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Seakeeping Analysis

Why conduct seakeeping analysis?

Determine the motions of a design in conditions it is likely to

• Is the vessel going to survive?
• Can the vessel carry out specified task or mission?
• Decide if motions are acceptable:
Slamming, Deck Wetness, Speed Loss, Human Performance, Ride Control

• Decide which design is going to perform the best:

Design selection, marketing
Seakeeping Analysis

Expected Sea
Seakeeping Analysis

Expected Sea

Resultant Vessel
Seakeeping Analysis

Expected Sea

Resultant Vessel compare Seakeeping

Motions Design Criteria
Expected Sea Conditions
swell and sea breeze spectrum off Scarborough, 12 Feb 2000



spectral density [m2/Hz]







0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6
frequency [Hz]
a) narrow b) broad
Multi-directional spectrum
Ocean Wave Statistics Methods
Wave buoys:
Ideal source for wave statistics
There is significant data available from wave buoys - however it costs $
to obtain due to expense of collection.

Use measured wind data to estimate waves produced using modelling
Dependent on accuracy of models.

Remote Sensing:
Satellite imaging of ocean surface - again $
Visual Observations
Hogben & Lumb (1967) compared visual observations with
measured values from wave buoys.

H1/ 3 = 106
. Hobs
TZ = 0.73Tobs
T0 = 112
. Tobs

Where : H1/ 3 = significant wave height

TZ = mean zero crossing period
T0 = modal period
Visual Observations
Nordenstrom (1969) derived alternative expressions.

. ( Hobs )
H1/ 3 = 168
TZ = 0.82(Tobs )

. (Tobs )
T0 = 116
Visual Observations
For example Hogben & Lumb (1967) published
comprehensive atlas based on 2 million visual observations
from ships between 1953 and 1966.

Note: ships tend to try and avoid bad weather therefore

vessels which cannot change course e.g. military craft and
offshore platforms may encounter worse weather than
shown by observations.
BMT Ocean Wave Statistics
BMT Ocean Wave Statistics

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The password is currently 4RyHPsxn

Standard Sea Spectra
ITTC or Bretschneider "two parameter" spectrum.

Standard Sea Spectra
In coastal waters where the fetch may be limited the
JONSWAP (Joint North Sea Wave Project)
spectrum may be used.
Standard Sea Spectra
Simplified ITTC spectrum called the Pierson-
Moskowitz spectrum is sometimes used, which has
windspeed as its only variable.
Standard Sea Spectra
Vessel Motions

Expected Sea

Resultant Vessel compare Seakeeping

Motions Design Criteria
Vessel Motions
Response Amplitude Operator (RAO)
Obtained from:
• Numerical predictions e.g. Seakeeper, Beamsea, HydroStar
• Towing tank experiments
Heave Amplitude RAO

1 Towing Tank
Full Scale
Heave RAO (m/m)





0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 1.2

Encounter Frequency (Hz)

Pitch Amplitude RAO

Towing Tank
Pitch RAO (deg/deg)

0.8 Full Scale




0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 1.2
Encounter Frequency (Hz)
Encounter Frequency
As ships move through the water the rate at which they
encounter waves is dependent on their speed and direction.
For a head sea the encounter frequency is higher than the wave frequency.
For a beam sea the encounter frequency equals the wave frequency.
In a following sea the encounter frequency is initially positive, meaning that the waves overtake the
vessel, passes through zero and then goes negative which means that the vessel overtakes the waves.
Encounter Frequency
Bretschneider spectrum modal period
11secs,sig wave heght 2m at 0 knots and
10 knots head sea

zero speed
0.3 10 knots head
0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3

frequency ( rad/sec)
Using these RAOs the motions may be determined by assuming that the response
function is linear with respect to wave height and that the principle of
superposition holds. (The principle of superposition states that the response of a
body to a spectrum of waves is the sum of the individual waves).

Thus if the linear response of the vessel is given by

z (ωe )
RAOz (ωe ) =
ζ (ωe )
then it follows that the motion response spectrum, Sz( e), is given by:

S z (ωe ) = RAOz (ωe ) 2 Sζ (ωe )

where S ( e) is the encountered wave energy spectrum.

Seakeeping Design Criteria
Why use criteria?

• to decide if the vessel's performance is acceptable

• easily compare different designs

What is important for a ferry design?

• passenger sea sickness

• speed loss due to motions
What is important for a patrol boat design?

• deck wetness
• ability of crew to keep working despite motions
Significant Motions

Hease Response Spectra


0.5 m0 = S x (ω e )dω e
heave spectral density ( m*m/hz


σ 0 = m0
HeaveSIG = 4 m0

0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1

frequency hz
Absolute Motions

Position of interest, (px,py,pz)

centre of gravity
Absolute Motions
Absolute vertical motion , sz, of a position (px,py,pz), due to
heave, pitch and roll is given by:

sz = z + p y φ − p xθ

the amplitude and phase of the absolute vertical motion is given by:

s z 0 = A2 + B 2

tan ε z =

where: A = z0 cos(ε z ) + p y φ 0 cos(ε φ ) − p xθ 0 cos(ε θ )

B = z0 sin(ε z ) + p y φ 0 sin(ε φ ) − p xθ 0 sin(ε θ )
Velocities & Accelerations

x = x0 sin(ω et + ε ) Therefore velocity

& acceleration
transfer functions
. obtained by
x = x0ω e cos(ω et + ε ) multiplying
.. amplitude by
x = − x0ω e2 sin(ω et + ε ) encounter frequency
& square of
encounter frequency

May cause:
• decelerations and local structural damage
• transient vibratory stresses (whipping) elsewhere in the hull.

Occurs when two events occur simultaneously:

• Re-entry of the ship's bow into the water after it has
risen above the surface
• The relative vertical velocity between the ship's flat of
bottom and the water surface exceeds a certain critical
specified value.
Deck Wetness
Deck Wetness

Occurs when:
• the bow of a ship is buried in the sea and throws solid
water and spray into the air.

This phenomenon may cause injury or drowning of

personnel and damage to deck-mounted equipment.

Difficult to model accurately numerically, but some

information may be gained from towing tank tests, eg.
shipping of green or solid water
Speed Loss

Voluntary Involuntary

a decision, by the a vessel travelling through

captain, to reduce speed waves will have a greater
in order to reduce resistance due to its
motions, slams, deck motions, and the resulting
wetness, propeller change in load on the
emergence etc. to within propeller usually reduces
acceptable limits. the propeller efficiency.
Added Resistance

Resistance in waves

Added resistance Raw

Calm water resistance

Propeller Emergence

Propeller racing occurs when the upper tips of the blades

emerge from the water due to the motions of the ship.
Propeller Emergence

The relative motion of the longitudinal position of the ship

where the propeller is located can be utilised to determine
the likelihood of propeller emergence.

The relative motion may be calculated by subtracting the

local wave elevation from the local absolute vertical
Human Performance

Ship motions cause two undesirable effects of people


• Motion sickness

• Impairment of ability to carry out tasks in a controlled

Vertical Acceleration

The simplest human performance criterion

However it has been shown that the frequency of the

oscillation is also important in assessing the impact on
human performance.

Both Motions Sickness Incidence and Subjective Motions

introduce a frequency dependence.
Motion Sickness Incidence (MSI)

MSI has become a standard method for comparing

seakeeping performance of different designs, particularly
passenger vessels.
May be displayed in two forms:
• The percentage of people likely to vomit within two
• The time period after which severe discomfort (sea
sickness) occurs
Determined by sequentially integrating the acceleration
spectral density over 1/3 octave bands and then plotting
against the standard curves
Motion Sickness Incidence (MSI)


rms vertical acceleration [ms^-2]



0.1 1

Encounter Frequency [Hz]

The percentage of people likely to vomit within two hours

Motion Sickness Incidence (MSI)
rms vertical acceleration [ms^-2]

30 Minute

2 Hour

8 Hour (tentative)

0.1 1

Encounter Frequency [Hz]

The time period after which severe discomfort (sea sickness) occurs
Motion Sickness Incidence (MSI)
Analysis limitations:
• Experiment subjects limited to young men - sea sickness
incidence varies with age, sex and race.
• Statistically, tolerance to motions increases with time at
sea, therefore ferry passengers are likely to be more
susceptible to motion sickness than the crew.
• Additional influences such as vision, fear, odours etc.
affect sea sickness, but their effects have not yet been
• Performance may be degraded before vomiting occurs.
Subjective Motions (SM)
Analysis will give an indication on the ability of the crew
to perform tasks


SM = A

s30 is twice the rms vertical acceleration

A is a parameter which is a function of frequency which may be found from:

[ ( )][
A = 1 - exp - 1.65ω e2 75.6 − 49.6 log e ω e + 13.5(log e ω e )
Subjective Motions (SM)


Subjective Motion

Severe : necessary to 'hang on' all the time



0 1 2 3

rms vertical acceleration (m/s^2)

Lateral Force Estimator
Lateral accelerations experienced on board a vessel in rough
weather may cause objects to topple and people to lose balance
and stumble.
In a similar manner to subjective motions, lateral force
estimators may be derived to ascertain the effect on a crew

rms Lateral Acceleration m/s2 Motion Induced Interruptions per Minute Rating Level

< 1.0 <1 acceptable

1.0 to 1.1 1 to 1.5 serious

1.1 to 1.25 1.5 to 2 severe

> 1.25 >2 extremely hazardous

Limiting Criteria
Limiting Criteria are acceptable limits for these various criteria
which may be used to determine whether the vessel motions will
be acceptable.

General Motion Limit (significant amplitude) Location

Heave 2.0m C of G
Pitch 3.0° C of G
Roll 8.0° C of G
Vertical acceleration 0.4g Bridge
Lateral acceleration 0.2g Bridge
Specific task MSI 20% of crew Task location
MII 1/min Task location

Current design criteria for crew performance for naval vessels, after ABCD Working
Group on Human Performance at Sea (1995)
Probability of Exceeding Criteria
Assuming the probability density function of the
motions is a Rayleigh distribution
Possible to evaluate the probability of exceeding critical
value zcrit given the variance of the motion energy
spectrum, m0z.

−z 2

prob( z > zcrit ) = exp crit

2m0 z
Author Ship type Slamming Wetness Propeller Vertical
emergence acceleration
Ochi and Merchant Probability Probability
Motter 0.03 0.07
Shipbuildin Merchant Probability Probability Probability
g Research 0.01 0.02 0.1
of Japan
Lloyd and Merchant 120/hour
Aertssen Merchant Probability Probability
(1963, 1966, 0.03 or 0.04 0.25
1968, 1972)
Yamamoto Merchant Probability Probability Probability of
(1984) 0.02 0.02 at FP exceeding
0.4g at bridge
= 0.05
Author Ship type Slamming Wetness Propeller Vertical
emergence acceleration
Kehoe Warship 60/hour at 60/hour at
(1973) 0.15L FP
Lloyd and Warship 36/hour avg. SM = 15
Andrew and Warship 90/hour avg. SM = 12
Comstock et Warship 20/hour 30/hour 0.2g RMS at
al. (1982) bridge
Walden and Warship Probability Probability
Grundmann 0.03 0.07
Based on Strip theory of Salvesen, Tuck & Faltinsen (1970):

· Divide the ship into sections or strips

· Calculate the added mass, damping and restoring force at each


· Integrate the added mass and damping over the length of the

· Put these values into the equations of motion and solve them.

Strip theory assumes that

· The ship is slender i.e. L>>B and L>>D
· There is no significant planing force. This implies low to moderate speeds for monohulls.

· The motions vary linearly with wave amplitude, which is usually valid for slender
vessels operating in waves of small amplitude. However, extreme motions tend to be very

· There is no flow between strips, i.e. the motion is two-dimensional. Whilst this is clearly
incorrect, the results are surprisingly accurate.

· Viscous damping terms are negligible (a poor assumption for roll, but reasonable for
pitch and heave under most conditions).

· The presence of the hull does not affect the incoming waves.

Coefficients are determined by conformally mapping each ship section to a circle,

then using the known analytical solution for a circle (Ursell, 1949). The values are
then put back into the equations of motion which are decoupled and solved,
yielding RAOs and phase angles for pitch and heave.

The mapping will not replicate the ship section exactly; the goodness of fit depends
mainly on the number of terms used in the mapping equation. However, the more
terms, the slower the computation.

Seakeeper uses a three-term mapping equation, known as a Lewis mapping. This is

adequate for mapping most conventional hull shapes, though it will have difficulty
with some bulbous bows and very high section area coefficients.
Seakeeper - questions
· Mass distribution - what is the influence of changing the longitudinal
radius of gyration?

· Number of mapped sections - what is the influence of changing the

number of mapped sections?

· No transom terms - what is the influence of not utilising transom


· Vessel speed - what is the influence of changing the speed of the

proposed design?

· Idealised sea spectrum - what is the influence of utilising another

form of idealised sea spectrum?

Let’s have a go……