leadership is defined as a leadership approach that causes chan ge in individuals and social systems. In its ideal form, it creates valuable and positive change in the followers with the end goal of developing followers into leaders. Enacted in its authentic form, transformational leadership enhances th e motivation, morale and performance of his followers through a variety of mecha nisms. These include connecting the follower's sense of identity and self to the mission and the collective identity of the organization; being a role model for followers that inspires them; challenging followers to take greater ownership f or their work, and understanding the strengths and weaknesses of followers, so t he leader can align followers with tasks that optimise their performance. Contents [hide] 1 Background 2 Development of concept 3 Research in the area 4 Implications for managers 5 Notes 6 References 7 External links [edit]Background James MacGregor Burns (1978)[1] first introduced the concept of transforming lea dership in his descriptive research on political leaders, but this term is now u sed in organizational psychology as well. According to Burns, transforming leade rship is a process in which "leaders and followers help each other to advance to a higher level of morale and motivation". Burns related to the difficulty in di fferentiation between management and leadership and claimed that the differences are in characteristics and behaviors. He established two concepts: "transformin g leadership" and "transactional leadership". According to Burns, the transformi ng approach creates significant change in the life of people and organizations. It redesigns perceptions and values, and changes expectations and aspirations of employees. Unlike in the transactional approach, it is not based on a "give and take" relationship, but on the leader's personality, traits and ability to make a change through example, articulation of an energizing vision and challenging goals. Transforming leaders are idealized in the sense that they are a moral exe mplar of working towards the benefit of the team, organization and/or community. Burns theorized that transforming and transactional leadership were mutually ex clusive styles. [edit]Development of concept Another researcher, Bernard M. Bass (1985), extended the work of Burns (1978) by explaining the psychological mechanisms that underlie transforming and transact ional leadership; Bass also used the term "transformational" instead of "transfo rming." Bass added to the initial concepts of Burns (1978) to help explain how t ransformational leadership could be measured, as well as how it impacts follower motivation and performance.[2] The extent to which a leader is transformational , is measured first, in terms of his influence on the followers. The followers o f such a leader feel trust, admiration, loyalty and respect for the leader and b ecause of the qualities of the transformational leader are willing to work harde r than originally expected. These outcomes occur because the transformational le ader offers followers something more than just working for self gain; they provi de followers with an inspiring mission and vision and give them an identity. The leader transforms and motivates followers through his or her idealized influenc e (earlier referred to as charisma), intellectual stimulation and individual con

communicate optimism about future goal s. initially starting with Bass' (1985) factors and analysis. Finally. po werful and engaging. Another weakness in the first version of the MLQ related to the wording of items. Leaders with this style stimulate and encourage creativity in their followers. This is a questionnaire that measures each of the components of the full rang e of leadership. they are encouraged and optimistic about the future and believe in their ab ilities. acts as a mentor or coach to the follower and listens to the follo wer's concerns and needs. Idealized Influence Provides a role model for high ethical behavior. They also spl it out attributions of leadership associated with Idealized Influence and behavi ors and actions into two separate scales. The leader gives empathy and support. group and organizational level variables ( see Bass & Bass 2008. think deepl y about things and figure out better ways to execute their tasks. in contrast to Burns. In addition. instills pr ide. The original scales in the questionnaire are based on a initial factor analysis and earlier versions. Earlier research on transformational leadership was limited. They nurture and develop people who th ink independently. precise. The Bass Handbook of Leadership: Theory. this leader encourages followers to come up with new an d unique ways to challenge the status quo and to alter the environment to suppor t being successful. using two very large sampl es (Study 1: N=3368. Intellectual Stimulation the degree to which the leader challenges assumptions. Bass suggested that leadershi p can simultaneously display both transformational and transactional leadership. The full range of leadership introduces four elements of transformational leader ship: Individualized Consideration the degree to which the leader attends to each foll ower's needs. Although other researchers have still bee . Study 2: N=6525). Subsequent validation work by Joh n Antonakis and his colleagues provided strong evidence supporting the validity and reliability of the MLQ5X.sideration. lead to the results. In response to the critics. and provide meaning for the task at hand. The followers are willing to invest more effort in their ta sks. The visionary aspects of leadership are su pported by communication skills that make the vision understandable. Inspirational Motivation the degree to which the leader articulates a vision tha t is appealing and inspiring to followers. (2003) confirmed the v iability of the proposed nine-factor model MLQ model. For such a leader. Followers need to have a strong sen se of purpose if they are to be motivated to act. because the knowled ge in this area was too primitive for finding good examples for the items in the questionnaire. Purpose and meaning provide th e energy that drives a group forward. keeps communicat ion open and places challenges before the followers. [edit]Research in the area When researching transformational and transactional leadership the most frequent ly used survey is called "the Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire" (MLQ Form 5X ).[3] Indeed. Leaders with inspirational motivation challenge followers with high standards. This also encompasses the n eed for respect and celebrates the individual contribution that each follower ca n make to the team. Research. takes risks and solicits followers' ideas. The current version of the MLQ Form 5X includes 36 items that are broken down in to 9 scales with 4 items measuring each scale. The followers ask questions. Most items in the scale of charismatic leadership described th e result of leadership. The followers have a will and aspirations for self developme nt and have intrinsic motivation for their tasks. and Man agerial Applications" 4th edition Free Press). Bass and Avolio (1990) included in the revised and now subsequent versions many more items that describe leadership actions that are observed directly. Now 30 years of research and a number of meta-analyses have shown that transform ational and transactional leadership positively predicts a wide variety of perfo rmance outcomes including individual. in turn. gains respect and trust. instead of specific actions of the leader that can be ob served and that. Antonakis et al. learning is a value and unexpected situati ons are seen as opportunities to learn.

it is ourself. suggested a transformational leadership theory that adde d to Burn's original theory . together with the employees. and offers meaning for thecurrent tasks in hand.the degree to which the leader challenges assumpt ions. Bass [1985]. since 2003 none has been able to provide dis-confir ming evidence of the theorized nine-factor model with such large sample sizes at those published by Antonakis et al. (4) Personal and individual attention .n critical of the MLQ model.the degree to which the leader articulates a visi on that is appeals to and inspires the followers with optimism about future goal s. The 4 Transformational leadership components There are four leadership components of transformational leadership theory. the organisation.the degree to which the leader behaves in admirable ways and displays convictions and takes stands that cause followers to identify with the leader who has a clear set of values and acts as a role model for the followers.the extent to which a leader is transformational. not the envir onment. and the goal] they can creatively overcome any obstacles in the way o f the mission. Action is supported by a set of beliefs or one ha s mindless impulses. stimulates and encourages creativity in the followers . . Express confidence. Tie the vision to a strategy for its achievement. o become a great transformational leader. specify and translate it to actions. Bernard M. Develop the vision. (2) The leader success in seeking new ways for working. Realize the vision through small planned steps and small successes in the path f or its full implementation. These are: Self-Mastery. Often the greatest barrier to success in not others. The Transformational Mind-set. while he tries to identi fy new opportunities and assess threats. [edit]Implications for managers Yukl (1994) draws some tips for transformational leadership[4]: Develop a challenging and attractive vision. (2003). This fulfil s and enhances each individual team members' need for self-fulfilment. one must build on Four Core Competenci es. (2) Inspirational motivation . e ach other. decisiveness and optimism about the vision and its implement ation. and selfworth .the degree to which the leader attends t o each individual follower's needs and acts as a mentor or coach and gives respe ct to and appreciation of the individual's contribution to the team. whic h are: (1) Charisma or idealised influence .and in so doing inspires followers to further achievement and growth. is measured: (1) In terms of the leader's influence on the providing a fra mework for followers to see how they connect [to the leader. (3) Intellectual stimulation .

leaders rely on influence.Influence. Skills Development. Transformational Leadership is about a range of behaviours that include: Developing and sharing an inspiring vision of the organisation's future Behaving in ways that bring out the best in individuals and teams Showing genuine concern and respect for others Continuously investing in the development of themselves and others Developing a culture of collaboration rather than command and control where chan ge is welcomed as an opportunity rather than a threat Recognising that leadership needs to be demonstrated at times by everyone in the organisation . so they waste countless hours in futile effort. One cannot build a skill by reading about it. Mangers rely on authority. Few know how to build a skill. Enough said.

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