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Heat Normal size

Maximum Temperature Fluid
exchanger ranges for Special features
pressure range limitation
type individual unit

High 5 to 350 m2
High on temperature Subject only to (bare tube) (per
Heat rejection system. Requires fans.
Air-cooled process side possible on material of bundle multiple
Tubes normally finned.
(500 bar). process side (up construction. bundles often
to 600°C). used).

25 to 600°C
300 bar 10 to 1000 m2
(lower and Subject only to
(shell). (per shell Very adaptable and can be used for
Shell-and-tube higher with materials of
1400 bar multiple shells nearly all applications.
special construction.
(tube). can be used).

Suitable for
Modular construction.not easily
Brazed-plate 16 bar Up to 200°C. compatible 1 to 10 m2 .
with braze

300 bar
100 to 0.25 to 200 m2
Double-pipe pressures Subject only to
600°C (higher per unit multiple High thermal efficiency, standard
(plain and possible with materials of
with special units are often modular construction.
finned tubes) special construction.
materials). used.
1400 bar

Electric 3 to 650 kW.

Subject only to Special control systems can be used
tubular Multiple units
300 bar Up to 700°C. materials of to minimise impact on electrical
heat used for larger
construction. supply.
exchangers capacity.

Low pressure,
suitable for
Glass-tube c. 1 bar Up to 250°C. Stainless steel often used in structure.

50°C to resistant unless
Graphite 20 bar 0.2 to 60 m2. High corrosion resistance.
165°C. fluid attacks

Subject only to
materials of High heat transfer efficiency.
Spiral 18 bar Up to 400°C construction. Up to 200 m2. Cylindrical geometry useful as
Often used for integral part of distillation tower.
fouling duties.
Normal size
Heat exchanger Maximum Temperature Fluid
ranges for Special features
type pressure range limitation
individual unit

<200°C Near counter-flow operation

Near (higher with Low pressure possible.
Heat-pipe 100 to 1000 m2.
atmospheric. special heat pipe gases. Extended surface possible on both
fluids). sides.

Low pressure,
suitable for Stainless steel often used in
Plastic tube 1 bar Up to 100°C.
corrosive structure.

25 bar with 25 to 175°C ( unsuitable for Modular construction.
Plate-and-frame some models 40 to 200°C gases. 1 to 2500 m2 Normally the most economical if
up to 40 bar. possible for very Limitation is applicable.
special types) on gaskets.

273 to +
100 bar
150°C Very small AT possible.
(aluminium) Incorporation of multiple streams.
Plate-fin 200 bar Low fouling. <9 m volume
(up to 600°C Very large surface area per unit
in stainless volume.

800°C (with Very large surface area per unit

stainless steel volume. Stainless steel or higher
Printed-circuit 1000 bar Low fouling. to 1000 m2
material- alloys normal construction
limited). material.

Rotary Near Inter-stream leakage must be
Up to 980°C. pressured
regenerators atmospheric, tolerated

5 to 10 m
subject only to Suitable for viscous and
Scraped- surface 10 bar. Up to 300°C. height,
materials of crystallisation systems
0.5 m dia.

Subject only
to materials of
Differential pressure should be less
60 bar (higher In excess of construction.
Welded-plate > 1000 m2 than 30 bar. Differential expansion
in shells). 65 0°C. Not suitable
should be borne in mind.
for fouling