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262 EN Official Journal of the European Communities 13.7.

2000

SECTION XV
BASE METALS AND ARTICLES OF BASE METAL
General

Waste and scrap from non-ferrous metals which has been melted down and cast into ingots, pigs, blocks or similar forms is classified as
unwrought metal and not as waste or scrap. it is consequently classified, for example, within heading No 7601 (aluminium), 7801 (lead),
7901 (zinc) or in subheading 8104 11 00 or 8104 19 00 (magnesium).

The expression ‘metal’ is taken to include also metal which has an amorphous (non-crystalline) structure, such as metallic glasses and
powder metallurgy products.
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CHAPTER 72

IRON AND STEEL
General

A. There are a number of ways of distinguishing between forged and rolled products where this distinction needs to be made (heading Nos
7207, 7214, 7216, 7218, 7224 and 7228).

If the whole piece is available, it should first of all be examined for the way the cross-section varies:

— if the variations are not regularly repeated, the product is forged;

— if, on the other hand, there are regularly repeated variations, or if the cross-section is constant, the product may be forged or rolled. In
this case, all the following criteria should be examined:

— 1. dimensions of the cross-section

— 1. If these are large (cross-section with an area of more than 150 000 mm2) the product is probably forged. If they are small (minimum
dimension less than 15 mm) the product is probably rolled;

— 2. shape of the cross-section

— 2. If it is simple (for example, square, rectangular, round, hexagonal, etc.) the product may be either rolled or forged, whereas products
of a more complex shape are almost always obtained by rolling;

— 3. length

— 3. If a product is more than 5 m long, it is almost certainly rolled; if it is shorter, it may be either rolled or forged;

— 4. dimensional tolerances

— 4. The tolerances in the dimensions of the cross-section are stricter in rolled products than in forged products;

— 5. metallographic aspect

— 5. Since, normally, the reduction ratio of rolled products is significantly greater than for forged products, it is almost always possible to
distinguish between them by examination under a microscope.

— 5. The principal factors to be examined are inclusions and structure:

— 5. (a) inclusions in rolled products are thin, very elongated and almost perfectly parallel to the direction of rolling; in forged products,
on the other hand, they are less elongated (almost elliptical in shape) and are not perfectly parallel;

— 5. (b) the structure of rolled products examined after annealing, if the product has been hardened and tempered, has almost perfectly
rectilinear division marks parallel to the direction of rolling. In forged products, on the other hand, this is much less common
and sometimes almost non-existent;

— 6. quantity

— 6. Forged products are generally delivered in small quantities.

— 6. Rolling can be carried out either hot or cold. Depending on the shape of the piece to be rolled and on the shape and positioning of
the rollers, the process can be used to produce flat products, such as sheet and plate or hoop and strip, or bars and rods of round or
polygonal cross-section, or sections of varying cross-sections, tubes, pipes, etc.
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B. Flat products meeting one of the following conditions are to be regarded as flat rolled products and not semi-finished products:

— thickness of less than 100 mm,

— presence of an edge fold as indicated below:

— ratio of reduction exceeding 1,5,

— width exceeding that of the initial slab by more than 50 mm.

C. For the definition of certain types of plastic deformation (such as rolling, forging, stamping), see the HS General Explanatory Notes to
chapter 72, part (IV), (A) and (B).

D. For the difference between hot-rolled or hot-drawn products and products obtained or finished in the cold state, see the HS General
Explanatory Notes to chapter 72, part (IV), (B), final paragraph.

Some of the above differences between hot-rolled and cold-rolled products may be diminished or eliminated when cold-rolled products
are annealed; equally, in the case of hot-rolled products which have a light cold-finishing, the differences are limited to surface hardness
and appearance.

Hot-rolled or hot-drawn bars, rods, shapes, angles and sections may be cold-finished by drawing or other processes — notably rectifica-
tion or calibration — giving the product a better finish. This operation renders them classifiable as ‘cold-formed or cold-finished’.

However, cold dressing and rough scaling are not considered to be rectification or calibration processes, and therefore do not affect the
classification of bars, rods, angles, shapes and sections, not further worked than hot-rolled or extruded. Similarly, such bars and rods,
when twisted, are not to be considered as cold-finished.

E. For the definition of cladding, see the HS General Explanatory Notes to this chapter, part (IV), (C), (2), (e).

Base metals clad with precious metals, whatever the thickness of the cladding, fall in chapter 71 (see the HS Explanatory Notes to chapter
71).

F. For comments on surface treatments see the HS General Explanatory Notes to chapter 72, part (IV), (C), (2), (d).

G. Unfinished forgings no longer having the rough appearance of pieces roughly shaped by forging of heading No 7207, 7218 or 7224 are
to be classified in the headings appropriate to the finished articles, which are generally in chapters 82, 84, 85 and 87. Thus, iron or steel
forgings for the manufacture of crankshafts are proper to heading No 8483.

I. PRIMARY MATERIALS; PRODUCTS IN GRANULAR OR POWDER FORM

7201 Pig iron and spiegeleisen in pigs, blocks or other primary forms
Pig iron and spiegeleisen are defined in Notes 1 (a) and 1 (b) to this chapter.
Pig iron as defined in Note 1 (a) to this chapter which contains by weight more than 6 % but not more than 30 % of
manganese is to be classified as spiegeleisen (subheading 7201 50 90). If an alloy having this percentage of manganese
contains another element in a proportion higher than those listed in Note 1 (a), e.g., a silicon content of more than 8 %, it
must be classified with the ferro-alloys; in the case given as an example, it would be classified in subheadings 7202 21 10 to
7202 29 90 (ferro-silicon). (If it contains more than 30 % manganese and 8 % silicon, it must be regarded as a ferro-silicon-
manganese falling within subheading 7202 30 00, and if it contains an additional alloy element in the proportions laid
down in Note 1 (c), it must be classified within subheading 7202 99 80).
Pig iron as defined in Note 1 (a) to this chapter which is not spiegeleisen, and which must therefore be classified within
subheadings 7201 10 11 to 7201 50 90, is that which contains 6 % or less of manganese. In this type of pig iron a distinc-
tion is made between non-alloy pig iron (subheadings 7201 10 11 to 7201 20 00), and alloy pig iron (subheading
7201 50 10 or 7201 50 90), depending on the content of alloy element.
13.7.2000 EN Official Journal of the European Communities 265

Alloy pig iron is defined within Subheading Note 1 (a) to this chapter; non-alloy pig iron may not contain by weight, taken
separately or together, more than:

— 0,2 % of chromium,

— 0,3 % of copper,

— 0,3 % of nickel,

— 0,1 % of the following elements: aluminium, molybdenum, titanium, tungsten, vanadium.

7201 50 10 Alloy pig iron containing by weight not less than 0,3 % but not more than 1 % of titanium and not less than 0,5 %
but not more than 1 % of vanadium (ECSC)

The products of this subheading are used mainly for the production of components which need to be particularly wear-
resistant, such as crankshafts, brake drums, pump pistons, rolling cylinders, drop-forging dies, piping elbows, ingotmoulds.

7201 50 90 Other (ECSC)

This subheading includes the following types of pig iron:
1. those containing nickel (from 0,5 to 3,5 %) for the manufacture of articles with a high resistance to stress;
2. ‘Ni-Hard’ (containing 3,3 to 5 % nickel and 1,4 to 2,6 % chromium) for the manufacture of articles with a high resistance
to wear;
3. those with a high content of nickel, chromium, silicon or copper of the manufacture of articles which must resist
corrosion;
4. those also containing nickel or chromium for the manufacture of heat-resistant articles;
5. those containing copper.

7202 Ferro-alloys
Note 1 (c) to this chapter defines ‘ferro-alloys’, specifying in particular the limits of contents of non-ferrous alloy elements
and of the element iron.
For the classification of ferro-alloys within the subheadings of heading No 7202, see Subheading Note 2 to this chapter.
Thus, for example, a ferro-alloy containing more than 30 % of manganese and 8 % or less of silicon is classified within
subheadings 7202 11 20 to 7202 19 00; if, however, it contains more than 30 % manganese and more than 8 % silicon, it is
classified within subheading 7202 30 00. Similarly, a ferro-silico-mangano-aluminium alloy must contain more than 8 %
silicon, more than 30 % manganese and more than 10 % aluminium to be classified within subheading 7202 99 80.
If a binary, ternary or quaternary ferro-alloy is not specifically named, it is classified within subheading 7202 99 80.
Waste products of the iron and steel industry which are melted down and roughly recast in the form of ingots (teemed
waste), and have the composition of a ferro-alloy and are used as addition products in the manufacture of special steels, are
classified within the subheadings of heading No 7202 according to the constituent material.
This heading does not cover residues from the fusion of non-ferrous metals, which, because of the presence of sulphur or
phosphorous or some other impurity, cannot be used as ferro-alloys (generally heading No 2620).

7202 11 20 Ferro-manganese
to
7202 19 00 Ferro-manganese takes the form of rough pieces with a white gleaming fracture. It is brittle and very hard. It is used for
deoxidating, desulphurizing and recarburizing steel and, by the addition of manganese, as an alloying element.

7202 11 20 Containing by weight more than 2 % of carbon
and
7202 11 80 These subheadings include those types of ferro-manganese known as high carbon (high carbon ferro-manganese). The most
commonly used quality contains 6 to 7 % of carbon; the manganese content must be greater than 30 % but is generally
between 70 and 80 %.

7202 19 00 Other

This subheading covers ferro-manganese with a medium (1,25 to 1,5 %) or low (less than 0,75 %) carbon content; the
manganese content may vary from 80 to 90 %.
266 EN Official Journal of the European Communities 13.7.2000

Such products are used in the manufacture of manganese alloy steel requiring a low carbon content.

7202 21 10 Ferro-silicon
to
7202 29 90 Ferro-silicon has a shiny grey fracture and is brittle. In trade there are types containing from 10 % to almost 96 % silicon,
with a low carbon content (0,1 to 0,2 %).
It is used either for refining steel or for the manufacture of steels which contain silicon (particularly ‘electrical sheet and
plate’), or (instead of silicon, which is more expensive) as a reducer (silicon-thermal process) in other metallurgical processes,
e.g., in magnesium metallurgy.

7202 30 00 Ferro-silico-manganese

Ferro-silico-manganese, also known simply as silico-manganese, is used in various forms containing more than 8 % and up
to 35 % of silicon, more than 30 % and up to 75 % of manganese and up to 3 % of carbon.
Its uses are similar to those of ferro-silicon, but the combined effect of silicon and manganese minimizes the inclusion of
non-metallic substances and ultimately reduces the oxygen content.

7202 41 10 Ferro-chromium
to
7202 49 90 Ferro-chromium takes the form of very hard crystalline masses, the crystals being sometimes very developed.
It generally contains 60 to 75 % of chromium; the carbon content is 4 to 10 % in common ferro-chromium and may be as
low as 0,01 % with a corresponding reduction in brittleness. It is used for producing chromium steels.

7202 50 00 Ferro-silico-chromium

Ferro-silico-chromium generally contains 30 % of silicon and 50 % of chromium and the carbon content may be high or
very low as in the case of ferro-chromium.
It is used for the same purpose as ferro-chromium; the presence of silicon facilitates the deoxidating of steel.

7202 60 00 Ferro-nickel

Ferro-nickel falling within this subheading contains less than 0,5 % of sulphur and is generally used as an alloying element
in the manufacture of nickel steel.
Ferro-nickel with a sulphur content of 0,5 % or more cannot be used in that state for the manufacture of nickel steels; it is
regarded as an intermediate product of nickel metallurgy and is, therefore, classified within heading No 7501.
However, certain alloys known in the trade as cast nickel and used for casting particular articles to resist corrosion or high
temperatures are classified within this subheading. This is the case with, for example, certain types of austenitic cast iron,
commercially known under various registered trade names, and containing up to 36 % of nickel, 6 % of chromium, 6 % of
silicon, more than 2 % of carbon and sometimes small quantities of other elements (aluminium, manganese, copper, etc.).
For tariff classification purposes, these products cannot be considered as pig iron because of their nickel content, which is
above 10 %, nor as steel, because their carbon content is above 2 %.

7202 99 80 Other

This subheading includes ferro-silico calcium, ferro-mangano-titanium, ferro-silico-nickel, ferro-silico-alumino-calcium,
ferro-aluminium, ferro-silico-aluminium and ferro-silico-mangano-aluminium.
Ferro-aluminium generally contains between 12 and 30 % of aluminium.
Certain types of ferro-aluminium are sometimes used directly for the casting of special parts because of their high corrosion-
resistance even at high temperature and because of their magnetic and thermal properties.
Ferro-silico-aluminium is used in various types of alloys containing, for example:
— 45 % silicon and 20 to 25 % aluminium;
— 65 to 75 % silicon, over 10 % and up to 15 % aluminium and 3 to 4 % titanium;
— 20 to 25 % silicon, 20 to 25 % manganese and over 10 to 12 % aluminium.
Ferro-silico-mangano-aluminium generally contains 20 % silicon, 35 % manganese and 10 to 12 % aluminium.
13.7.2000 EN Official Journal of the European Communities 267

7203 Ferrous products obtained by direct reduction of iron ore and other spongy ferrous products, in
lumps, pellets or similar forms; iron having a minimum purity by weight of 99,94 %, in lumps, pellets
or similar forms

7203 90 00 Other (ECSC)

In addition to the products mentioned in the second part to heading No 7203, which are covered in the penultimate
paragraph of the HS Explanatory Notes to this heading, this subheading includes spongy ferrous products obtained by
means other than the direct reduction of iron ore, i.e., those obtained from molten pig iron by the atomization technique.

7204 Ferrous waste and scrap; remelting scrap ingots of iron or steel
In addition to the waste and scrap described in the HS Explanatory Notes to heading No 7204, (A), this heading also
includes used cut-up rails less than 1,5 m in length (see the Explanatory Notes to subheading 7302 10 90).

7204 41 10 Turnings, shavings, chips, milling waste, sawdust and filings (ECSC)

This subheading does not include milling waste and filings separated from foreign bodies (for example, by magnetic pro-
cesses) and which are made homogeneous in grain size (for example, by screening). Depending on their grain size (see Note
8 (b) to section XV and Note 1 (h) to this chapter) these products fall within subheading 7205 10 00, 7205 21 00 or
7205 29 00.

7204 49 10 Fragmentized (shredded) (ECSC)

Fragmentized (shredded) waste and scrap covers products of which 95 % by weight have no dimension greater than 200
mm.

7204 49 91 Neither sorted nor graded (ECSC)

This subheading covers waste and scrap in bulk which contain, for example, a mixture of cast iron, tinned iron and different
kinds of steel, in various forms.

7204 49 99 Other (ECSC)

This subheading covers bulk waste and scrap which has been sorted or graded.

7204 50 10 Remelting scrap ingots
and
7204 50 90 Remelting scrap ingots with the chemical composition of a ferro-alloy used as additions in the production of special steel
are classified in the appropriate subheadings of heading No 7202.

7205 Granules and powders, of pig iron, spiegeleisen, iron or steel

7205 21 00 Powders
and
7205 29 00 The products of these subheadings may be mixed either with alloying elements for certain of the purposes mentioned in the
HS Explanatory Notes to heading No 7205, (B), or with protective elements (e.g., zinc) to prevent the risk of spontaneous
combustion of the iron.

II. IRON AND NON-ALLOY STEEL

7207 Semi-finished products of iron or non-alloy steel

7207 19 14 Obtained by continuous casting (ECSC)

Continuously cast semi-finished products typically display transversal rings of various colours at more or less regular inter-
vals on their outside surface and a radiating pattern of crystals, due to rapid cooling, in their cross-section. They are mainly
used as intermediate products to manufacture seamless tubes.
268 EN Official Journal of the European Communities 13.7.2000

7208 Flat-rolled products of iron or non-alloy steel, of a width of 600 mm or more, hot-rolled, not clad,
plated or coated
The term ‘re-rolling’ for the purposes of the subheadings of this heading is limited to the process by which the metal is
passed between inversely rotating rolls and is thereby reduced in thickness. This process may also have the effect of improv-
ing the metal surface or its mechanical properties. The term ‘re-rolling’ does not however cover the ‘skin-pass’ process which
causes a slight reduction is thickness or other processes under which the metal is shaped but not reduced in thickness.

7208 90 10 Not further worked than surface-treated or simply cut into shapes other than rectangular (including square) (ECSC)

This subheading covers flat-rolled products which have undergone one or more of the surface treatments mentioned in the
HS Explanatory Notes to heading No 7208, second paragraph, (3) to (5) and/or cut to shape other than square or
rectangular, but without any further working.

7208 90 90 Other

This subheading covers flat-rolled products which, after rolling, have undergone working such as corrugating, perforation,
bevelling or rounding at the edges.
However, products with patterns in relief resulting directly from rolling, are not considered as having undergone working in
the meaning of this subheading.

7209 Flat-rolled products of iron or non-alloy steel, of a width of 600 mm or more, cold-rolled (cold-
reduced), not clad, plated or coated

7209 90 10 Not further worked than surface-treated or simply cut into shapes other than rectangular (including square) (ECSC)

The Explanatory Notes to subheading 7208 90 10 apply, mutatis mutandis.

7209 90 90 Other

The Explanatory Notes to subheading 7208 90 90 apply, mutatis mutandis.

7210 Flat-rolled products of iron or non-alloy steel, of a width of 600 mm or more, clad, plated or coated
For the purposes of this heading, clad products are those which have undergone cladding as defined in the HS General
Explanatory Notes to this chapter, part (IV), (C), (2), (e), and plated or coated products are those which have undergone one
of the treatments included in the part mentioned above of the General Explanatory Notes, (d), (iv) and (v).

7210 12 11 Tinplate (ECSC)

This subheading does not include varnished tinplate (subheading 7210 70 31).

7210 20 10 Plated or coated with lead, including terne-plate
and
7210 20 90 For the purposes of these subheadings, ‘terne-plate’ is understood to mean flat-rolled products with a thickness of less than
0,5 mm which are coated, by means of electrolysis or by immersion in a molten metal bath, with a layer made up of lead-tin
alloy. The amount of lead on the two surfaces may not exceed 120 g/m2 of the product.

7210 30 10 Electrolytically plated or coated with zinc
and
7210 30 90 See the HS Explanatory Notes to subheadings 7210 30, 7210 41 and 7210 49.

7210 41 10 Corrugated
and
7210 41 90 See the HS Explanatory Notes to heading No 7208, sixth paragraph.

7210 61 10 Plated or coated with aluminium-zinc alloys
and
7210 61 90 These subheadings include flat-rolled products plated or coated with alloys in which aluminium predominated by weight
over zinc. Other alloy elements are permitted.
13.7.2000 EN Official Journal of the European Communities 269

7210 90 10 Silvered, gilded, platinum-plated or enamelled

In addition to enamelled sheets or plates this subheading includes silvered, gilded or platinum-plated sheets and plates, i.e.,
coated with precious metals on one or both sides, by processes other than cladding. The processess involved are mainly
electrolytic depositions, spraying and evaporation under vacuum (see the HS General Explanatory Notes to this chapter, part
(IV), (C), 2, (d), (iv)).

7211 Flat-rolled products of iron or non-alloy steel, of a width of less than 600 mm, not clad, plated or
coated.
This heading does not cover flat-rolled products of a shape other than square or rectangular, even if their width is less than
600 mm (heading No 7208).

7212 Flat-rolled products of iron or non-alloy steel, of a width of less than 600 mm, clad, plated or coated
The Explanatory Notes to heading No 7210 and its subheadings apply, mutatis mutandis.

7212 50 93 Plated or coated with aluminium-zinc alloys

The Explanatory Notes to subheadings 7210 61 10 and 7210 61 90 apply, mutatis mutandis.

7214 Other bars and rods of iron or non-alloy steel, not further worked than forged, hot-rolled, hot-drawn
or hot-extruded, but including those twisted after rolling

7214 10 00 Forged

For the difference between forged and rolled products see the General Explanatory Notes to this chapter, (A).

7215 Other bars and rods of iron or non-alloy steel

7215 90 90 Other

This subheading covers forged, hot-rolled or hot-drawn bars and rods and those obtained by cold-working, which have
undergone:
1. surface treatment in addition to that mentioned in the HS Explanatory Notes to heading No 7214, fourth paragraph, (1)
to (3), for example, polishing, burnishing, artificial oxidation, phosphatising, oxalating, coating and (except for hot-rolled
or hot-drawn bars and rods) cladding; or
2. mechanical working such as perforation or calibration.

7216 Angles, shapes and sections of iron or non-alloy steel
This heading does not include perforated angles and ‘Halfen’ angles, shapes and sections, which fall within heading No 7308
and are described in the Explanatory Notes to that heading.

7216 31 11 With parallel flange faces (ECSC)

This subheading covers only sections in which both the inner and outer flange faces are parallel.
They have the following shape:

7216 31 91 With parallel flange faces (ECSC)

See the Explanatory Notes to subheading 7216 31 11.
270 EN Official Journal of the European Communities 13.7.2000

7216 32 11 With parallel flange faces (ECSC)

The Explanatory Notes to subheading 7216 31 11 apply, mutatis mutandis.
The sections have the following shape:

7216 32 91 With parallel flange faces (ECSC)

See the Explanatory Notes to subheading 7216 32 11.

7216 50 91 Bulb flats (ECSC)

This subheading covers products having a uniform solid cross-section along their whole length as illustrated below, their
width is generally under 430 mm. The height ‘a’ of the bulb is usually one-seventh of the width ‘b’ of the bulb flat.

7216 69 00 Other

This subheading covers angles, shapes and sections which have been cold-formed or cold-finished by drawing with reduc-
tion in thickness.

7216 91 10 Cold-formed or cold-finished from flat-rolled products
to
7216 91 90 The Explanatory Notes to subheading 7215 90 90 apply, mutatis mutandis.

7216 91 10 Profiled (ribbed) sheets

Profiled (ribbed) sheets are mainly used as façade cladding.
They are typically shaped as below:

This subheading does not include profiled sheets with mounting devices (subheading 7308 90 59).

7216 99 90 Other

The Explanatory Notes to subheading 7215 90 90 apply, mutatis mutandis.
13.7.2000 EN Official Journal of the European Communities 271

III. STAINLESS STEEL

7219 Flat-rolled products of stainless steel, of a width of 600 mm or more

7219 90 10 Not further worked than surface-treated, including cladding, or simply cut into shapes other than rectangular
(including square) (ECSC)

This subheading covers hot-rolled or cold-rolled flat products which:
1. have undergone one or more of the surface treatments mentioned in the HS General Explanatory Notes to this chapter,
part (IV), (C), (2), (d) and (e); or
2. are of a shape other than square or rectangular.

7219 90 90 Other

This subheading covers hot-rolled or cold-rolled flat products which have undergone, after rolling, operations such as
perforating, bevelling or edge-rounding.

7220 Flat-rolled products of stainless steel, of a width of less than 600 mm
This heading does not cover flat-rolled products of a shape other than square or rectangular, even if their width is less than
600 mm (heading No 7219).

IV. OTHER ALLOY STEEL; HOLLOW DRILL BARS AND RODS, OF ALLOY OR NON-ALLOY STEEL

7225 Flat-rolled products of other alloy steel, of a width of 600 mm or more

7225 11 00 Grain-oriented (ECSC)

Grain-oriented flat-rolled products are those whose magnetic properties are markedly better parallel to the rolling direction
than perpendicular to the rolling direction (‘Goss texture’). Such products are generally coated with an insulating layer
usually consisting of a glass-like film (mainly of magnesium silicates).

7226 Flat-rolled products of other alloy steel, of a width of less than 600 mm

7226 11 10 Grain-oriented
and
7226 11 90 See the Explanatory Notes to subheading 7225 11 00.

7227 Bars and rods, hot-rolled, in irregularly wound coils, of other alloy steel

7227 90 95 Other (ECSC)

This subheading includes welding wire, other than that of heading No 8311.

7228 Other bars and rods of other alloy steel; angles, shapes and sections, of other alloy steel; hollow drill
bars and rods, of alloy or non-alloy steel

7228 40 10 Other bars and rods, not further worked than forged
and
7228 40 90 For the distinction between forged and rolled products see the General Explanatory Notes to this chapter, (A).