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Version 5.

10 CAESAR II Quick Reference Guide

Copyright © 1985-2008 COADE, Inc. All Rights Reserved.


Quick Reference Guide Version 5.10 1

CAESAR II Quick Reference Guide Version 5.10

The CAESAR II Quick Reference Guide is intended to aid users in quickly identifying
needed information and to resolve common questions and problems. This
Reference Guide is distributed with each copy of the software and users are urged
to copy the Reference Guide as necessary.
Comments and suggestions concerning CAESAR II, the User Guide, or the Quick
Reference Guide are always welcome. Users with problems, questions, or
suggestions can contact the COADE Development/Support staff at:
techsupport@coade.com.

CAESAR II Quick Reference Guide Table of Contents

CAESAR II Quick Reference Guide Version 5.10.......................................................................1


CAESAR II Software ..............................................................................................2
CAESAR II Pipe Stress Seminars ...........................................................................2
System Requirements ..............................................................................................3
Troubleshooting.......................................................................................................3
CAESAR II Interfaces .............................................................................................3
Piping Codes............................................................................................................4
Restraints .................................................................................................................5
Setup File Directives List ........................................................................................6
List of Materials.....................................................................................................11
CAESAR II Intersection Types .............................................................................12
Code Stresses .........................................................................................................13
Node Locations on Bends......................................................................................24
CAESAR II Quality Assurance Manual ................................................................26
Mechanical Engineering News ..............................................................................26
Additional COADE Software Programs................................................................26
2 Quick Reference Guide Version 5.10

CAESAR II Software
CAESAR II is an advanced PC based tool for the engineer who designs or analyzes
piping systems. CAESAR II uses input spreadsheets, on-line help, graphics, and
extensive error detection procedures to facilitate timely operation and solution.
CAESAR II is capable of analyzing large piping models, structural steel models, or
combined models, both statically and dynamically. ASME, B31, WRC, and
rotating equipment reports combine to provide the analyst with a complete
description of the piping system’s behavior under the applied loading conditions.
Additional technical capabilities such as out-of-core solvers, force spectrum
analysis (for water hammer and relief valve solutions), time history, and large
rotation rod hangers provide the pipe stress engineer with the most advanced
computer based piping program available today.
CAESAR II is continuously enhanced to incorporate new technical abilities, to
provide additional functionality, and to modify existing computation procedures as
the piping codes are updated. A complete list of the most recent changes to
CAESAR II can be found in the Chapter 1 of the User Guide. Users wanting
software sales are urged to contact the COADE Sales staff at:
Phone:281-890-4566 E-mail: sales@coade.com
FAX: 281-890-3301 Web: http://www.coade.com/product_overview.asp?varflag=CAESARII

CAESAR II Pipe Stress Seminars


COADE offers seminars periodically to augment the Engineers knowledge of
CAESAR II and Pipe Stress Analysis. The general seminar is held in our Houston
office and covers five days of Statics. Twice yearly we also cover five days of
Statics and three days of Dynamics. These seminars emphasize the piping codes,
static analysis, dynamic analysis, and problem solving.
Custom seminars held at client locations are also available. For additional seminar
details, please contact the COADE Support staff at: seminars @coade.com.
Quick Reference Guide Version 5.10 3

System Requirements
CAESAR II requires Windows 2000, or Windows XP Professional, with a
minimum graphic card capability of 1024x768 resolution. However, for more
efficient usage of the software, higher graphics resolutions are necessary. Usually
any hardware capable of running these operating systems will be sufficient to run
CAESAR II. For effective use of CAESAR II, COADE recommends as a minimum
configuration:
2+ Ghz processor
1+ Gbytes of RAM
1280x1024 graphics resolution or better
256+ Mbytes of video RAM
Windows 2000 or Windows XP Professional
Please note that Windows XP Home Edition, Windows Vista Professional and Windows Vista
Home Edition are not supported.

Troubleshooting
For troubleshooting and problem solving issues, refer to the CAESAR II Frequently
Asked Questions (FAQ) located on the COADE Website. To access the FAQ:
(http://www.coade.com/product_faq.asp?varflag=CAESARII&varflagmaster=).

CAESAR II Interfaces
There are several external interfaces which allow data transfer between CAESAR II
and other software packages. Users can access these interfaces via the Tools menu
on the CAESAR II Main Menu.
CADWorx requires AUTOCAD
AUTOCAD DXF Output
COMPUTER VISION mainframe
INTERGRAPH mainframe
CADPIPE requires AUTOCAD
ISOMET mainframe
PDMS mainframe
PCF Alias format
Users interested in these interfaces should contact COADE for further information.
We anticipate other interfaces in the future keep users updated via the newsletter or
revised documentation.
4 Quick Reference Guide Version 5.10

Piping Codes
The table below displays the Piping Code, publication and/or revision date.
PIPING CODE PUBLICATION REVISION
ANSI B31.1 (2004) December 15, 2006
ANSI B31.3 (2006) May 31, 2007
ANSI B31.4 (2006) October 20, 2006
ANSI B31.4 Chapter IX (2006) October 20, 2006
ANSI B31.5 (2001) May 30, 2005
ANSI B31.8 (2003) February 6, 2004
ANSI B31.8 Chapter VIII (2003) February 6, 2004
ANSI B31.11 (2002) May 30, 2003
ASME SECT III CLASS 2 (2004) July 1, 2005
ASME SECT III CLASS 3 (2004) July 1, 2005
U.S. NAVY 505 (1984) N/A
CANADIAN Z662 (6/2003) N/A
CANADIAN Z662 Ch 11 (6/2003) N/A
BS 806 1993, ISSUE 1, SEPTEMBER 1993 N/A
SWEDISH METHOD 1 2ND EDITION STOCKHOLM 1979 N/A
SWEDISH METHOD 2 2ND EDITION STOCKHOLM 1979 N/A
ANSI B31.1 (1967) N/A
STOOMWEZEN (1989) N/A
RCC-M C (1988) N/A
RCC-M D (1988) N/A
CODETI (2001) June 2004
NORWEGIAN (1999) N/A
FDBR (1995) N/A
BS7159 (1989) N/A
UKOOA (1994) N/A
IGE/TD/12 (2003) N/A
DnV (1996) N/A
EN-13480 (12/2006) Issue 9
GPTC/192 (1998) N/A
PD 8010 Part 1&2 (2004) N/A
Quick Reference Guide Version 5.10 5

Restraints

No. Restraint Type Abbreviation


1 Anchor A
2 Translational Double Acting X,Y, or Z
3 Rotational Double Acting RX, RY, or RZ
4 Guide, Double Acting GUI
5 Double Acting Limit Stop LIM
6 Translational Double Acting Snubber XSNB, YSNB, ZSNB
7 Translational Directional +X, -X, +Y, -Y, +Z, -Z
8 Rotational Directional +RX, -RX, +RY, etc.
9 Directional Limit Stop +LIM, -LIM
10 Large Rotation Rod XROD, YROD, ZROD
11 Translational Double Acting Bilinear X2, Y2, Z2
12 Rotational Double Acting Bilinear RX2, RY2, RZ2
13 Translational Directional Bilinear -X2, +Y2, -Y2, etc.
14 Rotational Double Acting Bilinear -RX2, +RY2, - RY2, etc.
15 Bottom Out Spring XSPR, YSPR, ZSPR
16 Directional Snubber +XSNB, -XSNB, +YSNB, etc.
6 Quick Reference Guide Version 5.10

Setup File Directives List


The following list represents the possible directives which can be controlled by the
user via the CAESAR II configuration file CAESAR.CFG. These directives can be
changed by the user through the use of the CONFIGURE-SETUP program,
accessed via Main Menu option #9. Directives are listed in groups corresponding
to the configuration program's menu options.

Geometry Directives
GEOMETRY DIRECTIVES

CONNECT GEOMETRY THRU CNODES = YES 34


MIN ALLOWED BEND ANGLE = .5000000E+01 36
MAX ALLOWED BEND ANGLE = .9500000E+02 37
BEND LENGTH ATTACHMENT PERCENT = .1000000E+01 38
MIN ANGLE TO ADJACENT BEND PT = .5000000E+01 39
LOOP CLOSURE TOLERANCE = .1000000E+01 42
THERMAL BOWING HORIZONTAL TOLERANCE = .1000000E-03 92
AUTO NODE NUMBER INCREMENT= 1000000E+02 109
Z AXIS UP NO 129

Computation Control
COMPUTATION CONTROL

USE PRESSURE STIFFENING = DEFAULT 65


ALPHA TOLERANCE = .5000000E-01 33
HANGER DEFAULT RESTRAINT STIFFNESS = .1000000E+13 49
DECOMPOSITION SINGULARITY TOLERANCE = .1000000E+11 50
BEND AXIAL SHAPE = YES 51
FRICTION STIFFNESS = .1000000E+07 45
FRICTION NORMAL FORCE VARIATION = .1500000E+00 47
FRICTION ANGLE VARIATION = .1500000E+02 48
FRICTION SLIDE MULTIPLIER = .1000000E+01 46
ROD TOLERANCE = .1000000E+01 59
ROD INCREMENT = 2000000E+01 58
Quick Reference Guide Version 5.10 7

COMPUTATION CONTROL
INCORE NUMERICAL CHECK = NO 60
DEFAULT TRANSLATIONAL RESTRAINT STIFFNESS .1000000E+13 98
DEFAULT ROTATIONAL RESTRAINT STIFFNESS = .1000000E+13 99
IGNORE SPRING HANGER STIFFNESS = NO 100
MISSING MASS ZPA = EXTRACTED 101
MINIMUM WALL MILL TOLERANCE = .1200000E+02 107
WRC-107 VERSION = MAR 79 1B1/2B1 119
WRC-107 INTERPOLATION = LAST VALUE 120
INCLUDE_INSULATION_IN_HYDROTEST= NO 147
AMBIENT TEMPERATURE = 70.00 135
BORDER PRESSURE = NONE 136
COEFFICIENT OF FRICTION = 0. 140
INCLUDE SPRING STIFFNESS IN FREE THERMAL NO 141
CASES =

SIFS and Stresses


SIFS AND STRESSES

REDUCED INTERSECTION = B31.1 POST1980 32


USE WRC329 = NO 62
NO REDUCED SIF FOR RFT AND WLT NO 53
B31.1 REDUCED Z FIX = YES 54
CLASS 1 BRANCH FLEXIBILITY NO 55
ALL STRESS CASES CORRODED = NO 35
ADD TORSION IN SL STRESS = DEFAULT 66
ADD F/A IN STRESS = DEFAULT 67
OCCASIONAL LOAD FACTOR = .000000E+00 41
DEFAULT CODE = B31.3 43
B31.3 SUSTAINED CASE SIF FACTOR = 100000E+01 40
ALLOW USERS BEND SIF = NO 52
USE SCHNEIDER = NO 63
YIELD CRITERION STRESS = MAX 3D SHEAR 108
USE PD/4T = NO 64
8 Quick Reference Guide Version 5.10

SIFS AND STRESSES


BASE HOOP STRESS ON = NO 57
EN-13480 use in-plane/out-plane SIF NO 133
LIBERAL ALLOWANCE = YES 137
STREE STIFFENING DUE TO PRESS = NO 138
B31.3 WELDING/CONTOUR TEE MEET B16.9 = NO 139
IMPLEMENT _B31.3_APPENDIX_P NO 144
IMPLEMENT_B31.3_CODECASE NO 145
B31.3 Sec 319.2.3(c), Saxial NO 146
PRESSURE VARIATION IN EXPANSION CASE DEFAULT 143
DEFAULT =

FRP Properties
FRP PROPERTIES

USE FRP SIF = YES 110


USE FRP FLEXIBILITY = YES 11
BS 7159 PRESSURE STIFFENING = DESIGN STRAIN 121
FRP PROPERTY DATA FILE = CAESAR.FRP 122
AXIAL MODULUS OF ELASTICITY 3200000E+07 113
RATIO SHEAR MOD : AXIAL MOD = 2500000E+00 114
AXIAL STRAIN : HOOP STRESS 1527272E+00 115
FRP LAMINATE TYPE = THREE 116
FRP ALPHA = .1200000E+02 117
FRP DENSITY = .6000000E-01 118
EXCLUDE F2 FROM BENDING STRESS (UKOOA) NO 134

Plot Colors
PLOT COLORS
PIPES LIGHTCYAN 1
HIGHLIGHTS GREEN 2
LABELS GREEN 3
BACKGROUND BLACK 5
AXES LIGHTRED 15
Quick Reference Guide Version 5.10 9

PLOT COLORS
HANGER/NOZZLES BROWN 16
RIGID/BENDS LIGHTGREEN 17
NODES YELLOW YELLOW 18
STRUCTURE LIGHTRED 31
DISPLACED SHAPE BROWN 30
STRESS > LEVEL 5 RED 24
STRESS > LEVEL 4 YELLOW 25
STRESS > LEVEL 3 GREEN 26
STRESS > LEVEL 2 LIGHTCYAN 27
STRESS > LEVEL 1 BLUE 28
STRESS < LEVEL 1 DARKBLUE 29
STRESS LEVEL 5 .3000000E+05 19
STRESS LEVEL 4 .2500000E+05 20
STRESS LEVEL 3 .2000000E+05 21
STRESS LEVEL 2 .1500000E+05 22
STRESS LEVEL 1 .1000000E+05 23

Database Definitions
DATABASE DEFINITIONS

STRCT DBASE = AISC89.BIN 70


VALVE & FLANGE = CADWORX.VHD 90
EXPANSION JT DATABASE = PATHWAY.JHD 91
PIPING SIZE SPECIFICATION = ANSI 88
DEFAULT SPRING HANGER TABLE = 1 112
SYSTEM DIRECTORY NAME = SYSTEM 123
UNITS FILE NAME = .ENGLISH.FIL 124
LOAD CASE TEMPLATE = .LOAD.TPL 142
ENABLE ODBC OUTPUT NO 128
APPEND RE-RUNS TO EXISTING DATA NO 126
ODBC DATABASE NAME <NONE> 127
10 Quick Reference Guide Version 5.10

Miscellaneous Computations
MISCELLANEOUS COMPUTATIONS

OUTPUT REPORTS BY LOAD CASE YES 87


DISPLACEMENT NODAL SORTING YES 89
DYNAMIC INPUT EXAMPLE TEXT MAX 94
TIME HIST ANIMATE YES 104
OUTPUT TABLE OF CONTENTS ON 105
INPUT FUNCTION KEYS DISPLAYED YES 106
MEMORY ALLOCATED 12 NA
USER ID " " NA
DISABLE _UNDO NO 128
Quick Reference Guide Version 5.10 11

List of Materials
The CAESAR II Material Table contains 17 different isotropic materials.
Properties and allowed temperature ranges for each isotropic material are listed
below.
Material Material Name Elastic Poisson's Pipe Density Temperature Range
No. Modulus Ratio (lb./cu.in) (deg. F)

1 Low Carbon Steel 29.5 E6 0.292 0.28993 -325 1400


2 High Carbon Steel 29.3 E6 0.289 0.28009 -325 1400
3 Carbon Moly Steel 29.2 E6 0.289 0.28935 -325 1400
4 Low Chrome Moly Steel 29.7 E6 0.289 0.28935 -325 1400
5 Med Chrome Moly Steel 30.9 E6 0.289 0.28935 -325 1400
6 Austenitic Stainless 28.3 E6 0.292 0.28930 -325 1400
7 Straight Chromium 29.2 E6 0.305 0.28010 -325 1400
8 Type 310 Stainless 28. 3 E6 0.305 0.28990 -325 1400
9 Wrought Iron 29.5 E6 0.300 0.28070 -325 1400
10 Grey Cast Iron 13.4 E6 0.211 0.25580 70 1000
11 Monel 67% Ni/30% Cu 26.0 E6 0.315 0.31870 -325 1400
12 K-Monel 26.0 E6 0.315 0.30610 -325 1400
13 Copper Nickel 22.0 E6 0.330 0.33850 -325 1400
14 Aluminum 10.2 E6 0.330 0.10130 -325 600
15 Copper 99.8% Cu 16.0 E6 0.355 0.32270 70 400
16 Commercial Brass 17.0 E6 0.331 0.30610 -325 1200
17 Leaded Tin Bronze 1 14.0 E6 0.330 0.31890 -325 1200

In addition CAESAR II supports material types 18 or 19 for cut short and cut long
cold spring elements.
Material number 20 activates the CAESAR II Orthotropic Material Model (i.e.,
Fiber-glass reinforced plastic pipe); the default coefficient of expansion is 12.0 E-6
in./in./°F.
Material 21 indicates user-defined properties.
Material numbers over 100 are from the Material Database and include the
allowable stress and other piping code data.
12 Quick Reference Guide Version 5.10

CAESAR II Intersection Types


CAESAR II Type B31.3 Type Notes Sketch
1 Reinforced Reinforced Fabricated Tee Used to lower SIFs

Not a fitting

Modified pipe

2 Unreinforced Unreinforced Fabricated Tee Routine intersection

Not a fitting

Modified pipe

Usually the cheapest

3 Welded Tee Welding Tee Usually size-on-size

Governed by B16.9

Usually the lowest SIF

Usually expensive

4 Sweepolet Welded-in Contour Insert Sit-in" fitting

Forged fittings on a pipe

5 Weldolet Branch Welded on Fitting "Sit-on" fitting

Forged fittings on a pipe

6 Extruded Extruded Welding Tee Seldom used

Used for thick wall manifolds

Extruded from straight pipe


Quick Reference Guide Version 5.10 13

Code Stresses
Listed below are the Code Stress equations for the actual and allowable stresses
used by CAESAR II. For the listed codes, the actual stress is defined by the left
hand side of the equation and the allowable stress is defined by the right hand side.
The CAESAR II load case label is also listed after the equation.
Typically the load case recommendations made by CAESAR II are sufficient for
code compliance. However, CAESAR II does not recommend occasional load
cases. Occasional loads are unknown in origin and must be specified by the user.
US Codes

Longitudinal Pressure Stress - Slp


Slp = PD0/4tn code approximation
Slp = PDi2/(D02 - Di2) code exact equation, CAESAR II default
Operating Stress - unless otherwise specified
S = Slp + Fax/A + Sb < NA (OPE)

B31.1
Sl = Slp + 0.75 i Ma / Z < Sh (SUS)
i Mc / Z < f [ 1.25 (Sc+Sh) - Sl ] (EXP)
Slp + 0.75 i Ma / Z + 0.75 i Mb / Z < k Sh (OCC)

B31.3
Sl = Slp + Fax/A + Sb < Sh (SUS)
sqrt (Sb2 + 4 St2) < f [ 1.25 (Sc+Sh) - Sl ] (EXP)
Fax/A + Sb + Slp < k Sh (OCC)
Sb = [sqrt ( (iiMi)2 + (i0M0)2 )]/Z

ASME SECT III CLASS 2 & 3


< 1.5 Sh (SUS)

i Mc / Z < f (1.25 Sc + 0.25 Sh) + Sh -Sl (EXP)


B1 * Slpmax + B2 * (Ma + Mb) / Z < 1.8 Sh and < 1.5 Sy (OCC)
14 Quick Reference Guide Version 5.10

B31.1 (1967) and Navy Section 505


Sl = Slp + sqrt (Sb2 + 4 St2) < Sh (SUS)
sqrt ( Sb + 4 St )
2 2
< f (1.25Sc + 0.25Sh + (Sh-Sl)) (EXP)
Slp + sqrt (Sb + 4 St )
2 2
< k Sh (OCC)

B31.4
If FAC = 1.0 (fully restrained pipe)
FAC | E dT - SHOOP| + SHOOP < 0.9 (Syield) (OPE)
If FAC = 0.001 (buried, but soil restraints modeled)
Fax/A - SHOOP + Sb + SHOOP < 0.9 (Syield) (OPE)
(If Slp + Fax/A is compressive)
If FAC = 0.0 (fully above ground)
Slp + Fax/A + Sb + SHOOP < 0.9 (Syield) (OPE)
(If Slp + Fax/A is compressive)
(Slp + Sb + Fax/A) (1.0 - FAC) < (0.75) (0.72) (Syield) (SUS)
sqrt ( Sb + 4 St )
2 2
< 0.72 (Syield) (EXP)
(Slp + Sb + Fax/A) (1.0 - FAC) < 0.8 (Syield) (OCC)

B31.4 Chapter IX
Hoop Stress: Sh F1 Sy (OPE, SUS, OCC)
Longitudinal Stress: |SL| 0.8 Sy (OPE, SUS, OCC)
Equivalent Stress: Se 0.9 Sy (OPE, SUS, OCC)
Where:
Sy = specified minimum yield strength
F1 = hoop stress design factor (0.60 or 0.72, see Table A402.3.5(a) of B31.4)
Sh = (Pi – Pe) D / 2t
SL= Sa + Sb or Sa - Sb, whichever results in greater stress value
Se = 2[((SL - Sh)/2)2 + St2]1/2
Quick Reference Guide Version 5.10 15

B31.5
Sl = Slp + Fax/A + Sb < Sh (SUS)
sqrt (Sb + 4 St )
2 2
< f [ 1.25 (Sc+Sh) - Sl ] (EXP)
Fax/A + Sb + Slp < k Sh (OCC)
Sb = [sqrt ( (iiMi) + (i0M0) )]/Z
2 2

B31.8
B31.8 For Restrained Pipe (as defined in Section 833.1):
For Straight Pipe:

Max(SL, SC) < 0.9ST (OPE)


Max(SL, SC) < 0.9ST (SUS)
SL < 0.9ST (OCC)*
and
SC < ST (OCC) *
CAESAR II prints the controlling stress of the two
SL = SP + SX + SB
For All Other Components

SL < 0.9ST (OPE, SUS, OCC)


B31.8 For Unrestrained Pipe (as defined in Section 833.1):
SL < 0.75ST (SUS, OCC)
SE < f[1.25(SC + SH) – SL] (EXP)
Where:
SL = SP + SX + SB
SP = 0.3SHoop (for restrained pipe)
= 0.5SHoop (for unrestrained pipe)
SX = R/A
SB = MB/Z (for straight pipe/bends with SIF = 1.0)
= MR/Z (for other components)
SC = Max (|SHoop – SL|, sqrt[SL2 – SLSHoop + SHoop2])
MR = sqrt[(0.75iiMi)2 + (0.75ioMo)2 +
Mt2]
SE = ME/Z
ME = sqrt[(0.75iiMi)2 + (0.75ioMo)2 + Mt2]
16 Quick Reference Guide Version 5.10

B31.8 For Unrestrained Pipe (as defined in Section 833.1): Continued…


S = Specified Minimum Yield Stress
T = Temperature Derating Factor
SH = 0.33SUT
SC = 0.33SU
SU = Specified Minimum Ultimate Tensile Stress

B31.8 Chapter VIII


Hoop Stress: Sh F1 S T (OPE, SUS, OCC)
Longitudinal Stress: |SL| 0.8 S (OPE, SUS, OCC)
Equivalent Stress: Se 0.9 S (OPE, SUS, OCC)
Where:
S = Specified Minimum Yield Strength
F1= Hoop Stress Design Factor (0.50 or 0.72, see Table A842.22 of the B31.8 Code)
T= Temperature Derating Factor (see Table 841.116A of the B31.8 Code)

Note: The product of S and T (i.e. the yield stress at operating temperature) is required in SH of the CAESAR II Input.
Sh= (Pi – Pe) D / 2t
SL = maximum longitudinal stress (positive tensile, negative compressive)
Se = 2[((SL - Sh)/2)2 + Ss2]1/2
Ss = tangential shear stress

GPTC
Slp + 0.75i Ma/Z < Syield (OPE)
Sl = Slp+Sb < 0.75(Sy)Ft (SUS)
Se = sqrt(Sb +4St )
2 2
< 0.72 (Syield) (EXP)
Note: GPTC is similar to B31.8 with noted changes.

B31.11
If FAC = 1.0 (fully restrained pipe)
FAC | E dT - SHOOP| + SHOOP < 0.9 (Syield) (OPE)
If FAC = 0.001 (buried, but soil restraints modeled)
Fax/A - SHOOP + Sb + SHOOP < 0.9 (Syield) (OPE)
Quick Reference Guide Version 5.10 17

B31.11 Continued …
(If Slp + Fax/A is compressive)
If FAC = 0.0 (fully above ground)
Slp + Fax/A + Sb + SHOOP < 0.9 (Syield) (OPE)
(If Slp + Fax/A is compressive)
(Slp + Sb + Fax/A) (1.0 - FAC) < (0.75) (0.72) (Syield) (SUS)
sqrt ( Sb2 + 4 St2 ) < 0.72 (Syield) (EXP)
(Slp + Sb + Fax/A) (1.0 - FAC) < 0.88 (Syield) (OCC)

International Codes

Canadian Z662
If FAC = 1.0 (fully restrained pipe)
|E dT - Sh| + Sh < 0.9 S * T (OPE)
If FAC = 0.001 (buried, but soil restraints modeled)
|Fax / A - Sh | + Sb + Sh < S*T (OPE)
(If Fax / A - Sh is compressive)
If FAC = 0.0 (fully above ground)
|Slp + Fax / A| + Sb + Sh < S*T (OPE)
(If Slp + Fax / A is compressive)
Sl = 0.5Sh + Sb < S*F*L*T (SUS, OCC)
SE = sqrt [Sb 2 + 4St2] < 0.72 S * T (EXP)
RCC-M C & D
Slp + 0.75i Ma/Z < Sh (SUS)
iMc/Z < f (1.25 Sc + .25 Sh) + Sh - Sl (EXP)
Slpmax + 0.75i (Ma + Mb)/Z < 1.2 Sh (OCC)

Stoomwezen
Slp + 0.75i Ma/Z < f (SUS)
iMc/Z < fe (EXP)
Slp + 0.75i (Ma + Mb)/Z < 1.2f (OCC)
18 Quick Reference Guide Version 5.10

CODETI
Sl = Slp + Fax/A + Sb < Sh (SUS)
sqrt (Sb + 4St )
2 2
< f [1.25 (Sl + Sh)] - Sl (EXP)
Slp + Fax/A + iMa/Z + iMb/Z < Ksh (OCC)
Sb = [ Sqrt ((iiMi) + (i0M0) ] /Z
2 2

Norwegian
2 (SUS)
PDi .75Ma
SI = +
2 2 Z
Eff(D0 D1 )

iMc/Z < Sh + Sr - Sl (EXP)


PmaxDi2 .75i (Ma + Mb) (OCC)
+
2 2
Eff(D0 -Di ) Z

M = sqrt (Mx2 + My2 + Mz2)


Sr= Minimum of 1.25 Sc + 0.25 Sh; FrRs-F2;
or Fr (1.25R1 + 0.25R2)
The latter applies to temperatures over 370°C; 425°C for Austenitic stainless steel
Fr= Cyclic reduction factor
Rs= Permissible extent of stress for 7000 cycles
R1= Minimum of Sc and 0.267 Rm
R2= Minimum of Sh and 0.367 Rm
Rm = Ultimate tensile strength at room temperature

FDBR
Sl = Slp + 0.75 i Ma / Z < Sh (SUS)
i Mc / Z < f [ 1.25 (Sc+Sh) - Sl ] (EXP)
Slp + 0.75 i Ma / Z + 0.75 i Mb / Z < k Sh (OCC)
Quick Reference Guide Version 5.10 19

BS 7159
If Sx is tensile: < Sh (OPE)
2 2
sqrt (Sx + 4Ss )

and
2 2 < Sh*EH/EA (OPE)
sqrt (S + 4Ss )

or, if Sx is compressive:

S +
< Sh*EH/EA (OPE)
x Sx

and

Sx < 1.25Sh (OPE)

Sx =
( ) + [sqrt((i xi Mi ) 2 +(i xo M o )2 )]
P Dm
( 4t ) Z

P Dm( ) - [sqrt((i xi Mi ) 2 +(i xo M o ) 2 )] - Fx


( 4t ) Z A

(If Fx/A > P(Dm)/(4t), and it is compressive)

S =
( )
MP D m for straight pipes

( 2t )
for bends
( ) [sqrt((i i Mi )2 +(i
MP D m
2
o M o ) )]
= +
( 2t ) Z

for tees
=
( ) + [sqrt((i xi Mi ) 2 +(i xo M o )2 )]
MP D m
( 2t ) Z

Dm and t are always for the Run Pipe


Eff = Ratio of E to Ex
20 Quick Reference Guide Version 5.10

UKOOA
ab (f2/r) + PDm/ (4t) < (f1 f2 LTHS) / 2.0
Where:
P = design pressure
Dm = pipe mean diameter
t = pipe wall thickness
f1 = factor of safety for 97.5% lower confidence limit, usually 0.85
f2 = system factory of safety, usually 0.67
ab = axial bending stress due to mechanical loads
r = a(0:1) / a(2:1)
a(0:1) = long term axial tensile strength in absence of pressure load
a(2:1) = long term axial tensile strength in under only pressure loading
LTHS = long term hydrostatic strength (hoop stress allowable)

BS 806
Straight Pipe
< SAOPE
fc = sqrt(F2 + 4fs2) < SASUS
< SAEXP
fs = Mt(d + 2t) / 4I
F = max (ft, fL)
ft = pd/2t + 0.5p
fL = pd2/[4t(d + t)] + (d + 2t)[sqrt(mi2 + mo2)] / 2I

Bends
< SAOPE
fc = sqrt (F2 + 4 fs2) < SASUS
< SAEXP
fs = Mt (d + 2t) /4I
F = max (ft, fL)
ft = r/I * sqrt[(miFTi)2 + (m0FTo)2]
fs = r/I * sqrt[(miFLi)2 + (m0FLo)2]
Quick Reference Guide Version 5.10 21

BS 806 Continued …
Branch Junctions
< SAOPE
fcb = q * sqrt[fb2 + 4fsb2] < SASUS
< SAEXP
fb = (d + t)*p*m/(2t) + r/I*sqrt[(miFTL)2 +
(moFTO)2]
Fsb = Mt (d + 2t) / 4I
q = 1.0 except for operating cases = 5 or .44 bases on d2/d1 ratio in operating cases
m = geometric parameter
EXP SA = min[(H*Sproof ambient + H*Sproof design); (H*Sproof ambient + F)]
OPE SA = Savg rupture at design temperature
SUS SA = min[.8*Sproof, Screep rupture]

Det Norske Veritas (DNV)


Hoop Stress: Sh ns SMYS
Hoop Stress: Sh nu SMTS
Longitudinal Stress: SL n SMYS
Equivalent Stress: Se n SMYS
Where:
Sh = (Pi – Pe) (D – t) / 2t
ns = hoop stress yield usage factor Tables C1 and C2 of DNV
SMYS = specified minimum yield strength, at operating temperature
nu = hoop stress bursting usage factor Tables C1 and C2 of DNV
SMTS = specified minimum tensile strength, at operating temperature
SL = maximum longitudinal stress
n = equivalent stress usage factor Table C4 of
DNV
Se = [Sh2 + SL2 - ShSL + 3t2]1/2
22 Quick Reference Guide Version 5.10

EN-13480
< Kfn (SUS)

< fn + fh (EXP)

< Kfn (OCC)

EN-13480 Alternate Option


due to primary loads

< Kfn (SUS)

< fn + fh (EXP)

< Kfn (OCC)

due to occasional loads

PD8010 Part 1
Hoop Stress Sh< aeSy (OPE, SUS, OCC)
Equivalent Stress Se< 0.9Sy (OPE, SUS, OCC)
Where:
Sy = specified minimum yield strength
e = weld joint factor
a = design factor
Sh

Se
Quick Reference Guide Version 5.10 23

PD8010 Part 1 Continued …


Shl hoop stress using nominal dimensions
ST =

SL Based on restrained/unrestrained status


SL for unrestrained piping
SL for restrained piping
If FAC = 1.0 (fully restrained pipe)
FAC | E dT - SHOOP| + SHOOP < 0.9 (Syield) (OPE)
If FAC = 0.001 (buried, but soil restraints modeled)
Fax/A - SHOOP + Sb + SHOOP < 0.9 (Syield) (OPE)
(If Slp + Fax/A is compressive)
If FAC = 0.0 (fully above ground)
Slp + Fax/A + Sb + SHOOP < 0.9 (Syield) (OPE)
(If Slp + Fax/A is compressive)
(Slp + Sb + Fax/A) (1.0 - FAC) < (0.75) (0.72) (Syield) (SUS)
sqrt ( Sb2 + 4 St2 ) < 0.72 (Syield) (EXP)
(Slp + Sb + Fax/A) (1.0 - FAC) < 0.8 (Syield) (OCC)

PD8010 Part 2
Hoop Stress Sh< fdhSy (OPE, SUS, OCC)
Equivalent Stress Se< fdeSy (OPE, SUS, OCC)
Where:
Sy specified minimum yield strength
fdh hoop stress design factor (See Table 2)
fde equivalent stress design factor (See Table 2)

Sh=

S e=

ST =
24 Quick Reference Guide Version 5.10

Node Locations on Bends


Bends are defined by the element entering the bend and the element leaving the bend. The actual
bend curvature is always physically at the TO end of the element entering the bend.
The element leaving a bend must appear immediately after the element defining (entering) the
bend.
The default bend radius is 1.5 times the pipe nominal OD.
For stress and displacement output the TO node of the element entering the bend is located
geometrically at the FAR point on the bend. The FAR point is at the weld line of the bend, and
adjacent to the straight element leaving the bend.
The NEAR point on the bend is at the weld line of the bend, and adjacent to the straight element
entering the bend.
The FROM point on the element is located at the NEAR point of the bend if the total length of
the element as specified in the DX, DY and DZ fields is equal to: Radius * tan( Beta / 2 ) where
“Beta” is the bend angle, and Radius is the bend radius of curvature to the bend centerline.
Nodes defined in the Angle # and Node # fields are placed at the given angle on the bend
curvature. The angle starts with zero degrees at the NEAR point on the bend and goes to “Beta”
degrees at the FAR point of the bend.
Angles are always entered in degrees.
By default, nodes on the bend curvature cannot be specified within five (5) degrees of one
another or within five degrees of the nearest end point. This and other bend settings may be
changed through the Main Menu, Configure-Setup processor.
When the FROM node on the element entering the bend is not at the bend NEAR point a node
may be placed at the near point of the bend by entering an Angle # on the bend spreadsheet equal
to 0.0 degrees. For more information see the following figure.
When defining a bend element for the first time in the pipe spreadsheet, nodes are automatically
placed at the near and mid point of the bend. The generated midpoint node number is one less
than the TO node number on the element, and the generated near point node number is two less
than the TO node number on the element. A near point should always be included in the model
in tight, highly formed piping systems. The top-left figure below shows the points on the bend as
they would be input. The top-right figure shows the actual geometric location of the points on the
bend. The bottom-left figure shows the same geometry except that two nodes are defined on the
bend curvature at angles of zero and forty-five degrees.
Quick Reference Guide Version 5.10 25

For an animated tutorial on modeling bends, select the ANIMATED TUTORIALS option on the Help
menu.
26 Quick Reference Guide Version 5.10

CAESAR II Quality Assurance Manual


The CAESAR II Quality Assurance Manual is intended to serve as a publicly
available verification document. This manual discusses (briefly) the current
industry QA standards, the COADE QA standard, a series of benchmark jobs, and
instructions for users implementing QA procedures on their own hardware.
The benchmark jobs consist of comparisons to published data by ASME and the
NRC. Additional test jobs compare CAESAR II results to other industry programs.
For additional information on the Quality Assurance Manual, please contact the
sales department at sales@coade.com.

Mechanical Engineering News


As an aid to the users of COADE software products, COADE publishes Mechanical
Engineering News several times a year. This publication contains discussions on
recent developments that affect users, and technical features illustrating modeling
techniques and software applications.
This newsletter is sent to all users of COADE software at the time of publication.
Back issues can be acquired by contacting the COADE sales staff.

Additional COADE Software Programs


CADWorx Plant - An AutoCAD based plant design/drafting program with a bi-
directional data transfer link to CAESAR II. CADWorx allows models to be created
in ortho, iso, 2D or 3D modes. CADWorx template specifications, contained with
built in auto routing, auto iso, stress iso, auto dimensioning, complete libraries,
center of gravity calculations, and bill of materials, provides the most complete
plant design package to designers.
CodeCalc - A program for the design or analysis of pressure vessel components.
CodeCalc capabilities include: analysis of tubesheets, rectangular vessels, flanges,
nozzles, Zick Analysis, and the standard internal/external thickness and pressure
computations on heads, shells, and cones. API 579 calculations are also included.
PV Elite - A comprehensive program for the design or analysis of vertical and
horizontal vessels. Pressure Vessel Codes include ASME VIII-1 and VIII-2,
PD:5500 and EN-13445. PVElite includes all of the CodeCalc functionality.
TANK - A program for the design or rerating of API-650/653 storage tanks. The
program includes API 650 Appendices A, E, F, M, P, and S, as well as API 653
Appendix B. Computations address: winds girders, conical roof design, allowed
fluid heights, and remaining corrosion allowance.
Index 1

Quick Reference Guide Index

A I
Additional COADE Software Programs • 26 International Stresses • 17
ASME SECT III CLASS 2 & 3 • 13
L
B List of Materials • 11
B31.1 • 13
M
B31.1 (1967) and Navy Section 505 • 14
B31.11 • 16, 17 Mechanical Engineering News • 26
B31.3 • 13 Miscellaneous Computations • 10
B31.4 • 14 N
B31.4 Chapter IX • 14
B31.5 • 15 Node Locations on Bends • 24
B31.8 • 15 Norwegian • 18
B31.8 Chapter VIII • 16 P
Bends • 20
Branch Junctions • 21 Piping Codes • 4
BS 7159 • 19 Plot Colors • 8
BS 806 • 20, 21 R
C RCC-M C & D • 17
CAESAR II Interfaces • 3 Restraints • 5
CAESAR II Intersection Types • 12 S
CAESAR II Pipe Stress Seminars • 2
Setup File Directives List • 6
CAESAR II Quality Assurance Manual • 26
SIFS and Stresses • 7
CAESAR II Quick Reference Guide Version
Stoomwezen • 17
5.10 • 1
System Requirements • 3
CAESAR II Software • 2
Canadian Z662 • 17 T
Code Stresses • 13 Troubleshooting • 3
CODETI • 18
Computation Control • 6 U
D UKOOA • 20
US Codes • 13
Database Definitions • 9
Det Norske Veritas (DNV) • 21
E
EN-13480 • 22
F
FDBR • 18
G
Geometry Directives • 6
GPTC • 16
COADE Inc.

12777 Jones Road Suite 480


Houston, Texas 77070

Phone: (281)890-4566
Fax: (281)890-3301
Email: sales@coade.com
Web: www.coade.com

CAESAR II
Quick Reference Guide
Version 5.10
Last Revised 111/2007