario. Pipe Sizing: The optimum pipe sizing is essential to the performance of many of the water saving devices. Water Pressure: The pressure at which water is distributed within a building can have an effect on water consumption for a number of reasons. Water supplied to a point of use at a higher pressure than necessary causes wastage because more water is discharged from the tap or other fitting in a given period of time than is necessary to perform the function (such as rinsing a cup or washing hands). A lower pressure will, in most cases, not detract from the utility of the supply. Higher pressures also increase the amount of water lost due to leakage. Plumbing Fittings: It is pertinent that the Engineer/Designer for plumbing fittings understand all the various guidelines, policies, standards and best management practices for water supply systems design and plumbing. Secondary Water Use (Grey Water) and Rainwater Harvesting: Rainwater harvesting is the process of intercepting storm-water runoff and putting it to beneficial use. Rainwater is usually collected or harvested from rooftops, concrete patios, driveways and other impervious surfaces. Buildings and landscapes can be designed to maximize the amount of catchment area, thereby increasing rainwater harvesting possibilities. Intercepted water then can be collected, detained, retained and routed for use in evaporative coolers, toilet flushing, pet and car washing, indoor plant watering, pet and livestock watering, and for lawn and garden irrigation. Grey water refers to the reuse of water drained from baths, showers, washing machines, and sinks (household wastewater excluding toilet wastes) for irrigation and other water conservation applications. Contrary to common belief, grey

water is not an entirely “safe” product—it contains bacteria and other potential pathogens. It should therefore be used with caution. Water Saving Devices: Advances in technology mean that water-saving devices are continuously being updated and new ones appear on the market on a regular basis. These include the following: Toilet Systems With the severe affordability constraints in the subsidised housing sector, developers often provide on site sanitation. VIPs and composting toilets are generally regarded as being environmentally sound. However, care must be taken in the design of on site sanitation, as improper design may lead to ground water contamination. In the case of waterborne sewerage, the most common toilet system in domestic use is one which uses a cistern, usually either low-level or close-coupled. For optimum water conservation a low-volume or dual-flush type should be used. These cisterns should be used with a pan designed to be used with low flush volumes. Taps Water conserving taps with a lower flow rate than previously accepted as the norm should preferably be selected for all new installations. These are designed to give comparable levels of utility while using less water. Taps fitted over wash basins do not need to provide a high rate of flow. Another option which is suitable in certain situations is the metering tap, which delivers a pre-determined, but adjustable, quantity of water when operated.

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12. A PROCESS TO FOLLOW FOR ENERGY EFFICIENT HOUSING 12.1 Application: N2 Gateway
The approach will be broadly similar regardless of the type of system involved. It should ideally form part of the wider N2 Gateway Project, with the new and renewable energy systems helping to achieve other objectives such as affordable warmth, good asset management and sustainable development. The use of renewable energy technology should always be combined with improving energy efficiency. The carbon reductions achieved from energy efficiency measures will generally be greater than those from renewables. In addition, it is important to reduce energy demand in the dwellings to a level where renewables can make a significant contribution. Reiterating the purpose of the Thubelisha Homes N2 Gateway Energy Efficiency Pilot Project objective being to install SWH systems in approximately 3,000 dwellings and ensure that within budgetary constraints as many energy efficiency components are present in the construction of the dwelling as the present plans provided for. This pilot project is not a pure greenfields project as the plans have been drawn up and passed, the bulk infrastructure is in place and the construction teams are on site. Thus, there are spatial and construction energy efficiency measures that cannot be included in the pilot project. However, as Thubelisha Homes’ building specifications incorporate the bulk of the construction energy efficiency measures, such as ceilings, plastered walls, etc. the dwellings will comply to certain standards. Where, for instance, the SWH system requires additional construction components, such as ensuring that the roof can hold the weight of the SWH system as well as a full tank of water or guttering for the water overflow, the financial aspects of these components will be considered and costed as part of the SWH installation. As the donor funding from Danida is for a specific amount, the number of dwellings that will be fitted with SWF and other supporting construction components may have to be determined by the overall cost of installation. The project is subservient to the overall immediate objectives in line with the South Africa-Danida Cooperation Agreement, being: 1. Awareness of regulators, local authorities, private sector, practitioners and low-income consumers. 2. Adequate information dissemination. sharing and

3. Affordable technologies developed i.t.o. intervention approaches, selected, piloted, evaluated in low-income houses and prepared for large-scale dissemination. 4. Inform, through lessons learnt, the Regulatory Framework for energy efficient low-income houses. It is important that the pilot project outcomes remain in line with the stated immediate objectives. The following process flow summary looks at how Thubelisha Homes can feasibly tackle the project: Step 1: Pre-Project Planning 3. Completion and endorsement of the Project Document (Rewritten 2008) by stakeholders such as Danida, the NDoH and Thubelisha Homes. 4. Procure and appoint a Chief Technical Advisor 5. Establish a Project Steering Committee 6. Contract specialist consultants, who can estimate costs and obtain preliminary quotations for the different outcomes stated above. Step 2: Assess the Potential 1. The Chief Technical Advisor, in conjunction with the Thubelisha Homes’ Project Management Team, will consider the choice of appropriate technologies taking all the existing components of the pilot project into consideration being: a. That the project consists of new dwellings; b. That the project planning (plans and approvals) is in an advanced stage – except for the energy efficiency components; c. That the rudimentary project budgets have already been completed;
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d. That the contracting of the construction component has been done. 2. The Chief Technical Advisor will develop an Implementation Plan, including implementation budgets and reporting to the appropriate structures. inform the Energy 3. To Implementation Plan, the CTA will Efficiency

Step 4: Develop a full specification – construction, community engagement and finance options 1. Specify and record the chosen technology and the required performance of the dwellings, in terms of fuel use, fuel costs and carbon emissions. 2. Finalise reporting structures, including the Project Steering Committee appointments 3. Finalise all pre-implementation components Step 5: Apply for funding 1. Finalise all budgetary issues including a. Examining the potential for Carbon Credits and Tradable Renewable Energy Certificates (TRECs) as outlined in Section 7. Step 6: Implementation a. Obtain competitive tenders and b. Iimplement the scheme.

a. Identify the current and projected energy demand. Evaluate space heating, water heating and electric power requirements (for appliances and lighting). Estimate the contributions that may be made by renewable energy. b. Identify the fuel use and the carbon savings expected from renewable energy technologies. c. Compare the carbon emissions reductions achievable from the various renewable energy technology options, taking into account the type of fuel or energy to be offset. d. Consider affordabilities, evaluate residents’ benefits and identify alternative funding methods to assist the indigent so that they are not further burdened. Consider finance mechanisms described in Section 7. e. Consider the different Community Engagement (Communications) options and contract suitable consultant or NGOs to develop the materials and strategy. Step 3: Consult with community leaders, residents and contractors 1. Appraise the Communications Proposals and procure this service. 2. Embark on a participatory education and awareness campaign. 3. ‘Buy-in’ from community leaders, residents and contractors are critical to the long-term success of the programme. 4. All Stakeholders will need to be informed and educated about the benefits of renewable energy technology.

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13. FINANCE MECHANISMS 13.1 Government Subsidies
A Government Housing Subsidy is a grant to qualifying beneficiaries. This subsidy is not paid in cash, but it is used to construct a house that complies with minimum technical and environmental norms and standards, and transferred to beneficiary. Top-up subsidy granted to beneficiaries with household income not exceeding R3 500 per month, while beneficiaries with a household income of between R1,501 to R3,500 per month pay a contribution of R2,479. Beneficiaries exempted from making a contribution (see table) will also be assisted in the form of an increased subsidy. Individual Subsidy Provides qualifying beneficiaries with access to housing subsidies to acquire ownership of improved residential properties (stand and house) or to acquire a house building contract which is not part of approved housing subsidy projects. The latter option is only available to beneficiaries who will access housing credit. Project Linked Subsidy Enables a qualifying household to access a complete residential unit, which is developed within an approved project linked housing subsidy project for ownership by the beneficiary. Institutional Subsidy Available to qualifying institutions to enable them to create affordable housing stock for persons who qualify for housing subsidies. Provides capital for the construction of housing units in respect of qualifying beneficiaries who do not earn more than R3 500. Paid to approved institutions to provide subsidised housing on deed of sale, rental or rent to buy options, on condition that the beneficiaries do not pay full purchase price and take transfer within the first four years of receipt of the subsidy. Institutions must also invest capital from its own resources in the projects. Discount Benefit Scheme Promotes home ownership among tenants of state-financed rental stock, including formal housing and serviced sites. Tenants receive a maximum discount of up to R7,500 on the selling price of the property. Where the discount amount equals or exceeds the purchase price or loan balance, the property is transferred free of any further capital charges People's Housing Process Supports households who wish to enhance their housing subsidies by building or organising the building of their own homes themselves. This process is a method of accessing the Projects Linked, Project Linked Consolidation, Institutional, or Rural Subsidies as
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13.1.1 Housing Criteria

Subsidy

Applicant

The housing subsidy applies when the following criteria are met: Married or Financial Dependants: Married or cohabiting or single person with proven financial dependants (such as children or family members). SA Resident or permanent resident permit Competent to Contract: over 21 years of age and of sound mind. Monthly Household Income: Gross monthly household income must not exceed R3 500. Not yet benefited from Government Funding: Must not have received previous housing benefits except: a Consolidation or a Disability subsidy First time property owner: May not own or have owned a house. This does not apply to persons with disabilities or, beneficiaries of Land Restitution Programmes.
Top Individual and Structure Project Linked Funding Subsidies only R0 - R1 500 R38 984,00 Own Contribution Product Price

None R2 479,00

R38 984,00 R38 984,00

R1 501 - R3 500 R36 505,00 Indigent: Aged, Disabled and R38 984,00 Health Stricken R0 - R3 500

None

R38 984,0

13.1.2 Subsidy Types
Consolidation Subsidy For previous beneficiaries of serviced stands, financed by the previous housing dispensation [including the Independent Development Trust's site and service schemes].

well as technical and other forms of assistance in the house building process. Ceiling Subsidy In some coastal areas of South Africa, households are entitled to an additional R1,600 per dwelling for ceilings. This concession was instigated to combat negative health effects of moist, damp and mould. Rural Subsidies Available to beneficiaries who only enjoy functional tenure rights to the land they occupy. This land belongs to the State and is governed by traditional authorities. The subsidies are only available on a project basis and beneficiaries are supported by implementing agents. Beneficiaries also have the right to decide on how to use their subsidies either for service provision, on building of houses or a combination thereof.

13.2.1 Solar Water Heating Financial Support Mechanisms
Support mechanisms for SWH include legislative, financial and awareness programmes. These should be complementary and ideally, they should be implemented together as a suite of support mechanisms for increased uptake of SWH systems. A range of financial support mechanisms are available to support either, or both, of the modes of implementation. These are described below. Capital subsidies Financial support by means of capital subsidies includes options such as demand side management (DSM), subsidies under the CEF Solar 500 project, and supplementary grants to the housing subsidy for low-income housing and others. Eskom currently manages a Demand Side Management (DSM) fund. This fund is focused on subsidising interventions that reduce the overall electrical demand in the country – and hence Eskom’s involvement in the fund has been called into question, since it is not compatible with their core business. The discussion as to the relocation of the National Energy Efficiency Agency (NEEA) under the Central Energy Fund (CEF) is currently ongoing. Regarding DSM for solar water heating, it is anticipated that the fund will provide a capital subsidy at a minimum of R2,000 per SWH system. Interest subsidies Subsidies on the interest for loans are a useful financial support mechanism. Typical examples include Green housing bonds (home loans) and preferential rates for lower risk customers at commercial banks. Although not currently an institutionally debated mechanism, there is a positive impact regarding SWH uptake through provision of an interest rate subsidy on SWHs. This could, for example, be offered through a revolving credit fund that would be able to accessing risk guarantee(s) for financiers. Interest holidays The use of interest holidays is focussed on ‘backloading’ the repayment profile for loans to make
41

13.2 Financing mechanisms22
There are different financing mechanisms for SWH systems. The most appropriate financing mechanism for a particular SWH client depends on the mode of implementation for that client. In the case of ownership-based modes of implementation the most appropriate financing options include: 1. Cash purchase 2. Credit purchase using an overdraft or a credit card 3. Short- or long-term asset-based finance using a targeted SWH loan or a mortgage-based advance In the case of an energy services mode of implementation, the finance issue for the client is solved as an integral part of the overall service offering. Consequently, the financing challenge is focussed at the level of the range of enterprise funding mechanisms for a service company rather than on the individual customer level.

This section hinges on the investigation done and reflected in the document Modelling and Analysis of Financial Structuring for SWH Projects, for Danida by Agama Energy and Lereko Energy, April 2007
22

the repayments more affordable in the short term. This does not necessarily imply a lower overall cost to the lender (it is more likely to add to the overall cost) but the access to the loan is made easier. National tax and / or municipal rates rebates Tax or rates rebates are a very effective method of providing tax relief as a reward to liable taxpayers who are adopting policies which need to be supported by national or local government. Basic energy grants A basic energy grant is already implemented in South Africa and is provided in terms of a small allocation of “free electricity”. The motivation for a basic energy grant is to provide a lifeline service to very poor households. This mechanism could be applied in the form of “free hot water” as a supplementary grant to (or instead of) the current levels of “free electricity”.
Tradable Renewable Energy Certificates (TRECs)

2. Offering advice to developers and other stakeholders on renewable energy finance and subsidies. This includes information on the size of awards, eligibility, procedural requirements, and opportunities for accessing finance from other sources. Submitting an expression of interest, as the first step in applying for a renewable energy subsidy, can be submitted throughout the year. However, decisions regarding the award of letters of registration and the subsequent awarding of subsidy contracts are made by the departmental Renewable Energy Subsidy Governance Committee (SGC), which meets three times a year. The REFSO Secretariat supports the SGC in this process. At the SGC meeting held at the beginning of 2006, the SGC approved and issued 12 letters of registration (a total of 29 letters of registration have been issued to date) to projects that have now been registered with REFSO as potential beneficiaries of the renewable energy subsidy scheme.23 This subsidy applies to developers of energy efficiency programmes (including SWH projects), which could feasibly include large-scale lowincome housing programmes. Carbon finance The Clean Development Mechanism (CDM), supported by the Energy Efficient Strategy of the Government, provides the framework for quantifying and certifying the avoided emissions reductions for projects. Solar water heating has a significant impact on avoiding emissions at power stations, given that some 92% of the country’s electricity is generated using coal-fired thermal stations with a very high emission co-efficient. Carbon Finance is a complex mechanism and both the feasibility and morality of this mechanism is being debated. Due to the complexity of the mechanism, this report includes an explanatory section on Carbon Finance in an attempt to clarify the debates.

A related approach – as widely used in Australia – is to use the Tradable Renewable Energy Certificate (TREC) system for subsidising the capital cost of SWHs over a ten-year crediting period. The TREC system values the same avoided emissions as are calculated for the CDM approach, but issues a certificate for avoided electricity consumption that is redeemed when the sponsor of the system pays the allocated value. One TREC corresponds to 1 MWh of electricity avoided. The current approximate value of a TREC is South Africa: Average annual household energy expenditure on hot water: Total energy displacement by the unit over a 10 year period Total up-front capex subsidy available from TREC: R200 2 MWh 20MWh R4 000

Thus there is potentially a sizable contribution available from this approach. Renewable Energy Finance and Subsidy Office (REFSO) The Department of Minerals and Energy has established REFSO, whose mandate includes: 1. The management of renewable energy subsidies; and

23

http://www.dme.gov.za/energy/renew_finnace.stm 42

13.2.2 Carbon Projects: An Opportunity24
As climate change rises up the international agenda, reducing greenhouse gas emissions becomes an ever stronger imperative. South Africa is a significant contributor to the climate change problem, being amongst the world’s top twenty greenhouse gas emitting countries. Around 80% of South Africa’s emissions are energy related, due largely to our coal based electricity supply. South Africa has signed up to the current international climate change policy framework, the Kyoto Protocol. Being designated a ‘developing country’ under the Protocol, it has not been assigned emission reduction targets along with industrialised countries, but can be awarded for actions to reduce emissions through a Kyoto Protocol mechanism called the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM). CDM Incentives The CDM incentivises projects which reduce greenhouse gas emissions beyond “business as usual” by enabling these projects to generate emission reduction credits, or ‘carbon credits’. These credits can be bought by emitters in industrialised countries and used to comply with their targets. The economic rationale for the CDM is to expedite lower cost emission reduction opportunities wherever they occur internationally, given that greenhouse gas emissions mix uniformly in the atmosphere. The net environmental effect of the CDM is neutral, but the mechanism assists developed countries to achieve their targets, and also supports developing countries develop along clean paths, thus avoiding a multiplier effect of future emissions from these countries. Proceeds from the sale of carbon credits can assist in the financing of emission reduction projects in South Africa. As with any other product or service generated on an ongoing basis by a project, there are a number of ways in which this revenue stream can be used in the project’s financial structuring: carbon credits can be sold forward, and this contract used as collateral in loan financing; they can be sold only after they have been generated (risk free) over the spot carbon market at premium prices; buyers may wish to pay
24

upfront for carbon project development costs with a right of first refusal over any credits generated. The use of carbon credit revenues in project financing has come to be known as ‘carbon finance’. Additionality An important, yet controversial element of carbon project design is the concept of additionality. Given the neutrality of the CDM, it is imperative that the emission reduction activities are additional to those that would have occurred in the absence of the project. If this is not the case, the developer is getting credit for something that they would have done anyway, and the net stock of atmospheric greenhouse gas emissions will increase. Additionality is a very difficult concept to prove in reality. Carbon finance can greatly assist emission reduction projects in overcoming financing hurdles, and in generating an ongoing and potentially appreciating source of income. If used strategically, it could play an important role in public financing of sustainable energy infrastructure, particularly in bringing sustainable energy services to the indigent. If undertaken through a government to government transaction, carbon finance presents a long term annuity from investment grade counterparty to a project. However, it is not an easy form of finance to incorporate into a project’s design, and certain project types lend themselves better to design as a carbon project. Two main types of sustainable energy interventions in low-income housing have been considered in respect to carbon finance in South Africa to date: 1. The first is a suite of interventions grouped under the term ‘thermal efficiency’. These include building houses from insulating materials, orientating a house optimally for coolness in summer and warmth in winter, or building overhangs to enhance the ambient temperature of the house. The second is solar water heating.

2.

Of the two, the solar water heater provides a high proportion of the emission reductions, but thermal efficiency solutions are significantly lower cost.

This section is contributed by Emily Tyler, Genesis Analytics, 2008 43

Revenue from Carbon Credits This CDM project realises 2.8 carbon credits per 30m2 house per year. At a carbon price of €1525 this amounts to ZAR46226 annual income to the house. Studies of 48m2 greenfield houses (incorporating thermal efficiency measures and a higher hot water usage) show a potential of 10 carbon credits per house per annum, translating into ZAR1650 per annum per house. These carbon revenues are gross figures, and the notinsubstantial costs of developing, registering and monitoring the projects still need to be taken into account. For a sustainable energy project, the net gains from carbon finance are in the region of 30% of the overall retrofitting project costs. Barriers to sustainable financing One of the main barriers is the provision of sustainable financing. To address this barrier, a national Sustainable Housing Facility (SHF) is being proposed. The SHF concept is being championed by a Steering Group comprising the Departments of Minerals and Energy and Housing, the South African National Energy Research Institute (SANERI), the National Energy Efficiency Agency (NEEA), the National Housing Finance Corporation (NHFC) and the Development Bank of Southern Africa (DBSA) and SouthSouthNorth. Danida is funding the development of a business plan for the Facility, to enable its implementation. The business plan, will scope out timeframes, budgets and outstanding risks related to the implementation of the SHF27.

Developed under REEEP funding28 the SHF concept has been widely consulted, and coordinates low-income housing developer’s access to both CDM financing at scale and financing from the South African Demand Side Management (DSM) fund, amongst others29. The SHF vision is to manage a revolving fund, which provides up-front capital to housing project developers to implement sustainable energy interventions, and then recoups this capital from the international carbon market and DSM in order to seed further projects. Initial modelling demonstrates that by tapping into both financing sources and a nominal contribution by home owners, the full costs of the interventions can be covered, thus providing low-income homeowners with access to the energy services of hot water and thermal comfort. The SHF is designed to be self-sustaining, and could be implemented by a number of existing or new institutional vehicles in either the public or private sector. Programmatic CDM The SHF will utilise a newly-approved form of the CDM, programmatic CDM. Prior to 2007, carbon credits could only be generated on a project by project basis, but programmatic CDM enables the crediting of all emission reductions occurring under a programme of activities. This significantly increases the volume of credits generated, hence tapping into economies of scale.

25 Achievable price for a risk free Gold Standard carbon credit at the time of writing (Jan 2008). 26 At a Euro/Rand exchange rate of 1:11 27 For further information on the SHF, please contact Emily Tyler of Genesis Analytics Climate Change Practise on emilyt@genesis-analytics.com 28 Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Partnership (REEEP), www.reeep.org 29 The Basic Energy Grant may also provide a funding source

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14. COMMUNICATION AS A CRITICAL COMPONENT OF SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT 14.1 Communication is Core to the Energy Efficiency Strategy
“Perhaps the most neglected area for implementation of energy efficient communities is the promotion of public awareness about the costs and benefits of energy efficiency. Major energy savings can only be achieved through changes in people’s behaviour, and that depends on informing them about what options exist. The World Summit on Sustainable Development (2002) sensitised the nation about the impact that energy use has on the world’s weather systems. In this era of climate change South Africa needs to take more urgent measures to reduce energy usage than in the past. Information and general awareness are key elements to achieve success in terms of changing South Africa into a more energy efficient society. Once laws and regulations are established, architects will need guidance (from standards, codes of practice, etc.) on how to design houses according to the new regulations, and plumbers should also have be informed about the need to insulate geysers. Awareness-raising starts with pre-schooling education and runs through all learning fields into the adult education system, under the auspices of the National Qualification Framework (NQF) up to Level 8. The Department of Minerals and Energy will engage with the institutions responsible for education and support, and facilitate the inclusion of appropriate education on energy efficiency in the curriculum. The DME will strive to ensure that: 1. Energy Efficiency is taught and examined at all levels in all appropriate subjects, in particular engineering and architecture; 2. Energy Efficiency is a competence requirement under the National Qualifications Framework training programmes for skilled workers in the relevant construction services trades”.30 and buildings

Energy efficiency opportunities are frequently overlooked due to the simple fact that industry and other consumers are unaware that they exist. It is the intention of the Strategy to enhance awareness in such matters and to bring knowledge and understanding into the various sectors. This will be achieved through awareness campaigns, demonstration programmes, audits and education, and publicising corporate commitment programmes, and public building sector energy efficiency implementation initiatives. Use of the mass media and electronic options such as websites will be fully explored to publicise energysaving tips, energy management tools and best practice methods. Where possible joint resources for Demand-Side Management and Energy Efficiency will be capitalised upon for the purposes of promotion, since the cost of awareness campaigns and related measures is too high to be sustained continually if executed individually. 31

14.2 Housing Consumer Education Framework
At the National Housing Indaba held in Cape Town in September 2005, the Department of Housing signed a Social Contract with numerous stakeholders to implement the Housing Consumer Education Framework.32 The short summary below highlights what this Social Contract entails. It is telling, however, that the document makes absolutely no mention of education for energy efficient houses. This is characteristic of the serious disjoint between government departments. Considering that the Housing Consumer Education Framework was tabled to consumers during the same time as the

Phumzile Mlambo-Ngcuka, Minister of Minerals and Energy, Energy Efficiency Strategy of the Republic of South Africa, Parliament, March 2005 31 Energy Efficiency Strategy of the Republic of South Africa March 2005 32 Housing Consumer Education Framework, Breaking New Ground in Housing Delivery, Housing security and Comfort, 2005
30

45

Department of Minierals and Energy tabled the Energy Efficiency Strategy. The compilation of the Housing Consumer Education Framework represents the establishment of the Housing Consumer Education Forum and Housing Consumer Education Task Team made up of consumer representatives, statutory body representatives, government representatives, local provincial and national service providers, representatives from parastatals (state enterprises, educators and trainers. It also represents the culmination of a consultative process which included the above-mentioned stakeholders. The main aims of the framework are to: 1. Ensure that Housing Consumer Education (HCE) is uniform, targeted and specific to enable housing consumer to make informed housing choices. 2. Provide a framework for Housing Consumer Education and awareness • Build on the foundation of ongoing Housing Consumer Education by the various service providers 3. Provide the government’s comprehensive plan in creating Sustainable Human Settlements 4. Provide a set of housing programmes and subsidies provided by government 5. Clearly define the implementation plan of the Housing Consumer Education Framework over the next five years 6. To empower housing consumers to understand their housing rights and responsibilities, as well as different types of subsidies offered by government, ensuring that housing consumers are educated on existing and new housing It is very important that this Housing Consumer Education Framework is revisited by the Department of Housing and that amendments are made to include a strong environmental and specifically energy efficiency in low-income housing components.

perspective as much as end-users need to learn about the various options available to them to conserve energy. The areas where education can play an important and immediate role include the following. On the end-users' side:
1. The meaning of energy efficiency; 2. The improvement of thermal performance in self-made and/or other low- income housing;

3. The safe, convenient and efficient use of energy carriers, including electricity; and
4. The

standards and life-cyde costs associated with dwelling structures and
appliances.

On the suppliers' side: 1. The true meaning of energy efficiency from an end-user perspective; 2. The role of effective and appropriate DSM practices/interventions in the low-income; 3. Household sector; 4. The need for socio-economic indicators or variables to be included in the planning; and
5. Formulation of energy policy including the participation of marginalised groupings.

14.4 Status Quo
Apart from the community liaison, education and awareness-raising programmes that form part of the core implementation directives of NGO-based initiatives, no broad-based education and awareness programmes exist on government level that specifically addresses energy efficiency in poor communities. There are no formalised media - electronic or press – campaign to promote energy efficiency. The current media coverage hinges on the sensationalism associated with the inability of Eskom to provide sufficient energy to the general South African public – industrial and residential. Energy efficiency is currently very high on the informal information agenda and has propelled numerous statements of intent from the government. The omissions are obvious and glaring.

14.3 Education as a Tool
Energy efficiency education is a two way process. Suppliers' need to understand the energy needs of low-income households from an end-use

46

15. RECOMMENDATIONS AND CONCLUSIONS 15.1 Regulations on Energy Efficiency33
Pertaining to the regulations on energy efficiency, the Energy Efficiency Strategy notes that: The historically low unit price of energy, coupled with limited awareness on energy savings potential, may result in only modest success arising from voluntary measures and other non-legislative instruments. For this reason, regulatory means will be applied to achieve further improvements where necessary. Efficiency Standards will have limited impact unless made mandatory, and energy audits should be accompanied by an obligation to implement, for example, all no-cost recommendations identified. The National Energy Regulator (NER) will contribute to or develop regulatory measures for guiding reporting and compliance.

15.4 Light Bulbs
In the same vein as plastic bags of a certain standard was outlawed, the NDoH and government has an opportunity to outlaw Tungsten bulbs with immediate effect.

15.5 A Uniform Regulatory System34
Societal expectations can be articulated at a global, national, regional and local level. Building regulations, by their very nature, can only establish minimum requirements that satisfy societal expectations. Building standards can be used by building owners to procure buildings which have superior performance i.e. perform in a manner that meets their expectations. It is recommended, in order to capture the spectrum of societal expectations in buildings in a uniform and systematic manner that: standards and 1. Performance-based performance-based building regulations should be developed 2. A performance description for sustainable buildings which reflects global expectation should be developed to facilitate the setting of goals for buildings at a national level. 3. Law makers should provide a framework for regulating aspects of sustainable buildings, the issuing of prescriptive building regulations that are impossible to describe qualitatively and the establishment of the administrative provisions relating to the regulation of buildings. 4. International standards which establish functional requirements should be developed in respect of structural design, dimensions, demolition work, public safety, site operations, excavations, foundations, floors, walls, roofs, stairways, glazing, lighting and ventilation, energy efficiency, drainage, non-waterborne means of

15.2 Enforcibility
The following section sets out the recommendations put forward by various researchers and experts. From all the interviews done for this Project Document (Rewritten 2008) it is clear that the success of the recommendations all hinge on one over-arching component, being that the establishment of energy efficient communities and specifically sustainable urban settlements has to be guided by regulations and legislation that is enforcible. An example that was mooted consistently was the way in which plastic bags of a certain quality was outlawed within a very short space of time and the success of this environmentally friendly legislation.

15.3 Financing
Similarly, the interviews – across the board – noted that enforcibility of energy efficiency measures can only be effective if the financing through the subsidy scheme is adjusted to meet the initial increase capital cost of energy efficient technologies.

33 Energy Efficiency Strategy of the Republic of South Africa March 2005

34 Watermeyer R B and Milford R V, The Use of Performance Based Building Codes to Attain Sustainable Housing Objectives: The South African Approach, CSIR

47

sanitation, stormwater disposal, facilities for disabled persons, fire protection, space heating refuse collection, water installations and fire installations. 5. National standards, informed by guidance documents, should be developed to establish performance parameters which are consistent with local societal expectations and to provide the means by which it can be established that solutions satisfy functional requirements. 6. Performance-based standards should be developed to enable building owners to procure buildings that perform in the manner that they require. 7. National standards, informed by guidance documents, should be developed to establish performance parameters which are consistent with local societal expectations and to provide the means by which it can be established that solutions satisfy functional requirements.

order to attract investments. However, it is critical that future local economic development initiatives seek projects that harness comparative economic advantages of specific local governments; Improvement of the financial viability of local government will also require: 1. The coordination of funds from all relevant departments to local government; 2. Improved revenue raising skills; 3. Improved borrowing frameworks. 4. With regard to improving local government capacity the following actions are needed: 5. The establishment of new instruments such as provincial response teams, local government administration support projects, skills programmes and learning networks; 6. The need to ensure that skills are imparted to local government officials so as to reduce dependency on consultants; and 7. To ensure that capacity building support in the provincial departments, particular the sector departments is not the sole responsibility of local government affairs departments in provinces but that other provincial departments also develop their own capacity development strategies. In terms of settlement management there is a need for clarity on how integrated development plans relate to land use management tools. Key to this issue is finalisation of the Land Use Management Bill.

15.6 Local Government35
Local Government has been expected to take greater responsibility for the management of settlements within their jurisdiction, particularly in relation to service and infrastructure provision for the poor. These shifts have given rise to a number of difficulties. A key action required for local governments to succeed and become self-supporting is the need for national and provincial government to regularise the manner in which powers and functions are assigned to local government. To this end the Framework for the Assignment of Powers and Functions to Local Government, as well as the Inter-governmental Relations Bill will go a long way to ensure that local government does not have mandates that are not funded; Furthermore there is a need to enhance and improve on the initial integrated development plans and ensure greater coordination by sector departments with integrated development plans; An action to promote financial independence of local government has been the promoting of local economic development within municipalities, in

15.7 Sustainable Settlements36
Housing practitioners and stakeholders are increasingly aware of the need to build sustainable settlements and are gradually making the initial steps towards integrating the concept of sustainability into housing delivery and settlement management. It is important to develop a comprehensive approach towards sustainable human settlements, including 1. Promoting innovative partnerships 2. Building on community involvement

35 Human Settlement Country Profile 36 Human Settlement Country Profile 48

15.8 Identifying Actions and Opportunities37
1. Policy and legislative framework incorporates ethos of sustainable development, and includes explicit statements about environmental sustainability 2. Positive partnerships for more sustainable housing 3. In some cases, housing delivery is linked to the delivery of basic services 4. There is a need to make energy efficiency measure mandatory in low cost housing 5. There is a need to acquire suitable, welllocated land for low-income housing 6. There is a need to promote integrated development and services provision 7. There is a need for awareness raising, education, capacity building and skills training

need to be formulated. The implication here is that if the intention is to build and electrify a certain number of dwellings per annum (quantity), there should be a simultaneous commitment to ensure that these dwellings are well insulated and therefore thermally efficient (quality of product). The restructuring of local government provides an opportunity for integrated micro scale planning to take place. The delimitation of metropolitan areas in South Africa into larger and more manageable local sub-structures define spatial entities can facilitate this process. There are three important considerations here: 1. the adaptation of the determinants of IEP and DSM as a component thereof so as to inform a methodology for micro scale energy planning; 2. the formulation of performance standards for energy planning in South Africa; and 3. addressing the question of whether current DSM policies are firstly, appropriate for the focus group of this paper and, secondly, whether they include socio-economic variables in their application. It is therefore recommended that research be undertaken to revise and adapt the determinants upon which IEP and DSM as a component thereof, are based so as to create a methodology for microscale energy project planning which should incorporate qualitative as well as quantitative analyses. It is further recommended that the appropriate application of existing DSM policies to low-income urban households be investigated and the inclusion of socio-economic variables be ensured in future strategies.

15.9 IEP and DSM38
The informants of integrated energy planning (IEP) and demand-side management as a component thereof need to be adapted and revised as a tool for energy project planning. IEP is a sound and useful method for informing national policy planning but is an insufficient tool for energy project planning at the household or micro scale. Furthermore, it should have as its foundation, the qualitative principles of equity, sustainability and efficiency and should attempt to incorporate all the different sectors (socio-economic, environmental, spatial and political). Future research on end-use patterns among poor urban households therefore should attempt to develop a check list of determinants or elements at the micro scale which might influence this sector's decision making. This information, in turn, should be utilised to inform a DSM Plan. Socio-economic indicators or variables (affordability, income, poverty, gender and unemployment) need to be included. This is currently not the case. Also, performance standards which take account of qualitative criteria

15.10 Energy efficiency and electrification39
The simultaneous introduction of energy efficiency measures and electrification will decrease the demand for electricity significantly. For a large number of poor urban households, current inefficient end-use patterns are likely to continue even when they become electrified. The national

37 Human 38

Settlement Country Profile, ???
39

EDRC, Household Energy End-use, University of Cape Town

EDRC, Household Energy End-use, University of Cape Town 49

electrification programme should therefore incorporate measures to address this issue. There also appears to be an assumption that this sector has access to appliances to utilise electricity for end-uses such as cooking. This is not necessarily the case and where appliances are accessible, electricity is not the most efficient energy carrier for cooking. Electrification in urban households should be considered alongside and in conjunction with the provision of other utility services (waste management, water supply, roads etc.) so that an integrated approach to the provision of services can be promoted. This requires the formulation of a prioritised area-based infrastructural investment programme incorporating all services for lowincome households. One of the key elements of this programme is to determine how, from a financial point of view, such investment would be funded and how the issue of affordability is to be addressed. The national electrification programme should not to be seen in isolation from the usage of other fuels by low-income urban households. These households use a number of fuels simultaneously. It is therefore important to provide them with a choice of fuels. The two important aspects to be considered in the planning of a national housing and electrification programme for the urban poor are therefore: 1. the consideration of electricity along with other utility services and 2. encouraging this sector to use the most efficient fuels for different end-uses by providing safe and convenient access to fuels other than electricity. It is recommended that the preparation and/or planning for the implementation of the national electrification programme be complemented by research work on the provision of other services as well. It is further recommended that research be conducted on the provision of safe and convenient access to fuels other than electricity so as to widen its choice and encourage the efficient use of energy sources.

15.11 Energy efficiency and transportation40
Research determinants should include the varied considerations which reflect more accurately the energy needs of the urban poor household sector. These needs are not only about household fuels. They include energy for transportation to travel between origin (the household) and destination (mainly the work place). The government's proposed mass housing and electrification programmes provide an opportunity to include other energy-related sectors such as transportation. The transportation sector is also a large consumer of energy which poses other environmentally related problems to the country. There are therefore two aspects of this sector which need to be investigated. The two are by no means separate but are concerns at different scales. Firstly, at the micro scale, the issue of access to energy efficient transportation by low-income urban households needs to be investigated. Secondly, at the macro scale, an environmental impact assessment of the transportation sector needs to be undertaken with a view to making this sector more energy efficient. It is recommended that access to energy efficient transportation by low-income urban households and energy efficiency in the transportation sector, be investigated.

15.12 Thermal performance and integrated design41
Improving the thermal performance of housing structures is not necessarily a priority among suppliers like Eskom and local authorities. National building regulations and urban planning legislation do not compel suppliers of housing products to attend to thermal comfort. While information on passive thermal design is abundant, it has not been utilised very well in the design and implementation of low-income urban housing developments. Broader locational aspects such as the soil conditions of land, which can make a

EDRC, Household Energy End-use, University of Cape Town 41 EDRC, Household Energy End-use, University of Cape Town
40

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significant contribution to thermal comfort should also be considered in thermal design. Since the housing subsidy scheme is by far the most important actor in the market it is obvious that the market for energy efficient low-income housing is most cost-effectively developed through the regulation of this demand. This can be done by setting national energy standards for low-income housing financed through the housing subsidy scheme via the National Building Regulations at the national and provincial level. But setting energy standards in low-income housing alone will probably not be sufficient to change the practices of the low-income households as the users and the private sector actors as the developers/ manufacturers/ suppliers of appropriate energy efficient technologies for low-income housing. Energy end-use demand and consumption patterns are considered at a scale which is suitable for the formulation of national energy policy. Climatic zones, for example, are divided into six or three broad zones for this purpose. However, micro-climatic conditions need to be studied very carefully in order for optimal passive thermal design to take place. Natural elements (sun, wind, vegetation and so on) which should inform design at this scale, differ from local area to local area. Future studies on the improvement of thermal performance and energy efficiency in the provision of low cost housing therefore need to focus on the following: 1. the development of pilot projects where energy efficiency measures can be introduced; 2. facilitative policies and legislation to entrench thermal design in the provision of housing; 3. new housing developments should be targeted as models where thermal design can be introduced, monitored and evaluated; 4. broader (than the dwelling's structure) planning issues like the siting of local urban areas on land which is generally suitable for urban development. These and other concerns mentioned in chapter three of this paper must be considered at the very outset of the planning process; and

5. the sensitivities of low-income housing design to the natural elements prevailing in local areas.

15.13 Education, capacity building and skills training
Changes in regulation need to be supported by awareness raising, knowledge development, and sales promotions, which will ensure the development of the supply side as well as the demand side for energy efficiency. Broad-based and participatory awareness campaigns should be designed and implemented throughout the subsidised housing sector in South Africa. This intention is clearly stated in the government’s Energy Efficiency Strategy. The time is critical to start implementing the government’s intentions and promises.

15.14 Revised Norms and Standards
The section outlining the revised Norms and Standards notes numerous issues that the revision does not cover. Amongst others, the following components are not noted: 1. Double glazing 2. Energy Consumption: 3. Solar Panels/Geysers allowing standby electrical power if required 4. Compact Fluorescent Lamps 5. Solar cookers 6. Paraffin stoves and lamps 7. Metalwork, finishing, carpentry, 8. Sealing and weather-stripping of all openings in the building 9. Plumbing, storm water, water supply 10. Insulating wrapping to water pipes The Norms and Standards should be revisited and amended to broaden the inclusion base.

15.15 A Case for Better Planning
Strictly speaking, the following small section is not a series of recommendations, but part of an edited transcript from the interviews. The Respondent made a very good case for relooking the way in which we view communities and it is important that we all take note of the suggestions.
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We adopted an environmental policy five years ago, which takes a critical look at sustainable development. And while it is used as a basis for the discussion, green and brown issues are still not taken seriously at the highest level. There is the belief that development and developmental sustainability are not linked, but you need both. There has been a great effort for 7-8 years to place these strategies, but the message of the importance of the natural environment does not seem to be understood by the “powers that be”. Fundamentally, we need to integrate sustainability and sustainability development means. It needs to be moved to a sustainable livelihoods bag and not only as a green issue. Starting to implement real policies is not difficult. It just requires decisions to go that way. The actual implementation of the solar heater bylaws themselves should be very simple. We tend to over complicate things. Decisions are about a choice and the things that flow from it are then easier to implement. The historical context of environment is seen as green. The environmental lobby and environmental profession have been retained in terms of the perception that development and sustainability is incompatible. This understanding has to be changed. Another stepping stone is that historically speaking; the people in positions of power (i.e. City Managers) used to be engineers and so were schooled in that particular way of thinking. When alternatives are suggested, they are often thrown out as it is not being part of the mainstream. The current trend towards crisis management as opposed to forward planning means one cannot take a step back and make reasonable long-term decisions. Looking at the way that we have built houses is stooped in the old way. We are building terrible neighbourhoods because we build houses not communities. Officials and politicians are number crunchers and only seem concerned with how many

houses are built, even though socially they are not sustainable. These new structures have a lack of community and lack of the sense of place. Short-term crisis agendas preclude long-term benefits. Urban sprawl does not build communities. If we look at overseas we see that the trend is toward urban density as this aids a sense of community and enhances sustainability. We need to consider: o Access to transport o Shared facilities o We need to start living upwards not outwards Cost of travel in an urban sprawl situation also rises, while increasing the home owners’ isolation and decreasing their sense of community. From a geographical point of view, if urban sprawl extends families will have no access to quality recreation environments. E.g. Living in Khayalitsha, you have access to nothing those Cape Town central offers. There needs to be a more equitable sharing of the natural assets – nature and recreational facilities – as a vast majority do not have access to Table Mountain, Clifton Beach, etc. Denser living will bring people closer to some of the assets Urban sprawl is threatening biodiversity of the city. Most of the endemism is rooted in the Cape flats. There is direct competition between global biodiversity competition and providing low-income housing, and the solution for this is directly related to densification. If we retain the standoff between the biodiversity and development needs we won’t progress. Quality living environments are not only about health. It is also important in terms of sense of community and incorporation. People want to feel like the place that they live in is a nice place to leave – they want to feel proud of their surroundings. We also need more parks, play spaces, schools etc. We need to increase the sense of responsibility on home owner level as there still seems to be a ‘sit back and blame’ scenario. Government can play into
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this role by implementing rewards, incentives and massive encouragement to home owners to participate. We need to make it as easy as possible for people to co-operate. We can start by simplifying rules and regulations and thus encourage individuals to participate.

We have been telling people that shifting mindsets comes down to: o Increase individual responsibility o Power around your own house. Dislodge from the city council responsibility o Trying to follow the USA and EU development path which is a very different development model. We aspire to resource use and profit. o There is no question of the finiteness of resources. There are too many people on the planet, and not enough resources. There is no longer any question that it is not sustainable. Why are we following this path? •

Many people who would like to facilitate development but can’t do so because the system is too cumbersome. If we create mechanisms for people to do things for themselves it becomes far more viable to envisage it getting done. Government should be the overseer not the do-er. As individuals it is practically impossible. We need to start shifting the mindset by making access to systems and facilities easier for those who are willing to cooperate and making it harder for those who resist. We could start by increasing their tariffs in order to encourage their participation.

We need to rethink and relook the approach. o Undo the tension that exists between environment and development agenda. They are developing mutually exclusive long-term agendas. We need to address how people really relate to the environment. The thinking needs to shift more towards a feeling that our living space is as valuable as the Kruger Park.

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16. BIBLIOGRAPHY& REFERENCES
A. Books 1. CSIR (Council for Scientific and Industrial Research). 2000. Other Forms of Energy (Chapter 12) from: Guidelines for Human Settlement Planning and Design (The Red Book). Edited by LM Austin. 2. Development Southern Africa, Volume 19, No 5. 2002. Cost-benefit Analysis of Energy Efficiency in Urban Low-Cost Housing. Winkler, Spalding-Fecher, Tyani and Matibe. Carfax Publishing. 3. UCT (Energy Research Centre, University of Cape Town). 2006. Energy Policies for Sustainable Development in South Africa: Options for the Future. Edited by Harald Winkler 4. UNEP (United Nations Energy Programme) Riso Centre, Denmark. 2007. Electricity Supply Options, Sustainable Development and Climate Change Priorities: Case Studies for South Africa. Edited by Amit Karg and Kirsten Halsnaes. 5. Thubelisha Annual Report 2006/7 6. NDoH (Department of Housing) Annual Report 2005/2006 B. Academic and Research Papers 1. USAID. (Wits, UP, EDRC UCT). 2000. Environmentally Sound Energy Efficient Low Cost Housing: Evaluation of Performance and Affordability of Intervention Technologies. Edited by D Irurah. 2. CSIR (Council for Scientific and Industrial Research). Programme for Sustainable Human Settlements. 2000. Findings from Scan of Innovative Technologies in Urban Housing and Infrastructure Projects in South Africa. Report No: BOU/c320. Edited by Mike Napier. 3. Urban Green File, Issue 5. (IIEC) 2000. Sustainable Housing. 4. World Bank Asia and Pacific Region, 2006. Heating and Building Energy Efficiency (Mongolia). Edited by R. Broadfield. 5. Photovoltaic Technology Pty Ltd (2008). Energy Crisis in South Africa – Discussion Paper. Prof Vivian Alberts (UJ) 6. Proven, Gordon. Experiences in Reliable Household Electricity Supplies using a Robust Small Wind Turbine as Main Energy Source. 7. Steenkamp, IL. (University of Port Elizabeth). Energy Effective Design in Housing. 8. Olivier, AL. (Department of Mineral and Energy Affairs). A Framework for the Implementation of Energy Efficient Building Design in the Low-Income Domestic Sector. 9. Topp, C. (Energy Research Centre, University of Cape Town).Improving Thermal Efficiency of Low-Cost Housing in SA. 10. Flex Your Power. 2003. Making the Business Case for Energy Efficiency. 11. Energy Cybernetics / IIEC. 2002. Scoping Investigation Report on Energy Efficiency and Greenhouse Gas Mitigation Projects for the City of Cape Town. Edited by LJ Grobler and Willem den Heijer. 12. PDG (Palmer Development Group). 2004. Developing a Profile of Urban Poverty in the City of Johannesburg. Edited by T. Mosdell. 13. SSN Aftrica (SouthSouthNorth) and REEP (Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Partnership. 2007. Creating a National Financial Facility for Sustainable Energy Upgrades in Low Income Housing in South Africa. Emily Tyler. 14. Isandla Development Communiqué No 7. 2004 . N2 Informal Settlement Upgrade Lead Pilot Project. F. Khan 15. Energy Saving Trust, UK. 2005. Series of Articles around implementing energy efficiency in homes. 16. US Dept of Housing and Urban Development. 2005. Series of Articles on Best Practices for Effecting the
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Rehabilitation of Affordable Housing. Edited by David Listokin C. Brochures 1. Agrement, South Africa 2. NDoH (Department of Housing). How do I get a Housing Subsidy? D. News flashes and newspaper articles 1. News Release (Canada). 2003. Innovative Technology in New Thompson Model House. 2. Housing in Southern Africa. November 2007. Breakthrough Model to Finance Energy Efficiency Measures in Low-Cost Housing. 3. SA Government. January 2008. National Response to South Africa’s Electricity Shortage: Interventions to Address Electricity Shortages. 4. Mail & Guardian 11-17 January, 2008. Eskom’s place in the sun. Jocelyn Newmarch. 5. Star, January 23, 2008. Energy drawn from Her Graciousness, Mother Nature. Lebogang Seale. 6. Cape Argus, January 23, 2008. Blackouts prompt scramble for renewable energy. Mathabo Le Roux. 7. Star, January 24, 2008. How I cut consumption and bills by 50%. Anna Cox 8. Saturday Star, January 27, 2008. Solar energy breakthrough. Carvin Goldstone. 9. Star, January 29, 2008. What does Eskom do now? Louise Flanagan. E. Legislation 1. National Building Regulations: Guidelines and Building Standards. 1977 2. South African Bureau of Standards (SABS) Code of Practice 3. NDoH Housing Subsidy Programme. 1994 4. White Paper on Reconstruction and Development (RDP). 1994 5. Macro-Economic Strategy: Growth, Employment and Redistribution (GEAR). 1995.

6. Constitution of Republic of South Africa 1996 7. DOH Housing Act. 1997 (DOH Housing Amendment Bill, Social Housing Bill) 8. White Paper on Energy. 1998 9. DOH National Housing Code, Norms and Standards. 1999 10. DOH Environmental Implementation Plan (EIP). First Edition. 2000 11. NDoH Breaking New Ground Policy Paper

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17. APPENDIX 1: CONSULTATIONS 17.1 Interviews
A broad-based consultation process was followed, through structured interview sheets – amended in line with the focus and competencies of the interviewees. A total of 18 interviews were conducted, mostly on a face-to-face basis and where that was not possible, the interviews were
Name Astrid Wicht Bruce Malagas Nazeer Rahbeeni Charles Croese Craig Haskins Emily Tyler Greg Olofse Herman Potgieter Saths Moodely Shireen Rosenberg Harald Annegarn

conducted in a non-structured manner over the phone and email. In addition to the structured and non-structured interviews, numerous experts were consulted and documentation and information shared. Particularly helpful in this regard was the Sustainability Institute in Stellenbosh and the interviewee from the CEF Sustainability company. The list of persons contacted is as follows:
Interview Type Face-to-face Face-to-face Face-to-face Face-to-face Face-to-face Face-to-face Face-to-face Face-to-face Face-to-face Face-to-face Face-to-face

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11

12 13 14 15

David Hancock Professor Phillip Lloyd Mark Swilling Lisa Thompson-Smeddle

Institution ACG architects Thubelisha Homes Project Manager Thubelisha Homes Project Manager Thubelisha Homes N2 Gateway Programme Manager City of Cape Town Communications Genesis Analytics – Carbon Credit Specialist City of Cape Town Integrated Municipal Environment Plan JSA Architects Advisor to the National Minister of Housing City of Cape Town Environmental Management Department of Geography, Environment Management & Energy Studies (ENERKEY), University of Johannesburg GTZ Renewable Energy Division Energy Research Centre University of Cape Town Sustainability Institute

Face-to-face Face-to-face

16

Professor Vivienne Alberts

17 18

Carmeen Armstrong Joseph Leshabane

Phone conversation Sustainability Institute Email exchange and research documentation Photovoltaic Technology Intellectual Telephonic and Property (Pty) Limited, University of documentation Johannesburg CEF Sustainability Face-to-Face DDG NDoH Phone conversation

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17.2 Interview Focus
Structured questionnaires and responses: In many instances, where respondents said the same thing, the answers were collapsed into one Respondent. These are edited transcripts and no editorial licence was used. 1 To what extent has the government embraced energy efficiencies as part of the national and local (municipal / metro) regulatory frameworks? Respondent Even if they have, energy efficiency white paper, the government has not thought about how it can be rolled out. We should look at spheres of government and not tiers of government and government should be seen as an ally and not a poor cousin. Local government is better placed to promote E.E through service delivery and engagement of local communities, through its own operations. It would be useful to direct dedicated funding in this regard and to then monitor it to see what they are doing. Local government does not require more people to do this, but a change of thinking. For instance, Cape Town City Council can do this within their existing framework. Even though there is some resistance, it can be done. With financial assistance and capacity building, the existing skills can be used. Should there not be the capacity, then national government should look at what other avenues can be followed. Respondent There are strong feelings that government has not yet embraced available research and recommendations into workable policy or legislation. There has been a comprehensive 200-page study in 2000 (funded by USAID) that resulted in zero policy changes since then. HA built the first Eco-House in Soweto in 2000 and built 4 pilot eco-houses on Wits Campus in 2002. In partnership with Peer Africa, 400 energy efficient houses have just been completed in Witsands Atlantis W Cape (this is the largest number of energy efficient houses built to date) and they struggled for 4yrs to get national, provincial and local government buy-in and support. In spite of all of this, they finally succeeded in building 400 houses with minimal community conflict (unlike N2 Gateway project which is apparently about to implode despite intervention of the Deputy President). Respondent There is a strong feeling that nothing has been i.t.o. embracing the policy frameworks. Respondent I.t.o housing that we are involved with, we have not seen anything enforced. It seems like the issues is always on the fringes; considered but not enforced. It seems as though E.E. is never a project requirement. Investigating the options have never happened and never questioned, and the green lobby has been consistently placated. At the moment, N2 gateway solar geysers have been on the cards for 2 years and nothing has happened. Nothing has been enforced, and no funding has been provided to make sure that it happens. There have also been no incentives to home owners or communications that if they do it, they will reduce rates, etc. There have been no incentives to the communities at all and it seems that Thubelisha has not fully embraced it. The option is there to do it., but the onus is being put on the developer to do it. If you do it however, you are on your own. It feels like the option is: Go the easy route or go the green route. What is unfortunate about that is that the green route is harder. This is because funding and education is problematic. No, there has not been commitment to energy efficiency. We should have looked at what we are experiencing with the electricity years ago. By implementing these processes you can restore people’s dignity. They don’t have to bath in cold water.
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Respondent There has been nothing real from the government. I have seen a little bit – before 2003 I saw them bringing in community facilitators in Cape Town in a few communities with no effect. Since then I have seen nothing practical. In terms of the bylaws in the City of Cape Town it is not very pertinent. Respondent The government is not embracing it at all and the current example is that EE only comes to the forefront when there is a crisis. On broad environmental level is that none of it is new but there has been no effort to change until a crisis hits. The government is only concerned with crisis management and is largely driven by an unwillingness to change. To influence and drive change within a government organisation is very different. 2 What gaps would you identify in this specific policy environment? Respondent There is an institutional gap between the policy of DME and how they translate it into action and other government departments. This gap impacts on the relationship between institutions, partnerships and how funding is directed. It is important that local government and local communities partner with the DME on energy efficiencies. The DME wasted more than 2 years on a bio-fuel strategy that has gone nowhere. It could have gone on energy efficiency and shown a return by now. The focus should be on priorities and not on hobby horses. Low cost housing should have a combination of renewable energy for long terms and short terms. Respondent Initial studies have shown that households can save R650 per year if their house was energy efficient. Insulated ceilings, solar water heater with thermostat electrical back-up can be managed by themselves. There needs to be additional study to monitor how the household behaviour can and/or needs to be changed. Respondent Need to make it a condition for the basic subsidy that energy efficient features (as outlined in the Housing Code and the NBR) are included and the NDoH needs to institute proper quality assurance as the quality of most of the work/products in the low cost housing market are very dodgy. They had huge quality control problems in Atlantis project. Respondent • • • Lack of regulatory content Lack of enforceability Lack of incentives – Botswana has a regulatory framework that says every RDP house has to have a solar heater. For us to make major change we have to get into that level. This needs to be approached from the top.

We also need to look at household insurance policies as a home owners’ content is attached to the bond. More than half of the premium is to cover burst geysers. If you put on a solar heater and you put the tank on the outside, there is zero risk to the contents of your house. There should thus be a saving. SA produces about 60,000 geysers and these are designed to fail within 4 – 7 years (4 years at the coast) where as a solar heater has a design life of about 20 years. The business incentive to mass manufacture is taken away. Government needs to step into the insurance industry ambit to reduce this. Respondent If we are specifically talking hot water, the subsidy does not make provision for a geyser. It is an extra
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item. Lack of funding between the energy efficient need and the subsidy. At some level there has to be a policy decision to say that the minimum standard of low cost housing moving forward must provide water. Breaking New Ground must find new ways and improve people’s lives. Geysers should form a integral part of the specifications. I.t.o provincial legislation, there is a lack of enthusiasm to promote energy efficiency measures. The fact that we don’t know that it exists speaks to the fact that we don’t have the drive for it. Respondent It is imperative that the town planning regulations start talking urban design and start enforcing energy efficiency. There is nothing at the moment that addresses anything. There is nothing that talks about roof overhangs. People talk about it but as far as I know, it does not appear anywhere. Gaps exist in almost every aspect of the policy environment. Although there may be something on ceiling insulation, it is not enforced. In the southern cape there is something called …. Condensation area and it is paid for over and above the subsidy (Ceiling is aimed at condensation not insulation Southern Cape SCCCA). Respondent It is laughable that a critical issue such as global warming is still discussed in theoretical terms and that there are still, in this day and age, people who think it is a conspiracy theory. How many of us think about the gasses emitted through transport – airplanes and motor vehicles – alone? 3 What you would moot as the most important priorities that should form part of the regulatory framework? Respondent • • • • • • • Part of the policy should be that all housing tender specs should contain mandatory regulations Units should be North facing Units should have insulated ceilings Units should rely on solar heaters for hot water provision Feasibility study to determine cost of off the shelf and economy of scale. DTI and poverty alleviation programmes can partner to convert geysers. If anyone gets a contract it should be mandatory to implement those regulations!

Housing subsidies need to be reviewed in terms of cost and benefit. Other departments could potentially top up the subsidy, but for this there would need to be better synergy between departments. EPWP is by and large under spent because of government inefficiencies. Respondent Cost and energy efficient features are most definitely needed, and an additional subsidy for ‘free basic alternative energy’ for those not able to afford being on electricity grid. This would cover costs of basic safe paraffin or ethanol appliances like cookers & lamps. EG Peer Africa could be contracted to implement this in x number of houses. Atlantis houses have already been supplied with EE kettle, hotplate or paraffin lanterns/stoves. Respondent Institute a capping system (different sectors would obviously have different caps) that uses monetary fines to ensure that people stay within their allocated allowance. For residential users this would need to be tailored for both ends of the user groups. Respondent One problem that we are facing is the Eskom policy of 60 amperage rather than 20 amperage – this
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means single plug and very little electricity. If you go over that, the demand becomes too much and it will fuse. At the moment we look at 40 amps which is sufficient. If you talk about a geyser then 40 amps will suffice. 60 amps is for a normal small business or a household with a freezer and a light in each bedroom. The DME policy must change to allow for an affordable 40 amps system. We could try fall in line with the free basic water policy. Eskom’s systems are not geared for 40 amps. We could implement a system by which there is no connection fee for a 20 amps but R1200 fee for a 60 amps. Unfortunately we are not aware of studies to ascertain exactly how much a sufficient electricity supply would be. Also what would the optimal amperage would be for the indigent to live sustainably. We would need to determine the optimal amperage required to sustain a household of 6 people per month to form the benchmark for a free basic electricity policy. When 20 amp was introduced it was for a 27 sq meter house. Now we have 40 sq meters and more people in the house. Respondent • • • • To achieve anything we would have to talk about the energy performance of a house. Setting targets for every house in terms of house energy performance Get every house plan to conform to energy efficiency targets It should not only be the house, but rather the whole town planning. We are designing urban sprawls that are very energy inefficient. When planning the new layouts, we need to take transport and other peripheral components into account There needs to be closer cooperation with local government so that these new components can be enforced on the correct level. There needs to be better cooperation between the different ministries. Transport is one of the hungriest energy components in the country. We should adopt a holistic approach to urban planning.

• • • 4

What amendments would you suggest for the current Housing Act? What gaps do you identify in the Act? Respondent • • • EE should form a very clear component of the Act. It speaks about human settlements, but not specifically energy efficiency, and the impact of energy poverty on human settlements. Body of work on energy poverty and the impact on household budget. Everyone in the housing sector should be working towards the DME target. The minimum requirements for EE standards for low income housing should be in the Act. For low income housing solar should be part of the package. Greater clarity through legislation is needed as at the moment the sale of electricity seems to be to manage Eskom’s demand. At this point there appears to be no clarity whether there is an energy efficiency agency responsible or whether this is Eskom’s responsibility. The proposed EE agency should be on a lower level to support local government. Operationally they should be on local government level.

Respondent A commitment to energy efficiency needs to be incorporated at all levels of housing legislation Respondent The Act makes provision in terms of housing delivery but it does not speak to energy efficient measures. It talks to the process to get a house, but not materials for sustainability in energy efficiency. The Act
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should seriously address energy efficiency. 5 i.t.o the National Housing Code: how enforceable are the minimum norms and standards and how does it relate to the housing subsidy? Is this practical? Respondent The current Norms and Standards are quite enforceable. Between the DTI and the NDoH, this is where they can have the biggest impact. It should also be put in place that no further plans for construction are approved unless they are EE compliant. Building codes should be reviewed to include new regulations. This is currently done by the DTI and not the NDoH. The building regulations should reside under the NDoH and not be with the DTI. Any housing built with alternate materials should get certification and this costs approximately R15,000 – R20,000 for this certification. Building regulations are broader than just housing. It is about all construction and the impact on our economy. Its about stimulating the economy and providing conducive living environment and a quality of life and saving the natural environment. All of these have an impact on the family. We are neglectful in our duty to help the family to understand the bigger context. Respondent The Norms and Standards are only enforceable if the subsidy is conditional and there are good QC systems in place. The NDoH also needs to facilitate NECC bylaws that assist the indigent, and not only rich communities. Respondent Subsidies should be for land and people should build their own houses. A few years ago SEE motivated for ceilings to be included as part of the subsidies. This was related to damp and TB. It also reduced the heating requirement. There is no reason why an extra few thousand for a solar heater without thermostat should not be included in the subsidy. This is a very cheap option and installation costs are nominal. The only thing that we need to do is leave it with the community member or householder to deal with it. We cannot give a poor person a solar heater with a thermostat and expect them to pay. Solar panels are quite pricy per panel and they are not very robust. However, they are quite portable. These panels only appear to be cost prohibitive because our electricity is so cheap. If electricity would be more expensive then the panels would look attractive. Respondent Not enforceable. This should happen on provincial level so that they are more involved. Provincial government approves the Thubelisha plans and at no point have they asked for alternative technologies Provincial government should be given more powers to determine and dictate what should be done. They and the city that approve the funding should have an energy efficient unit to review documents. At the moment they don’t have the expertise and so should create these units as a matter of urgency. Respondent Someone should be assigned to ensure the alignment with practical application and housing policy. Not only housing but also the energy policy. N2 is a pilot project to explore and the policy alignment is not being well managed. We are not effectively making use of this opportunity and what is subsequently happening is that designers and contractors are not agreeing on the approach. Designers did the design and the contractors changed it when commercial considerations took over. The minister was on site and also suggested changes to the houses. It was then done according to the minister and afterwards we fixed up
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the money. 6 Generally, to what extent are the energy efficient considerations applied as set out in the NDoH Environmental Implementation Plan? Respondents 1 - 12 Never heard of it. Respondent Never use it although we are aware of it. We are dependant on international funders to fund our projects, and there is great competition for the funding. The government needs to make more funding available for energy efficient housing, as the current allocations in the budget are not earmarking energy efficiency as a priority. The DEA & DP on provincial levels approve the EMP after submission of the EIA. They then advise what you can and can’t do. Nowhere do they ever encourage energy efficient measures to be put in place. It is due to a lack of expertise. Respondent Not working according to the plan and I will be very surprised if anyone knows about it. 7 What routines are generally followed in terms of community-based approaches to energy efficiency? Respondent The Atlantis development is brilliant case study in respectful community engagement. A LOT of time was spent on lobbying/advocacy and educating community and they are all on board now. Respondent None, none and none is done on any Thubelisha Homes’ projects At inception stage the requirements are defined and if energy efficiency has not been defined then the community is obviously not informed. So, energy efficiency is not excluded, it is simply not included because the design is not geared up for energy efficiency. When you appoint someone, they have to be encouraged to look at issues holistically. Respondent There is nothing done with the community on energy efficiency. There is no interest in EE at this point. There are people who have been on a waiting list for 20 years, and many feel they are being unfairly charged by their landlords. Energy efficiency is not on the agenda for these people as it is just not a priority. 8 What are the main constraints in your community-based approaches? And what do you think can and should be done to improve this? Respondent To introduce sustainable EE in housing, it needs a lot of advance community engagement which takes time but has major long-term benefits in terms of sustainability. Respondent Communication should be regulated. There have to be some rules. The more regulations on the housing the better but this has to be policed.

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The communication processes do work. Did it for Kuasa because they kept the communities informed. Kuasa has a very good communication stratergy. Respondent Education and communication are critical. Respondent People are angry for having waited so long. They are poor and they are demanding their houses and many want to know how they get themselves on the right list and receive an allocation. There are tensions between the ‘backyarders’ who are poor and the Xhosas from the Transkei. To improve this we need to do a huge national consciousness raising. Perhaps the education system should incorporate it? The Eskom crisis gives an opportunity for a very high thrust into energy efficiency. Affordability questions also look at the sprawl model. The units cost more than what they would have cost if the houses were single dwellings. What the sprawl does is spread people and businesses are not viable except spaza shops. 9 What practical measures would you suggest going forward to improve on your current practices? Respondent The Atlantis case-study is a brilliant success in terms of no community conflict – there were no waiting list issues and all moved in peacefully. There was zero defaulting by the community on EE methodologies Respondent From planning stage there needs to be an understanding of what the energy efficient measures can be put in place and a thorough understanding of the environment within which the project is being undertaken. Case studies will help. For N2, the challenge is that we don’t know our beneficiary community. We only know them once they have been allocated a house. We have no contact with them at the planning stage. Provincial housing provides consumer education. Eskom also provides consumer education. But neither do it in terms of energy efficiency. Respondent • • • • 10 Awareness level: huge awareness creation starting with kids Quick fix is to outlaw the exclusive electric geyser tomorrow for any and all new houses. Look at the example of the plastic bags: it was outlawed overnight and we survived. No more tungsten light bulb. Outlaw tungsten bulbs Relook the density issues. It may be more capital intensive in the short run but longer term it has more cost and social advantages. Also energy saving advantages.

In terms of a holistic approach to energy efficient housing: how do you rate the current approach in terms of sustainability, taking into account all aspects of energy efficient housing? Respondent N2 Gateway project has been a disaster in terms of community involvement. There is sever social strife and the houses built way over budget (by Thubelisha). Deputy President tried to intervene and failed. “It’s soon going to implode”. Also no EE features have been included yet

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Respondent No current system in place Respondent It does not exist and we behave as if there is no energy issue 11 What would you rate as the most important components to ensure sustainability, e.g. solar geysers, building methodology, etc. Respondent • • • • 12 Orientation Ceilings EE lighting NOT solar geysers at all

Do you use or consider the International Institute for Energy Conservation (IIEC)’s manuals and for training communities and in your planning for sustainability? Respondent HA built the first Eco House with IIEC so has been very involved with them Respondent 1 - 9 No, never heard of it. Respondent Never used it. Not a factor Respondent Used IIEC and they clearly outline what needs to be done. On line management level it was not a usable source.

13

What would your solution be for indigent communities where solar heating is insufficient (dualpower geysers, for instance) Respondent There are strong feelings about assisting those who cannot afford electricity –there is a great need for safe paraffin or coal devices as well as solar cookers, ethanol lamps etc. The supply of these needs to be part of a subsidy as ‘basic alternative energy’. He is currently in negotiation with NDoH and Eskom about this as another option for those who can’t afford the ‘basic free electricity’ subsidy from Eskom. Respondent For now the list is fine but we are not building fast enough. Respondent • • • If Eskom does not change the amperage and the subsidy does not pay for the geysers. Incentives should be provided to keep consumption down. Gas piped Free basic service

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• • •

Have to break our dependency on Eskom Sliding payment scale for usage. Factor in the cost of the geyser as part of the meter installation and pay back over a long period

Respondent At the moment they operate on cold water so, this will be a luxury that they have lived without. 14 In terms of the following energy efficiency components, how would you rate them in terms of importance Solar panels Solar geysers Centralised manifold systems Dual system of solar and electricity Transport Proximity to work opportunity areas and amenities Density Respondent All no-cost design features absolutely MUST be top of list. Solar panels and geysers are expensive, and therefore not at all a priority for the indigent. Most of these products that have been tested in pilot eco houses have fallen apart after 1yr of use and there is no technical support available. Most people would choose partitions or ceilings or extra room before a geyser. HA feels strongly about long-term effects of air pollution on public health – ‘externalities cost very high’. Currently air pollution (due to firewood, coal, etc) in Soweto is double the highest danger level for 3 months of year – this is very insidious, leads to lots of respiratory illness TB, infant mortality and ultimately low productivity. Also 70% of EMS calls in shack settlements are fire-related, so safety is a HUGE issue – there is a need for safer non-electrical EE devices and lots of community engagement. We need to ban smoke fuels outright and build EE houses as a matter of urgency. He is sceptical of Mark Swilling straw-bale houses (‘they face in the wrong direction’) and their relevancy in SA context (people want a ‘proper’ house) and how feasible it is to take them to scale. Respondent The process was started 4 years ago in line with the Barcelona ordinance. At that point out of frustration the only way to get permanent change was to rely on the regulatory mechanisms. People would not go for renewables because the entry level costs were too high, and the banks were not interested at that point in agreeing. Any new or retrofit has to have 40 – 50 % of water heating from a solar system. In the last 2 years this has not gone anywhere, as the bylaw can only be applied in certain circumstances. You have to change the national building code in order to enforce the bylaw. Also did a green policy paper. Nothing happened. There should absolutely be a bylaw in terms of this. Respondent Priorities for New Houses: • • • • • • • Orientation of the house Building materials Insulation Roof overhang Retrofitted ceilings Ventilation Density
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Orientation of the house Building materials Roof overhang Ventilation Retrofitted ceilings Insulation

• • • •

Solar panels Dual system of solar and electricity Proximity to work opportunity areas and amenities Transport Ventilation Retrofitted ceilings Insulation Solar panels Centralised manifold systems Solar geysers

Priorities for Existing Dwellings: • • • • • •

Respondent Priorities for New Houses: • • • • • • • • • Proximity to work opportunity areas and amenities Transport Density Orientation of the house Roof overhang Insulation6 Building materials Retrofitted ceilings Dual system of solar and electricity Solar panels Density Dual system of solar and electricity Retrofitted ceilings Insulation Solar geysers Solar panels Centralised manifold systems

Priorities for Existing Dwellings: • • • • • • • 15

In terms of the above list, which, if any, by-laws exist that can enforce these components. All respondents said ‘no’

16

If no bylaws exist, what do you think can and should be done to put pressure on the authorities to take this seriously? Respondents • • • • Needs to come from the National DOH and be filtered down via workshops etc Legislation is urgent Penalties for non compliance Eskom is now doing it for us. They will have to listen.

17

Have you done a cost-benefit analysis in the low-cost housing sector between houses built with and without energy efficient components? If so, is this study available?
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No comprehensive studies have been done that we know about. All respondents had the same response. 18 What will be the implications of including energy efficient measures on the housing subsidy and other financing mechanisms? Respondent • Through the EPWP (Extended Public Works Programme) we can train people in energy efficiencies as service providers – to put in ceilings, repair and install geysers, manufactures heaters, etc. The initial input would be the same as paying someone to sweep the street. Also building houses that are efficient. Investigating wind turbines for communities.

• • None

Respondent Respondent Carbon credits Respondent Will need to increase the subsidy by the average cost of putting the measures in place. We can talk about a 100% increase of more if we look at higher densities, but it will be beneficial in the long run. Facts and figures will back this up. 19 Can you supply me with the general costing of your current low-cost housing per unit and a costing per square meter? Respondent We will need a pump to get warm water out and this will not work in low-income environments Solar heating may not work in the Cape because of the rainy weather in winter. It should be possible in summer rainfall areas but this depends on rainfall. Only 2 respondents had any costs and these were noted in the main body of the document 20 Do you have component costs pertaining to retrofitted ceilings, solar panes, solar cooking units, energy efficient lighting and solar geysers? Solar voltaic is 10 times more expensive than current electricity costs, but saves the grid in the long-term so it is good as a supplementary measure to prevent outages in industry. The available costs were noted in the main body. 21 What finance mechanisms exist for the indigent beyond the subsidy that will give them access to alternative technologies Respondent There is quite a bit of scepticism of the value of carbon credits in a low-cost housing context. The feeling is the verification process is very expensive, there are too many middle-men taking a cut, and ultimately the money that the community gets is ‘peanuts’ and only becomes viable on a macro scale (e.g. Sasol Gas).

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Respondents None Respondent None exist at this stage. However it can be very simple if Eskom finances it. If you do your prepayment meter, we can include the capital cost. This solar geyser cost can effectively be recovered through the meter over a longer mortgage period. 22 How do you interact with agencies such as : • • • • SA national energy research institute Central energy fund and its new energy efficiency agency Enerkey project PEER

HA is Enerkey Project and works closely with Peer Africa, GTZ, Eskom and NDoH. Currently advising Eskom re: latest legislation around solar subsidy – only will benefit middle/high income communities. 23 What is your opinion on solar geysers? My understanding is that the Cape Town bylaws will not actually target the indigent, but rather middle-income households. Do you agree? The reality is that the indigent live with cold water and thus the target is middle income. Targeting the indigent will not have much of an effect on overall South African energy efficiency. For them it is improved livelihoods. Politically it is the right thing to do but practically, middle income communities are the target market for this. Handing out any form of electrical geyser / solar to low-income homes at the moment, we are countering energy efficiency. At the moment they have nothing and now we give them geysers? Cold water is totally energy efficient. 24 What is your opinion of batch-filled solar geysers? Can it work? Respondent Combined with rain water harvesting. But what about the periods of bad weather. What percentage of the year do you not have sunshine and what cost implication does it have? Respondent This should be further explored as an appropriate technology. Additional comments – Carbon Credit Debate Respondent Carbon credits is contentious and I am not sure that the amount of effort is worth it. However, there is an opportunity that we should investigate. Three years ago the programmatic approach came out which means that where a government or private sector implements a policy initiative achieves a reduction in emissions, it can be registered as a project. For instance, the NDoH states what they plan to achieve over the next 20 and every house that is rolled out gets a subsidy to implement the policy. Over a period there could be a return to the department which could be used for more houses. This is part of the clean development mechanism (CDM) and has potential of national roll-out. This has not been done anywhere in the world. Ethically it is about how we want to play this game. How do we tap into the benefits of this mechanism. Industrial companies still have to deal with 50% of their emissions.
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Respondent Carbon credits: additionality criteria apply and every submission has to contain a disclaimer stating: “this project cannot go ahead without the cc. If we don’t get the money the carbon footprint will be x if we do get the money the carbon footprint will be y.” Depending on how the baselines are structured, you may not win anything. If the indigent abuses the electricity quota there may not be credits to trade. CDM is relevant and can work only when the south (as in Africa) can play in the north field (as in Europe and the USA). If there is a net benefit to us in terms of the sustainable development I would prepared to swallow the moral high ground. Respondent Carbon credits are window dressing. It is an easy way to continue without addressing the issue. E.g. for the climate change conference 10,000 delegates flew to the conference in Bali in aeroplanes that spew out gasses. The thinking is that we can continue doing that we do without confronting the actual issue. Additional comments – General Respondents – Communication Thubelisha is busy with working on the messages to do community liaison. We must gain people trust by hearing what they say and then construct our communication accordingly. Respondents – Sustainable Living The current bylaws for solar geysers target the top end of the market because solar power is expensive. Thus, passive solar design is important. It is important that for low income areas we seriously consider household level is rainwater harvesting and recycling of waste. There are many debates on green services technologies and there are many successful green projects. We should take note of what has worked for others instead of reinventing the wheel all the time. A good example is on the website of Michael Mobbs who has a completely green house in the middle of Sydney, Australia. Respondent - Incentives We need to use the carrot and stick method. There is obvious value in the economic incentive to do things differently. It creates another challenges for big business to find ways to do things the way they had always done it. The financial pinch is simply not hard enough to incentivise any change. Respondent - Systems We need to institute simple organisational measure to make processes work. Respondents - Policies Major problem in policies – BNG and others. If I read it as a practitioner then I think it can work, until I try to implement it. Nobody implements it as the systems are too complicated, the subsidies too low and the incentive to make it work is simply not there. How do we create continuity in the communication channels to make it work? Get real about the appropriate technologies. Understanding what integration means in terms of achieving sustainability. Respondent – General and Diverse • We don’t have the capacity to pull things together form policy formulation to implementation. The Minister decides on a process and the next day she wants houses built. She has no clue as to
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the processes that everything is subjected to. Her lack of understanding of what the process entails is simply absent. The process should be clarified and the implementation should be tailored to this. • • A few years ago I could submit plans quickly but now it can’t work as their processes are not in place. Our mindset is too narrowly focused. We are all subjected to grand-scale institutional chaos. Technologies information is all there for sustainability but because of the lack of systems and the endemic chaos the available information is not used. Why does the NHBRC exist as they don’t help at all? Why do we have to get an alternative building method approved? The industry is ruled by cement and bricks manufacturers. They do not support change. We are being exposed for our double standards. Environmental sustainability needs the will to do it. Technology is not the issue. We have to decentralise and appoint people who understand the issues. Appoint people on grassroots level. We face problems viz poverty. There is no apparent acknowledgement of scale and context. It is all about government methodologies and subsidy regimes. One size fits all. Our systems don’t have integrity and discretion. Let’s deploy teams to look at each project in its context. We should have the flexibility say the limitations in terms of the rulebook should be changed. Rulebook should be a guideline. Engineers should take on responsibility as a professional and be allowed to break the rules and design as first principle. Through the professional association. The regulatory framework should be flexible and accountable (through professional bodies) rather than tightening the authority at centralised level. Central control is our problem to discretion and flexibility. A socio-political obstacle in the misbelieve that we know everything on central level. There is no integrity between Cape Town City Council and province and national ministry. When you approach a project do it in this way and within the socio-political context. It should merge and simple outcomes amidst the complexities. Interaction of all the different components. One size fits all and chasing huge numbers does not work. Processes to get people around the table is very exhaustive. We need to be able to get our agendas aligned, and political hidden agendas should be opened up. Fewer people and smaller organisations that can be deployed to projects. We found that you only need a few people to do a lot to do a lot of things. Energy saving advices – it had not been done. In real projects – what the Minister has to do is to establish systems with integrity. The policies can be perfect but the way in which it is implemented is the same as 20 years ago. Is it the same systems or is the interpretation the same? My biggest fear is that I don’t have faith in the people between me and the level above me – I want to do it myself. I have lost faith in the system. Outsource all implementation of housing. The Minister must exhaustively test the research on which policy is based and which leads to a regulatory framework. Flexible regulatory framework. This should allow for discretion as to the subsidy levels, size, technology applications. Implementation should be outsourced Link the grassroots project implementation level to the top level on a very short reporting line.
70

• •

• • •

• • •

• • • • •

Not the long process as now. • • • • • How do we test that the technology is the right thing at the right price in the right environment? This applies to subsidies as well. How do we know that we are building the right thing for the right reason? How do we structure the finances to fit the right environment? Simply the devolution of power, reporting lines and roles and responsibilities. Implementors at the bottom should be able to take responsibility. We need to curtail business ruthlessness. Regulatory framework should give guidance. E.g. realign the NHBRC to fit in with BNG. Identify priorities for implementation in terms of technologies and sustainabilities and possibilities. Understand what the requirements will be on the priorities and the timing of each. You want to shift the expectation and understanding from where it is currently to a more sustainable future. Change the system thinking. Follow through with implementing one of two elements. E.g. solar panels as there is general agreement that it will make a difference. What we tend to do with policy is that we elaborate on all the things and the vastness is intimidating and then nothing happens. Build capacities around specifics to streamline implementation. Misalignment between subsidy and expectations. Everyone that implements have to cut and trim. Flexibility as an incentive. Have a set of guidelines. If you want to move outside of them then you can motivate. What do we change for max impact? Propensity to put the cart before horse has created anguish. Opportunism rules. It makes well meaning professionals inefficient. Clear diagrams of what we want to achieve and get buy in. contextualise our implementation to suit the need of the households. Different size houses for instance. On Ministerial level use the input of technical advisors with appropriate qualifications. Role of province: problem is that province is as chaotic as the rest and they seem paralysed. Context and scale informs housing decisions. Cannot approach all housing problems the same.

• • • • •

• •

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18. APPENDIX 2: SUPPLIERS
18.1.1 List of low cost solar water heaters42
Delivery time 3 months To be determined 2 months 8 – 10 weeks 8 weeks 3 months 8 weeks 8 weeks 8-10 weeks 5 years 5 years 2 years 5 years 5 years 1 month N/A 8 weeks 1-2 months Price (excl vat) R 2 350.00 R 2 007.49 R 1 643.71 R 2 880.00 R 2 410.00 R 1 400.00 R 2 865.00 R 3 376.00 R 3 500.00 R 4 430.00 R 5 899.00 R 2 020.00 R 6 557.00 R 6 532.00

Company 1. Solardome SA 2. Sonpower

Description Evacuated tubes - 150 litre porcelain coated steel tank Evacuated tubes - 100 litre epoxy tank Evacuated tubes - 100 litre stainless steel tank 12 evacuated tubes - 100 litre fibre glass tank Evacuated tubes - 100 litre fibre glass tank - 100 litre low density polyethylene system, tanks and pipes Flat plate collector - 100 litre fibre glass tank Evacuated tubes - 100 litre fibre glass tank Evacuated tubes - 100 litre stainless steel tank Flat plate collector - 100 litre fibre glass tank Flat plate -100 litre extreme geyser - 55 litre solar “hot dog” flat plate collector - 100 litre steel tank with sacrificial anode Flat plate collector - 100 litre stainless steel tank with sacrificial annode 18 evacuated tubes - 100 litre stainless steel tank

Guarantee 5 years 5 years 3 years 5 years 5 years 1 year 5 years 5 years

3. ITS solar 4. Sun power 5. Gilder geysers 6. Atlantic solar

7. Frantel distributors 8. Extenda summer 9. Solar max 10. Solar beam

11. Sun tank

12. Solien

5 years

1-2 months

R 7 128.00

18.2

List of other suppliers
Company Solar 2000 Sun hot solar Frantel distribution Plumgaurantee Double D solar panels Bitol technologies Rand transmission company Contact person Fritz Fazli Terry Ryan David David Chris Tel 011-3974530/1 023-34 24020 012 -804 6664 021-8838610 021 -7617602 021-9493482 011-6218300

42

Sustainability Institute, Lyndoch, Stellenbosch 2007 72

19. APPENDIX 3: SOLAR WATER HEATING PRODUCTS 19.1 Solardome SA
Contact details Le Roux Smit, Mechanical Engineer Tel: 021 88 66 321 18 Stoffelsmit street Plankenbrug Industria Stellenbosch 7600

19.2 Sonpower
Contact details Wesley Tel: 021 556 9244 Fax: 021 556 9248 Email : sales@sonpower.co.za Product Unit 4, 38 Killarney Ave Cape Town Killarney Gardens

Product

Model

Area Diameter Length 47mm

QBJ1-115-1.91-0.05-A6 Steel coated with porcelain, thickness 1.50mm Outer tank Color coated steel, thickness 0.41mm Thermal insulation Polyurethane foam, thickness 60mm Supporting stand Color coated steel, thickness 1.20mm Vacuum tube ø55-1800, 14 pcs Capacity (liter) 115 2) Aperture area (m 1.91 Working pressure 0.05 (Mpa) Overall dimensions 1390 × 1668 × 1785 (mm) Model Inner tank

SPO1.95 470m2 47/150018

No Volume (L) 1500mm 18 100

19.3 ITS solar
Contact details
Riaan Tel: 083 321 6287 Fax: 086 505 0707 www.its-solar.com 11 Bayside village Pintail road Somerset West South-Africa 7130

Product: No additional information

19.4 Sun power
Contact details
Robin Cape Town Tel: 021 5108786 / 0861 468 786 Fax: 0866115521 www.sunpower.co.za

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Product: No additional information

19.7 Atlantic Solar
Contact details
Helmut Hertzog Tel: 0861363749 Fax: 086-619-4881 Email: info@atlanticsolar.co.za

19.5 Frantel distribution
Contact details
Terry Tel: 012 804 6664 Fax: 012 804 6961 Email: frantel@absamail.co.za 113 Fascia St Silvertondale Pretoria

8 Boldcon Rd Strand, Western Cape South Africa 7129

Product: No additional information

Product

19.6 Gilder Geyser
Contact details
Contact Person: Brian Gilder Tel: 0829418467 briangilder@gmail.com Gauteng

Product

19.8 Solar max
Contact details Contact Person: Tel: 028-271 5172 Fax: 0866 570 374 Location 11th Avenue No. 4 Kleinmond Western Cape

Same product as Extenda Summer

Tank material Tank heating volume Inlet Outlet Pressure rating Performance of geyser

Low density linear polyethylene (UV stabilized ) any color and 100 liter, excluding capacity area available in heating pipe s 15mm pressure assisted float valve 20mm or 15mm pipe tail or male/ female screw Open vented Average Max temperature around 55 °C on sunny summer days and 38°C sunny winter days

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19.9 Extenda Summer
Contact details
Chris Tel: 021 851 8562 FAX: 086 695 6025 www.extendasummer.co.za 54 Drama Street Somerset West Western Cape

19.10 Solar beam
Contact details Contact Person: Graham Tel: 031 5639585 480 North Coast Road solarbeam@webmail.co.za Briardene, Durban, KZN Product

Product

Length Width Mass Volume Pipe

2,100mm 340mm 40Kgs 55l 2 × 22mm (3/4)

Supplied by extreme geyser Capacity Height Width Length Weight Element 100l 480mm 460mm 1147mm 19kg 2kW
100l 55mm closed cellular, non biodegradable polystyrene mounded jacket (K- factor 0,036 W/m2.°C) Outer casing Galvanized sheet Electrical element Fitted to each other for back-up and thermostat heating, so no other electrical geyser is required Size Insulation
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19.11 Suntank
Contact details
Dieter Tel: (021)510 5754 Fax: (021)510 5733 email: info@suntank.com 48 Paarden Island Road Paarden Island Cape Town

19.12 Solien
Contact details Melissa Tele/Fax: (044) 877 1268 info@solien.co.za Product 322 Erica Road Wilderness Heights 6560

Product

100l is similar, but smaller in size

material Stainless steel for high pressure/temperature application. Grade: 1.4509. 1.5mm Insulation High density polyurethane External casing Aluminum External ends UV protected fiber reinforced resin Working pressure 400Mpa Diameter 570mm Length 741mm Configuration ** Horizontal Inlets/ outlets ¾ BSP female Heat exchanger N/A Weight empty 35 kg Weight full 135kg Cylinder (100l)

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20. APPENDIX 4: COSTS ASSOCIATED WITH ENERGY EFFICIENCY MEASURES
The following information was gleened from modelling energy efficiency in RDP houses using a software package called “Design Builder.43 = 0.59 L (at a density of 870 kg/m3) A system efficiency of 95% is assumed to result in a the daily demand of 0.54 kg Cost of Paraffin is R 5.35 Paraffin heating cost = Demand [L] x Cost [R/L] = 0.59 x 5.35 = R 3.16 / day Paraffin annual cost = R 284.40 / annum

20.1 Energy Cost
20.1.1 Electricity as an energy source
The cost of electricity is estimated at R0.40/kWh It is assumed that heating is needed for 90 days per year with a daily requirement of 6.55 kWh. Electricity daily cost = Energy [kWh] x cost [R/kWh] = 6.55 x 0.4 = R2.62 Electricity annual cost = R238.50 (90 days)

20.2 Payback Periods
20.2.1 Ceiling cost
The cost of 6.4mm gypsum plasterboard is R 91.00 (3 m x 1.2 m) as obtained from Federated Timbers, Stellenbosch (27 September 2007) Size of plasterboard required = 5.52 m x 4.92 m = 27.158 m2 = 28 m2 No plasterboards required = 28/3.6 = 7.778 ≈8 Total cost of ceiling board = 8 x R 91.00 = R 728.00 The labour cost of fitting the ceiling is estimated at R 400. This results at a total ceiling cost of R 1128.00.

20.1.2 LPG as an energy source
The average heating value of LPG is 50.35 MJ/kg which equals 13.98 kWh/kg. Weight per day = Energy [kWh] / Heating Value [kWh/kg] = 6.55 / 14 = 0.468 kg If the system efficiency is 95% the daily demand would be 0.493 kg The cost of gas was obtained from Flandria Cycle Shop on Stellenbosch on 15 October 2007 as R 730.00 for 48kg. This results in a LPG price of R 15.20/kg LPG heating cost = Weight demand [kg] x Cost [R/kg] = 0.493 x 15.20 = R 7.50 / day LPG annual cost = R 674.00

20.3 Payback Periods - All
A simple payback period formulae is used Payback period = Intervention Cost / Savings due to intervention The payback periods for using the different fuels are listed below: Fuel Electricity Ceiling cost of 4.7 yrs R1,128.00 payback time LPG Paraffin

20.1.3 Paraffin as an energy source
The average heating value of LPG is 46 MJ/kg which equals 12.78 kWh/kg. Weight per day = Energy [kWh] / Heating Value [kWh/kg] = 6.55 / 12.78 = 0.513 kg

1.7 yrs

4.0 yrs

Ceiling payback time for various heating fuels

43 Gariseb G.C, Energy Efficient Housing, Centre for Renewable and Sustainable Energy Studies, November 2007

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21. APPENDIX 5: CHIEF TECHNICAL ADVISOR - TERMS OF REFERENCE 21.1 Background
The National Department of Housing received a funding commitment from the Danish International 2. Development Agency (Danida’s) Environmental Programme for a project on the Mainstreaming of Energy Efficiency in Low Income Housing. The project seeks to integrate the aspect of energy efficiency within the low-income housing sector. The Project Document identifies as the main development objective of the project “the need to test energy efficient technologies – particularly solar water heating - in approximately 2,000 dwellings in the N2 Gateway Project and through the lessons learnt, support the NDoH’s national mainstreaming of energy efficiency measures in the low income housing market”. The original Project Document (2003) has been rewritten to reflect a more practical, workable and user-friendly approach to energy efficiency in lowincome housing. The Project Document explores energy efficiency as a holistic approach which includes appropriate energy saving technologies and products. It furthermore appraises the existing policies, regulations and norms and standards and makes recommendations to enhance the focus on energy efficiency in the current legislative and regulatory environments in line with the Comprehensive Plan for the Creation of Sustainable Human Settlements (also known as Breaking New Ground Strategy (BNG)). It is recommended that the project be executed in three distinct phases: 1. A Pre-project Phase during which an Implementation Plan will be developed and finalised. All necessary components will also need to be put together for a 3. participatory community engagement strategy and programme. 2. A Pilot Phase during which affordable technologies are selected, implemented and monitored on the N2 Gateway Project, and during which time period the community engagement will be finalised in 4. the project. 3. An Appraisal Phase during which technologies applied in the Pilot Phase will be evaluated, and broad guidelines prepared for dissemination in the sector.

The Chief Technical Adviser: Scope of Work / Responsibilities
An external Chief Technical Adviser will be appointed on a contract basis for the duration of the project and will be expected to give input and guidance on all aspects of the project during its full implementation cycle. The CTA will be responsible for the co-ordination of the project and will assume oversight responsibility for all consulting services input into the project. The CTA will in particular: 1. Develop the Project Implementation Plan including all technical aspects, budgets, specifications and reporting to the appropriate structures; 2. Develop the identification of appropriate energy efficiency technologies and approaches; 3. Devise the Implementation Plan for the energy efficiency pilot without adding to the overall project cost; 4. Oversee the implementation of the project; 5. On an on-going basis, record the lessons learnt, processes followed, recommendations and strategies developed; 6. Engage with Thubelisha Homes’ Project Managers; 7. Quality assure all work to ensure that the project objectives and outputs are successfully achieved.

Reporting
The CTA will report on all aspects of the implementation of the project to the PSC through his/her submission of quarterly reports pertaining to project progress reports, workplans and budgets.

Qualifications
The CTA will have the following minimum qualifications: 1. Ten years experience of development

work related to low income housing and energy efficiency in a broad sense. 2. A degree or an RPL equivalent in the built environment 3. Previous management experience in development programmes will be an advantage. Companies in the field of energy efficiency and/or low-income housing are invited to submit the credentials of an individual in their employ as a secondment to this pilot project which will focus on the mainstreaming of energy efficiency in lowincome housing on the N2 Gateway Project, Cape

Town. The secondment will be on a flexible basis for the duration of the project, anticipated to be for no longer than a period of 12 months.

5.

Information and Documentation
For further information concerning these Terms of Reference, contact Ms Annie Orgill Thubelisha Homes Telephone: 011.351.7900 Email: annieo@thubelisha.co.za

Danida

Document Researched and Prepared by