18 views

Uploaded by Shaunak Patel

- PHYSICS FOR EVERYONE
- 0701mitc
- 55799434 40200653 Signals and System Question Bank
- 1e98
- Waves and gravity - mathematical formulations that allow reinterpretations and openings in technology
- P&C Revision Note.pdfHotel Aurora TowersHotel Aurora TowersHotel Aurora TowersHotel Aurora TowersHotel Aurora TowersHotel Aurora TowersHotel Aurora Towers
- 2732
- eck_fft
- Feature Extraction for Image Analysis
- Time-Changed L ́evy Processes and Option Pricing∗
- Vibration of Continuous System
- Lecture 1
- Square root functions
- Higher Dimensional EM Radiation
- ccr.pdf
- fdl
- 8d3a1d01-1deb-489e-90af-5a9e96f55f11
- MA6351 UNIT II FOURIER SERIES.pdf
- LMN
- Final_year Project Ppt

You are on page 1of 4

1 Definition

Dirac’s delta function is defined by the following property

(

0 t 6= 0

δ(t) = (1)

∞ t=0

with Z t2

dtδ(t) = 1 (2)

t1

total area of unity. You can view this function as a limit of Gaussian

1 2 2

δ(t) = lim √ e−t /2σ (3)

σ→0 2π σ

or a Lorentzian

1

δ(t) = lim . (4)

π t2 + 2

→0

Z

dtf (t)δ(t) = f (0) (5)

for any function f (t). This is easy to see. First of all, δ(t) vanishes everywhere

except t = 0. Therefore, it does not matter what values the function f (t)

takes except at t = 0. You can then say f (t)δ(t) = f (0)δ(t). Then f (0)

can be pulled outside the integral because it does not depend on t, and you

obtain the r.h.s. This equation can easily be generalized to

Z

dtf (t)δ(t − t0 ) = f (t0 ). (6)

singular. Instead, it is said to be a “distribution.” It is a generalized

R

idea

of functions, but can be used only inside integrals. In fact, dtδ(t) can be

regarded as an “operator” which pulls the value of a function at zero. Put it

this way, it sounds perfectly legitimate and well-defined. But as long as it is

understood that the delta function is eventually integrated, we can use it as

1

if it is a function. One caveat is that you are not allowed to multiply delta

functions whose arguments become simultaneously zero, e.g., δ(t)2 . If you

try to integrate it over t, you would obtain δ(0), which is infinite and does not

make sense. But physicists are sloppy enough to even use δ(0) sometimes, as

we will discuss below.

2 Fourier Transformation

It is often useful to talk about Fourier transformation of functions. For a

function f (t), you define its Fourier transform

Z ∞ eits

f˜(s) ≡ dt √ f (t). (7)

−∞ 2π

This transform is reversible, i.e., you can go back from f˜(s) to f (t) by

Z

e−its ˜

∞

f (t) = ds √ f (s). (8)

−∞ 2π

You may recall that the patterns from optical or X-ray diffraction are Fourier

transforms of the structure. For example, Laue determined the crystallo-

graphic structure of solid by doing inverse Fourier-transform of the X-ray

diffraction patterns.

If you set f (t) = δ(t) in the above equations, you find

Z ∞ eits 1

δ̃(s) ≡ dt √ δ(t) = √ , (9)

−∞ 2π 2π

Z ∞

e−its 1 Z ∞

e−its

δ(t) = ds √ √ = ds . (10)

−∞ 2π 2π −∞ 2π

√

In other words, the delta function and a constant 1/ 2π are Fourier-transform

of each other.

Another way to see the integral representation of the delta function is

again using the limits. For example, using the limit of the Gaussian Eq. (3),

1 2 2

δ(t) = lim √ e−t /2σ

σ→0 2π σ

Z ∞

1 2 2

= lim dω e−ω σ /2 e−iωt

σ→0 −∞ 2π

Z ∞

dω −iωt

= e . (11)

−∞ 2π

2

3 Position Space

Dirac invented the delta function to deal with the completeness relation for

position and momentum eigenstates. The eigenstate for the position operator

x

x|x0 i = x0 |x0 i (12)

must be normalized in a way that the analogue of the completeness relation

holds for discrete eigenstates 1 = a |aiha|. Because the eigenvalues of the

P

Z

1= |x0 idx0 hx0 |. (13)

For the case of the discrete eigenstates, using the completeness relationship

twice gives a consistent result because of the orthonomality of the eigenstates

ha0 |a00 i = δa0 ,a00 :

! !

|a0 iha0 | |a00 iha00 |

X X

1 = 1×1=

a0 a00

|a0 i(ha0 |a00 i)ha00 |

X

=

a0 ,a00

X

=

a0 ,a00

|a0 iha0 | = 1.

X

= (14)

a0

Therefore, we need also the states |x0 i to be orthonomal. To see it, we try

the same thing as in the discrete spectrum

Z Z

0 0 0 00 00 00

1 = 1×1= |x idx hx | |x idx hx |

Z

= dx0 dx00 |x0 i(hx0 |x00 i)hx00 |. (15)

Now we can determine what the “orthonomality” condition must look like.

Only by setting hx0 |x00 = δ(x0 − x00 ), we find

Z

1 = dx0 dx00 |x0 iδ(x0 − x00 )hx00 |

Z

= dx0 |x0 ihx0 | = 1. (16)

3

At the last step, I used the property of the delta function that the integral

over x00 inserts the value x00 = x0 into the rest of the integrand. This is why

we need the “delta-function normalization” for the position eigenkets.

It is also worthwhile to note that the delta function in position has the

dimension of 1/L, because its integral over the position is unity. Therefore

the position eigenket |x0 i has the dimension of L−1/2 .

4 Momentum Space

As you see in Sakurai Eq. (1.7.32), the eigenstates of the position and mo-

mentum operators have the inner product

1 0 0

hx0 |p0 i = √ eip x /h̄ (17)

2πh̄

From this expression, you can see that the wave functions in the position

space and the momentum space are related by the Fourier-transform.

φα (p0 ) = hp0 |αi

Z

= hp0 |x0 idx0 hx0 |αi

−ip0 x0 /h̄

0e

Z

= dx √ ψα (x0 ).

(18)

2πh̄

The completeness of the momentum eigenstates can also be shown using

the properties of the delta function.

Z Z

0 0 0

|p idp hp | = dp0 dx0 dx00 |x0 ihx0 |p0 ihp0 |x00 ihx00 |

0 0 00 0

Z

eix p /h̄ e−ix p /h̄ 00

= dp0 dx0 dx00 |x0 i √ √ hx |

2πh̄ 2πh̄

i(x0 −x00 )p0 /h̄

0e

Z Z

0 00 0 00

= dx dx |x ihx | dp . (19)

2πh̄

The last integral, after changing the variable from p0 to k = p/h̄, is nothing

but the Fourier-integral expression for the delta function. Therefore,

Z

= dx0 dx00 |x0 ihx00 |δ(x0 − x00 )

Z

= dx0 |x0 ihx0 | = 1. (20)

This proves the completeness of the momentum eigenstates.

- PHYSICS FOR EVERYONEUploaded bySamar Gautam
- 0701mitcUploaded byZeljko Lazarevic
- 55799434 40200653 Signals and System Question BankUploaded byV Manikandan Bogboss
- 1e98Uploaded bysaleemnasir2k7154
- Waves and gravity - mathematical formulations that allow reinterpretations and openings in technologyUploaded byfmunteanu_5
- P&C Revision Note.pdfHotel Aurora TowersHotel Aurora TowersHotel Aurora TowersHotel Aurora TowersHotel Aurora TowersHotel Aurora TowersHotel Aurora TowersUploaded byNihar Kajla
- 2732Uploaded bySayan Kumar Khan
- eck_fftUploaded bysom
- Time-Changed L ́evy Processes and Option Pricing∗Uploaded bySupalak Phetcharat
- Feature Extraction for Image AnalysisUploaded byNelson Raja
- Vibration of Continuous SystemUploaded byhiral_ozkr
- Lecture 1Uploaded by吳皓郁
- Square root functionsUploaded byJustin Benitez
- Higher Dimensional EM RadiationUploaded byNicolas Guarin
- ccr.pdfUploaded byMoon-ryul Jung
- fdlUploaded byAntonio Hernandez
- 8d3a1d01-1deb-489e-90af-5a9e96f55f11Uploaded bySahar Barmomanesh
- MA6351 UNIT II FOURIER SERIES.pdfUploaded bysatheeshsep24
- LMNUploaded bydavid
- Final_year Project PptUploaded byAmbuj Raj
- ch5 (1).pdfUploaded byNâséébûllāh Bugti
- trigonometryUploaded byRowin Mark Sabornido
- 3-syllabus_041309055804_1Uploaded bygncsemanag
- IMC2000-1Uploaded byArief Cahyadi
- Orthogonal functionsUploaded byLucho Trujillo
- The Interface Between Classical Electrodynamics and QuantumUploaded byjomarcial
- IIT Kharagpur Lecture 28 Fourier Series Part 2Uploaded byI_Anonymous123
- u4 - functions rules tables graphs mapping1Uploaded byapi-297021169
- MATH2014 - Assignment 1.pdfUploaded byho
- 113s2 - copia.pdfUploaded byMaya Perucini

- Introduction of MechatronicUploaded byAmirul Shafiq
- Gas Turbine Engines.pdfUploaded byFelipe Carvalho
- 61108539-AVEO-Electrical-Wiring-Diagram.pdfUploaded byioantruta
- GX2-RX200BX4 Catalog Sheet 558156-001-b.pdfUploaded byMauro Barragan Sanchez
- 104321_sb.pdfUploaded bysuchi ravalia
- Asymptomatic Bacteriuria and Urinary TractUploaded bycut normaya putri
- IKEA Brochure Bath EnUploaded bydivxns
- Building Services IV-hvac NotesUploaded bysamaira
- The SuperSensonic Magnetron _ Aetheric ArtsUploaded byambertje12
- Mechanics of Pneumatic TiresUploaded bysaddleman
- Fluidized Bed Drying of Corn, Bean and ChickpeaUploaded byFiraz Rizaldy
- History of StatisticsUploaded byLavina Nair
- Vedic Astrology Predictions Related to Childbirth.pdfUploaded byUtpal Kumar
- Huron AutomotiveUploaded byanubhav1109
- The Future of Comminution (1)Uploaded byFreddy Orlando
- Zigbee DocumentUploaded byramya09p31a0469
- Koning Molten Salt ApplicationsUploaded byidkwhii
- Rapid drawdown in slopes and embankmentsUploaded bySharon_SK
- FT HowUploaded byMichael Phillips
- Voice Changes Throughout LifeUploaded byMartinus Samuel Brataatmadja
- DLL_SCIENCE 6_Q1_W5Uploaded byJOHNNY GALLA
- pymooseUploaded bysubhacom
- MB656 User Manual 1-2014 V7Uploaded bymaconhu
- Information Theory and Coding (J.G. Daugman)Uploaded byLandini Carlo Alessandro
- Cash and Carr, Cash.pdfUploaded byThriff
- Manual Instalación y Operación DSGHUploaded byAnonymous 1LgoS05gvl
- Hitachi 420Uploaded bymasroork_2
- IP 20N Preliminary Datasheet ANSI Rev a 01Uploaded byreijixero
- Salem Pioneer Cemetery National Register of Historic Places Registration FormUploaded byStatesman Journal
- SSI Medical FormUploaded bymangoshaker